Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-25 (780629)

Clipboard (0)

Related Articles

1.  Daptomycin may attenuate experimental tobramycin nephrotoxicity by electrostatic complexation to tobramycin. 
The lipopeptidic antibiotic daptomycin is reported to reduce experimental tobramycin nephrotoxicity (D. Beauchamp, M. Pellerin, P. Gourde, M. Pettigrew and M. G. Bergeron, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34:139-147, 1990; C. A. Wood, H. C. Finkbeiner, S. J. Kohlhepp, P. W. Kohnen, and D. C. Gilbert, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:1280-1285, 1989). In an attempt to explain these results, the in vivo and in vitro interactions between daptomycin and tobramycin were studied. Tobramycin alone and preincubated with negatively charged phospholipid bilayers (liposomes) was dialyzed against increasing concentrations of daptomycin in buffer at pH 5.4. A significant drop in the concentration of tobramycin was observed when daptomycin was added to the opposite half cells. Furthermore, daptomycin induced a concentration-dependent release of lipid-bound tobramycin. Gold labeling experiments showed that daptomycin could be incorporated into phospholipid layers. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with daptomycin alone, with tobramycin alone, or with the combination over 2 to 10 days. Levels of daptomycin and tobramycin in serum were similar in all groups. The levels of tobramycin in the renal cortex increased significantly with time and, on day 10, reached values of 654 +/- 122 and 844 +/- 298 micrograms/g of tissue (mean +/- standard deviation; not significant) in animals treated with tobramycin and the combination of daptomycin-tobramycin, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the levels of tobramycin in the kidneys between animals treated with tobramycin or the daptomycin-tobramycin combination at any time. By contrast, daptomycin levels were significantly higher in the renal cortexes of animals treated with daptomycin-tobramycin in comparison with those in the renal cortexes of animals treated with daptomycin alone on days 6,8, and 10 (P < 0.01). For immunogold labeling studies, animals were killed 4 h after a single injection of daptomycin alone or daptomycin in combination with tobramycin. Daptomycin was found throughout the matrixes of the lysosomes of proximal tubular cells of animals treated with daptomycin alone. In animals treated with the combination of daptomycin and tobramycin, daptomycin was associated with intralysosomal myeloid bodies. Our results suggest that daptomycin might attenuate experimental aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity by interacting with the aminoglycoside, perhaps electrostatically, and thereby protecting intracellular targets of toxicity.
PMCID: PMC284536  PMID: 8031040
2.  Attenuation by daptomycin of gentamicin-induced experimental nephrotoxicity. 
Previously, daptomycin was shown to reduce tobramycin nephrotoxicity in vivo (D. Beauchamp, M. Pellerin, P. Gourde, M. Pettigrew, and M. G. Bergeron, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34:139-147, 1990; C. A. Wood, H. C. Finkbeiner, S. J. Kohlhepp, P. W. Kohnen, and D. C. Gilbert, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:1280-1285, 1989). Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with saline (NaCl, 0.9%), daptomycin (10 mg/kg of body weight every 12 h, subcutaneously), gentamicin (30 mg/kg/12 h, intraperitoneally) or with a combination of daptomycin plus gentamicin over a 10-day period. Animals were killed 4, 10, and 20 days after the end of treatment. Four days after the end of drug administration, gentamicin and daptomycin levels in the renal cortices of animals treated with the combination of daptomycin and gentamicin were significantly higher than in those of rats given gentamicin or daptomycin alone (P < 0.01). Despite the higher cortical concentrations of gentamicin, rats given the combination of gentamicin and daptomycin had less reduction in renal cortex sphingomyelinase activity, less evidence of regeneration of cellular cortical cells ([3H]thymidine incorporation into cortex DNA), lower creatinine concentration in serum, and less histopathologic evidence of injury than rats given gentamicin alone. By immunogold technique, both daptomycin and gentamicin were localized to the lysosomes of proximal tubular cells, regardless of whether animals received the drugs alone or in combination. Interestingly, myeloid body formation occurred in both those animals given gentamicin alone and those given daptomycin plus gentamicin. No significant changes were observed for all groups between 10 and 20 days after the end of therapy, suggesting that the toxicity of gentamicin was not delayed by the concomitant injection of daptomycin. The results confirm that daptomycin can attenuate experimental gentamicin nephrotoxicity.
PMCID: PMC188145  PMID: 8067733
3.  Effects of daptomycin and vancomycin on tobramycin nephrotoxicity in rats. 
Daptomycin is a new biosynthetic antibiotic which belongs to a new class of drugs known as lipopeptides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of daptomycin and vancomycin on tobramycin-induced nephrotoxicity. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated during 4 and 10 days with either saline (NaCl, 0.9%) or tobramycin at doses of 4 and 40 mg/kg per day (given every 12 h [q12h] intraperitoneally). Each treatment was combined with saline, daptomycin at a dose of 20 mg/kg per day (given q12h subcutaneously), and ancomycin at a dose of 50 mg/kg per day (given q12h subcutaneously). Daptomycin and vancomycin had no effect on the intracortical accumulation of tobramycin. Daptomycin did not accumulate in renal tissue even after 10 days of treatment. Tobramycin given at a dose of 40 mg/kg per day during 10 days induced a significant inhibition of sphingomyelinase activity in the renal cortex (P less than 0.01) and increased cellular regeneration (P less than 0.01), as measured by the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA of the renal cortex. These changes were minimal when daptomycin was combined with tobramycin. Histologically, signs of tobramycin toxicity were also less severe in the presence of daptomycin. The intracortical accumulation of vancomycin was not modified by tobramycin. The sphingomyelinase activity was significantly more inhibited (P less than 0.01) when vancomycin was associated with tobramycin (4 and 40 mg/kg) without affecting the rate of [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA. Histologically, signs of tobramycin toxicity were not affected by vancomuycin, but the cellular vacuolizations which were also observed in vancomycin-treated animals were still present in the proximal tubular cells of animals that were treated with the combination vancomycin-tobramycin. This study strongly suggests that daptomycin protects animals from tobramycin-induced nephrotoxicity but that vancomycin may enhance the effect of tobramycin. We conclude that daptomycin is safe and protects kidney cells from tobramycin-induced nephrotoxicity.
