In the present report we describe the characteristics of 189 antimicrobial-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from bovine (38 isolates) and human (151 isolates) sources. All the strains were resistant to tetracycline (TET), and 16 (8.5%) were also resistant to erythromycin, corresponding to 23.7% of the TET-resistant bovine isolates and 4.6% of the TET-resistant human isolates. The tet(O), erm(B), and mreA resistance-related genes, as well as the bca and scpB virulence-related genes, were the most frequent among the bovine isolates, while the tet(M), erm(A), mreA, bca, lmb, and scpB genes were the most prevalent among the isolates from humans. Although a few major clusters were observed, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis results revealed a variety of profiles, reflecting the substantial genetic diversity among strains of this species isolated from either humans or bovines.
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is the leading cause of neonatal and maternal sepsis. Penicillin is recommended for intrapartum prophylaxis, but erythromycin or clindamycin is used for penicillin-allergic carriers. Antibiotic resistance (AR) has increased recently and needs to be monitored. We have developed a multiplex PCR-based reverse line blot (mPCR/RLB) hybridization assay to detect, simultaneously, seven genes encoding AR—erm(A/TR), erm(B), mef(A/E), tet(M), tet(O), aphA-3, and aad-6—and two AR-related genes, int-Tn and mreA. We tested 512 GBS isolates from Asia and Australasia and compared mPCR/RLB with antibiotic susceptibility phenotype or single-gene PCR. Phenotypic resistance to tetracycline was identified in 450 (88%) isolates, of which 442 had tet(M) (93%) and/or tet(O) (6%). Of 67 (13%) erythromycin-resistant isolates, 18 were susceptible to clindamycin, i.e., had the M phenotype, encoded by mef(A/E); 39 had constitutive (cMLSB) and 10 inducible clindamycin resistance, and of these, 34 contained erm(B) and 12 erm(A/TR). Of four additional isolates with mef(A/E), three contained erm(B) with cMLSB and one was erythromycin susceptible. Of 61 (12%) clindamycin-resistant isolates, 20 were susceptible to erythromycin and two had intermediate resistance. Based on sequencing, 21 of 22 isolates with mef had mef(E), and 8 of 353 with int-Tn had an atypical sequence. Several AR genes, erm(B), tet(O), aphA-3, aad-6, and mef(A/E), were significantly more common among Asian than Australasian isolates, and there were significant differences in distribution of AR genes between GBS serotypes. Our mPCR/RLB assay is simple, rapid, and suitable for surveillance of antibiotic resistance in GBS.
This work shows that the ribC wild-type gene product has both flavokinase and flavin adenine dinucleotide synthetase (FAD-synthetase) activities. RibC plays an essential role in the flavin metabolism of Bacillus subtilis, as growth of a ribC deletion mutant strain was dependent on exogenous supply of FMN and the presence of a heterologous FAD-synthetase gene in its chromosome. Upon cultivation with growth-limiting amounts of FMN, this ribC deletion mutant strain overproduced riboflavin, while with elevated amounts of FMN in the culture medium, no riboflavin overproduction was observed. In a B. subtilis ribC820 mutant strain, the corresponding ribC820 gene product has reduced flavokinase/FAD-synthetase activity. In this strain, riboflavin overproduction was also repressed by exogenous FMN but not by riboflavin. Thus, flavin nucleotides, but not riboflavin, have an effector function for regulation of riboflavin biosynthesis in B. subtilis, and RibC seemingly is not directly involved in the riboflavin regulatory system. The mutation ribC820 leads to deregulation of riboflavin biosynthesis in B. subtilis, most likely by preventing the accumulation of the effector molecule FMN or FAD.
Streptomyces davawensis synthesizes the antibiotic roseoflavin, one of the few known natural riboflavin analogs, and is roseoflavin resistant. It is thought that the endogenous flavokinase (EC 126.96.36.199)/flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) synthetase (EC 188.8.131.52) activities of roseoflavin-sensitive organisms are responsible for the antibiotic effect of roseoflavin, producing the inactive cofactors roseoflavin-5′-monophosphate (RoFMN) and roseoflavin adenine dinucleotide (RoFAD) from roseoflavin. To confirm this, the FAD-dependent Sus scrofa d-amino acid oxidase (EC 184.108.40.206) was tested with RoFAD as a cofactor and found to be inactive. It was hypothesized that a flavokinase/FAD synthetase (RibC) highly specific for riboflavin may be present in S. davawensis, which would not allow the formation of toxic RoFMN/RoFAD. The gene ribC from S. davawensis was cloned. RibC from S. davawensis was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified. Analysis of the flavokinase activity of RibC revealed that the S. davawensis enzyme is not riboflavin specific (roseoflavin, kcat/Km = 1.7 10−2 μM−1 s−1; riboflavin, kcat/Km = 7.5 10−3 μM−1 s−1). Similar results were obtained for RibC from the roseoflavin-sensitive bacterium Bacillus subtilis (roseoflavin, kcat/Km = 1.3 10−2 μM−1 s−1; riboflavin, kcat/Km = 1.3 10−2 μM−1 s−1). Both RibC enzymes synthesized RoFAD and RoFMN. The functional expression of S. davawensis ribC did not confer roseoflavin resistance to a ribC-defective B. subtilis strain.
