Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) is effective in countering chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. However, serum rhG-CSF levels cannot be maintained throughout the course of rhG-CSF therapy. The drop in serum rhG-CSF levels may vary with the duration of rhG-CSF administration or with the circulating neutrophil counts. We investigated the relationship between serum G-CSF levels and circulating neutrophil counts and the pharmacokinetics of rhG-CSF for patients with lung cancer who had been treated with myelosuppressive chemotherapy and then with subcutaneous rhG-CSF (lenograstim, 2 micrograms per kg of body weight per day). Twelve patients were randomly assigned to four groups with different rhG-CSF therapy schedules. Serum G-CSF levels were measured by an enzyme immunoassay method. Serum G-CSF levels during the rhG-CSF therapy greatly exceeded endogenous G-CSF levels and were mainly due to the presence of exogenous rhG-CSF rather than increased levels of endogenous G-CSF. Despite the duration of rhG-CSF administration, serum G-CSF levels during rhG-CSF therapy were inversely correlated with circulating neutrophil counts (r2 = 0.73, P < 0.0001). The value for the area under the concentration-time curve of rhG-CSF on the day of neutrophilia was lower than that on the day of neutropenia (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the fall in serum G-CSF levels during rhG-CSF therapy may result from increased clearance and/or decreased absorption of rhG-CSF, two processes related to circulating neutrophil counts.
Normal dogs were treated with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) at 10 micrograms/kg/day for 30 d, which caused an initial neutrophilia, followed by a prolonged period of chronic neutropenia. A control dog treated with recombinant canine G-CSF (rcG-CSF) showed persistent neutrophilia over 3 mo. Serum from dogs during neutropenia contained an antibody to rhG-CSF, which neutralized the stimulatory effects of both rhG-CSF and rcG-CSF on dog marrow neutrophilic progenitor cell growth and on NFS-60 cell proliferation. 4 mo after discontinuation of rhG-CSF, the dogs' neutrophil counts returned to the normal range. Rechallenge with the rhG-CSF re-induced severe neutropenia in 1 wk. Neutropenia was transferred by plasma infusion from a neutropenic dog to a previously normal dog. These data suggest that human rhG-CSF immunizes normal dogs and thereby induces neutralization of endogenous canine G-CSF and neutropenia. This model system should allow more precise definition of the in vivo role of G-CSF.
Animal studies suggest that the kidney is involved in the elimination of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF), which is used for patients with neutropenia during cancer chemotherapy. Since anticancer drugs induce nephrotoxicity, it is important to clarify the role of the kidney in the pharmacokinetics of rhG-CSF in cancer patients. Our study was designed to evaluate the relationship between the pharmacokinetics of rhG-CSF and renal function in lung cancer patients compared to the absolute neutrophil count (ANC). The pharmacokinetic studies were conducted with 25 lung cancer patients. Following chemotherapy using platinum-based compounds, a bolus 5 μg of rhG-CSF/kg of body weight was intravenously injected from the first day of leukopenia or neutropenia. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by fitting the concentration in serum-time data to a two-compartment model according to the population pharmacokinetics and the Bayesian method. Creatinine clearance (CLCR) was predicted by the Cockcroft-Gault formula. rhG-CSF clearance (CLG-CSF) correlated significantly with the ANC (r = 0.613; P < 0.001) and CLCR (r = 0.632; P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the combination of the ANC and CLCR accounted for 57.4% of the variation of CLG-CSF. In patients with an ANC of <1,000/μl, CLCR accounted for 72.9% of the variation of CLG-CSF (P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that renal function and neutrophil counts correlate with CLG-CSF and that the role of renal function in eliminating rhG-CSF is important in lung cancer patients with neutropenia.
