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1.  Mutations in Topoisomerase Genes of Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Salmonellae in Hong Kong 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2003;47(11):3567-3573.
A total of 88 salmonella isolates (72 clinical isolates for which the ciprofloxacin MIC was >0.06 μg/ml, 15 isolates for which the ciprofloxacin MIC was ≤0.06 μg/ml, and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium ATCC 13311) were studied for the presence of genetic alterations in four quinolone resistance genes, gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE, by multiplex PCR amplimer conformation analysis. The genetic alterations were confirmed by direct nucleotide sequencing. A considerable number of strains had a mutation in parC, the first to be reported in salmonellae. Seven of the isolates sensitive to 0.06 μg of ciprofloxacin per ml had a novel mutation at codon 57 of parC (Tyr57→Ser) which was also found in 29 isolates for which ciprofloxacin MICs were >0.06 μg/ml. Thirty-two isolates had a single gyrA mutation (Ser83→Phe, Ser83→Tyr, Asp87→Asn, Asp87→Tyr, or Asp87→Gly), 34 had both a gyrA mutation and a parC mutation (29 isolates with a parC mutation of Tyr57→Ser and 5 isolates with a parC mutation of Ser80→Arg). Six isolates which were isolated recently (from 1998 to 2001) were resistant to 4 μg of ciprofloxacin per ml. Two of these isolates had double gyrA mutations (Ser83→Phe and Asp87→Asn) and a parC mutation (Ser80→Arg) (MICs, 8 to 32 μg/ml), and four of these isolates had double gyrA mutations (Ser83→Phe and Asp87→Gly), one parC mutation (Ser80→Arg), and one parE mutation (Ser458→Pro) (MICs, 16 to 64 μg/ml). All six of these isolates and those with a Ser80→Arg parC mutation were S. enterica serotype Typhimurium. One S. enterica serotype Typhi isolate harbored a single gyrA mutation (Ser83→Phe), and an S. enterica serotype Paratyphi A isolate harbored a gyrA mutation (Ser83→Tyr) and a parC mutation (Tyr57→Ser); both of these isolates had decreased susceptibilities to the fluoroquinolones. The MICs of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and sparfloxacin were in general the lowest of those of the six fluoroquinolones tested. Isolates with a single gyrA mutation were less resistant to fluoroquinolones than those with an additional parC mutation (Tyr57→Ser or Ser80→Arg), while those with double gyrA mutations were more resistant.
PMCID: PMC253778  PMID: 14576119
2.  Type II Topoisomerase Mutations in Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Clinical Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated in 1998 and 1999: Role of Target Enzyme in Mechanism of Fluoroquinolone Resistance 
The major mechanism of resistance to fluoroquinolones for Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the modification of type II topoisomerases (DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV). We examined the mutations in quinolone-resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes of recent clinical isolates. There were 150 isolates with reduced susceptibilities to levofloxacin and 127 with reduced susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin among 513 isolates collected during 1998 and 1999 in Japan. Sequencing results predicted replacement of an amino acid in the QRDR of DNA gyrase (GyrA or GyrB) for 124 of the 150 strains (82.7%); among these, 89 isolates possessed mutations in parC or parE which lead to amino acid changes. Substitutions of both Ile for Thr-83 in GyrA and Leu for Ser-87 in ParC were the principal changes, being detected in 48 strains. These replacements were obviously associated with reduced susceptibilities to levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and sparfloxacin; however, sitafloxacin showed high activity against isolates with these replacements. We purified GyrA (The-83 to Ile) and ParC (Ser-87 to Leu) by site-directed mutagenesis and compared the inhibitory activities of the fluoroquinolones. Sitafloxacin showed the most potent inhibitory activities against both altered topoisomerases among the fluoroquinolones tested. These results indicated that, compared with other available quinolones, sitafloxacin maintained higher activity against recent clinical isolates with multiple mutations in gyrA and parC, which can be explained by the high inhibitory activities of sitafloxacin against both mutated enzymes.
PMCID: PMC90640  PMID: 11451683
3.  DNA Gyrase and Topoisomerase IV Are Dual Targets of Clinafloxacin Action in Streptococcus pneumoniae 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1998;42(11):2810-2816.
We examined the response of Streptococcus pneumoniae 7785 to clinafloxacin, a novel C-8-substituted fluoroquinolone which is being developed as an antipneumococcal agent. Clinafloxacin was highly active against S. pneumoniae 7785 (MIC, 0.125 μg/ml), and neither gyrA nor parC quinolone resistance mutations alone had much effect on this activity. A combination of both mutations was needed to register resistance, suggesting that both gyrase and topoisomerase IV are clinafloxacin targets in vivo. The sparfloxacin and ciprofloxacin MICs for the parC-gyrA mutants were 16 to 32 and 32 to 64 μg/ml, respectively, but the clinafloxacin MIC was 1 μg/ml, i.e., within clinafloxacin levels achievable in human serum. S. pneumoniae 7785 mutants could be selected stepwise with clinafloxacin at a low frequency, yielding first-, second-, third-, and fourth-step mutants for which clinafloxacin MICs were 0.25, 1, 6, and 32 to 64 μg/ml, respectively. Thus, high-level resistance to clinafloxacin required four steps. Characterization of the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the gyrA, parC, gyrB, and parE genes by PCR, HinfI restriction fragment length polymorphism, and DNA sequence analysis revealed an invariant resistance pathway involving sequential mutations in gyrA or gyrB, in parC, in gyrA, and finally in parC or parE. No evidence was found for other resistance mechanisms. The gyrA mutations in first- and third-step mutants altered GyrA hot spots Ser-83 to Phe or Tyr (Escherichia coli coordinates) and Glu-87 to Gln or Lys; second- and fourth-step parC mutations changed equivalent hot spots Ser-79 to Phe or Tyr and Asp-83 to Ala. gyrB and parE changes produced novel alterations of GyrB Glu-474 to Lys and of Pro-454 to Ser in the ParE PLRGK motif. Difficulty in selecting first-step gyrase mutants (isolated with 0.125 [but not 0.25] μg of clinafloxacin per ml at a frequency of 5.0 × 10−10 to 8.5 × 10−10) accompanied by the small (twofold) MIC increase suggested only a modest drug preference for gyrase. Given the susceptibility of defined gyrA or parC mutants, the results suggested that clinafloxacin displays comparable if unequal targeting of gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Dual targeting and the intrinsic potency of clinafloxacin against S. pneumoniae and its first- and second-step mutants are desirable features in limiting the emergence of bacterial resistance.
