Lark, Cynthia (Saint Louis University, St. Louis, Mo.) and Robert Schichtel. Comparison of spheroplast induction in Alcaligenes faecalis by three different agents. J. Bacteriol. 84:1241–1244. 1962.—Alcaligenes faecalis strain LB was exposed to different concentrations of cycloserine, d-methionine, or penicillin. The time course of spheroplast induction by these agents was measured as a function of their concentration. The results were consistent with models in which cycloserine reversibly inhibited an intracellular enzyme, and d-methionine was built into a defective cell-wall unit. Penicillin simulated cycloserine. This was taken as further evidence that penicillin inhibits an enzyme associated with cell-wall synthesis.
Alcaligenes faecalis penicillin G acylase is more stable than the Escherichia coli enzyme. The activity of the A. faecalis enzyme was not affected by incubation at 50 degrees C for 20 min, whereas more than 50% of the E. coli enzyme was irreversibly inactivated by the same treatment. To study the molecular basis of this higher stability, the A. faecalis enzyme was isolated and its gene was cloned and sequenced. The gene encodes a polypeptide that is characteristic of periplasmic penicillin G acylase (signal peptide-alpha subunit-spacer-beta subunit). Purification, N-terminal amino acid analysis, and molecular mass determination of the penicillin G acylase showed that the alpha and beta subunits have molecular masses of 23.0 and 62.7 kDa, respectively. The length of the spacer is 37 amino acids. Amino acid sequence alignment demonstrated significant homology with the penicillin G acylase from E. coli A unique feature of the A. faecalis enzyme is the presence of two cysteines that form a disulfide bridge. The stability of the A. faecalis penicillin G acylase, but not that of the E. coli enzyme, which has no cysteines, was decreased by a reductant. Thus, the improved thermostability is attributed to the presence of the disulfide bridge.
An inducible penicillin beta-lactamase was purified from a strain of Alcaligenes faecalis resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics. The purified enzyme preparation gave a single protein band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and its molecular weight was 29,000 based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Its isoelectric point was 5.9. The enzyme more rapidly hydrolyzed penicillins, such as penicillin G, ampicillin, carbenicillin, piperacillin, and cloxacillin, than it hydrolyzed cephalosporins. For the hydrolysis of penicillin G, the optimal pH was 5.5, and the optimal temperature was 35 degrees C. The enzyme activity was inhibited by iodine, Cu2+, Hg2+, and EDTA but was not inhibited by clavulanic acid and sulbactam.
Growth of exponential-phase liquid cultures of Moraxella osloensis was inhibited by 0.5 U of penicillin G per ml. For this organism, low concentrations of penicillin acted primarily in a bacteriostatic rather than in a bactericidal manner. At higher concentrations of penicillin some killing did take place, but the rate of killing was rather slow and appeared to be independent of penicillin concentration. Microscopic observation of cells from penicillin-treated cultures showed little or no cellular swelling or lysis. The total cell count did not decrease significantly during 6 h of incubation in 5,000 U of penicillin per ml. The rates of respiration, nucleic acid synthesis, and protein synthesis were not affected by the presence of penicillin. Attempts to counteract the bactericidal action of high concentrations of penicillin with growth inhibitory concentrations of chloramphenicol were unsuccessful, since chloramphenicol itself was more bactericidal than penicillin for M. osloensis.
After the growth of Paecilomyces persicinus P-10 in a glucose-peptone medium, filtrates were collected and analyzed for antibiotic antivity. Activities against Salmonella gallinarum ATCC 3030 and Alcaligenes faecalis ATCC 8750 (penicillin N-resistant strain) were obtained. Part of the former activity was readily inactivated by penicillinase. The fraction active against A. faecalis was isolated by passage through Amberlite XAD-2 and Amberlite IRA-68. The powder eventually obtained was subjected to paper chromatography followed by bioautography, and the activity obtained corresponded to that of a sample of cephalosporin C. Thin-layer chromatography was also employed to verify the presence of cephalosporin C in the P-10 powder. The active solids were further purified by means of paper chromatography in a solvent system consisting of n-butanol-acetic acid-water (60:15:25, vol/vol). The material obtained from this procedure yielded an infrared absorption spectrum identical to that of cephalosporin C. Similarly, the ultraviolet absorption of the purified preparation coincided with that of cephalosporin C. Exposure of the purified solids to cephalosporinase resulted in rapid inactivation of the antibiotic. In addition to penicillin N and cephalosporin C, filtrates of P. persicinus P-10 also contained deacetylcephalosporin C, deacetoxycephalosporin C, and cephalosporin P.