We examined the in vivo effects of recombinant human granulocyte colony- stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) in primates (cynomolgus monkeys) treated with subcutaneous doses of rhG-CSF for 14-28 d. A dose-dependent increase in the peripheral white blood cells (WBC) was seen, reaching a plateau after 1 wk of rhG-CSF treatment. The elevation of WBC was due to an increase in the absolute neutrophil count. These results demonstrate that rhG-CSF is a potent granulopoietic growth and differentiation factor in vivo. In cyclophosphamide (CY)-induced myelosuppression, rhG-CSF was able to shorten the time period of WBC recovery in two treated monkeys to 1 wk, as compared to more than 4 wk for the control monkey. Its ability to significantly shorten the period of chemotherapy-induced bone marrow hypoplasia may allow clinicians to increase the frequency or dosage of chemotherapeutic agents. In addition, the increase in absolute numbers of functionally active neutrophils may have a profound effect in the rate and severity of neutropenia-related sepsis. Furthermore, the activities reported here indicate a potential role for rhG-CSF in the treatment of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome, congenital agranulocytosis, radiation-induced myelosuppression, and bone marrow transplantation.
The effects of altering the timing of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) administration on neutropenia induced by cyclophosphamide (CPA) were studied experimentally in a mouse model. Experimental mice were divided into three groups: (a) treatment with rhG-CSF after CPA administration (post-treatment group); (b) treatment with rhG-CSF both before and after CPA administration (pre- and post-treatment group); and (c) treatment with saline after CPA administration (control group). The results were as follows. Mice receiving rhG-CSF on the 2 days preceding CPA treatment, in which progenitor cell counts outside the S-phase when CPA was administered were the lowest of all the groups, showed accelerated neutrophil recovery but decreased neutrophil nadirs compared with the control group despite rhG-CSF treatment. The pre- and post-treatment group, consisting of mice who received rhG-CSF treatment on days -4 and -3 before CPA treatment, and in which progenitor cell counts when CPA was administered were increased to greater levels than in the other groups, showed remarkably accelerated neutrophil recovery and the greatest increase in the neutrophil nadirs of all the groups. These results suggested that the kinetics of progenitor cell populations when chemotherapeutic agents were administered seemed to play an important role in neutropenia after chemotherapy, and that not only peripheral neutrophil cell and total progenitor cell counts but also progenitor cell kinetics should be taken into consideration when administering rhG-CSF treatment against the effects of chemotherapy.
Twelve patients with small cell lung cancer were treated with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, rhG-CSF, given by continuous infusion at doses ranging from 1 to 40 micrograms kg-1 day-1. Patients received the rhG-CSF before the start of intensive chemotherapy and after alternate cycles of chemotherapy. Several in vitro assays were performed using peripheral blood neutrophils and marrow progenitor cells collected from patients prior to and after infusion of the growth factor. Peripheral blood neutrophils were tested for mobility and phagocytic activity. In addition, in vitro clonogenic assays of marrow haemopoietic progenitor cells and analysis of bone marrow trephines and aspirates were carried out. We found that rhG-CSF in vivo has at least two main effects: (a) an early fall in peripheral neutrophils, within the first hour, followed by a rapid influx of mature neutrophils into the circulatory pool; (b) stimulation of proliferation and differentiation of neutrophil precursors in the bone marrow. Neutrophils released into the circulation were normal in tests of their mobility and phagocytic activity.
Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) is widely used to treat neutropenia during cytotoxic chemotherapy. The optimal scheduling of rhG-CSF is unknown and can hardly be tested in clinical studies due to numerous therapy parameters affecting outcome (chemotherapeutic regimen, rhG-CSF schedules, individual covariables). Motivated by biomathematical model simulations, we aim to investigate different rhG-CSF schedules in a preclinical chemotherapy mouse model.
The time course of hematotoxicity was studied in CD-1 mice after cyclophosphamide (CP) administration. Filgrastim was applied concomitantly in a 2 × 3-factorial design of two dosing options (2 × 20 μg and 4 × 10 μg) and three timing options (directly, one, and two days after CP). Alternatively, a single dose of 40 μg pegfilgrastim was applied at the three timing options. The resulting cytopenia was compared among the schedules.
Dosing and timing had a significant influence on the effectiveness of filgrastim schedules whereas for pegfilgrastim the timing effect was irrelevant. The best filgrastim and pegfilgrastim schedules exhibited equivalent toxicity. Monocytes dynamics performed analogously to granulocytes. All schedules showed roughly the same lymphotoxicity.