PMCID: PMC105948  PMID: 9797208
4.  Comparative Studies of Mutations in Animal Isolates and Experimental In Vitro- and In Vivo-Selected Mutants of Salmonella spp. Suggest a Counterselection of Highly Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Strains in the Field 
The occurrence of mutations in the genes coding for gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and topoisomerase IV (parE and parC) of Salmonella typhimurium experimental mutants selected in vitro and in vivo and of 138 nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella field isolates was investigated. The sequencing of the quinolone resistance-determining region of these genes in highly fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants (MICs of 4 to 16 μg/ml) revealed the presence of gyrA mutations at codons corresponding to Gly-81 or Ser-83, some of which were associated with a mutation at Asp-87. No mutations were found in the gyrB, parC, and parE genes. An assay combining allele-specific PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism was developed to rapidly screen mutations at codons 81, 83, and 87 of gyrA. The MICs of ciprofloxacin for the field isolates reached only 2 μg/ml, versus 16 μg/ml for some in vitro-selected mutants. The field isolates, like the mutants selected in vivo, had only a single gyrA mutation at codon 83 or 87. Single gyrA mutations were also found in highly resistant in vitro-selected mutants (MIC of ciprofloxacin, 8 μg/ml), which indicates that mechanisms other than the unique modification of the intracellular targets could participate in fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella spp. A comparison of experimental mutants selected in vitro, field strains, and mutants selected in vivo suggests that highly fluoroquinolone-resistant strains are counterselected in field conditions in the absence of selective pressure.
PMCID: PMC89435  PMID: 10471553
5.  Activities of Newer Fluoroquinolones against Streptococcus pneumoniae Clinical Isolates Including Those with Mutations in the gyrA, parC, and parE Loci 
Resistance to fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics in Streptococcus pneumoniae has been attributed primarily to specific mutations in the genes for DNA gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and topoisomerase IV (parC and parE). Resistance to some FQs can result from a single mutation in one or more of the genes encoding these essential enzymes. A group of 160 clinical isolates of pneumococci was examined in this study, including 36 ofloxacin-resistant isolates (MICs, ≥8 μg/ml) recovered from patients in North America, France, and Belgium. The susceptibilities of all isolates to clinafloxacin, grepafloxacin, levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, and trovafloxacin were examined by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards reference broth microdilution and disk diffusion susceptibility testing methods. Among the ofloxacin-resistant strains, 32 of 36 were also categorized as resistant to levofloxacin, 35 were resistant to sparfloxacin, 29 were resistant to grepafloxacin, and 19 were resistant to trovafloxacin. In vitro susceptibility to clinafloxacin appeared to be least affected by resistance to the other FQs. Eight isolates with high- and low-level resistance to the newer FQs were selected for DNA sequence analysis of the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE. The DNA and the inferred amino acid sequences of the resistant strains were compared with the analogous sequences of reference strain S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 and FQ-susceptible laboratory strain R6. Reduced susceptibilities to grepafloxacin and sparfloxacin (MICs, 1 to 2 μg/ml) and trovafloxacin (MICs, 0.5 to 1 μg/ml) were associated with either a mutation in parC that led to a single amino acid substitution (Ser-79 to Phe or Tyr) or double mutations that involved the genes for both GyrA (Ser-81 to Phe) and ParE (Asp-435 to Asn). High-level resistance to all of the compounds except clinafloxacin was associated with two or more amino acid substitutions involving both GyrA (Ser-81 to Phe) and ParC (Ser-79 to Phe or Ser-80 to Pro and Asp-83 to Tyr). No mutations were observed in the gyrB sequences of resistant strains. These data indicate that mutations in pneumococcal gyrA, parC, and parE genes all contribute to decreased susceptibility to the newer FQs, and genetic analysis of the QRDR of a single gene, either gyrA or parC, is not predictive of pneumococcal resistance to these agents.
PMCID: PMC89072  PMID: 9925527
6.  ParC and GyrA May Be Interchangeable Initial Targets of Some Fluoroquinolones in Streptococcus pneumoniae 
To evaluate the role of known topoisomerase IV and gyrase mutations in the fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae, we transformed susceptible strain R6 with PCR-generated fragments encompassing the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of parC or gyrA from different recently characterized FQ-resistant mutants. Considering the MICs of FQs and the GyrA and/or ParC mutations of the individual transformants, we found three levels of resistance. The first level was obtained when a single target, ParC or GyrA, depending on the FQ, was modified. An additional mutation(s) in a second target, GyrA or ParC, led to the second level. The highest increases in resistance levels were seen for Bay y3118 and moxifloxacin with the transformant harboring a double mutation in both ParC and GyrA. When a single modified target was considered, only the ParC mutation(s) led to an increase in the MICs of pefloxacin and trovafloxacin. In contrast, the GyrA or ParC mutation(s) could lead to increases in the MICs of ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin, grepafloxacin, Bay y3118, and moxifloxacin. These results suggest that the preferential target of trovafloxacin and pefloxacin is ParC, whereas either ParC or GyrA may both be initial targets for the remaining FQs tested. The contribution of the ParC and GyrA mutations to efflux-mediated FQ resistance was also examined. Active efflux was responsible for two- to fourfold increases in the MICs of ciprofloxacin for the transformants, regardless of the initial FQ resistance levels of the recipients.