Results are presented supporting a regulatory role for the product of the MA3302 gene locus (designated MreA) previously annotated as a hypothetical protein in the methanogenic species Methanosarcina acetivorans of the domain Archaea. Sequence analysis of MreA revealed identity to the TrmB family of transcription factors, albeit the sequence is lacking the sensor domain analogous to TrmBL2, abundant in nonmethanogenic species of the domain Archaea. Transcription of mreA was highly upregulated during growth on acetate versus methylotrophic substrates, and an mreA deletion (ΔmreA) strain was impaired for growth with acetate in contrast to normal growth with methylotrophic substrates. Transcriptional profiling of acetate-grown cells identified 280 genes with altered expression in the ΔmreA strain versus the wild-type strain. Expression of genes unique to the acetate pathway decreased whereas expression of genes unique to methylotrophic metabolism increased in the ΔmreA strain relative to the wild type, results indicative of a dual role for MreA in either the direct or indirect activation of acetate-specific genes and repression of methylotrophic-specific genes. Gel shift experiments revealed specific binding of MreA to promoter regions of regulated genes. Homologs of MreA were identified in M. acetivorans and other Methanosarcina species for which expression patterns indicate roles in regulating methylotrophic pathways.
Species in the domain Archaea utilize basal transcription machinery resembling that of the domain Eukarya, raising questions addressing the role of numerous putative transcription factors identified in sequenced archaeal genomes. Species in the genus Methanosarcina are ideally suited for investigating principles of archaeal transcription through analysis of the capacity to utilize a diversity of substrates for growth and methanogenesis. Methanosarcina species switch pathways in response to the most energetically favorable substrate, metabolizing methylotrophic substrates in preference to acetate marked by substantial regulation of gene expression. Although conversion of the methyl group of acetate accounts for most of the methane produced in Earth’s biosphere, no proteins involved in the regulation of genes in the acetate pathway have been reported. The results presented here establish that MreA participates in the global regulation of diverse methanogenic pathways in the genus Methanosarcina. Finally, the results contribute to a broader understanding of transcriptional regulation in the domain Archaea.
The ability of vertebrate metallothionein (MT) genes to be induced by heavy metals is controlled by metal regulatory elements (MREs) present in the promoter in multiple, non-identical copies. The binding specificity of the mouse L-cell nuclear factor(s) that interact with the element MREd of the mouse MT-I gene was analyzed by in vitro footprinting, protein blotting, and UV cross-linking assays. In vitro footprinting analyses revealed that synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (oligomers) corresponding to the metal regulatory elements MREa, MREb, MREc, MREd and MREe of the mouse MT-I gene, as well as the MRE4 of the human MT-IIA gene and the MREa of the trout MT-B gene, all competed for the nuclear protein species binding to the MREd region of the mouse MT-I gene, the MREe oligomer being the weakest competitor. In addition, protein blotting experiments revealed that a nuclear protein of 108 kDa, termed metal element protein-1 (MEP-1), which specifically binds with high affinity to mouse MREd, binds with different affinities to the other mouse MRE elements, mimicking their relative transcriptional strength in vivo: MREd greater than or equal to MREa = MREc greater than MREb greater than MREe greater than MREf. Similarly, human MRE4 and trout MREa bind to MEP-1. A protein similar in size to MEP-1 was also detected in HeLa-cell nuclear extracts. In UV cross-linking experiments the major protein species, complexed with mouse MREd oligomers, migrated on a denaturating gel with an apparent Mr of 115,000 and was detected using each of the mouse MRE oligomers tested. These results show that a mouse nuclear factor can bind to multiple MREs in mouse, trout, and human MT genes.