We conclude that effectiveness of filgrastim application depends heavily on its scheduling during chemotherapy. There is an optimum of timing. Dose splitting is better than concentrated applications. Effectiveness of pegfilgrastim is less dependent on timing.
rhG-CSF; chemotherapy toxicity; mice; cyclophosphamide; cytopenia; neutropenia
The direct effects of human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (hG-CSF) on mature polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in vitro were studied with regard to chemotaxis, superoxide production, and phagocytosis and microbicidal activity against the following viable microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, serum-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. Recombinant hG-CSF (rhG-CSF) acted as a chemoattractant for human PMNs in a dose-dependent manner. The chemotactic response of PMNs to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) was not enhanced by rhG-CSF at any of the concentrations used. rhG-CSF did not induce the generation of superoxide by itself. However, rhG-CSF was able to prime human PMNs and to enhance O2- release stimulated by FMLP in a dose-dependent manner. rhg-CSF did not enhance phagocytosis or killing of the three species of microorganisms by normal PMNs. With PMNs obtained from patients who had hematological disorders or solid tumors, no enhancement of the microbicidal activity was observed in most cases. Microbial killing mediated by PMNs depended on the ratio of PMNs to target organisms. We concluded from these facts that the most important effect of rhG-CSF was to increase the number of the peripheral PMNs and not to enhance the functions of mature PMNs.
Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) was administered at a dose of 1-60 micrograms/kg of body weight to 22 patients with transitional cell carcinoma before chemotherapy as part of a Phase I/II study. In all patients, a specific dose-dependent increase in the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of 1.8-12 fold was seen. In addition, this augmentation in the ANC was accompanied by an increase in leukocyte alkaline phosphatase, a marker of secondary granule formation. In six of eight patients analyzed, an increase in bone marrow myeloid to erythroid cell ratio was seen. Day 14 peripheral blood cell derived colony forming unit granulocyte macrophage were also increased by day 6 of rhG-CSF treatment. Circulating levels of eosinophils and basophils were unchanged; however, a 10-fold increase in monocytes was observed in patients treated at the highest doses. There was also a small increase in CD3+ lymphocytes that was not dose dependent. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelet count remained near baseline throughout the period of rhG-CSF administration. These findings demonstrate that rhG-CSF is a potent stimulus for normal neutrophil proliferation and maturation.
objective was to investigate the safety of recombinant human
granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) for the treatment of
very low birthweight infants (VLBW) with sepsis and relative
neutropenia, specifically with regard to worsening of respiratory
distress and thrombocytopenia and all cause mortality. Secondary
objectives were to evaluate duration of ventilation, intensive care,
and antibiotic use as markers of efficacy.
(⩽ 28 days) in intensive care, with birth weights of 500-1500 g,
absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of ⩽ 5 × 109/l, and
clinical evidence of sepsis, were randomly assigned to receive either
rhG-CSF (10 µg/kg/day) administered intravenously (n = 13), or
placebo (n = 15) for a maximum of 14 days, in addition to standard
treatment and antibiotics. All adverse events, oxygenation index,
incidence of thrombocytopenia, all cause mortality, duration of
ventilation, intensive care and antibiotic treatment, and ANC recovery
were compared between the two groups.
and oxygenation index were not increased by, and thrombocytopenia was
not attributable to, treatment with rhG-CSF. At 6 and 12 months
postmenstrual age, there were significantly fewer deaths in the group
receiving rhG-CSF (1/13 v 7/15;
p ⩽ 0.038). There was a non-significant trend towards a reduction in duration of ventilation, intensive care, and antibiotic use in the
rhG-CSF group. There was a significantly more rapid increase in ANC in
the rhG-CSF treated babies (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS—In a small
randomised placebo controlled trial in a highly selected group of
neonates, adjuvant treatment with rhG-CSF increased ANC rapidly, and no
treatment related adverse events were identified. Mortality at 6 and 12 months postmenstrual age was significantly lower in the treatment
group. A large trial investigating efficacy in a similar group of
neonates is warranted.
Sixty-three patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer were randomized to receive either cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin and etoposide (CODE) alone or CODE plus recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF). rhG-CSF administration in support of CODE chemotherapy resulted in increased mean total received dose intensity for all drugs (P = 0.03) with a significant improvement in survival (P = 0.004).