PMCID: PMC89068  PMID: 9925523
7.  Alterations in DNA Gyrase and Topoisomerase IV in Resistant Mutants of Clostridium perfringens Found after In Vitro Treatment with Fluoroquinolones 
To compare mutations in the DNA gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and topoisomerase IV (parC and parE) genes of Clostridium perfringens, which are associated with in vitro exposure to fluoroquinolones, resistant mutants were selected from eight strains by serial passage in the presence of increasing concentrations of norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, or trovafloxacin. The nucleotide sequences of the entire gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes of 42 mutants were determined. DNA gyrase was the primary target for each fluoroquinolone, and topoisomerase IV was the secondary target. Most mutations appeared in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of gyrA (resulting in changes of Asp-87 to Tyr or Gly-81 to Cys) and parC (resulting in changes of Asp-93 or Asp-88 to Tyr or Ser-89 to Ile); only two mutations were found in gyrB, and only two mutations were found in parE. More mutants with multiple gyrA and parC mutations were produced with gatifloxacin than with the other fluoroquinolones tested. Allelic diversity was observed among the resistant mutants, for which the drug MICs increased 2- to 256-fold. Both the structures of the drugs and their concentrations influenced the selection of mutants.
PMCID: PMC547304  PMID: 15673722
8.  Genetic evidence for a role of parC mutations in development of high-level fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli. 
Fifteen strains of Escherichia coli with MICs of ciprofloxacin (CIP) between 0.015 and 256 micrograms/ml were examined for the presence of mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of the gyrA gene and in an analogous region of the parC gene. No mutation was found in a susceptible isolate (MIC of CIP, 0.015 microgram/ml). Four moderately resistant strains (MIC of CIP 0.06 to 4 micrograms/ml) carried one gyrA mutation affecting serine 83, but in only one strain was an additional parC mutation (Gly-78 to Asp) detected. All ten highly resistant strains examined (MIC of CIP, > 4 micrograms/ml) carried two gyrA mutations affecting residues serine 83 and aspartate 87, and at least one parC mutation. These parC mutations included alterations of serine 80 to arginine or isoleucine and glutamate 84 to glycine or lysine. The parC+ and two mutant alleles (parCI-80 and parCI-80,G-84) were inserted into the mobilizable vector pBP507. Transfer of a plasmid-coded parC+ allele into parC+ strains did not alter the susceptibilities towards ciprofloxacin or nalidixic acid, while a significant increase in susceptibility was detectable for parC mutants. This increase, however, did not restore wild-type susceptibility, whereas transfer of a plasmid-coded gyrA+ allele alone or in combination with parC+ did. These data are in agreement with the view that topoisomerase IV is a secondary, less sensitive target for quinolone action in Escherichia coli and that the development of high-level fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli requires at least one parC mutation in addition to the gyrA mutation(s).
PMCID: PMC163223  PMID: 8849244
9.  Involvement of topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase as ciprofloxacin targets in Streptococcus pneumoniae. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1996;40(10):2321-2326.
Ciprofloxacin-resistant mutants of Streptococcus pneumoniae 7785 were generated by stepwise selection at increasing drug concentrations. Sequence analysis of PCR products from the strains was used to examine the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the GyrA and GyrB proteins of DNA gyrase and the analogous regions of the ParC and ParE subunits of DNA topoisomerase IV. First-step mutants exhibiting low-level resistance had no detectable changes in their topoisomerase quinolone resistance-determining regions, suggesting altered permeation or another novel resistance mechanism. Nine of 10 second-step mutants exhibited an alteration in ParC at Ser-79 to Tyr or Phe or at Ala-84 to Thr. Third- and fourth-step mutants displaying high-level ciprofloxacin resistance were found to have, in addition to the ParC alteration, a change in GyrA at residues equivalent to Escherichia coli GyrA resistance hot spots Ser-83 and Asp-87 or in GyrB at Asp-435 to Asn, equivalent to E. coli Asp-426, part of a highly conserved EGDSA motif in GyrB. No ParE changes were observed. Complementary analysis of two S. pneumoniae clinical isolates displaying low-level resistance to ciprofloxacin revealed a ParC change at Ser-79 to Phe or Arg-95 to Cys but no changes in GyrA, GyrB, or ParE. A highly resistant isolate, in addition to a ParC mutation, had a GyrA alteration at the residue equivalent to E. coli Asp-87. Thus, in both laboratory strains and clinical isolates, ParC mutations preceded those in GyrA, suggesting that topoisomerase IV is a primary topoisomerase target and gyrase is a secondary target for ciprofloxacin in S. pneumoniae.
PMCID: PMC163528  PMID: 8891138
10.  Type II Topoisomerase Quinolone Resistance-Determining Regions of Aeromonas caviae, A. hydrophila, and A. sobria Complexes and Mutations Associated with Quinolone Resistance 
Most Aeromonas strains isolated from two European rivers were previously found to be resistant to nalidixic acid. In order to elucidate the mechanism of this resistance, 20 strains of Aeromonas caviae (n = 10), A. hydrophila (n = 5), and A. sobria (n = 5) complexes, including 3 reference strains and 17 environmental isolates, were investigated. Fragments of the gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes encompassing the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Results obtained for the six sensitive strains showed that the GyrA, GyrB, ParC, and ParE QRDR fragments of Aeromonas spp. were highly conserved (≥96.1% identity), despite some genetic polymorphism; they were most closely related to those of Vibrio spp., Pseudomonas spp., and members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (72.4 to 97.1% homology). All 14 environmental resistant strains carried a point mutation in the GyrA QRDR at codon 83, leading to the substitution Ser-83→Ile (10 strains) or Ser-83→Arg. In addition, seven strains harbored a mutation in the ParC QRDR either at position 80 (five strains), generating a Ser-80→Ile (three strains) or Ser-80→Arg change, or at position 84, yielding a Glu-84→Lys modification. No amino acid alterations were discovered in the GyrB and ParE QRDRs. Double gyrA-parC missense mutations were associated with higher levels of quinolone resistance compared with the levels associated with single gyrA mutations. The most resistant strains probably had an additional mechanism(s) of resistance, such as decreased accumulation of the drugs. Our data suggest that, in mesophilic Aeromonas spp., as in other gram-negative bacteria, gyrase and topoisomerase IV are the primary and secondary targets for quinolones, respectively.