In mammals and in yeast the conversion of Riboflavin (RF) into flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is catalysed by the sequential action of two enzymes: an ATP:riboflavin kinase (RFK) and an ATP:FMN adenylyltransferase (FMNAT). However, most prokaryotes depend on a single bifunctional enzyme, FAD synthetase (FADS), which folds into two modules: the C-terminal associated with RFK activity and the N-terminal associated with FMNAT activity. Sequence and structural analysis suggest that the 28-HxGH-31, 123-Gx(D/N)-125 and 161-xxSSTxxR-168 motifs from FADS must be involved in ATP stabilisation for the adenylylation of FMN, as well as in FAD stabilisation for FAD phyrophosphorolysis. Mutants were produced at these motifs in the Corynebacterium ammoniagenes FADS (CaFADS). Their effects on the kinetic parameters of CaFADS activities (RFK, FMNAT and FAD pyrophosphorilase), and on substrates and product binding properties indicate that H28, H31, N125 and S164 contribute to the geometry of the catalytically competent complexes at the FMNAT-module of CaFADS.
FAD synthetase; ATP:riboflavin kinase; ATP:FMN adenylyltransferase; FAD pyrophosphorylase; site-directed mutagenesis; catalytic activity; substrate binding
Streptomyces davawensis is the only organism known to synthesize the antibiotic roseoflavin, a riboflavin (vitamin B2) analog. Roseoflavin is converted to roseoflavin mononucleotide (RoFMN) and roseoflavin adenine dinucleotide in the cytoplasm of target cells. (Ribo-)Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) riboswitches are genetic elements, which in many bacteria control genes responsible for the biosynthesis and transport of riboflavin. Streptomyces davawensis is roseoflavin resistant, and the closely related bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor is roseoflavin sensitive. The two bacteria served as models to investigate roseoflavin resistance of S. davawensis and to analyze the mode of action of roseoflavin in S. coelicolor. Our experiments demonstrate that the ribB FMN riboswitch of S. davawensis (in contrast to the corresponding riboswitch of S. coelicolor) is able to discriminate between the two very similar flavins FMN and RoFMN and shows opposite responses to the latter ligands.
Chronic alcoholism is associated with a high prevalence of riboflavin deficiency. Experiments were designed in an animal model to determine whether ethanol alters selectively the absorption of riboflavin and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), the predominant dietary form of the vitamin. Rats received by gavage a liver homogenate to which either [14C]riboflavin or [14C]FAD was added with either ethanol or isocaloric sucrose solutions. Ethanol markedly diminished the bioavailability of [14C]FAD to a greater degree than that of [14C]riboflavin. Corroboration of an ethanol-impaired intraluminal hydrolysis of FAD was provided by using everted jejunal segments and measuring mucosal uptake of [14C]riboflavin together with nonradiolabeled FAD. In subsequent studies with mucosal cell extracts, ethanol markedly inhibited activities of FAD pyrophosphatase and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) phosphatase. These findings suggest that dietary sources of riboflavin (FMN and FAD) are not absorbed as well in the presence of ethanol than are vitamin preparations containing riboflavin, which is utilized more readily.
Flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide are essential coenzymes in redox reactions. For example, flavin adenine dinucleotide is a coenzyme for both glutathione reductase and enzymes that mediate the oxidative folding of secretory proteins. Here we investigated short-term effects of moderately riboflavin-deficient culture medium on flavin-related responses in HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells. Cells were cultured in riboflavin-deficient (3.1 nmol/L) medium for up to six days; controls were cultured in riboflavin-sufficient (532 nmol/L) medium. The activity of glutathione reductase decreased by 98% within four days of riboflavin-deficient culture. Transport rates of riboflavin increased in response to riboflavin depletion, whereas expression of enzymes mediating flavocoenzyme synthesis (flavokinase and flavin adenine dinucleotide synthetase) decreased in response to depletion. The oxidative folding and synthesis of plasminogen and apolipoprotein B-100, respectively, was impaired within four days of culture in riboflavin-deficient medium; this is consistent with impaired processing of secretory proteins in riboflavin-deficient cells. Riboflavin depletion was associated with increased DNA-binding activities of transcription factors with affinity for endoplasmic reticulum stress elements and NF-κB consensus elements, suggesting cell stress. Moreover, the abundance of the stress-induced protein GADD153 was greater in riboflavin-deficient cells compared with controls. Riboflavin deficiency was associated with decreased rates of cell proliferation caused by arrest in G1 phase of the cell cycle. These studies are consistent with the hypothesis that HepG2 cells have a great demand for riboflavin, and that cell stress develops rapidly if riboflavin supply is marginally low.