Neonatal alloimmune neutropenia (NAN) is an uncommon disease of the newborn provoked by the maternal production of neutrophil-specific alloantibodies, whereby neutrophil IgG antibodies cross the placenta and induce the destruction of fetal neutrophils. Affected newborns are usually identified by the occurrence of bacterial infections. The most frequent antigens involved in NAN are the human neutrophil antigen-1a (HNA-1a), HNA-1b, and HNA-2a. We report a neonate who was delivered at 36 weeks and had a severe neutropenia but who responded well to recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF). Anti-HNA-1a antibody was identified by mixed passive hemagglutination assay in both the sera of the baby and the mother. The baby had HNA-1a and HNA-1b but the mother had only HNA-1b on granulocytes. This is the first Korean report of NAN in which the specificity of the causative antibody was identified.
Infant, Newborn; Neutropenia; neutrophil-specific antigen NA1, human; Antibodies
In a pilot study recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) was administered to 12 neutropenic preterm infants to determine if neonatal neutropenia is secondary to decreased endogenous G-CSF production. Respiratory variables were monitored because of the possible link between inflammatory cells and hyaline membrane disease. All infants showed increased neutrophil counts. The only possible side effect observed was an exacerbation of thrombocytopenia.
Seventy-one patients with poor-prognosis breast cancer were enrolled after informed consent in a multicentre randomized study to evaluate the use of selected peripheral blood CD34+ cells to support haematopoietic recovery following high-dose chemotherapy. Patients who responded to conventional chemotherapy were mobilized with chemotherapy (mainly high-dose cyclophosphamide) and/or recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF). Patients who reached the threshold of 20 CD34+ cells per microl of peripheral blood underwent apheresis and were randomized at that time to receive either unmanipulated mobilized blood cells or selected CD34+ cells. For patients in the study arm, CD34+ cells were selected from aphereses using the Isolex300 device. Fifteen patients failed to mobilize peripheral blood progenitors and nine other patients were excluded for various reasons. Forty-seven eligible patients were randomized into two comparable groups. CD34+ cells were selected from aphereses in the study group. Haematopoietic recovery occurred at similar times in both groups. No side-effect related to the infusion of selected cells was observed. The frequency of epithelial tumour cells in aphereses was low (8 out of 42 evaluated patients), as determined by immunocytochemistry. We conclude that selected CD34+ cells safely support haematopoietic recovery following high-dose chemotherapy in patients with poor-prognosis breast cancer.
Twelve patients with advanced small cell carcinoma of the bronchus were treated by continuous infusion of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) at the following dose levels: 1 microgram, 5 micrograms, 10 micrograms, 20 micrograms and 40 micrograms kg-1 day-1 for 5 days. No toxicities resulted from the treatment and in all 12 patients the number of peripheral neutrophils increased rapidly to a maximum of 100 x 10(9) l-1 at 10 micrograms kg-1 day-1. The neutrophils were shown to be functionally normal in tests of their mobility and bactericidal activity. During the phase II part of the study the patients were treated by a combination of intravenous adriamycin 50 mg m-2, ifosfamide 5 g m-2 by i.v. infusion with mesna 8 g m-2 on day 1, and etoposide 120 mg m-2 on days 1, 2 and 3 also intravenously. The chemotherapy regime was repeated every 3 weeks. RhG-CSF was given to each patient for 14 days on alternate cycles of chemotherapy and reduced the period of absolute neutropenia considerably (median of 80%), with a return to normal, or above normal, neutrophil counts within 2 weeks after day 1 of chemotherapy. Six severe infective episodes were observed during the cycles of chemotherapy which did not include rhG-CSF, while no infective episodes occurred when patients were treated with rhG-CSF. These results demonstrate the utility of rhG-CSF in restoring functional neutrophils to patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy.