PMCID: PMC127024  PMID: 11796341
11.  Novel Ser79Leu and Ser81Ile Substitutions in the Quinolone Resistance-Determining Regions of ParC Topoisomerase IV and GyrA DNA Gyrase Subunits from Recent Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Clinical Isolates 
Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to fluoroquinolones is caused predominantly by amino acid substitutions at positions Ser79 of ParC and Ser81 of GyrA to either Phe or Tyr encoded in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the parC topoisomerase IV and gyrA DNA gyrase genes. Analysis of highly resistant clinical isolates identified novel second-step substitutions, Ser79Leu (ParC) and Ser81Ile (GyrA). To determine contributions of these new mutations to fluoroquinolone resistance either alone or in combination with other Ser79/81 alleles, the substitutions Ser79Leu/Phe/Tyr in ParC and Ser81Ile/Phe/Tyr in GyrA were introduced into the R6 background, resulting in 15 isogenic strains. Their level of fluoroquinolone resistance was determined by susceptibility testing for ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, garenoxacin, and norfloxacin. Leu79 and Ile81 alone as well as 79/81Phe/Tyr substitutions did not contribute significantly to resistance, with fluoroquinolone MICs increasing two- to fourfold compared to wild type for all agents tested. Fluoroquinolone MICs for double transformants ParC Ser79Phe/Tyr/Leu-GyrA Ser81Phe/Tyr were uniformly increased by 8- to 64-fold regardless of pairs of amino acid substitutions. However, combinations including Ile81 conferred two- to fourfold-higher levels of resistance than did combinations including any other Ser81 GyrA substitution, thus demonstrating the differential effects of diverse amino acid substitutions at particular hotspots on fluoroquinolone MICs.
PMCID: PMC1140505  PMID: 15917550
12.  DNA Gyrase and Topoisomerase IV Mutations Associated with Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Proteus mirabilis 
Mutations associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis were determined by genetic analysis of the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE. This study included the P. mirabilis type strain ATCC 29906 and 29 clinical isolates with reduced susceptibility (MIC, 0.5 to 2 μg/ml) or resistance (MIC, ≥4 μg/ml) to ciprofloxacin. Susceptibility profiles for ciprofloxacin, clinafloxacin, gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and trovafloxacin were correlated with amino acid changes in the QRDRs. Decreased susceptibility and resistance were associated with double mutations involving both gyrA (S83R or -I) and parC (S80R or -I). Among these double mutants, MICs of ciprofloxacin varied from 1 to 16 μg/ml, indicating that additional factors, such as drug efflux or porin changes, also contribute to the level of resistance. For ParE, a single conservative change of V364I was detected in seven strains. An unexpected result was the association of gyrB mutations with high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones in 12 of 20 ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates. Changes in GyrB included S464Y (six isolates), S464F (three isolates), and E466D (two isolates). A three-nucleotide insertion, resulting in an additional lysine residue between K455 and A456, was detected in gyrB of one strain. Unlike any other bacterial species analyzed to date, mutation of gyrB appears to be a frequent event in the acquisition of fluoroquinolone resistance among clinical isolates of P. mirabilis.
PMCID: PMC127365  PMID: 12121936
13.  Rapid Screening of Fluoroquinolone Resistance Determinants in Streptococcus pneumoniae by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Single-Strand Conformational Polymorphism 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2006;44(3):970-975.
A rapid method, using PCR-restriction fragment length and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), was applied to screen for mutations of the fluoroquinolone resistance determinants in Streptococcus pneumoniae. One hundred nonduplicate Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates with ciprofloxacin MICs of ≥4.0 μg/ml from the Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, years 2000 to 2003, were examined. For each isolate, PCR amplicons of quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes were digested with AluI, HinfI, Sau3AI, and MspI, respectively, and analyzed by SSCP. Each SSCP pattern was given a number, and each isolate obtained a four-digit code, e.g., 1111, that represented the SSCP profile. The SSCP patterns were correlated to mutations characterized from sequence analyses of PCR amplicons. The most common SSCP profile obtained was no. 5232 (40%), which included strains with two amino acid substitutions in the ParC (Lys-137-Asn) and ParE (Ile-460-Val) genes, followed by the SSCP profile 5223 (17%), which included strains with amino acid substitutions in the ParE (Ile-460-Val) gene only. Ten isolates (10%) with amino acid substitutions at GyrA and ParE (±ParC) genes were resistant to levofloxacin with a MIC of ≥16 μg/ml. Other SSCP profiles were unique in distinguishing the common amino acid substitutions in GyrA (Ser-81-Phe) and ParC (Lys-137-Asn, Ser-79-Phe plus Lys-137-Asn, Asp-83-Asn plus Lys-137-Asn, Ser-79-Phe, and Glu-96-Asp). SSCP analysis of restricted fragments generated patterns that were highly discriminative for mutations present in the QRDRs of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE. This method provides a database of high resolution profiles on these mutations and allows rapid screening for new mutations of the fluoroquinolone resistance genes.
PMCID: PMC1393157  PMID: 16517885
14.  Mutant Prevention Concentrations for Single-Step Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Mutants of Wild-Type, Efflux-Positive, or ParC or GyrA Mutation-Containing Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2004;48(10):3954-3958.