PMCID: PMC171535  PMID: 2158272
4.  Influence of daptomycin on staphylococcal abscesses and experimental tobramycin nephrotoxicity. 
The antibacterial efficacies of daptomycin and vancomycin were compared in male Fischer rats with subcutaneous abscesses caused by either methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) or methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The influence of daptomycin on tobramycin nephrotoxicity was also assessed. MSSA or MRSA abscesses were treated with subcutaneous daptomycin (10 mg/kg every 12 h), vancomycin (125 mg/kg every 12 h), or diluent (every 12 h) for 5 to 10 days. Rats in both antibiotic treatment groups had lower abscess bacterial counts than did controls at days 5 and 10 (P less than 0.0025). The daptomycin treatment groups had lower abscess bacterial counts than did the vancomycin treatment groups for MSSA at day 5 (P less than 0.0025) and day 10 (P less than 0.025) and for MRSA at day 10 (P less than 0.0025). Nephrotoxicity treatment groups included animals treated for 3, 7, 10, 14, and 17 days with subcutaneous diluent (every 12 h), daptomycin (20 mg/kg every 12 h), tobramycin (40 mg/kg every 12 h), and the combination of daptomycin and tobramycin. Compared with controls, animals treated with daptomycin alone exhibited no detectable nephrotoxicity. Rats given tobramycin alone developed functional and histopathologic abnormalities from days 7 through 17. Animals treated with daptomycin and tobramycin for 14 days had a lower mean concentration of creatinine in serum (P less than 0.005), higher mean creatinine clearance values (P less than 0.05), and less cortical tubular cell regeneration (P less than 0.05) than did rats treated with tobramycin alone. In rats with staphylococcal subcutaneous abscesses, daptomycin was superior to vancomycin in treating both MSSA and MRSA. Daptomycin alone caused no detectable renal injury, and in rats given daptomycin combined with tombramycin, there was less histologic and functional renal injury than in animals given tobramycin alone.
PMCID: PMC172640  PMID: 2552905
5.  Subcellular localization of tobramycin and vancomycin given alone and in combination in proximal tubular cells, determined by immunogold labeling. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1992;36(10):2204-2210.
The subcellular localization of tobramycin and vancomycin in the renal cortices of rats was determined with ultrathin sections by immunogold labeling. Four groups of four rats each were treated for 10 days with saline (NaCl, 0.9%), tobramycin at dosages of 20 mg/kg of body weight per 12 h intraperitoneally, vancomycin at dosages of 25 mg/kg/12 h subcutaneously, or the combination tobramycin-vancomycin. On day 11, the animals were killed, and cubes of renal cortex were fixed overnight in phosphate-buffered glutaraldehyde (0.5%), dehydrated in ethanol, and embedded in Araldite 502 resin. Ultrathin sections were made and incubated with sheep antitobramycin antibody followed by protein A-gold (15-nm diameter) complex or rabbit antivancomycin antibody followed by gold (30-nm diameter)-labeled goat anti-rabbit antibody. For the double labeling, incubations were made on opposite sides of the grid. Tobramycin was detected over the lysosomes of proximal tubular cells, but the labeling was concentrated into small areas in the matrix of the lysosomes. Vancomycin was seen over the lysosomes of proximal tubular cells and was distributed uniformly throughout the matrix of the lysosomes. In rats treated with tobramycin-vancomycin, both drugs were still detected in lysosomes of proximal tubular cells. It is concluded that tobramycin and vancomycin accumulate in lysosomes of proximal tubular cells throughout 10 days of treatment and that vancomycin has no effect on the subcellular distribution of tobramycin.
PMCID: PMC245477  PMID: 1444301
6.  Vancomycin enhancement of experimental tobramycin nephrotoxicity. 
The influence of vancomycin on tobramycin nephrotoxicity was assessed in male Fischer rats. Treatment groups included controls receiving diluent and groups receiving vancomycin alone at a dosage of 200 mg/kg (body weight) per day, tobramycin alone at a dosage of 80 mg/kg per day, and a combination of vancomycin and tobramycin at the above dosages. All regimens were injected on a twice-a-day schedule. The animals were sacrificed on days 1, 3, 10, 14, 17, and 21. When compared with controls, animals receiving vancomycin alone exhibited no detectable renal toxicity. Compared with the case with controls, tobramycin alone was toxic, as manifested by lower mean animal weights, increased blood urea nitrogen concentrations on days 14 and 17 (P less than 0.005), increased serum creatinine concentrations on days 17 and 21 (P less than 0.005), and the presence of renal cortical tubular necrosis and regeneration. When compared with tobramycin alone, the combination of vancomycin and tobramycin caused earlier and more severe toxicity. By day 10, the magnitude of weight loss, the rise in blood urea nitrogen, and the increase in serum creatinine concentration were all greater in the rats given the combination of vancomycin plus tobramycin than in the animals given tobramycin alone (P less than 0.005). In addition, there was more proximal tubular necrosis and regeneration in rats given vancomycin plus tobramycin compared with those given tobramycin alone. In this animal model, vancomycin alone caused no detectable renal injury, tobramycin alone produced minimal proximal tubular damage, and the combination of vancomycin and tobramycin resulted in a greater degree of kidney injury than observed with tobramycin alone.