cell cycle; cell stress; deficiency; protein folding; riboflavin
Prompted by recognition of the similar structures of riboflavin (vitamin B2), phenothiazine drugs, and tricyclic antidepressants, our studies sought to determine effects of drugs of these two types upon the conversion of riboflavin into its active coenzyme derivative, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) in rat tissues. Chlorpromazine, a phenothiazine derivative, and imipramine and amitriptyline, both tricyclic antidepressants, each inhibited the incorporation of [14C]riboflavin into [14C]FAD in liver, cerebrum, cerebellum, and heart. A variety of psychoactive drugs structurally unrelated to riboflavin were ineffective. Chlorpromazine, imipramine, and amitriptyline in vitro inhibited hepatic flavokinase, the first of two enzymes in the conversion of riboflavin to FAD.
Evidence was obtained that chlorpromazine administration for a 3- or 7-wk period at doses comparable on a weight basis to those used clinically has significant effects upon riboflavin metabolism in the animal as a whole: (a) the activity coefficient of erythrocyte glutathione reductase, an FAD-containing enzyme used as an index of riboflavin status physiologically, was elevated, a finding compatible with a deficiency state, (b) the urinary excretion of riboflavin was more than twice that of age- and sex-matched pair-fed control rats, and (c) after administration of chlorpromazine for a 7-wk period, tissue levels of flavin mononucleotide and FAD were significantly lower than those of pair-fed littermates, despite consumption of a diet estimated to contain 30 times the recommended dietary allowance. The present study suggests that certain psychotropic drugs interfere with riboflavin metabolism at least in part by inhibiting the conversion of riboflavin to its coenzyme derivatives, and that as a consequence of such inhibition, the overall utilization of the vitamin is impaired.
The FAD1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been selected from a genomic library on the basis of its ability to partially correct the respiratory defect of pet mutants previously assigned to complementation group G178. Mutants in this group display a reduced level of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and an increased level of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) in mitochondria. The restoration of respiratory capability by FAD1 is shown to be due to extragenic suppression. FAD1 codes for an essential yeast protein, since disruption of the gene induces a lethal phenotype. The FAD1 product has been inferred to be yeast FAD synthetase, an enzyme that adenylates FMN to FAD. This conclusion is based on the following evidence. S. cerevisiae transformed with FAD1 on a multicopy plasmid displays an increase in FAD synthetase activity. This is also true when the gene is expressed in Escherichia coli. Lastly, the FAD1 product exhibits low but significant primary sequence similarity to sulfate adenyltransferase, which catalyzes a transfer reaction analogous to that of FAD synthetase. The lower mitochondrial concentration of FAD in G178 mutants is proposed to be caused by an inefficient exchange of external FAD for internal FMN. This is supported by the absence of FAD synthetase activity in yeast mitochondria and the presence of both extramitochondrial and mitochondrial riboflavin kinase, the preceding enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway. A lesion in mitochondrial import of FAD would account for the higher concentration of mitochondrial FMN in the mutant if the transport is catalyzed by an exchange carrier. The ability of FAD1 to suppress impaired transport of FAD is explained by mislocalization of the synthetase in cells harboring multiple copies of the gene. This mechanism of suppression is supported by the presence of mitochondrial FAD synthetase activity in S. cerevisiae transformed with FAD1 on a high-copy-number plasmid but not in mitochondrial of a wild-type strain.
► 89 genes encoding flavoproteins were identified in the human genome. ► Two thirds of human flavoproteins are linked to human diseases. ► Flavoenzymes are essential for the biosynthesis of other coenzymes and hormones. ► Flavoenzymes play a critical role in folate and cobalamin metabolism.
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) is an essential dietary compound used for the enzymatic biosynthesis of FMN and FAD. The human genome contains 90 genes encoding for flavin-dependent proteins, six for riboflavin uptake and transformation into the active coenzymes FMN and FAD as well as two for the reduction to the dihydroflavin form. Flavoproteins utilize either FMN (16%) or FAD (84%) while five human flavoenzymes have a requirement for both FMN and FAD. The majority of flavin-dependent enzymes catalyze oxidation–reduction processes in primary metabolic pathways such as the citric acid cycle, β-oxidation and degradation of amino acids. Ten flavoproteins occur as isozymes and assume special functions in the human organism. Two thirds of flavin-dependent proteins are associated with disorders caused by allelic variants affecting protein function. Flavin-dependent proteins also play an important role in the biosynthesis of other essential cofactors and hormones such as coenzyme A, coenzyme Q, heme, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, steroids and thyroxine. Moreover, they are important for the regulation of folate metabolites by using tetrahydrofolate as cosubstrate in choline degradation, reduction of N-5.10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to N-5-methyltetrahydrofolate and maintenance of the catalytically competent form of methionine synthase. These flavoenzymes are discussed in detail to highlight their role in health and disease.