Three fluoroquinolone-susceptible and five fluoroquinolone-resistant (two with ParC Ser79Phe mutations, one with a GyrA Ser81Phe mutation, and two that were efflux positive) Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were exposed to one, two, four, eight, and sixteen times the MICs of ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin. Mutational frequencies were calculated at each multiple of the MIC for which growth was observed. Mutant prevention concentrations (MPCs) and the multiple of the MIC at the MPC (MPMIC) were evaluated. All resulting mutants were sequenced for quinolone resistance-determining region changes in GyrA and ParC and were evaluated for reserpine-sensitive efflux. The MPC order was generally ciprofloxacin > levofloxacin > gatifloxacin > moxifloxacin > gemifloxacin. The MPMIC order varied depending on the genetic constitution of the original isolates from which the mutants were generated. For those mutants created from fluoroquinolone-susceptible isolates (those that had wild-type ParC and GyrA and were efflux negative), the MPMIC order was ciprofloxacin = moxifloxacin > gemifloxacin > levofloxacin > gatifloxacin. The MPMICs of each fluoroquinolone for mutants created from isolates with a ParC mutation (with wild-type GyrA and efflux negative) were similar. A similar occurrence was observed with the mutants created from the efflux-positive isolates (with wild-type ParC and GyrA). The MPMIC order for the mutants created from the isolate with a GyrA mutation (with wild-type ParC and efflux negative) was ciprofloxacin = gemifloxacin > levofloxacin = moxifloxacin > gatifloxacin. Gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin may be intrinsically more able to prevent the development of resistance by fluoroquinolone-susceptible isolates, isolates that are efflux positive, or isolates that carry a GyrA mutation. However, once a ParC mutation is present, the MPC increases dramatically for all fluoroquinolones.
PMCID: PMC521923  PMID: 15388458
15.  Sparfloxacin Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae: Involvement of Multiple Mutations in gyrA and parC Genes 
Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed among 150 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae 4 pneumococcal isolates with resistance to fluoroquinolones (MIC of ciprofloxacin, ≥32 μg/ml; MIC of sparfloxacin, ≥16 μg/ml). Gene amplification and sequencing analysis of gyrA and parC revealed nucleotide changes leading to amino acid substitutions in both GyrA and ParC of all four fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates. In the case of strains 182 and 674 for which sparfloxacin MICs were 16 and 64 μg/ml, respectively, nucleotide changes were detected at codon 81 in gyrA and codon 79 in parC; these changes led to an Ser→Phe substitution in GyrA and an Ser→Phe substitution in ParC. Strains 354 and 252, for which sparfloxacin MICs were 128 μg/ml, revealed multiple mutations in both gyrA and parC. These strains exhibited nucleotide changes at codon 85 leading to a Glu→Lys substitution in GyrA, in addition to Ser-79→Tyr and Lys-137→Asn substitutions in ParC. Moreover, strain 252 showed additional nucleotide changes at codon 93, which led to a Trp→Arg substitution in GyrA. These results suggest that sparfloxacin resistance could be due to the multiple mutations in GyrA and ParC. However, it is possible that other yet unidentified mutations may also be involved in the high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones in S. pneumoniae.
PMCID: PMC105774  PMID: 9736534
16.  Correlation of In Vitro Susceptibilities to Newer Quinolones of Naturally Occurring Quinolone-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae Strains with Changes in GyrA and ParC 
The in vitro activities of ciprofloxacin, trovafloxacin, moxifloxacin, and grepafloxacin against 174 strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated in Sydney, Australia, were determined. The strains included 84 quinolone-less-sensitive and -resistant N. gonorrhoeae (QRNG) strains for which ciprofloxacin MICs were in the range of 0.12 to 16 μg/ml. The QRNG included strains isolated from patients whose infections were acquired in a number of countries, mostly in Southeast Asia. The gyrA and parC quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of 18 selected QRNG strains were sequenced, and the amino acid mutations observed were related to the MICs obtained. The activities of moxifloxacin and grepafloxacin against QRNG were comparable to that of ciprofloxacin. Trovafloxacin was more active than the other quinolones against some but not all of the QRNG strains. Increments in ciprofloxacin resistance occurred in a step-wise manner with point mutations initiated in gyrA resulting in amino acid alterations Ser91-to-Phe, Ser91-to-Tyr, Asp95-to-Gly, and Asp95-to-Asn. Single gyrA changes correlated with ciprofloxacin MICs in the range 0.12 to 1 μg/ml. The Ser91 changes in GyrA were associated with higher MICs and further QRDR changes. QRNG strains for which ciprofloxacin MICs were greater than 1 μg/ml had both gyrA and parC QRDR point mutations. ParC alterations were seen in these isolates only in the presence of GyrA changes and comprised amino acid changes Asp86-to-Asn, Ser87-to-Asn, Ser87-to-Arg, Ser88-to-Pro, Glu91-to-Lys, and Glu91-to-Gln. QRNG strains for which MICs were in the higher ranges had double GyrA mutations, but again only with accompanying ParC alterations. Not only did the nature and combination of GyrA and ParC changes influence the incremental increases in ciprofloxacin MICs, but they seemingly also altered the differential activity of trovafloxacin. Our findings suggest that the newer quinolones of the type examined are unlikely to be useful replacements for ciprofloxacin in the treatment of gonorrhea, particularly where ciprofloxacin MICs are high or where resistance is widespread.