The differentiation and maturation of hematopoietic progenitor cells are regulated by certain growth factors. Several of these glycoproteins have been characterized, and their amino acid sequences have been delineated. Modern DNA technology provides sufficient quantities of these hormones for testing in clinical trials. Erythropoietin (EPO) has been shown to increase the hemoglobin level and hematocrit in patients with end-stage renal disease. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF) can increase the numbers of neutrophils and monocytes, in a dose-dependent fashion. The function of granulocytes and monocytes is also enhanced. Clinical studies of the toxicity and activity of G-CSF and GM-CSF have been conducted in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and neutropenia due to cancer and chemotherapy. In almost all patients the neutrophil count increased within 24 hours after the start of treatment. Side effects of G-CSF and GM-CSF are infrequent and usually mild. Combinations of CSFs may be even more effective.
Biopharmaceutical drugs are mainly recombinant proteins produced by biotechnological tools. The patents of many biopharmaceuticals have expired, and biosimilars are thus currently being developed. Human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (hG-CSF) is a hematopoietic cytokine that acts on cells of the neutrophil lineage causing proliferation and differentiation of committed precursor cells and activation of mature neutrophils. Recombinant hG-CSF has been produced in genetically engineered Escherichia coli (Filgrastim) and successfully used to treat cancer patients suffering from chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Filgrastim is a 175 amino acid protein, containing an extra N-terminal methionine, which is needed for expression in E. coli. Here we describe a simple and low-cost process that is amenable to scaling-up for the production and purification of homogeneous and active recombinant hG-CSF expressed in E. coli cells.
Here we describe cloning of the human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor coding DNA sequence, protein expression in E. coli BL21(DE3) host cells in the absence of isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction, efficient isolation and solubilization of inclusion bodies by a multi-step washing procedure, and a purification protocol using a single cationic exchange column. Characterization of homogeneous rhG-CSF by size exclusion and reverse phase chromatography showed similar yields to the standard. The immunoassay and N-terminal sequencing confirmed the identity of rhG-CSF. The biological activity assay, in vivo, showed an equivalent biological effect (109.4%) to the standard reference rhG-CSF. The homogeneous rhG-CSF protein yield was 3.2 mg of bioactive protein per liter of cell culture.
The recombinant protein expression in the absence of IPTG induction is advantageous since cost is reduced, and the protein purification protocol using a single chromatographic step should reduce cost even further for large scale production. The physicochemical, immunological and biological analyses showed that this protocol can be useful to develop therapeutic bioproducts. In summary, the combination of different experimental strategies presented here allowed an efficient and cost-effective protocol for rhG-CSF production. These data may be of interest to biopharmaceutical companies interested in developing biosimilars and healthcare community.
Prophylaxis with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) reduces the severity of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Biosimilar G-CSF is now approved for use, based on comparable efficacy, safety and quality with the originator product.
We conducted a retrospective review of patients’ charts following the switch from originator G-CSF (Neupogen®) to biosimilar G-CSF (Zarzio®/Filgrastim Hexal®) in a large community oncology practice. A total of 77 consecutive patients with cancer who received biosimilar G-CSF were reviewed, as were 25 patients who received originator G-CSF at the same centre.
The median age of patients in the biosimilar G-CSF cohort was 67 years (range 20−83). In this cohort 48% had chemotherapy with a febrile neutropenia risk of >20%. Biosimilar G-CSF was given as primary prophylaxis in 52% and as secondary prophylaxis in 48% of patients. Age and febrile neutropenia in medical history or in previous chemotherapy were factors that triggered the use of G-CSF in patients with a febrile neutropenia risk of <20%. One patient developed febrile neutropenia. Neutropenia led to chemotherapy dose reductions in five patients (6.5%) and discontinuation in two patients (2.5%). No unexpected safety findings were observed. Patient characteristics were generally similar in the originator G-CSF cohort. Only 24% of patients had a febrile neutropenia risk >20% and 36% received primary prophylactic G-CSF. One patient developed febrile neutropenia. Neutropenia led to chemotherapy dose reductions in two patients (8%) and discontinuation in two patients (8%).
Biosimilar G-CSF was effective and prevented dose reductions/discontinuation in the majority of patients. Biosimilar G-CSF was considered clinically comparable to its reference product.
biosimilars; chemotherapy; granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; neutropenia
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is effective in accelerating neutrophil recovery after intensive chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the optimal G-CSF dosage for patients with AML has not been determined. To our knowledge, G-CSF dosages have not been compared in a randomized AML study.
