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1.  Psychosomatic medicine and the philosophy of life 
Basing ourselves on the writings of Hans Jonas, we offer to psychosomatic medicine a philosophy of life that surmounts the mind-body dualism which has plagued Western thought since the origins of modern science in seventeenth century Europe. Any present-day account of reality must draw upon everything we know about the living and the non-living. Since we are living beings ourselves, we know what it means to be alive from our own first-hand experience. Therefore, our philosophy of life, in addition to starting with what empirical science tells us about inorganic and organic reality, must also begin from our own direct experience of life in ourselves and in others; it can then show how the two meet in the living being. Since life is ultimately one reality, our theory must reintegrate psyche with soma such that no component of the whole is short-changed, neither the objective nor the subjective. In this essay, we lay out the foundational components of such a theory by clarifying the defining features of living beings as polarities. We describe three such polarities:
1) Being vs. non-being: Always threatened by non-being, the organism must constantly re-assert its being through its own activity.
2) World-relatedness vs. self-enclosure: Living beings are both enclosed with themselves, defined by the boundaries that separate them from their environment, while they are also ceaselessly reaching out to their environment and engaging in transactions with it.
3) Dependence vs. independence: Living beings are both dependent on the material components that constitute them at any given moment and independent of any particular groupings of these components over time.
We then discuss important features of the polarities of life: Metabolism; organic structure; enclosure by a semi-permeable membrane; distinction between "self" and "other"; autonomy; neediness; teleology; sensitivity; values. Moral needs and values already arise at the most basic levels of life, even if only human beings can recognize such values as moral requirements and develop responses to them.
PMCID: PMC2823620  PMID: 20089202
2.  The literature of medical ethics: A review of the writings of Hans Jonas 
Journal of Medical Ethics  1976;2(1):39-43.
Hans Jonas, who was trained in Germany in the 1920s as a philosopher, had written studies of gnosticism while still living in Germany and some of his work in that field was published after he had left the country. After the Second World War Jonas settled in the United States of America where he is now the Alvin Johnson Professor of Philosophy at the New School for Social Research in New York City. For some years Hans Jonas has directed his research to philosophical studies of medical ethics, in particular to the problems created by recent advances in medical technology. His first book on this theme, `The Phenomenon of Life: Towards a Philosophical Biology', provides the philosophical background to his latest studies and was published in 1966. The essays included in that volume date from 1950 onwards. His second, `Philosophical Essays: From Ancient Creed to Technological Man', continues his analysis and argument from 1964 to the present day but is more particularly concerned with the practical problems of medical ethics encountered by clinicians and research workers, for example, experiments on comatose patients. Dr Cooper in this review outlines in some detail the theses of these volumes.
PMCID: PMC2495113  PMID: 784996
3.  Beyond voluntary consent: Hans Jonas on the moral requirements of human experimentation. 
Journal of Medical Ethics  1993;19(2):99-103.
In his essay, Philosophical Reflections on Experimenting with Human Subjects, Hans Jonas contends that except in cases of widespread medical emergencies, people do not have a moral or social obligation to volunteer to be subjects in medical experiments. He further argues that any appeal for volunteer subjects in medical experiments should whenever possible give priority to those who can identify with the project and offer a strong sense of commitment to its goals. The first of these claims is given support against some recent criticisms, but argument is offered to show that the second claim not only does little to enhance the stature of the standard requirement of free and informed consent but may even weaken the moral validity of the consent.
PMCID: PMC1376196  PMID: 8331645
4.  Honor as Cultural Mindset: Activated Honor Mindset Affects Subsequent Judgment and Attention in Mindset-Congruent Ways 
Frontiers in Psychology  2016;7:1921.