PMCID: PMC90365  PMID: 11181352
17.  Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae in United States since 1994-1995 
The in vitro activities of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin against a large collection of clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 4,650) obtained over a 5-year period, 1994-1995 through 1999-2000, were assessed as part of a longitudinal multicenter U.S. surveillance study of antimicrobial resistance. Three sampling periods were used during this investigation, the winter seasons of 1994-1995, 1997-1998, and 1999-2000; and 1,523, 1,596 and 1,531 isolates were collected during these three periods, respectively. The overall rank order of activity of the four fluoroquinolones examined in this study was moxifloxacin > gatifloxacin > levofloxacin = ciprofloxacin, in which moxifloxacin (MIC at which 90% of isolates are inhibited [MIC90], 0.25 μg/ml; modal MIC, 0.12 μg/ml) was twofold more active than gatifloxacin (MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml; modal MIC, 0.25 μg/ml), which in turn was fourfold more active than either levofloxacin (MIC90, 1 μg/ml; modal MIC, 1 μg/ml) or ciprofloxacin (MIC90, 2 μg/ml; modal MIC, 1 μg/ml). Changes in the in vitro activities of fluoroquinolones against S. pneumoniae strains in the United States over the 5-year period of the survey were assessed by comparing the MIC frequency distributions of the study drugs against the isolates obtained during the three sampling periods encompassing this investigation. These comparisons revealed no evidence of changes in the in vitro activities of the fluoroquinolones. In addition, the percentages of isolates in the three sampling periods for which MICs were above the resistance breakpoints were compared. Low percentages of resistant strains were detected, and there was no evidence of resistance rate changes over time. For example, by use of a ciprofloxacin MIC of ≥4 μg/ml to define resistance, the proportions of isolates from the three sampling periods for which MICs were at or above this breakpoint were 1.2, 1.6, and 1.4%, respectively. A total of 164 unique isolates (n = 58 from 1994-1995, 65 from 1997-1998, and 42 from 1999-2000) were examined for evidence of mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of the parC and the gyrA genes. Forty-nine isolates harbored at least one mutation in the QRDRs of one or both genes (1994-1995, n = 15; 1997-1998, n = 19; 1999-2000, n = 15). Among the 4,650 isolates of S. pneumoniae examined in the study, we estimated that 0.3% had mutations in both the parC and gyrA loci. The majority of mutations (67.3% of the mutations in 49 isolates with mutations) were amino acid substitutions in the parC locus only. Four isolates had a mutation in the gyrA locus only, and 12 isolates had mutations in both genes (8.2 and 24.5% of isolates with mutations, respectively). There was no significant difference in the number of isolates with parC and/or gyrA mutations detected during each study period. Finally, because of the magnitude of the study, we had reasonably large numbers of pneumococcal isolates with genotypically defined mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance and were thus able to determine the effects of specific resistance mutations on the activities of different fluoroquinolones. In general, isolates with mutations in parC only were resistant to ciprofloxacin but remained susceptible to levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin, whereas isolates with mutations in gyrA only and isolates with mutations in both parC and gyrA were resistant to all four fluoroquinolones tested.
PMCID: PMC127509  PMID: 11850248
18.  High Resolution Melting Analysis for Rapid Mutation Screening in Gyrase and Topoisomerase IV Genes in Quinolone-Resistant Salmonella enterica 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:718084.
The increased Salmonella resistance to quinolones and fluoroquinolones is a public health concern in the Southeast Asian region. The objective of this study is to develop a high resolution melt curve (HRM) assay to rapidly screen for mutations in quinolone-resistant determining region (QRDR) of gyrase and topoisomerase IV genes. DNA sequencing was performed on 62 Salmonella strains to identify mutations in the QRDR of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes. Mutations were detected in QRDR of gyrA (n = 52; S83F, S83Y, S83I, D87G, D87Y, and D87N) and parE (n = 1; M438I). Salmonella strains with mutations within QRDR of gyrA are generally more resistant to nalidixic acid (MIC 16 > 256 μg/mL). Mutations were uncommon within the QRDR of gyrB, parC, and parE genes. In the HRM assay, mutants can be distinguished from the wild-type strains based on the transition of melt curves, which is more prominent when the profiles are displayed in difference plot. In conclusion, HRM analysis allows for rapid screening for mutations at the QRDRs of gyrase and topoisomerase IV genes in Salmonella. This assay markedly reduced the sequencing effort involved in mutational studies of quinolone-resistance genes.
PMCID: PMC4209765  PMID: 25371903
19.  Characterization of the quinolone resistant determining regions in clinical isolates of pneumococci collected in Canada 
The objective of this study was to examine Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates collected from a longitudinal surveillance program in order to determine their susceptibility to currently used fluoroquinolones and of the frequency and type of mutations in the quinolone-resistant determining regions (QRDRs) of their parC and gyrA genes.
The Canadian Bacterial Surveillance Network has been collecting clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae from across Canada since 1988. Broth microdilution susceptibility testing was carried out according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. The QRDRs of the parC and gyrA genes were sequenced for all isolates with ciprofloxacin MIC ≥ 4 mg/L, and a large representative sample of isolates (N = 4,243) with MIC ≤ 2 mg/L.
A total of 4,798 out of 30,111 isolates collected from 1988, and 1993 to 2007 were studied. Of those isolates that were successfully sequenced, 184 out of 1,032 with mutations in parC only, 11 out of 30 with mutations in gyrA only, and 292 out of 298 with mutations in parC and gyrA were considered resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC ≥ 4 mg/L). The most common substitutions in the parC were at positions 137 (n = 722), 79 (n = 209), and 83 (n = 56), of which substitutions at positions 79 and 83 were associated with 4-fold increase in MIC to ciprofloxacin, whereas substitutions at position 137 had minimal effect on the ciprofloxacin MIC. A total of 400 out of 622 isolates with Lys-137 parC mutation belonged to serotypes 1, 12, 31, 7A, 9V, 9N and 9L, whereas only 49 out of 3064 isolates with no mutations belonged to these serotypes. Twenty-one out of 30 isolates with substitutions at position 81 of the gyrA gene had an increased MIC to ciprofloxacin. Finally, we found that isolates with mutations in both parC and gyrA were significantly associated with increased MIC to fluoroquinolones.
Not all mutations, most frequently Lys-137, found in the QRDRs of the parC gene of S. pneumoniae is associated with an increased MIC to fluoroquinolones. The high prevalence of Lys-137 appears to be due to its frequent occurrence in common serotypes.