Coenzyme A; Coenzyme Q; Folate; Heme; Pyridoxal 5′-phosphate; Steroids; Thyroxine; Vitamins
The in vitro activities of the new agents linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, moxifloxacin, and trovafloxacin were determined and compared with those of penicillin, clindamycin, and four macrolides against 53 erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, 117 S. pyogenes (64 erythromycin-susceptible and 53 -resistant), and 101 S. agalactiae (53 erythromycin-susceptible and 48 -resistant) isolates. Differentiation of macrolide resistance phenotypes was performed by the double-disk method. The genetic basis for macrolide resistance in 52 strains was also determined. The M phenotype was found in 84.9, 6.3, and 1.9% of S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, and S. pneumoniae isolates, respectively. These strains were susceptible to miocamycin and clindamycin. Strains with the inducible phenotype accounted for 27.1% of S. agalactiae isolates and 9.4% each of S. pyogenes and S. pneumoniae isolates. All erythromycin-resistant isolates were also resistant to the 14- and 15-membered macrolides tested. Strains with all three phenotypes were susceptible to ≤2 μg of linezolid per ml. Quinupristin-dalfopristin exhibited good in vitro activity against all strains, irrespective of their resistance to erythromycin (MICs at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited [MIC90s], 0.2 to 1 μg/ml). Against the erythromycin-resistant S. pyogenes and S. agalactiae strains, moxifloxacin and trovafloxacin were the most active agents (MIC90s, 0.1 μg/ml). The new antimicrobials evaluated may be alternative agents to treat infections caused by macrolide-resistant as well as macrolide-susceptible streptococci.
Burkholderia cepacia AC1100 uses 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, an environmental pollutant, as a sole carbon and energy source. Chlorophenol 4-monooxygenase is a key enzyme in the degradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and it was originally characterized as a two-component enzyme (TftC and TftD). Sequence analysis suggests that they are separate enzymes. The two proteins were separately produced in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized. TftC was an NADH:flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) oxidoreductase. A C-terminally His-tagged fusion TftC used NADH to reduce either FAD or flavin mononucleotide (FMN) but did not use NADPH or riboflavin as a substrate. Kinetic and binding property analysis showed that FAD was a better substrate than FMN. TftD was a reduced FAD (FADH2)-utilizing monooxygenase, and FADH2 was supplied by TftC. It converted 2,4,5-trichlorophenol to 2,5-dichloro-p-quinol and then to 5-chlorohydroxyquinol but converted 2,4,6-trichlorophenol only to 2,6-dichloro-p-quinol as the final product. TftD interacted with FADH2 and retarded its rapid oxidation by O2. A spectrum of possible TftD-bound FAD-peroxide was identified, indicating that the peroxide is likely the active oxygen species attacking the aromatic substrates. The reclassification of the two enzymes further supports the new discovery of FADH2-utilizing enzymes, which have homologues in the domains Bacteria and Archaea.
Benziman, Moshe (The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel), and Y. Galanter. Flavine adenine dinucleotide-linked malic dehydrogenase from Acetobacter xylinum. J. Bacteriol. 88:1010–1018. 1964.—The properties of the pyridine nucleotide-nonlinked malic dehydrogenase of Acetobacter xylinum were investigated in the supernatant fluid obtained by high-speed centrifugation of sonic extracts. Ferricyanide, phenazine methosulfate, and to a lesser extent dichlorophenolindophenol were active as oxidants for malate oxidation. After acid ammonium sulfate precipitation, the enzyme lost its malate-oxidizing activity. The enzyme was reactivated by low concentrations of flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD) but not by flavine mononucleotide (FMN) or riboflavine. Atabrine inhibited the enzyme, and the inhibition was relieved by FAD but not by FMN or riboflavine. Malate-oxidizing activity was inhibited by hematin. The inhibition was prevented by imidazole or globin. o-Phenanthroline, 8-hydroxy quinoline, α,α'-dipyridyl, and p-chloromercuribenzoate inhibited malate oxidation. Amytal markedly inhibited oxidation of malate in the presence of oxygen, phenazine methosulfate, or dichlorophenolindophenol, but not in the presence of ferricyanide. The results suggest that the malic dehydrogenase of A. xylinum is a FAD enzyme, which contains an ironbinding site essential for its activity. Nonheme iron and sulfhydro groups are possibly involved in enzyme activity. The malic dehydrogenase is functionally linked to the cytochrome chain.