The gene encoding a novel penicillin G acylase (PGA), designated pgaW, was cloned from Achromobacter xylosoxidans and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The pgaW gene contains an open reading frame of 2,586 nucleotides. The deduced protein sequence encoded by pgaW has about 50% amino acid identity to several well-characterized PGAs, including those of Providencia rettgeri, Kluyvera cryocrescens, and Escherichia coli. Biochemical studies showed that the optimal temperature for this novel PGA (PGA650) activity is greater than 60°C and its half-life of inactivation at 55°C is four times longer than that of another previously reported thermostable PGA from Alcaligenes faecalis (R. M. D. Verhaert, A. M. Riemens, J. V. R. Laan, J. V. Duin, and W. J. Quax, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:3412-3418, 1997). To our knowledge, this is the most thermostable PGA ever characterized. To explore the molecular basis of the higher thermostability of PGA650, homology structural modeling and amino acid composition analyses were performed. The results suggested that the increased number of buried ion pair networks, lower N and Q contents, excessive arginine residues, and remarkably high content of proline residues in the structure of PGA650 could contribute to its high thermostability. The unique characteristic of higher thermostability of this novel PGA provides some advantages for its potential application in industry.
The cellular fatty acid composition of 25 clinical isolates of Alcaligenes and Pseudomonas was determined by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The GLC fatty acid profiles of three species of Pseudomonas were markedly different from those of Alcaligenes. The most significant differences were the presence and relative amounts of hydroxy, branched-chain, and cyclopropane fatty acids. One of the major fatty acids in A. faecalis was a 17-carbon cyclopropane (17 delta) acid, whereas a 15-carbon branched-chain acid (13-methyl tetradecanoate) characterized isolates of P. putrefaciens. The determination of these fatty acids by GLC provides a rapid and specific means of distinguishing clinical isolates of Pseudomonas and Alcaligenes.
Booth, James S. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles) and Milo D. Appleman. Degradation of ergothioneine by cell-free extracts of Alcaligenes faecalis. II. Production of glutamic acid. J. Bacteriol. 85:654–657. 1963.—On the basis of oxidation and paper chromatographic procedures, glutamic acid was identified as the end product of ergothioneine degradation by cell-free extracts of Alcaligenes faecalis. Hydrogen sulfide and ammonia yields were determined. Several differences between the metabolism of whole cells and cell-free extracts were noted. Cleavage of the imidazole ring by cell-free extracts appeared to be hydrolytic rather than oxidative.
Rice straw was fermented with Cellulomonas sp. and Alcaligenes faecalis. Microbial cells and undigested residue, as well as chemically treated (NaOH or NH4OH) and untreated straws, were analyzed for nutrient composition and in vitro digestibility. In a typical fermentation, 75% of the rice straw substrate was digested, and 18.6% of the total substrate weight that disappeared was recovered as microbial protein. The microbial cell fraction was 37% protein and 5% crude fiber; the residue was 12% protein and 45% crude fiber. The microbial protein amino acid profile was similar to alfalfa, except for less cysteine. The microbial cells had more thiamine and less niacin than Torula yeast. In vitro digestibility of the microbial protein was 41.2 to 55%; that of cellulose was 52%.