PMCID: PMC176427  PMID: 3752981
7.  Efficacy of Daptomycin-Cloxacillin Combination in Experimental Foreign-Body Infection Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus 
Despite the use of daptomycin alone at high doses (greater than 6 mg/kg of body weight/day) against difficult-to-treat infections, clinical failures and resistance appeared. Recently, the combination daptomycin-cloxacillin showed enhanced efficacy in clearing bacteremia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of daptomycin at usual and high doses (equivalent to 6 and 10 mg/kg/day in humans, respectively) in combination with cloxacillin in a rat tissue cage infection model by MRSA and to compare its efficacy to that of daptomycin-rifampin. We used MRSA strain ATCC BAA-39. In the log- and stationary-phase kill curves, daptomycin-cloxacillin improved the bactericidal activity of daptomycin, especially in log phase. For in vivo studies, therapy was administered intraperitoneally for 7 days with daptomycin at 100 mg/kg/day and 45/mg/kg/day (daptomycin 100 and daptomycin 45), daptomycin 100-cloxacillin at 200 mg/kg/12 h, daptomycin 45-cloxacillin, and daptomycin 100-rifampin at 25 mg/kg/12 h. Daptomycin-rifampin was the best therapy (P < 0.05). Daptomycin 45 was the least effective treatment and did not protect against the emergence of resistant strains. There were no differences between the two dosages of daptomycin plus cloxacillin in any situation, and both protected against resistance. The overall effect of the addition of cloxacillin to daptomycin was a significantly greater cure rate (against adhered bacteria) than that for daptomycin alone. In conclusion, daptomycin-cloxacillin enhanced modestly the in vivo efficacy of daptomycin alone against foreign-body infection by MRSA and was less effective than daptomycin plus rifampin. The benefits of adding cloxacillin to daptomycin should be especially evaluated against infections by rifampin-resistant MRSA and for protection against the emergence of daptomycin nonsusceptibility.
PMCID: PMC3393403  PMID: 22585211
8.  Endotoxin-tobramycin additive toxicity on renal proximal tubular cells in culture. 
Aminoglycoside-induced renal damage is enhanced in animals with Escherichia coli pyelonephritis. Bacterial endotoxin is liberated during antibiotic therapy. The toxic effect of endotoxin and tobramycin, alone or in combination, was investigated in primary cultures of rabbit proximal tubular cells grown to confluence in serum-free medium. Sodium-dependent uptakes of Pi and alpha-methylglucopyranoside (MGP) and enzymatic activities (lactate dehydrogenase [LDH] released as a marker of cell necrosis and gamma-glutamyltransferase [GGT] and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase [NAG] present in the homogenate as markers of brush border membrane and lysosome integrity) were measured. Cells were exposed to (i) endotoxin (20 mg/liter), tobramycin (1 mM), or endotoxin plus tobramycin for 48 h, or (ii) endotoxin (100 mg/liter), tobramycin (4 mM), or endotoxin plus tobramycin for 72 h. Endotoxin alone did not alter Pi uptake, but tobramycin inhibited Pi uptake through a decrease in Vmax. The effect was not enhanced by the combination of endotoxin and tobramycin. Endotoxin and tobramycin alone exerted no significant effect upon MGP uptake, but strong inhibition of the Vmax was observed after exposure to a combination of endotoxin plus tobramycin, without alteration of the Km. Endotoxin decreased residual GGT activity in the cell homogenate. Tobramycin increased LDH release in the medium and NAG activity in the homogenate. Endotoxin plus tobramycin resulted in an additive effect upon LDH and NAG activities. In conclusion, by disturbing apical membrane integrity, endotoxin increased tobramycin toxicity in vitro in the absence of serum hormonal mediator.
PMCID: PMC245004  PMID: 1673835
9.  Attenuation of experimental tobramycin nephrotoxicity by ticarcillin. 
It is well known that in vitro the combination of carbenicillin, ticarcillin, or other antipseudomonal penicillins with gentamicin, tobramycin, or other aminoglycoside antibiotics results in the inactivation of the antibacterial activity of the aminoglycoside. To assess the influence of the in vivo interaction of tobramycin and ticarcillin on experimental nephrotoxicity, male Fischer 344 rats were given either tobramycin alone (120 mg/kg per day), tobramycin (120 mg/kg per day) and ticarcillin (250 mg/kg per day) concomitantly, or the combination of these drugs at the same doses that had been preincubated for 24 h and at the time of delivery contained but 63 and 25%, respectively, of the initial concentrations of tobramycin and ticarcillin as measured by conventional analytical procedures. Initial experiments were conducted to determine the concentrations of the antibiotics in serum achieved after administration of each test solution. After a single dose of the test solution, ticarcillin concentrations in serum were higher and more prolonged in rats given tobramycin plus ticarcillin than in rats given ticarcillin alone. After 7 days of exposure to the test solutions, inulin clearance in animals given tobramycin alone was 0.15 +/- 0.1 (mean +/- 2 standard errors) ml/min per 100 g of body weight as compared with 0.53 +/- 0.1 in rats given tobramycin and ticarcillin concomitantly, 0.59 +/- 0.1 in animals given the partially inactivated tobramycin-ticarcillin mixture, and 0.79 +/- 0.1 in control rats. Although there was some improvement in inulin clearance in the group containing tobramycin alone, the three treatment groups maintained the same rank relationship in inulin clearance through 14 days of treatment. Real histology confirmed the attenuation of tubular injury in animals given tobramycin and ticarcillin concomitantly. There was no evidence of toxicity from the presumed inactivation complexes of tobramycin-ticarcillin. These results document an in vivo protective effect of ticarcillin on experimental tobramycin nephrotoxicity.