Friedreich ataxia is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the lack of frataxin, a mitochondrial protein. We previously demonstrated that frataxin interacts with complex II subunits of the electronic transport chain (ETC) and putative electronic transfer flavoproteins, suggesting that frataxin could participate in the oxidative phosphorylation.
Methods and Findings
Here we have investigated the effect of riboflavin and its cofactors flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Caenorhabditis elegans models of frataxin deficiency. We used a S. cerevisiae strain deleted for the yfh1 gene obtained by homologous recombination and we assessed growth in fermentable and non-fermentable cultures supplemented with either riboflavin or its derivates. Experiments with C. elegans were performed in transient knock-down worms (frh-1[RNAi]) generated by microinjection of dsRNA frh-1 into the gonads of young worms. We observed that FAD rescues the phenotype of both defective organisms. We show that cell growth and enzymatic activities of the ETC complexes and ATP production of yfh1Δ cells were improved by FAD supplementation. Moreover, FAD also improved lifespan and other physiological parameters in the C. elegans knock-down model for frataxin.
We propose that rescue of frataxin deficiency by FAD supplementation could be explained by an improvement in mitochondrial respiration. We suggest that riboflavin may be useful in the treatment of Friedreich ataxia.
Flavin adenine dinucleotide synthetases (FADSs) - a group of bifunctional enzymes that carry out the dual functions of riboflavin phosphorylation to produce flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and its subsequent adenylation to generate FAD in most prokaryotes - were studied in plants in terms of sequence, structure and evolutionary history.
Using a variety of bioinformatics methods we have found that FADS enzymes localized to the chloroplasts, which we term as plant-like FADS proteins, are distributed across a variety of green plant lineages and constitute a divergent protein family clearly of cyanobacterial origin. The C-terminal module of these enzymes does not contain the typical riboflavin kinase active site sequence, while the N-terminal module is broadly conserved. These results agree with a previous work reported by Sandoval et al. in 2008. Furthermore, our observations and preliminary experimental results indicate that the C-terminus of plant-like FADS proteins may contain a catalytic activity, but different to that of their prokaryotic counterparts. In fact, homology models predict that plant-specific conserved residues constitute a distinct active site in the C-terminus.
A structure-based sequence alignment and an in-depth evolutionary survey of FADS proteins, thought to be crucial in plant metabolism, are reported, which will be essential for the correct annotation of plant genomes and further structural and functional studies. This work is a contribution to our understanding of the evolutionary history of plant-like FADS enzymes, which constitute a new family of FADS proteins whose C-terminal module might be involved in a distinct catalytic activity.
The biosynthesis of several protein cofactors is subject to feedback regulation by riboswitches1–3. Flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-specific riboswitches4,5, also known as RFN elements6, direct expression of bacterial genes involved in the biosynthesis and transport of riboflavin (vitamin B2) and related compounds. Here we present the crystal structures of the Fusobacterium nucleatum riboswitch bound to FMN, riboflavin and antibiotic roseoflavin7. The FMN riboswitch structure, centred on an FMN-bound six-stem junction, does not fold by collinear stacking of adjacent helices, typical for folding of large RNAs. Rather, it adopts a butterfly-like scaffold, stapled together by opposingly directed but nearly identically folded peripheral domains. FMN is positioned asymmetrically within the junctional site and is specifically bound to RNA through interactions with the isoalloxazine ring chromophore and direct and Mg2+-mediated contacts with the phosphate moiety. Our structural data, complemented by binding and footprinting experiments, imply a largely pre-folded tertiary RNA architecture and FMN recognition mediated by conformational transitions within the junctional binding pocket. The inherent plasticity of the FMN-binding pocket and the availability of large openings make the riboswitch an attractive target for structure-based design of FMN-like antimicrobial compounds. Our studies also explain the effects of spontaneous and antibiotic-induced deregulatory mutations and provided molecular insights into FMN-based control of gene expression in normal and riboflavin-overproducing bacterial strains.