To examine the correlation between bacterial cell susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and the magnitude of uptake and cell target sensitivity, the relative contribution of ciprofloxacin accumulation in intact cells and its ability to inhibit DNA synthesis were investigated among strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Alcaligenes faecalis. Uptake studies of [14C]ciprofloxacin demonstrated diffusion kinetics for P. aeruginosa and E. coli. Ciprofloxacin was more readily removed from E. coli J53 and A. faecalis ATCC 19018 by washing than from P. aeruginosa PAO503. These results indicate that the process of cell accumulation is different for P. aeruginosa in that the drug is firmly bound at an extracellular site. Whatever the washing conditions, A. faecalis accumulated less drug than either of the other two bacteria. Magnesium chloride (10 mM) caused a substantial decrease of ciprofloxacin accumulated and an increase in the MIC, depending upon the nature of the medium. The addition of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone caused a variable increase in drug accumulated, depending on the medium and the bacterial strain. The concentration of ciprofloxacin required to obtain 50% inhibition (ID50) of DNA synthesis for P. aeruginosa PAO503 and A. faecalis ATCC 19018 did not correlate with their corresponding MICs but did for E. coli J53. Treatment with EDTA decreased the ID50 of ciprofloxacin for P. aeruginosa PAO503 and its gyrA derivative by 5- and 2-fold, respectively, and decreased the ID50 for E. coli JB5R, a strain with a known decrease in OmpF, by 1.4-fold but did not decrease the ID50 for the normally susceptible E. coli J53. The ID(50) for P. aeruginosa obtained after EDTA treatment or in ether-permeabilized cells was higher than that obtained for the other two strains. The protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone prevented killing by low ciprofloxacin concentrtaions, but sodium azide did not. The latter compound did not enhance killing in association with inhibition of a previously described energy-dependent efflux of ciprofloxacin susceptibility being the susceptibility to inhibition of DNA synthesis in E. coli, poor premeability associated with the small pore size of A. faecalis, and a combination of low permeability and reduced susceptibility of DNA synthesis to inhibition for P. aeruginosa.
The nitrilase from Pseudomonas fluorescens EBC191 converted (R,S)-mandelonitrile with a low enantioselectivity to (R)-mandelic acid and (S)-mandeloamide in a ratio of about 4:1. In contrast, the same substrate was hydrolyzed by the homologous nitrilase from Alcaligenes faecalis ATCC 8750 almost exclusively to (R)-mandelic acid. A chimeric enzyme between both nitrilases was constructed, which represented in total 16 amino acid exchanges in the central part of the nitrilase from P. fluorescens EBC191. The chimeric enzyme clearly resembled the nitrilase from A. faecalis ATCC 8750 in its turnover characteristics for (R,S)-mandelonitrile and (R,S)-2-phenylpropionitrile (2-PPN) and demonstrated an even higher enantioselectivity for the formation of (R)-mandelic acid than the nitrilase from A. faecalis. An alanine residue (Ala165) in direct proximity to the catalytically active cysteine residue was replaced in the nitrilase from P. fluorescens by a tryptophan residue (as found in the nitrilase from A. faecalis ATCC 8750 and most other bacterial nitrilases) and several other amino acid residues. Those enzyme variants that possessed a larger substituent in position 165 (tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, or histidine) converted racemic mandelonitrile and 2-PPN to increased amounts of the R enantiomers of the corresponding acids. The enzyme variant Ala165His showed a significantly increased relative activity for mandelonitrile (compared to 2-PPN), and the opposite was found for the enzyme variants carrying aromatic residues in the relevant position. The mutant forms carrying an aromatic substituent in position 165 generally formed significantly reduced amounts of mandeloamide from mandelonitrile. The important effect of the corresponding amino acid residue on the reaction specificity and enantiospecificity of arylacetonitrilases was confirmed by the construction of a Trp164Ala variant of the nitrilase from A. faecalis ATCC 8750. This point mutation converted the highly R-specific nitrilase into an enzyme that converted (R,S)-mandelonitrile preferentially to (S)-mandeloamide.
Fensulfothion (O,O-diethyl O-[4-(methylsulfinyl)phenyl]phosphorothioate), an organophosphorus pesticide used to control the golden nematode Heterodera rostochiensis, is used as a source of carbon by microorganisms isolated from soils treated with the pesticide. Two of the microbial isolates, Pseudomonas alcaligenes C1 and Alcaligenes sp. strain NC3, used more than 80% of the pesticide in 120 h in culture when supplemented as a source of carbon. P. alcaligenes C1, which showed maximal growth on fensulfothion, degraded the compound to p-methylsulfinyl phenol and diethyl phosphorothioic acid. The phenolic metabolite could be identified by conventional spectral analysis, whereas the spectral patterns of the phosphorus-containing metabolite suggested that the compound was complexed with some cellular molecules. However, utilization of the phosphoric acid ester and ethanol by P. alcaligenes C1 suggested that the microbe attacks fensulfothion by an initial hydrolysis of the compound and subsequent utilization of the phosphoric acid ester. The pathway of degradation of fensulfothion by P. alcaligenes is of great value in the detoxification of the pesticide residues and also in the environmentally stable phosphoric acid esters.