Patients enrolled on the St. Jude AML97 protocol who remained on study after window therapy were eligible to participate. The effect of the dosage of G-CSF given after induction chemotherapy courses 1 and 2 was analyzed in 46 patients randomly assigned in a double-blinded manner to receive 5 or 10 μg/kg/day of G-CSF. The number of days of G-CSF treatment, neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count < 0.5 × 109/L), and hospitalization; the number of episodes of febrile neutropenia, grade 2-4 infection, and antimicrobial therapy; transfusion requirements; the cost of supportive care; and survival were compared between the two study arms.
We found no statistically significant difference between the two arms in any of the endpoints measured.
The higher G-CSF dosage (10 μg/kg/day) offers no greater benefit than the lower dosage (5 μg/kg/day) in patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy for AML.
acute myeloid leukemia; granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; dosage; children; randomized trial
Febrile neutropenia (FN) occurs following myelosuppressive chemotherapy and is associated with morbidity, mortality, costs, and chemotherapy reductions and delays. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSFs) stimulate neutrophil production and may reduce FN incidence when given prophylactically following chemotherapy.
A systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the effectiveness of G-CSFs (pegfilgrastim, filgrastim or lenograstim) in reducing FN incidence in adults undergoing chemotherapy for solid tumours or lymphoma. G-CSFs were compared with no primary G-CSF prophylaxis and with one another. Nine databases were searched in December 2009. Meta-analysis used a random effects model due to heterogeneity.
Twenty studies compared primary G-CSF prophylaxis with no primary G-CSF prophylaxis: five studies of pegfilgrastim; ten of filgrastim; and five of lenograstim. All three G-CSFs significantly reduced FN incidence, with relative risks of 0.30 (95% CI: 0.14 to 0.65) for pegfilgrastim, 0.57 (95% CI: 0.48 to 0.69) for filgrastim, and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.44 to 0.88) for lenograstim. Overall, the relative risk of FN for any primary G-CSF prophylaxis versus no primary G-CSF prophylaxis was 0.51 (95% CI: 0.41 to 0.62). In terms of comparisons between different G-CSFs, five studies compared pegfilgrastim with filgrastim. FN incidence was significantly lower for pegfilgrastim than filgrastim, with a relative risk of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.44 to 0.98).
Primary prophylaxis with G-CSFs significantly reduces FN incidence in adults undergoing chemotherapy for solid tumours or lymphoma. Pegfilgrastim reduces FN incidence to a significantly greater extent than filgrastim.
Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) regulates survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursors, Recombinant G-CSF has been used for the treatment of congenital and therapy-induced neutropenia and stem cell mobilization. Due to its intrinsic instability, recombinant G-CSF needs to be excessively and/or frequently administered to patients in order to maintain a plasma concentration high enough to achieve therapeutic effects. Therefore, there is a need for the development of G-CSF derivatives that are more stable and active in vivo.
Using site-direct mutagenesis and recombinant DNA technology, a structurally modified derivative of human G-CSF termed G-CSFa was obtained. G-CSFa contains alanine 17 (instead of cysteine 17 as in wild-type G-CSF) as well as four additional amino acids including methionine, arginine, glycine, and serine at the amino-terminus. Purified recombinant G-CSFa was tested for its in vitro activity using cell-based assays and in vivo activity using both murine and primate animal models.
In vitro studies demonstrated that G-CSFa, expressed in and purified from E. coli, induced a much higher proliferation rate than that of wild-type G-CSF at the same concentrations. In vivo studies showed that G-CSFa significantly increased the number of peripheral blood leukocytes in cesium-137 irradiated mice or monkeys with neutropenia after administration of clyclophosphamide. In addition, G-CSFa increased neutrophil counts to a higher level in monkeys with a concomitant slower declining rate than that of G-CSF, indicating a longer half-life of G-CSFa. Bone marrow smear analysis also confirmed that G-CSFa was more potent than G-CSF in the induction of granulopoiesis in bone marrows of myelo-suppressed monkeys.