Reduction of the cobalt ion of cobalamin from the Co(III) to the Co(I) oxidation state is essential for the synthesis of adenosylcobalamin, the coenzymic form of this cofactor. A cob(II)alamin reductase activity in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 was isolated to homogeneity. N-terminal analysis of the homogeneous protein identified NAD(P)H:flavin oxidoreductase (Fre) (EC 220.127.116.11) as the enzyme responsible for this activity. The fre gene was cloned, and the overexpressed protein, with a histidine tag at its N terminus, was purified to homogeneity by nickel affinity chromatography. His-tagged Fre reduced flavins (flavin mononucleotide [FMN] and flavin adenine dinucleotide [FAD]) and cob(III)alamin to cob(II)alamin very efficiently. Photochemically reduced FMN substituted for Fre in the reduction of cob(III)alamin to cob(II)alamin, indicating that the observed cobalamin reduction activity was not Fre dependent but FMNH2 dependent. Enzyme-independent reduction of cob(III)alamin to cob(II)alamin by FMNH2 occurred at a rate too fast to be measured. The thermodynamically unfavorable reduction of cob(II)alamin to cob(I)alamin was detectable by alkylation of the cob(I)alamin nucleophile with iodoacetate. Detection of the product, caboxymethylcob(III)alamin, depended on the presence of FMNH2 in the reaction mixture. FMNH2 failed to substitute for potassium borohydride in in vitro assays for corrinoid adenosylation catalyzed by the ATP:co(I)rrinoid adenosyltransferase (CobA) enzyme, even under conditions where Fre and NADH were present in the reaction mixture to ensure that FMN was always reduced. These results were interpreted to mean that Fre was not responsible for the generation of cob(I)alamin in vivo. Consistent with this idea, a fre mutant displayed wild-type cobalamin biosynthetic phenotypes. It is proposed that S. enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 may not have a cob(III)alamin reductase enzyme and that, in vivo, nonadenosylated cobalamin and other corrinoids are maintained as co(II)rrinoids by reduced flavin nucleotides generated by Fre and other flavin oxidoreductases.
A strain of Streptococcus agalactiae displayed resistance to 14-, 15-, and 16-membered macrolides. In PCR assays, total genomic DNA from this strain contained neither erm nor mef genes. EcoRI-digested genomic DNA from this strain was cloned into lambda Zap II to construct a library of S. agalactiae genomic DNA. A clone, pAES63, expressing resistance to erythromycin, azithromycin, and spiramycin in Escherichia coli was recovered. Deletion derivatives of pAES63 which defined a functional region on this clone that encoded resistance to 14- and 15-membered, but not 16-membered, macrolides were produced. Studies that determined the levels of incorporation of radiolabelled erythromycin into E. coli were consistent with the presence of a macrolide efflux determinant. This putative efflux determinant was distinct from the recently described Mef pump in Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae and from the multicomponent MsrA pump in Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci. Its gene has been designated mreA (for macrolide resistance efflux).
MreC and MreD, along with the actin homologue MreB, are required to maintain the shape of rod-shaped bacteria. The depletion of MreCD in rod-shaped bacteria leads to the formation of spherical cells and the accumulation of suppressor mutations. Ovococcus bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, lack MreB homologues, and the functions of the S. pneumoniae MreCD (MreCDSpn) proteins are unknown. mreCD are located upstream from the pcsB cell division gene in most Streptococcus species, but we found that mreCD and pcsB are transcribed independently. Similarly to rod-shaped bacteria, we show that mreCD are essential in the virulent serotype 2 D39 strain of S. pneumoniae, and the depletion of MreCD results in cell rounding and lysis. In contrast, laboratory strain R6 contains suppressors that allow the growth of ΔmreCD mutants, and bypass suppressors accumulate in D39 ΔmreCD mutants. One class of suppressors eliminates the function of class A penicillin binding protein 1a (PBP1a). Unencapsulated Δpbp1a D39 mutants have smaller diameters than their pbp1a+ parent or Δpbp2a and Δpbp1b mutants, which lack other class A PBPs and do not show the suppression of ΔmreCD mutations. Suppressed ΔmreCD Δpbp1a double mutants form aberrantly shaped cells, some with misplaced peptidoglycan (PG) biosynthesis compared to that of single Δpbp1a mutants. Quantitative Western blotting showed that MreCSpn is abundant (≈8,500 dimers per cell), and immunofluorescent microscopy (IFM) located MreCDSpn to the equators and septa of dividing cells, similarly to the PBPs and PG pentapeptides indicative of PG synthesis. These combined results are consistent with a model in which MreCDSpn direct peripheral PG synthesis and control PBP1a localization or activity.