The combination of penicillin plus netilmicin was synergistic in vitro against 28 strains of Streptococcus faecalis and compared favorably with penicillin in combination with gentamicin. Similarly, penicillin plus netilmicin was as effective as penicillin plus gentamicin in the therapy of 67 rabbits with enterococcal endocarditis produced with a streptomycin-susceptible (S) or a streptomycin-resistant (R) strain of S. faecalis. After 5 days of infection, control rabbits had bacterial titers of 10(10) colony-forming units (CFU)/g of vegetation. Those treated with penicillin plus netilmicin had mean titers of 10(5.2) and 10(5.1) CFU/g for S and R strains, respectively, and those treated with penicillin plus gentamicin had mean valve titers of 10(5.8) CFU/g for both strains. After 10 days of therapy, mean valve titers with penicillin plus netilmicin were 10(3.8) and 10(4.7) CFU/g, and with penicillin plus gentamicin they were 10(4.5) and 10(5.4) CFU/g for S and R strains, respectively. Thus, if netilmicin proves to be less toxic than other aminoglycoside antibiotics, it may have potential usefulness in the therapy of enterococcal endocarditis.
Protoplasts of Streptococcus faecalis ATCC 9790 were produced with the aid of lysozyme, and the ability of these bodies to synthesize soluble, peptide cross-linked peptidoglycan (PG) fragments was examined. Lysozyme digests of PG isolated using gel filtration from the supernatant medium of protoplasts grown in the presence of [14C]acetate and L-[3H]lysine contained small amounts of PG having KD expected for peptide cross-linked dimers and trimers. Addition of benzyl penicillin (300 mug/ml) to growing protoplast cultures did not affect the net amount of PG fragments synthesized but resulted in inhibition of synthesis of dimer and trimer fractions by 27 and 59%, respectively. Failure of penicillin to completely inhibit the accumulation of the dimer fraction was attributed to the presence of atypical forms of dimer. In fact, the supernatant medium of penicillin-treated cultures did not contain detectable amounts of typical peptide cross-linked dimer. The degree of peptide cross-linkage of protoplast PG was at most only 13% of that found in walls isolated from intact streptococci. The relative amounts of monomers, dimers, and trimers synthesized during early and late stages of protoplast growth was approximately the same. Protoplasts synthesized soluble PG fragments in amounts which were of the same order of magnitude as that expected for insoluble PG produced by an equivalent amount of intact streptococci.
High-level ampicillin resistance in Enterococcus faecium has been shown to be associated with the synthesis of a modified penicillin-binding protein 5 (PBP 5) which had apparently lost its penicillin-binding capability (R. Fontana, M. Aldegheri, M. Ligozzi, H. Lopez, A. Sucari, and G. Satta. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:1980-1983, 1994). The pbp5 gene of the highly resistant strain E. faecium 9439 was cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 77 and 54% homologies with the PBPs 5 of Enterococcus hirae and Enterococcus faecalis, respectively. A gene fragment coding for the C-terminal part of PBP 5 containing the penicillin-binding domain was also cloned from several E. faecium strains with different levels of ampicillin resistance. Sequence comparison revealed a few point mutations, some of which resulted in amino acid substitutions between SDN and KTG motifs in PBPs 5 of highly resistant strains. One of these converted a polar residue (the T residue at position 562 or 574) of PBP 5 produced by susceptible and moderately resistant strains into a nonpolar one (A or I). This alteration could be responsible for the altered phenotype of PBP 5 in highly resistant strains.