PMCID: PMC180182  PMID: 4026263
10.  Autoradiographic study of tobramycin uptake by proximal and distal tubules of normal and pyelonephritic rats. 
Multiple factors may modify the pharmacokinetics of aminoglycosides and affect their nephrotoxic potential. In the present study, the influence of Escherichia coli pyelonephritis on the renal handling of [3H]tobramycin was investigated. The accumulation of [3H]tobramycin in proximal and distal tubules in both normal and infected rats was compared. Following induction of pyelonephritis, disturbed intrarenal localization of the drug was noted. Grain counts were affected in both proximal and distal tubules. Decreased labeling was observed at all time intervals in the proximal tubules. Electron microscopy showed that radioactivity was associated mostly with lysosomes in both normal and infected rats 1 and 24 h following the injection of the drug. We could detect significantly higher amounts of drug in the distal tubules of the pyelonephritic kidney than the normal levels at 10 min and 24 h postinjection. The drug did not seem to be associated with any particular organelle and was evenly distributed within the distal tubular cells. The present study shows that the transport of tobramycin within the infected nephron is disturbed. These data might shed some light on the influence of infection on the intrarenal pharmacology of aminoglycosides.
PMCID: PMC174942  PMID: 3314697
11.  Comparison of daptomycin, vancomycin, and ampicillin-gentamicin for treatment of experimental endocarditis caused by penicillin-resistant enterococci. 
Infections with enterococci that are resistant to multiple antibiotics are an emerging clinical problem. We evaluated the antibiotic treatment of experimental enterococcal endocarditis caused by two strains with different mechanisms of penicillin resistance. Enterococcus faecalis HH-22 is resistant to aminoglycosides and penicillin on the basis of plasmid-mediated modifying enzymes; Enterococcus raffinosus SF-195 is susceptible to aminoglycosides but is resistant to penicillin on the basis of low-affinity penicillin-binding proteins. Animals infected with strain HH-22 received 5 days of treatment with the following: no treatment; daptomycin (20 mg/kg of body weight twice daily [b.i.d.], intramuscularly [i.m.]), vancomycin (20 mg/kg b.i.d., intravenously), or ampicillin (100 mg/kg three times daily, i.m.) plus gentamicin (2.5 mg/kg b.i.d. i.m.). Although vancomycin was superior to ampicillin-gentamicin (P less than 0.01), daptomycin was significantly better than all other treatment regimens (P less than 0.01) in reducing intravegetation enterococcal densities, although no vegetations were rendered culture negative by this agent. Animals infected with strain SF-195 received 5 days of no therapy, ampicillin, ampicillin-gentamicin, vancomycin, or daptomycin (all at the dosage regimens described above). Daptomycin, vancomycin, and ampicillin-gentamicin each lowered intravegetation enterococcal densities significantly better than did ampicillin monotherapy or no treatment (P less than 0.01); moreover, these three treatment regimens rendered significantly more vegetations culture negative than did ampicillin monotherapy or no treatment (P less than 0.05). Serum daptomycin levels remained above the MICs and MBCs for both enterococcal strains throughout the 12-h dosing interval used in the study. Daptomycin and vancomycin were both active in vivo in these models of experimental enterococcal endocarditis caused by penicillin-resistant strains, irrespective of the mechanism of resistance. This activity correlated with the unique cell wall sites of action of these agents (binding to lipoteichoic acid and pentapeptide precursor, respectively) compared with the sites of action of beta-lactams (penicillin-binding proteins). Beta-Lactamase production by strain HH-22 precluded in vivo efficacy with ampicillin-gentamicin combinations. In contrast, this combination was active in vivo against strain SF-195, which exhibited intermediate-level penicillin resistance (MIC, 32 micrograms/ml), likely reflecting the ability of high-dose ampicillin to achieve enough binding to low-affinity penicillin-binding proteins to cause augmented aminoglycoside uptake.
PMCID: PMC192201  PMID: 1329632
12.  Addition of Ceftaroline to Daptomycin after Emergence of Daptomycin-Nonsusceptible Staphylococcus aureus during Therapy Improves Antibacterial Activity 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2012;56(10):5296-5302.
Antistaphylococcal beta-lactams enhance daptomycin activity and have been used successfully in combination for refractory methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Ceftaroline possesses MRSA activity, but it is unknown if it improves the daptomycin potency comparably to other beta-lactams. We report a complex patient case of endocarditis who was treated with daptomycin in combination with ceftaroline, which resulted in clearance of a daptomycin-nonsusceptible strain. An in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model of renal failure was used to simulate the development of daptomycin resistance and evaluate the microbiologic effects of daptomycin plus ceftaroline treatment. Combination therapy with daptomycin and ceftaroline restored daptomycin sensitivity in vivo and resulted in clearance of persistent blood cultures. Daptomycin susceptibility in vitro was increased in the presence of either ceftaroline or oxacillin. Daptomycin at 6 mg/kg of body weight every 48 h was bactericidal in the model but resulted in regrowth and daptomycin resistance (MIC, 2 to 4 μg/ml) with continued monotherapy. The addition of ceftaroline at 200 mg every 12 h after the emergence of daptomycin resistance enhanced bacterial killing. Importantly, daptomycin plus ceftaroline as the initial combination therapy produced rapid and sustained bactericidal activity and prevented daptomycin resistance. Both in vivo- and in vitro-derived daptomycin resistance resulted in bacteria with more fluid cell membranes. After ceftaroline was added in the model, fluidity was restored to the level of the initial in vivo isolate. Daptomycin-resistant isolates required high daptomycin exposures (at least 10 mg/kg) to optimize cell membrane damage with daptomycin alone. Ceftaroline combined with daptomycin was effective in eliminating daptomycin-resistant MRSA, and these results further justify the potential use of daptomycin plus beta-lactam therapy for these refractory infections.
PMCID: PMC3457349  PMID: 22869564
13.  Subcellular distribution of gentamicin in proximal tubular cells, determined by immunogold labeling. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1991;35(11):2173-2179.