PMCID: PMC2823643  PMID: 20082699
20.  Mechanisms of Resistance in Nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica Strains Exhibiting a Nonclassical Quinolone Resistance Phenotype▿  
Nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica strains with a nonclassical quinolone resistance phenotype were isolated from patients returning from Thailand or Malaysia to Finland. A total of 10 isolates of seven serovars were studied in detail, all of which had reduced susceptibility (MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/ml) to ciprofloxacin but were either susceptible or showed only low-level resistance (MIC ≤ 32 μg/ml) to nalidixic acid. Phenotypic characterization included susceptibility testing by the agar dilution method and investigation of efflux activity. Genotypic characterization included the screening of mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE by PCR and denaturing high-pressure liquid chromatography and the amplification of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, qnrD, aac(6′)-Ib-cr, and qepA by PCR. PMQR was confirmed by plasmid analysis, Southern hybridization, and plasmid transfer. No mutations in the QRDRs of gyrA, gyrB, parC, or parE were detected with the exception of a Thr57-Ser substitution within ParC seen in all but the S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strains. The qnrA and qnrS genes were the only PMQR determinants detected. Plasmids carrying qnr alleles were transferable in vitro, and the resistance phenotype was reproducible in Escherichia coli DH5α transformants. These data demonstrate the emergence of a highly mobile qnr genotype that, in the absence of mutation within topoisomerase genes, confers the nontypical quinolone resistance phenotype in S. enterica isolates. The qnr resistance mechanism enables bacteria to survive elevated quinolone concentrations, and therefore, strains carrying qnr alleles may be able to expand during fluoroquinolone treatment. This is of concern since nonclassical quinolone resistance is plasmid mediated and therefore mobilizable.
PMCID: PMC2737843  PMID: 19596880
21.  Contributions of individual mechanisms to fluoroquinolone resistance in 36 Escherichia coli strains isolated from humans and animals. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1996;40(10):2380-2386.
Twenty-eight human isolates of Escherichia coli from Argentina and Spain and eight veterinary isolates received from the Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Foods in the United Kingdom required 2 to > 128 micrograms of ciprofloxacin per ml for inhibition. Fragments of gyrA and parC encompassing the quinolone resistance-determining region were amplified by PCR, and the DNA sequences of the fragments were determined. All isolates contained a mutation in gyrA of a serine at position 83 (Ser83) to an Leu, and 26 isolates also contained a mutation of Asp87 to one of four amino acids: Asn (n = 14), Tyr (n = 6), Gly (n = 5), or His (n = 1). Twenty-four isolates contained a single mutation in parC, either a Ser80 to Ile (n = 17) or Arg (n = 2) or a Glu84 to Lys (n = 3). The role of a mutation in gyrB was investigated by introducing wild-type gyrB (pBP548) into all isolates; for three transformants MICs of ciprofloxacin were reduced; however, sequencing of PCR-derived fragments containing the gyrB quinolone resistance-determining region revealed no changes. The analogous region of parE was analyzed in 34 of 36 isolates by single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis and sequencing; however, no amino acid substitutions were discovered. The outer membrane protein and lipopolysaccharide profiles of all isolates were compared with those of reference strains, and the concentration of ciprofloxacin accumulated (with or without 100 microM carbony cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone [CCCP] was determined. Twenty-two isolates accumulated significantly lower concentrations of ciprofloxacin than the wild-type E. coli isolate; nine isolates accumulated less then half the concentration. The addition of CCCP increased the concentration of ciprofloxacin accumulated, and in all but one isolate the percent increase was greater than that in the control strains. The data indicate that high-level fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli involves the acquisition of mutations at multiple loci.
PMCID: PMC163538  PMID: 8891148
22.  Quinolone Resistance Mutations in Streptococcus pneumoniae GyrA and ParC Proteins: Mechanistic Insights into Quinolone Action from Enzymatic Analysis, Intracellular Levels, and Phenotypes of Wild-Type and Mutant Proteins 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2001;45(11):3140-3147.
Mutations in DNA gyrase and/or topoisomerase IV genes are frequently encountered in quinolone-resistant mutants of Streptococcus pneumoniae. To investigate the mechanism of their effects at the molecular and cellular levels, we have used an Escherichia coli system to overexpress S. pneumoniae gyrase gyrA and topoisomerase IV parC genes encoding respective Ser81Phe and Ser79Phe mutations, two changes widely associated with quinolone resistance. Nickel chelate chromatography yielded highly purified mutant His-tagged proteins that, in the presence of the corresponding GyrB and ParE subunits, reconstituted gyrase and topoisomerase IV complexes with wild-type specific activities. In enzyme inhibition or DNA cleavage assays, these mutant enzyme complexes were at least 8- to 16-fold less responsive to both sparfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. The ciprofloxacin-resistant (Cipr) phenotype was silent in a sparfloxacin-resistant (Spxr) S. pneumoniae gyrA (Ser81Phe) strain expressing a demonstrably wild-type topoisomerase IV, whereas Spxr was silent in a Cipr parC (Ser79Phe) strain. These epistatic effects provide strong support for a model in which quinolones kill S. pneumoniae by acting not as enzyme inhibitors but as cellular poisons, with sparfloxacin killing preferentially through gyrase and ciprofloxacin through topoisomerase IV. By immunoblotting using subunit-specific antisera, intracellular GyrA/GyrB levels were a modest threefold higher than those of ParC/ParE, most likely insufficient to allow selective drug action by counterbalancing the 20- to 40-fold preference for cleavable-complex formation through topoisomerase IV observed in vitro. To reconcile these results, we suggest that drug-dependent differences in the efficiency by which ternary complexes are formed, processed, or repaired in S. pneumoniae may be key factors determining the killing pathway.