Sellers, Walter (U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks Air Force Base, Tex.). Medium for differentiating the gram-negative, nonfermenting bacilli of medical interest. J. Bacteriol. 87:46–48. 1964.—An agar-slant medium is described for differentiating gram-negative, nonfermenting bacilli of medical interest. Differences in the ability of bacilli to grow anaerobically in the presence of nitrate, to produce pH changes, to produce N2 from nitrite and nitrate (singly and in combination), to fluoresce, and to oxidize a drop of glucose solution to acid in the presence of high peptone concentrations were used in the development of the medium. Organisms differentiated by the medium include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacterium anitratum, Mima polymorpha, and Vibrio alcaligenes or Alcaligenes faecalis.
An evaluation was made of media and tests used for differentiating nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria encountered in medical bacteriology in order to determine those diagnostic procedures most useful in identifying these bacteria. The organisms examined included Alcaligenes faecalis, A. odorans var. viridans, Moraxella duplex (Mima polymorpha var. oxidans), Acinetobacter anitratum (Herellea vaginicola), A. lwoffi (Mima polymorpha), Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. putida, P. maltophilia, P. pseudomallei, P. stutzeri, P. alcaligenes, and atypical strains of P. aeruginosa. The media and tests evaluated included Sellers' medium; Hugh and Leifson's OF medium; acid production from 10% lactose infusion agar; gluconate oxidation; starch, aesculin, and Tween 80 hydrolysis; lysine decarboxylase, arginine dihydrolase, deoxyribonuclease, and tyrosinase activity; tolerance to triphenyl tetrazolium chloride, cetrimide, cadmium sulfate, 2.5% and 6.5% sodium chloride, and pH 5.6; utilization of glucose, acetamide, and malonate.
R-(-)-Mandelic acid was produced from racemic mandelonitrile by Alcaligenes faecalis ATCC 8750. Ammonium acetate or L-glutamic acid as the carbon source and n-butyronitrile as the inducer in the culture medium were effective for bacterial growth and the induction of R-(-)-mandelic acid-producing activity. The R-(-)-mandelic acid formed from mandelonitrile by resting cells was present in a 100% enantiomeric excess. A. faecalis ATCC 8750 has an R-enantioselective nitrilase for mandelonitrile and an amidase for mandelamide. As R-(-)-mandelic acid was produced from racemic mandelonitrile in a yield of 91%, whereas no S-mandelonitrile was left, the S-mandelonitrile remaining in the reaction is spontaneously racemized because of the chemical equilibrium and is used as the substrate. Consequently, almost all the mandelonitrile is consumed and converted to R-(-)-mandelic acid. R-(-)-Mandelic acid was also produced when benzaldehyde plus HCN was used as the substrate.
A strain of Streptococcus faecalis with plasmid-mediated penicillinase production was studied further. Partially purified penicillinase from the S. faecalis strain hydrolyzed penicillin, ampicillin, and ureido-penicillins but not penicillinase-resistant semisynthetic penicillins, cephalosporins, or imipenem; hydrolysis was inhibited by clavulanic acid. Hydrolysis of a given antibiotic correlated with a marked increase in the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of that drug when a high inoculum was used. As with most enterococci, the MICs of cephalosporins and penicillinase-resistant semisynthetic penicillins were too high for clinical usefulness, although these agents did not show an inoculum effect. Based upon hybridization under stringent conditions of plasmid DNA from the S. faecalis strain to cloned penicillinase genes from Staphylococcus aureus, it appears that these resistance determinants are highly homologous and suggests that this enzyme was introduced into streptococci from staphylococci.
The fatty acids of 18 strains of Bordetella avium, 3 strains of Alcaligenes faecalis, 5 strains of Bordetella bronchiseptica, and 12 strains of a B. avium-like organism were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The presence of a significant amount of the acid 2-OH C14:0 characterized B. avium and the B. avium-like organism. B. avium and the B. avium-like organism differed in their relative concentrations of C16:1 and 3-OH C14:0 acids. B. bronchiseptica and A. faecalis were distinguishable by comparison of the relative concentrations of C18:0 and C18:1 acids.