The subcellular distribution of gentamicin in rat renal proximal tubular cells was evaluated by immunogold labeling. The distribution of the drug was monitored from 10 min to 10 days following single (40 mg/kg of body weight) and multiple (5 and 20 mg/kg/12 h) injections of gentamicin. Animals were killed on day 11, and cubes of renal cortex tissue were fixed overnight in cold phosphate-buffered glutaraldehyde (0.5%), dehydrated in ethanol, and embedded in Araldite 502 epoxy resin. Ultrathin sections were made and incubated with sheep antigentamicin and then with protein A-gold (15 nm) complex. At 10 min after a single injection, the labeling was found over the brush border membrane and over the membranes of endocytic apical vesicles of proximal tubular cells. After 1 h, a similar distribution was observed and the labeling was also seen over small lysosomes located close to the brush border membrane. At 24 h, gold particles were found over large lysosomes of proximal tubular cells. Following 10 days of treatment, lysosomes of proximal tubular cells were densely labeled with gold particles. The labeling was distributed uniformly over the lysosomes, although a lower density of labeling was observed over the myeloid bodies inside the lysosomes. Necrotic proximal tubular cells showed labeling over intact lysosomes and also in the cytoplasms of the cells, in the mitochondria, and in the nucleoli. The various control experiments demonstrated the high specificity of these results. The present immunocytochemical study better documents the subcellular disposition of gentamicin in proximal tubular cells, as previously evaluated by subcellular fractionation and autoradiography. This technique will be useful for better understanding the relationship between drug disposition and drug-induced toxicity.
PMCID: PMC245355  PMID: 1803988
14.  In Vitro Activities of Daptomycin, Arbekacin, Vancomycin, and Gentamicin Alone and/or in Combination against Glycopeptide Intermediate-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an Infection Model 
Daptomycin, a lipopeptide antibiotic, has broad activity against gram-positive organisms, similar to vancomycin; however, its mechanism of action differs, resulting in interference with cell membrane transport and a more rapid bactericidal activity. In light of increasing need for alternative treatments against intermediate-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, there is revitalized interest in this antibiotic. We, therefore, evaluated the activity of daptomycin alone or in combination in an in vitro infection model against two glycopeptide intermediate-resistant S. aureus (GISA) isolates. Newly designed regimens of daptomycin at 4 and 6 mg/kg of body weight every 24 h (q24h) were compared to the previous regimen of 3 mg/kg q12h. Daptomycin MICs and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) (MIC/MBC) for Mu-50, HIP5836 (992), and MRSA-67 were 0.5/1.0, 0.5/1.0, and 0.125/0.5 μg/ml, respectively. MICs and MBCs of arbekacin for the three strains were 2.0/8.0, 0.125/0.5, and 0.125/0.25 μg/ml, respectively. Vancomycin and gentamicin MICs and MBCs for the three strains were 8.0/8.0, 8.0/8.0, and 0.5/1.0 μg/ml and 128/128, 0.5/1.0, and 0.25/0.5 μg/ml, respectively. Our experience with daptomycin in an in vitro infection model has shown significant kill against the two GISA strains (Mu-50 and 992) (P < 0.03). We also noted that kill was related to a total dose effect for 992, in which simulated daptomycin in vivo dosages of 6 mg/kg q24h and 3 mg/kg q12h produced similar kill and 4 mg/kg q24h resulted in significant regrowth (P ≤ 0.05). Combination therapy with arbekacin resulted in synergistic activity against Mu-50. Daptomycin area under the concentration-time curve/MIC and Cmax/MIC ranges for GISA isolates were 80 to 116 and 6 to 12, respectively, and ranges for MRSA-67 were 320 to 461 and 24 to 48, respectively, and appeared to have an association with kill (i.e., decreased CFU/milliliter) at 24 and 48 h. Therefore, these experiments suggest that daptomycin alone or in combination could provide an alternative for the treatment of GISA.
PMCID: PMC89987  PMID: 10858356
15.  Ceftriaxone protects against tobramycin nephrotoxicity. 
The effect of ceftriaxone on tobramycin-induced nephrotoxicity was investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated during 4 and 10 days with saline (NaCl, 0.9%), ceftriaxone at a dose of 100 mg/kg of body weight/12 h subcutaneously, tobramycin at doses of 40 and 60 mg/kg/12 h intraperitoneally, or the combination ceftriaxone-tobramycin. Creatinine levels in serum were significantly higher in animals treated with tobramycin alone given at 60 mg/kg/12 h during 10 days, compared with control animals (P < 0.01) or animals receiving the combination tobramycin-ceftriaxone (P < 0.01). After 10 days of treatment, ceftriaxone did not accumulate in renal tissue but did reduce the renal intracortical accumulation of tobramycin (P < 0.05). Tobramycin given alone at either 40 or 60 mg/kg/12 h induced a significant inhibition of sphingomyelinase activity compared with control animals (P < 0.05). However, this enzyme activity was significantly less inhibited when tobramycin was injected in combination with ceftriaxone (P < 0.05). Ceftriaxone alone had no effect on the activity of this enzyme. The [3H]thymidine incorporation into the DNA of renal cortex was also significantly lower in animals treated with tobramycin-ceftriaxone compared with animals receiving tobramycin alone (P < 0.05). The 24-h urinary excretion of beta-galactosidase was significantly reduced in animals treated with the combination tobramycin-ceftriaxone compared with the administration of tobramycin alone at 40 and 60 mg/kg/12 h after 5 and 10 days (P < 0.05). Histologically, ceftriazone induced very few cellular alterations and reduced considerably the presence of typical signs of tobramycin nephrotoxicity. This investigation demonstrated that ceftriaxone protects animals against tobramycin-induced nephrotoxicity.