Heart failure (HF) is a common and serious comorbidity of diabetes. Oxidative stress has been associated with the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications including cardiomyopathy. The ability of antioxidants to inhibit injury has raised the possibility of new therapeutic treatment for diabetic heart diseases. Riboflavin constitutes an essential nutrient for humans and animals and it is an important food additive. Riboflavin, a precursor of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), enhances the oxidative folding and subsequent secretion of proteins. The objective of this study was to investigate the cardioprotective effect of riboflavin in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in 30 rats by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (70 mg /kg). Riboflavin (20 mg/kg) was orally administered to animals immediately after induction of diabetes and was continued for eight weeks. Rats were examined for diabetic cardiomyopathy by left ventricular (LV) remadynamic function. Myocardial oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein level. Myocardial connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) level was measured by Western blot in all rats at the end of the study. In the untreated diabetic rats, left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) rate of pressure rose (+dp/dt), and rate of pressure decay (−dp/dt) were depressed while left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) was increased, which indicated the reduced left ventricular contractility and slowing of left ventricular relaxation. The level of SOD decreased, CTGF and HO-1 protein expression and MDA content rose. Riboflavin treatment significantly improved left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in diabetic rats, there were persistent increases in significant activation of SOD and the level of HO-1 protein, and a decrease in the level of CTGF. These results suggest that riboflavin treatment ameliorates myocardial function and improves heart oxidant status, whereas raising myocardial HO-1 and decreasing myocardial CTGF levels have beneficial effects on diabetic cardiomyopathy.
riboflavin; diabetic cardiomyopathy; heme oxygenase-1.
Bovine isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae (n = 76), Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (n = 32), and Streptococcus uberis (n = 101) were analyzed for the presence of different integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) and their association with macrolide, lincosamide, and tetracycline resistance. The diversity of the isolates included in this study was demonstrated by multilocus sequence typing for S. agalactiae and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for S. dysgalactiae and S. uberis. Most of the erythromycin-resistant strains carry an ermB gene. Five strains of S. uberis that are resistant to lincomycin but susceptible to erythromycin carry the lin(B) gene, and one has both linB and lnuD genes. In contrast to S. uberis, most of the S. agalactiae and S. dysgalactiae tetracycline-resistant isolates carry a tet(M) gene. A tet(S) gene was also detected in the three species. A Tn916-related element was detected in 30 to 50% of the tetracycline-resistant strains in the three species. Tetracycline resistance was successfully transferred by conjugation to an S. agalactiae strain. Most of the isolates carry an ICE integrated in the rplL gene. In addition, half of the S. agalactiae isolates have an ICE integrated in a tRNA lysine (tRNALys) gene. Such an element is also present in 20% of the isolates of S. dysgalactiae and S. uberis. A circular form of these ICEs was detected in all of the isolates tested, indicating that these genetic elements are mobile. These ICEs could thus also be a vehicle for horizontal gene transfer between streptococci of animal and/or human origin.
We present a strategy for enhancing the intrinsic emission of the enzyme cofactors flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). Ensemble studies show that silver island films (SIFs) are the optimal metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) substrates for flavins and gave emission enhancements of over 10-fold for both FAD and FMN. A reduction in the lifetime of FAD and FMN on SIFs was also observed. Thermally evaporated aluminum films on quartz slides were found to be the optimal MEF substrate for NADH and gave a 5-fold increase in the emission intensity of NADH. We present finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations that compute the enhancement in the radiated power emitting from an excited state dipole emitting in the wavelength range of NADH in close proximity to an aluminum nanoparticle, and a dipole emitting in the emission wavelength of flavins next to a silver nanoparticle. These calculations confirm that aluminum serves as the optimal MEF substrate for NADH and silver was the optimal MEF substrate for flavins. This is because the plasmon resonance properties of aluminum lie in the UV-blue regime and that of silver lie in the visible region. We also present the results of single molecule studies on FMN which show SIFs can both significantly enhance the intrinsic emission from single FMN molecules, significantly reduce their lifetimes and also significantly reduce FMN blinking. This is the first report of the observation of MEF from cofactors both at the ensemble and single molecule level. We hope this study will serve as a platform to encourage the future use of metallic nanostructures to study cofactors using their intrinsic fluorescence to directly monitor enzyme binding reactions without the need of extrinsic labeling of the molecules.
enzyme cofactors; FAD; NAD+; NADH; metal-enhanced fluorescence; surface plasmons; plasmon-controlled fluorescence; aluminum; silver; nanoparticle; fluorescence; single molecule fluorescence; finite-difference time domain