The gene encoding a blue copper protein (a member of the pseudoazurins) of 123 amino acid residues, containing a single type I Cu2+ ion, was cloned from Alcaligenes faecalis S-6. The nucleotide sequence of the coding region, as well as the 5'- and 3'-flanking regions, was determined. The deduced amino acid sequence after Glu-24 coincided with the reported sequence of the blue protein, and its NH2-terminal sequence of 23 residues resembled a typical signal peptide. The cloned gene was expressed under the control of the tac promoter in Escherichia coli, and the correctly processed blue protein was secreted into the periplasm. The blue protein produced in E. coli possessed the activity to transfer electrons to the copper-containing nitrite reductase of A. faecalis S-6 in vitro.
We report the production of two types of siderophores namely catecholate and hydroxamate in modified succinic acid medium (SM) from Alcaligenes faecalis. Two fractions of siderophores were purified on amberlite XAD, major fraction was hydroxamate type having a λmax at 224 nm and minor fraction appeared as catecholate with a λmax of 264 nm. The recovery yield obtained from major and minor fractions was 297 and 50 mg ml−1 respectively. The IEF pattern of XAD-4 purified siderophore suggested the pI value of 6.5. Cross feeding studies revealed that A. faecalis accepts heterologous as well as self (hydroxamate) siderophore in both free and iron complexed forms however; the rate of siderophore uptake was more in case of siderophores complexed to iron. Siderophore iron uptake studies indicated the differences between hydroxamate siderophore of A. faecalis and Alc E, a siderophore of Alcaligenes eutrophus.
Siderophores; IEF; Crossfeeding; Iron uptake
Alcaligenes faecalis AE122 that used poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) as a sole source of carbon was newly isolated from a coastal seawater sample. The strain required seawater for growth on PHB as well as in a nutrient broth, in which seawater could be replaced by an appropriate concentration of NaCl. PHB depolymerase was purified to homogeneity from the culture supernatant of A. faecalis AE122 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme consisted of a monomer subunit with a molecular mass of 95.5 kDa. The N-terminal amino acid sequence was GAWQNNLAGGFNKV. The dimeric and trimeric esters of 3-hydroxybutyrate were the main hydrolysis products of the purified enzyme. The enzyme was most active at pH 9.0 and 55 degrees C and was inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride. Several cations in seawater greatly enhanced the enzyme activity.
The ability of the RapID NF Plus system (Innovative Diagnostic Systems, Inc., Atlanta, Ga.) to identify 345 nonfermentative gram-negative rods was evaluated. Kits were inoculated with no. 1 McFarland suspensions, and reactions were interpreted after a 4-h incubation at 35 degrees C. Overall, the method correctly identified 311 strains (90.1%) without additional tests and 21 strains (6.1%) with additional tests, and 13 strains (3.8%) were misidentified. Five of 13 misidentified strains were Alcaligenes faecalis-Alcaligenes odorans misidentified as Alcaligenes xylosoxidans; however, all strains were xylose negative but nitrate positive and could have been A. faecalis group I-Alcaligenes piechaudii. The system does not differentiate between Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida, and all Acinetobacter species are identified as Acetinobacter calcoaceticus. Additionally, no subspecies differentiation is made between A. xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans and A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans. All strains of the former Flavobacterium group IIb are identified as Flavobacterium indologenes-Flavobacterium gleum, and no species identification of the genus Methylobacterium is attempted. The system is easy to set up and interpret and provides an accurate commercial nonautomated method for same-day identification of gram-negative nonfermenters.
Studies on the composition of total fatty acids of Alcaligenes faecalis harvested at different growth phases have been carried out. Ability of the organism to desaturate palmitic and stearic acid has also been tested. The organism contained palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), palmitoleic (16:1), cis-vaccenic (18:1), cyclopropane (17:▽ and 19:▽), and three hydroxy acids. Increase in cyclopropane acids and corresponding decrease in monounsaturated acids in direct proportion to the age of the culture were observed, whereas other fatty acids remained relatively unaltered. A growing culture of the organism was found to desaturate [1-14C]palmitic acid supplied in the medium to hexadecanoic acid. Resting cells desaturated [1-14C]palmitic and [1-14C]stearic acid giving rise to about 50% of 14C in the COOH group of corresponding monounsaturated fatty acids.