G-CSFa, a structurally modified form of G-CSF, is more potent in stimulating proliferation and differentiation of myeloid cells of the granulocytic lineage than the wild-type counterpart both in vitro and in vivo. G-CSFa can be explored for the development of a new generation of recombinant therapeutic drug for leukopenia.
Cytokine regulation of prethymic T-lymphoid progenitor-cell proliferation and/or
differentiation has not been well-defined, although much is known of cytokine
regulation of hemopoietic stem- and progenitor-cell development. Here we use a
recently identified hemopoietic growth factor, stem-cell factor (SCF) (a form of the c-kit
ligand), and a transplant model of thymocyte regeneration to assess the effect of SCF on
the in vivo generation of prethymic, thymocyte progenitor-cell activity. We show that
recombinant rat SCF (rrSCF164 administered to weanling rats selectively induces an
increase in thymocyte progenitor activity in the spleens of treated rats as compared to
rats treated with vehicle, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated rat albumin, or
recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF). These data
demonstrate that administration of SCF in vivo affects extrathymic-origin thymocyte
regenerating cells and may influence, directly or indirectly, early prethymic stages of T-cell
lymphopoiesis in addition to its known effect on early stages of myelopoiesis and
Stem-cell factor; thymocytopoiesi; thymus; c-kitligand; cytokines
Cyclic Neutropenia (CN) is characterized by recurrent infections, fever, oral ulcerations, and severe periodontitis as result of the reduced host defences. The previous studies have established the effectiveness of recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) to increase the number and the function of neutrophils in the peripheral blood in this disease. In a 20-year-old Caucasian female with a diagnosis of cyclic neutropenia, oral clinical examination revealed multiple painful ulcerations of the oral mucosa, poor oral hygiene conditions, marginal gingivitis, and moderate periodontitis. The patient received a treatment with G-CSF (Pegfilgrastim, 6 mg/month) in order to improve her immunological status. Once a month nonsurgical periodontal treatment was carefully performed when absolute neutrophil count (ANC)
was ≥500/μL. The treatment with G-CSF resulted in a rapid
increase of circulating neutrophils that, despite its short
duration, leaded to a reduction in infection related events and
the resolution of the multiple oral ulcerations. The disappearance
of oral pain allowed an efficacy nonsurgical treatment and a
normal tooth brushing that determined a reduction of probing depth
(PD ≤ 4 mm) and an improvement of the oral hygiene conditions recorded at 6-month follow-up.
Production of colony-stimulating factor (CSF) was examined in three patients with lung cancer associated with neutrophilia. All three patients presented a marked increase in neutrophil count (26,000-39,000 microliters-1) that continued at least for 3 weeks and rapidly disappeared after surgical removal of the tumours. Culture media (CM) incubated with the excised tumour tissues stimulated the colony formation of bone marrow myeloid progenitor cells in vitro. Northern blot analysis of poly(A)+ RNA from the tumour tissues revealed a constitutive expression of granulocyte (G), macrophage (M), and granulocyte-macrophage (GM) CSF genes in all tumours. Immunoassay specific for these CSFs revealed that G- and M-CSF immunoreactivity was detected in all CM and GM-CSF protein in two out of three CM. The plasma CSF levels also increased before operation and decreased to normal or near-normal range after operation. In contrast, tumour cell CM obtained from two lung cancer patients without leucocytosis neither stimulated haematopoietic colony formation nor contained immunoreactive CSFs. These results indicated that the neutrophilia found in the three patients was probably caused by constitutive production of multiple CSFs by lung cancer cells.
Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) are proteins that play normal roles in human hematopoietic physiology. Many of these factors have been cloned and sequences. This has led to recombinant DNA technology that now allows for production of large quantities of pharmacologically pure compounds. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) are two such compounds that have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for human use in specific medical circumstances. This article summarizes the experience of one institution in using these two CSFs and adds brief commentary on four other CSFs that are expected to come to general use in the near future--interleukin-1, interleukin-3, interleukin-6, and erythropoietin. Both G-CSF and GM-CSF are effective in protecting patients from the leukotoxic effects of cancer chemotherapy, but GM-CSF appears to have a comparatively narrow "dosing window," wherein the agent is effective and tolerable. Future studies should address combining these agents with platelet protective compounds to improve patient safety.