PMCID: PMC284537  PMID: 8031041
16.  Comparative Nephrotoxicity of Gentamicin and Tobramycin in Rats 
A rat model was utilized to compare the nephrotoxic potential of gentamicin and tobramycin. Gentamicin, 40 mg/kg per day, predictably produced renal failure and morphological evidence of proximal tubular necrosis over 14 days of treatment. An identical dosage of tobramycin was associated with only minimal morphological changes and normal concentrations of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Similar results were obtained even after the tobramycin dosage was tripled to 120 mg/kg per day. A decrease in urine osmolality, mechanism unknown, was observed in all aminoglycoside-treated rats, but the lowest osmolalities were found in the gentamicin-treated rats. According to both histological criteria and renal function measurements, gentamicin was more nephrotoxic than tobramycin in this animal model.
PMCID: PMC352181  PMID: 626489
17.  Comparative nephrotoxicity of gentamicin and tobramycin: pharmacokinetic and clinical studies in 201 patients. 
A total of 201 critically ill patients were studied during 267 courses of gentamicin or tobramycin treatment (139 gentamicin courses and 128 tobramycin courses). Of these 267 courses, pharmacokinetic and clinical data were obtained for 240 (120 gentamicin and 120 tobramycin). The data collected for pharmacokinetic analysis included measurements of serial blood and urine levels, urinary excretion of beta 2-microglobulin, protein levels, and granular casts. A two-compartment model was used to assess tissue accumulation, and in 89 courses the predicted accumulation was confirmed by cumulative urine collection or postmortem tissue analysis. As groups, the patients given gentamicin and tobramycin did not differ in age, weight, creatine clearance, total dose given, duration of treatment, initial aminoglycoside through serum levels, number of dosage adjustments, concurrent use of furosemide, or concurrent cephalosporins. Previous aminoglycoside treatment (usually gentamicin) had occurred more frequently in the tobramycin treated patients (P less than 0.01), and more males than females received tobramycin (P less than 0.05). Pharmacokinetic assessments of renal damage were based on both changes in glomerular filtration rate (serum creatinine levels, creatinine clearance) and renal tubular damage (beta 2-microglobin, casts), but only patients with elevated aminoglycoside tissue levels leading to renal tubular damage and subsequent creatinine clearance decreases were considered to have experienced aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity. In the pharmacokinetic analysis of nephrotoxicity, 29 gentamicin courses (24%) and 12 tobramycin courses (10%) were complicated by nephrotoxicity (P less than 0.01). The 201 study patients were also evaluated independently for clinical nephrotoxicity (defined as a serum creatinine level increase of 0.5 mg/dl or more). Clinical nephrotoxicity occurred at rates of 37% in the gentamicin-treated group and 22% in the tobramycin-treated group (P less than 0.02). In these similar groups of critically ill patients, tobramycin was less nephrotic than gentamicin.
PMCID: PMC181535  PMID: 7294770
18.  Calcium is a competitive inhibitor of gentamicin-renal membrane binding interactions and dietary calcium supplementation protects against gentamicin nephrotoxicity. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1984;73(1):134-147.
The divalent cations, Ca++ and Mg++, are known to competitively inhibit a large number of aminoglycoside-membrane interactions, so that Ca++ prevents both the neurotoxic and ototoxic effects of these antibiotics acutely in vitro. Since gentamicin-induced plasma and subcellular membrane damage appear to be critical pathogenetic events in gentamicin nephrotoxicity, Ca++ may play a similar protective role in gentamicin-induced acute renal failure. To test this possibility in vivo, rats (group 2) were given a 4% calcium (in the form of CaCO3) supplemented diet to increase delivery of Ca++ to the kidney and administered single daily subcutaneous injections of gentamicin, 100 mg/kg, for 10 d. Compared with a simultaneously studied group (group 1) of rats receiving identical gentamicin dosages and normal diets, Ca++ supplementation ameliorated gentamicin-induced acute renal failure. After 10 doses of gentamicin, blood-urea nitrogen values in group 1 averaged 213 +/- 15 (SE) and 25 +/- 3 (P less than 0.001) in group 2. The progressive decline in renal excretory function, as measured by BUN, in group 1 animals was accompanied by simultaneous declines in renal cortical mitochondrial function and elevations in renal cortex and mitochondrial Ca++ content, quantitative indices of the degree of renal tubular cell injury. Oral Ca++ loading markedly attenuated these gentamicin-induced derangements. After eight and 10 doses of gentamicin, mitochondria isolated from the renal cortex of group 2 rats had significantly higher rates of respiration supported by pyruvate-malate, succinate and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenyldiamine-ascorbate, higher rates of dinitrophenol-uncoupled respiration and greater acceptor control ratios than those measured in mitochondria isolated from the renal cortex of group 1 animals. Similarly, after 8 and 10 doses, renal cortex and renal cortical mitochondrial Ca++ content of group 2 was significantly lower than values observed in group 1. Thus, dietary calcium supplementation significantly protected against gentamicin-induced renal tubular cell injury and, consequently, gentamicin-induced acute renal failure. The mechanism for this protective effect of Ca++ may relate to the manner in which this polycationic antibiotic interacts with anionic sites, primarily the acidic phospholipids of renal membranes. In this regard, Ca++ was found to be a competitive inhibitor both of 125I-gentamicin binding to renal brush border membranes, the initial site of interaction between gentamicin and renal proximal tubule cells, with a composite inhibition constant (Ki) of 12 mM and of 125I-gentamicin binding to phosphatidic acid, an important membrane acidic phosph
PMCID: PMC424983  PMID: 6690474
19.  Effect of Cefamandole Nafate on the Toxicity of Tobramycin 
Because of the potential for an interaction between cephalosporins and aminoglycosides leading to renal injury, an evaluation of the effect of a new cephalosporin, cefamandole nafate, on the toxicity of the aminoglycoside tobramycin was performed in laboratory animals. High doses of cefamandole nafate did not increase the acute toxicity (lethality) of tobramycin in rats or mice. In a subacute experiment in rats, dose-related tobramycin nephrotoxicity, as evidenced by blood urea nitrogen changes, increased kidney weights, and histologically determined tubular nephrosis and necrosis, was observed. Concomitant treatment with cefamandole nafate, 500 mg/kg, did not increase tobramycin nephrotoxicity, but protected against the aminoglycoside-induced renal injury. Determination of tissue radioactivity after administration of [14C]tobramycin indicated that cefamandole nafate treatment resulted in uniformly lower tobramycin tissue concentrations compared with the control, suggesting that the protective effect was produced by enhanced excretion of tobramycin after cefamandole nafate treatment.