PMCID: PMC90795  PMID: 11600369
23.  Topoisomerase II and IV Quinolone Resistance-Determining Regions in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Clinical Isolates with Different Levels of Quinolone Susceptibility 
The quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of topoisomerase II and IV genes from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ATCC 13637 were sequenced and compared with the corresponding regions of 32 unrelated S. maltophilia clinical strains for which ciprofloxacin MICs ranged from 0.1 to 64 μg/ml. GyrA (Leu-55 to Gln-155, Escherichia coli numbering), GyrB (Met-391 to Phe-513), ParC (Ile-34 to Arg-124), and ParE (Leu-396 to Leu-567) fragments from strain ATCC 13637 showed high degrees of identity to the corresponding regions from the phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa, with the degrees of identity ranging from 85.0 to 93.5%. Lower degrees of identity to the corresponding regions from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (70.9 to 88.6%) and E. coli (73.0 to 88.6%) were observed. Amino acid changes were present in GyrA fragments from 9 of the 32 strains at positions 70, 85, 90, 103, 112, 113, 119, and 124; but there was no consistent relation to higher ciprofloxacin MICs. The absence of changes at positions 83 and 87, commonly involved in quinolone resistance in gram-negative bacteria, was unexpected. The GyrB sequences were identical in all strains, and only one strain (ciprofloxacin MIC, 16 μg/ml) showed a ParC amino acid change (Ser-80→Arg). In contrast, a high frequency (16 of 32 strains) of amino acid replacements was present in ParE. The frequencies of alterations at positions 437, 465, 477, and 485 were higher (P < 0.05) in strains from cystic fibrosis patients, but these changes were not linked with high ciprofloxacin MICs. An efflux phenotype, screened by the detection of decreases of at least twofold doubling dilutions of the ciprofloxacin MIC in the presence of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (0.5 μg/ml) or reserpine (10 μg/ml), was suspected in seven strains. These results suggest that topoisomerases II and IV may not be the primary targets involved in quinolone resistance in S. maltophilia.
PMCID: PMC127482  PMID: 11850246
24.  Induction of resistant mutants of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi under ciprofloxacin selective pressure 
Background & objectives:
Infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (hereafter S. Typhi) is an important public health problem in India. There has been an increase in the number of reported clinical failures to ciprofloxacin treatment but the data on possible mechanism of failure are limited. One mechanism that has been widely reported and found associated with ciprofloxacin resistance, is the mutations in target genes in QRDR (quinolone resistance determining region). It is hypothesized that mutations in DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV result in therapeutic failure under selective pressure of antibiotic while the patient is on treatment. We undertook in vitro sequential selection studies to expose the clinical isolates of S. Typhi to different concentration of ciprofloxacin to study the role of antibiotic selective pressure in the development of mutations in QRDR.
Total 26 clinical isolates were divided in to two parts: part I included six isolates obtained from three patients with relapse of enteric fever and part II included 20 isolates with different ciprofloxacin MIC levels. For in vitro induction of mutation experiment, five S. Typhi isolates were selected which included three NAS (nalidixic acid sensitive) and 2 NAR (nalidixic acid resistant) S. Typhi. These isolates were grown under increasing concentrations of ciprofloxacin and mutations acquired in QRDR of DNA gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and topoisomerase IV (parC and parE) were investigated by sequencing.
For the isolates included in the part I of the study, it was found that the MIC to ciprofloxacin increased in the isolates obtained during the relapse of enteric fever as compare to the first isolate. All isolates had single mutation in gyrA gene at S83 without additional mutation in the second isolate. In the second part of the study, the nine isolates with varying MICs to ciprofloxacin also had single mutation in gyrA gene at S83 and another six had triple mutations, two mutations in gyrA gene (at S83 and D87) and one mutation in parC gene (at S80). In in vitro induction of mutation experiment, all mutated isolates showed triple mutation (two mutation in gyrA and one in parC gene) while no mutations were found in wild isolates.
Interpretation & conclusions:
Upon exposure to the step-wise increased concentration of ciprofloxacin, isolates become more tolerant to the ciprofloxacin and showed 2-4 fold higher MICs without new mutation after 8 μg/ml. So the accumulation of mutations under continuous ciprofloxacin pressure and tolerance of the mutant isolates led to the clinical failure. These results also suggested that there could be another mechanism responsible for resistance.
PMCID: PMC4140040  PMID: 25027085
fluoroquionolones; in vitro induction; Mutants; Quinolone resistance determining region; S. Typhi
25.  Impact of Fluoroquinolone Resistance Mutations on Gonococcal Fitness and In Vivo Selection for Compensatory Mutations 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases  2012;205(12):1821-1829.
Background. Quinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (QRNG) arise from mutations in gyrA (intermediate resistance) or gyrA and parC (resistance). Here we tested the consequence of commonly isolated gyrA91/95 and parC86 mutations on gonococcal fitness.
Methods. Mutant gyrA91/95 and parC86 alleles were introduced into wild-type gonococci or an isogenic mutant that is resistant to macrolides due to an mtrR−79 mutation. Wild-type and mutant bacteria were compared for growth in vitro and in competitive murine infection.
Results. In vitro growth was reduced with increasing numbers of mutations. Interestingly, the gyrA91/95 mutation conferred an in vivo fitness benefit to wild-type and mtrR−79 mutant gonococci. The gyrA91/95, parC86 mutant, in contrast, showed a slight fitness defect in vivo, and the gyrA91/95, parC86, mtrR−79 mutant was markedly less fit relative to the parent strains. A ciprofloxacin-resistant (CipR) mutant was selected during infection with the gyrA91/95, parC86, mtrR−79 mutant in which the mtrR−79 mutation was repaired and the gyrA91 mutation was altered. This in vivo–selected mutant grew as well as the wild-type strain in vitro.
Conclusions. gyrA91/95 mutations may contribute to the spread of QRNG. Further acquisition of a parC86 mutation abrogates this fitness advantage; however, compensatory mutations can occur that restore in vivo fitness and maintain CipR.
PMCID: PMC3415892  PMID: 22492860

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