PMCID: PMC429947  PMID: 921240
20.  Daptomycin in experimental murine pneumococcal meningitis 
Daptomycin, a lipopeptide antibiotic, could be an alternative to vancomycin for treatment of pneumococcal meningitis. We determined the activity of daptomycin versus vancomycin, with dexamethasone as an adjuvant, in a murine model of pneumococcal meningitis.
Ninety-six 25–30 gram mice were inoculated intracisternally with serotype 3 Streptococcus pneumoniae modified by the integration of a luminescent lux operon. All mice were treated with either dexamethasone 1 mg/kg intraperitoneally every 6 hours alone or in combination with either vancomycin or daptomycin, also administered intraperitoneally. Serum antimicrobial concentrations were selected to approximate those achieved in humans. Following treatment, bioluminescence and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) bacterial concentrations were determined. Caspase-3 staining was used to assess apoptosis on brain histopathology.
Sixteen hours post intracisternal inoculation, bacterial titers in CSF were 6.8 log10 cfu/ml. Amongst the animals given no antibiotic, vancomycin 50 mg/kg at 16 and 20 hours or daptomycin 25 mg/kg at 16 hours, CSF titers were 7.6, 3.4, and 3.9 log10 cfu/ml, respectively, at 24 hours post infection (p-value, < 0.001 for both vancomycin or daptomycin versus no antibiotic); there was no significant difference in bactericidal activity between the vancomycin and daptomycin groups (p-value, 0.18). CSF bioluminescence correlated with bacterial titer (Pearson regression coefficient, 0.75). The amount of apoptosis of brain parenchymal cells was equivalent among treatment groups.
Daptomycin or vancomycin, when given in combination with dexamethasone, is active in the treatment of experimental pneumococcal meningitis.
PMCID: PMC2685802  PMID: 19405978
21.  Temporal changes of pharmacokinetics, nephrotoxicity, and subcellular distribution of tobramycin in rats. 
The present study was designed to determine the temporal changes in tobramycin nephrotoxicity during the dark and the light periods of the day and to look for the mechanisms of such changes. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (9 to 11 weeks old) were housed in a 14-h-light-10-h-dark cycle (lights on 0600 to 2000 h). A bolus of tobramycin (60 mg/kg of body weight) was intravenously injected into a first group of 15 rats, at either 1400 or 0200 h. Six blood samples were taken from each rat, 30 to 210 min after the bolus injection. The total clearance of the drug was reduced during the rest period (1400 h) of rats compared with the activity period (0200 h) (P = 0.0007). Another group of 99 rats was given intraperitoneally a single dose of tobramycin (40 mg/kg), and renal cortices were collected 2 to 222 h after injection. The cortical drug levels were always higher in animals injected at 1400 h than in those injected at 0200 h. A last group of 32 rats was used in the studies of tobramycin (30 mg/kg/day, once daily for 10 days, intraperitoneally) nephrotoxicity and subcellular distribution. Weight gain in the rats receiving tobramycin (both 1400 and 0200 h) was significantly (P = 0.028) less than that in the controls. Nephrotoxicity, indicated by the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into cortical DNA and urinary excretion of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, was significantly higher in animals treated at 1400 h than in those treated at 0200 h. No difference in the subcellular distribution of tobramycin was observed. The data indicate that the reduction in the clearance of tobramycin during the rest period is in part responsible for the higher nephrotoxicity in rats.
PMCID: PMC284396  PMID: 8141580
22.  Efficacy of Daptomycin in Implant-Associated Infection Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Importance of Combination with Rifampin▿  
Limited treatment options are available for implant-associated infections caused by methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We compared the activity of daptomycin (alone and with rifampin [rifampicin]) with the activities of other antimicrobial regimens against MRSA ATCC 43300 in the guinea pig foreign-body infection model. The daptomycin MIC and the minimum bactericidal concentration in logarithmic phase and stationary growth phase of MRSA were 0.625, 0.625, and 20 μg/ml, respectively. In time-kill studies, daptomycin showed rapid and concentration-dependent killing of MRSA in stationary growth phase. At concentrations above 20 μg/ml, daptomycin reduced the counts by >3 log10 CFU/ml in 2 to 4 h. In sterile cage fluid, daptomycin peak concentrations of 23.1, 46.3, and 53.7 μg/ml were reached 4 to 6 h after the administration of single intraperitoneal doses of 20, 30, and 40 mg/kg of body weight, respectively. In treatment studies, daptomycin alone reduced the planktonic MRSA counts by 0.3 log10 CFU/ml, whereas in combination with rifampin, a reduction in the counts of >6 log10 CFU/ml was observed. Vancomycin and daptomycin (at both doses) were unable to cure any cage-associated infection when they were given as monotherapy, whereas rifampin alone cured the infections in 33% of the cages. In combination with rifampin, daptomycin showed cure rates of 25% (at 20 mg/kg) and 67% (at 30 mg/kg), vancomycin showed a cure rate of 8%, linezolid showed a cure rate of 0%, and levofloxacin showed a cure rate of 58%. In addition, daptomycin at a high dose (30 mg/kg) completely prevented the emergence of rifampin resistance in planktonic and adherent MRSA cells. Daptomycin at a high dose, corresponding to 6 mg/kg in humans, in combination with rifampin showed the highest activity against planktonic and adherent MRSA. Daptomycin plus rifampin is a promising treatment option for implant-associated MRSA infections.
PMCID: PMC2704655  PMID: 19364845
23.  An RpoB Mutation Confers Dual Heteroresistance to Daptomycin and Vancomycin in Staphylococcus aureus ▿  
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2010;54(12):5222-5233.
We have previously reported the establishment of a Staphylococcus aureus laboratory strain, 10*3d1, having reduced susceptibility to daptomycin and heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) phenotype. The strain was generated in vitro by serial daptomycin selection (Camargo, I. L., H. M. Neoh, L. Cui, and K. Hiramatsu, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52:4289-4299, 2008). Here we explored the genetic mechanism of resistance in the strain by whole-genome sequencing and by producing gene-replaced strains. By genome comparison between 10*3d1 and its parent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain N315ΔIP, we identified five nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). One of the five mutations was found in the rpoB gene encoding the RNA polymerase β subunit. The mutation at nucleotide position 1862 substituted the 621st alanine by glutamic acid. The replacement of the intact rpoB with the mutated rpoB, designated rpoB(A621E), conferred N315ΔIP with the phenotypes of reduced susceptibility to daptomycin and hetero-VISA. The rpoB(A621E)-mediated resistance conversion was accompanied by a thickened cell wall and reduction of the cell surface negative charge. Being consistent with these phenotypic changes, microarray data showed that the expression of the dlt operon, which increases the cell surface positive charge, was enhanced in the rpoB(A621E) mutant. Other remarkable findings of microarray analysis of the rpoB(A621E) mutant included repression of metabolic pathways of purine, pyrimidine, arginine, the urea cycle, and the lac operon, enhancement of the biosynthetic pathway of vitamin B2, K1, and K2, and cell wall metabolism. Finally, mutations identified in rplV and rplC, encoding 50S ribosomal proteins L22 and L3, respectively, were found to be associated with the slow growth, but not with the phenotype of decreased susceptibility to vancomycin and daptomycin, of 10*3d1.
PMCID: PMC2981288  PMID: 20837752
24.  Role of Rifampin against Propionibacterium acnes Biofilm In Vitro and in an Experimental Foreign-Body Infection Model 
Propionibacterium acnes is an important cause of orthopedic-implant-associated infections, for which the optimal treatment has not yet been determined. We investigated the activity of rifampin, alone and in combination, against planktonic and biofilm P. acnes in vitro and in a foreign-body infection model. The MIC and the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were 0.007 and 4 μg/ml for rifampin, 1 and 4 μg/ml for daptomycin, 1 and 8 μg/ml for vancomycin, 1 and 2 μg/ml for levofloxacin, 0.03 and 16 μg/ml for penicillin G, 0.125 and 512 μg/ml for clindamycin, and 0.25 and 32 μg/ml for ceftriaxone. The P. acnes minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) was 16 μg/ml for rifampin; 32 μg/ml for penicillin G; 64 μg/ml for daptomycin and ceftriaxone; and ≥128 μg/ml for levofloxacin, vancomycin, and clindamycin. In the animal model, implants were infected by injection of 109 CFU P. acnes in cages. Antimicrobial activity on P. acnes was investigated in the cage fluid (planktonic form) and on explanted cages (biofilm form). The cure rates were 4% for daptomycin, 17% for vancomycin, 0% for levofloxacin, and 36% for rifampin. Rifampin cured 63% of the infected cages in combination with daptomycin, 46% with vancomycin, and 25% with levofloxacin. While all tested antimicrobials showed good activity against planktonic P. acnes, for eradication of biofilms, rifampin was needed. In combination with rifampin, daptomycin showed higher cure rates than with vancomycin in this foreign-body infection model.
PMCID: PMC3318339  PMID: 22252806
25.  Adjunctive Rifampin Is Crucial to Optimizing Daptomycin Efficacy against Rabbit Prosthetic Joint Infection Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus▿† 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2011;55(10):4589-4593.
Daptomycin is an attractive option for treating prosthetic joint infection, but the 6-mg/kg of body weight/day dose was linked to clinical failure and emergence of resistance. Using a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) knee prosthesis infection in rabbits, we studied the efficacies of high-dose daptomycin (22 mg/kg given intravenously [i.v.] once daily [o.d.]; equivalent to 8 mg/kg/day in humans) or vancomycin (60 mg/kg given intramuscularly [i.m.] twice daily [b.i.d.]), both either alone or with adjunctive rifampin (10 mg/kg i.m. b.i.d.). After partial knee replacement with a silicone implant, 107 MRSA CFU was injected into the knees. Treatment started 7 days postinoculation and lasted 7 days. Positive cultures were screened for the emergence of mutant strains, defined as having 3-fold-increased MICs. Although in vivo mean log10 CFU/g of daptomycin-treated (4.23 ± 1.44; n = 12) or vancomycin-treated (4.63 ± 1.08; n = 12) crushed bone was significantly lower than that of controls (5.93 ± 1.15; n = 9) (P < 0.01), neither treatment sterilized bone (2/12 and 0/12 rabbits with sterile bone, respectively). Daptomycin mutant strains were found in 6/12, 3/12, and 2/9 daptomycin-treated, vancomycin-treated, and control rabbits, respectively; no resistant strains emerged (MIC was always <1 mg/liter). Adjunctive rifampin with daptomycin (1.47 ± 0.04 CFU/g of bone [detection threshold]; 11/11 sterile bones) or vancomycin (1.5 ± 0.12 CFU/g of bone; 6/8 sterile bones) was significantly more effective than monotherapy (P < 0.01) and prevented the emergence of daptomycin mutant strains. In this MRSA joint prosthesis infection model, combining rifampin with daptomycin was highly effective. Daptomycin mutant strains were isolated in vivo even without treatment, but adjunctive rifampin prevented this phenomenon, previously found after monotherapy in humans.
PMCID: PMC3186998  PMID: 21825285

Results 1-25 (780629)