Honor values articulate gender roles, the importance of reputation in maintaining one’s place in society, and maintaining respect for the groups one belongs to. In that sense honor provides a template for organizing social interactions and hence may be functional even among people and societies that do not report valuing and endorsing honor. We test the prediction that honor influences judgment and attention when activated in two experiments (N = 538). Using a culture-as-situated cognition perspective, we predicted that activating one aspect of honor would activate other aspects, even among individuals who do not much endorse honor values. We tested these predictions among European Americans, a group that is not typically associated with honor values. In each study, participants were randomly assigned to experimental or control groups, which differed in one way: the experimental group read statements about honor values as a first step and the control group did not. Participants then judged stick-figure pairs (judging which is male; Study 1, n = 130) or made lexical decisions (judging whether a letter-string formed a correctly spelled word; Study 2, n = 408). In Study 1, experimental group participants were more likely to choose the visually agentic figure as male. In Study 2, experimental group participants were more accurate at noticing that the letter-string formed a word if the word was an honor-relevant word (e.g., noble), but they did not differ from the control group if the word was irrelevant to honor (e.g., happy). Participants in both studies were just above the neutral point in their endorsement of honor values. Individual differences in honor values endorsement did not moderate the effects of activating an honor mindset. Though honor is often described as if it is located in space, we did not find clear effects of where our letter strings were located on the computer screen. Our findings suggest a new way to consider how honor functions, even in societies in which honor is not a highly endorsed value.
PMCID: PMC5145876  PMID: 28018263
culture; situated cognition; lexical-decision; embodiment; gender
5.  6th International Symposium on Molecular Allergology (ISMA) 
Hilger, Christiane | Swiontek, Kyra | Fischer, Jörg | Hentges, François | Lehners, Christiane | Morisset, Martine | Eberlein, Bernadette | Biedermann, Tilo | Ollert, Markus | Wildner, Sabrina | Stemeseder, Teresa | Freier, Regina | Briza, Peter | Lang, Roland | Batanero, Eva | Villalba, Mayte | Lidholm, Jonas | Hawranek, Thomas | Ferreira, Fatima | Brandstetter, Hans | Gadermaier, Gabriele | Moingeon, Philippe | Groeme, Rachel | Bouley, Julien | Bordas, Véronique | Le Mignon, Maxime | Bussières, Laetitia | Lautrette, Aurélie | Mascarell, Laurent | Lombardi, Vincent | Baron-Bodo, Véronique | Chabre, Henri | Batard, Thierry | Nony, Emmanuel | De Amicis, Karine Marafigo | Watanabe, Alexandra Sayuri | Figo, Daniele Danella | Dos Santos-Pinto, José Roberto Aparecido | Palma, Mario Sergio | Castro, Fabio Fernandes Morato | Kalil, Jorge | Wohlschlager, Therese | Ferreira-Briza, Fatima | Santos, Keity Souza | Faber, Margaretha | Van Gasse, Athina | Sabato, Vito | Hagendorens, Margo M. | Bridts, Chris H. | De Clerck, Luc S. | Perales, Araceli Diaz | Ebo, Didier | Zavadakova, Petra | Buchwalder, Aurélie | Rebeaud, Fabien | Märki, Iwan | Gepp, Barbara | Lengger, Nina | Möbs, Christian | Pfützner, Wolfgang | Radauer, Christian | Bohle, Barbara | Galvao, Clovis Eduardo | Santos-Pinto, Jose Roberto Aparecido | Schwager, Christian | Kull, Skadi | Schocker, Frauke | Behrends, Jochen | Becker, Wolf-Meinhard | Jappe, Uta | Mastrorilli, Carla | Tripodi, Salvatore | Caffarelli, Carlo | Asero, Riccardo | Dondi, Arianna | Ricci, Giampaolo | Dascola, Carlotta Povesi | Calamelli, Elisabetta | Di Rienzo Businco, Andrea | Bianchi, Annamaria | Frediani, Tullio | Verga, Carmen | Iacono, Iride Dello | Peroni, Diego | Pingitore, Giuseppe | Bernardini, Roberto | Matricardi, Paolo Maria | Hofer, Heidi | Asam, Claudia | Hauser, Michael | Himly, Martin | Ebner, Christof | Lemoine, Pierrick | Jain, Karine | Abiteboul, Kathy | Arvidsson, Monica | Rak, Sabina | Mota, Inês | Garcia, Filipe Benito | Gaspar, Angela | Arêde, Cristina | Piedade, Susana | Sampaio, Graça | Pires, Graça | Borrego, Luís Miguel | Santa-Marta, Cristina | Morais-Almeida, Mário | Popescu, Florin-Dan | Vieru, Mariana | Secureanu, Florin-Adrian | Fernandes, Rosa Anita Rodrigues | Carrapatoso, Isabel | Gomes, Raquel | Pereira, Celso | Todo-Bom, Ana | De Basoa, María Cecilia Martín Fernández | Regio, Javier Barrios | De Castro Cordova, Juan | Ferreiro, Antón Fernández | Tsilochristou, Olympia | Perna, Serena | Schwarz, Alina | Rohrbach, Alexander | Cappella, Antonio | Hatzler, Laura | Bauer, Carl-Peter | Hoffmann, Ute | Forster, Johannes | Zepp, Fred | Schuster, Antje | D’amelio, Raffael | Wahn, Ulrich | Keil, Thomas | Lau, Susanne | Apoil, Pol André | Mailhol, Claire | Broué-Chabbert, Anne | Juchet, Agnès | Didier, Alain | Carrer, Elodie | Lanot, Thomas | Blancher, Antoine | Kurtaj, Almedina | Hillebrand, Christoph | Fichtinger, Gerda | Danzer, Martin | Gabriel, Christian | Thalhamer, Theresa | Scheiblhofer, Sandra | Thalhamer, Josef | Weiss, Richard | Wolf, Martin | Pichler, Ulrike | Twaroch, Teresa | Yokoi, Hidenori | Takai, Toshiro | Didierlaurent, Alain | Mari, Adriano | Behrendt, Heidrun | Neubauer, Angela | Stolz, Frank | Ferreira, Fátima | Wallner, Michael | Carvalho, Sara | Lourenço, Tatiana | Cosme, Joana | Duarte, Fátima Cabral | Santos, Amélia Spínola | Costa, Ana Célia | Barbosa, Manuel Pereira | Klinglmayr, Eva | Schweidler, Bettina | Lueftenegger, Lisa | Moser, Stephanie | Doppler, Patrick | Oostingh, Gertie J. | Bathke, Arne | Zumbach, Joerg | Panzner, Petr | Vachova, Martina | Vlas, Tomas | Maly, Marek | Posa, Daniela | Hofmaier, Stephanie | Stock, Philippe | Grabenhenrich, Linus | Chen, Kuan-Wei | Resch, Yvonne | Vrtala, Susanne | Valenta, Rudolf | Abramidze, Tamar | Lomidze, Nino | Gotua, Maia | Dapkeviciute, Austeja | Einikyte, Ruta | Norkuniene, Jolita | Skrickiene, Laima | Miskiniene, Asta | Kvedariene, Violeta | Schiener, Maximilian | Moreno-Aguilar, Carmen | Pietsch, Gunilla | Intyre, Mareike Mc | Schwarze, Lea | Rußkamp, Dennis | Spillner, Edzard | Darsow, Ulf | Schmidt-Weber, Carsten | Blank, Simon | Longé, Cyril | Brazdova, Andrea | Brunet, Jean-Louis | Schwartz, Claire | Girodet, Bruno | Lavaud, François | Birnbaum, Joelle | Thi, Nhân Pham | Duchateau, Magalie | Chamot-Rooke, Julia | Guilloux, Laurence | Selva, Marie-Ange | Couderc, Rémy | Sénéchal, Hélène | Sutra, Jean-Pierre | Poncet, Pascal | Augustin, Steffen | Pump, Linda | Wald, Martin | Eichhorn, Thomas | Fischer, Frank | Willers, Christoph | Miehe, Michaela | Plum, Melanie | Wolf, Sara | Jabs, Frederic | Raiber, Tim | Bantleon, Frank | Seismann, Henning | Jakob, Thilo | Apostolovic, Danijela | Tran, Anh Thu | Sanchez-Vidaurre, Sara | Velickovic, Tanja Cirkovic | Starkhammar, Maria | Hamsten, Carl | Van Hage, Marianne | Dubiela, Pawel | Humeniuk, Piotr | Pfeifer, Sabine | Bublin, Merima | Borowski, Tomasz | Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin | Verschuren, Martie C. M. | Bastiaan-Net, Shanna | Depoortere, Defien | Foetisch, Kay | Scheurer, Stephan | Wichers, Harry J | Noij, Theo | Van Uden, Nikki M.E. | Vandenberghe, Karel | Wichers, Harry J. | Noij, Theo H. M. | Roulias, Anargyros | Parigiani, Maria Alejandra | Ahammer, Linda | Grutsch, Sarina | Tollinger, Martin | Moya, Raquel | López-Matas, Mª Angeles | Reyes, Raquel | Carnés, Jerónimo | Larré, Colette | Rogniaux, Hélène | Lupi, Roberta | Denery-Papini, Sandra | Pablos, Isabel Maria | Eichhorn, Stephanie | Machado, Yoan | Park, Jung-Won | Arora, Naveen | Vieths, Stefan | Tanaka, Charlene | Pineau, Florence | Drouet, Martine | Beaudouin, Etienne | Altenbach, Susan | Mameri, Hamza | Brossard, Chantal | Gaudin, Jean Charles | Moneret-Vautrin, Denise Anne | Paty, Evelyne | Tranquet, Olivier | Masci, Stefania | Moneret-Vautrin, Denise-Anne | Petersen, Arnd | Böttger, Marisa | Rennert, Sandra | Krause, Susanne | Ernst, Martin | Gutsmann, Thomas | Bauer, Johann | Lindner, Buko | Koppelman, Stef | Jayasena, Shyamali | Luykx, Dion | Schepens, Erik | De Jong, Govardus | Isleib, Tom | Nordlee, Julie | Baumert, Joe | Taylor, Steve | Maleki, Soheila | Palladino, Chiara | Sirvent, Sofía | Angelina, Alba | Eiwegger, Thomas | Palomares, Oscar | Breiteneder, Heimo | Claude, Mathilde | Bouchaud, Grégory | Bodinier, Marie | Korte, Robin | Bräcker, Julia | Brockmeyer, Jens | Satoh, Rie | Teshima, Reiko | Tscheppe, Angelika | Palmberger, Dieter | Grabherr, Reingard | Raith, Marianne | Sonnleitner, Linda | Zach, Doris | Woroszylo, Konrad | Focke-Tejkl, Margit | Wank, Herbert | Graf, Thorsten | Kuehn, Annette | Swoboda, Ines | Huber, Sara | Gay-Crosier, Fabienne | Polak, Dominika | Nagl, Birgit | Kitzmüller, Claudia | Samadi, Nazanin | Geyeregger, Rene | Jahn-Schmid, Beatrice | Gomez, Ariel | Haka, Jaana | Hattara, Liisa | Heikkinen, Marika | Niemi, Merja H | Rouvinen, Juha | Saviranta, Petri | Mattila, Pekka | Takkinen, Kristiina | Laukkanen, Marja-Leena | Pablos, Isabel | Kastner, Bianca | Silar, Mira | Selb, Julij | Kogovsek, Rok | Kosnik, Mitja | Korosec, Peter | Pestana, Leticia | Melo, Alcinda Campos | Mendes, Ana | Pedro, Maria Elisa | Santos, Maria Conceição Pereira | Bienvenu, Françoise | Goursaud, Claire | Garnier, Lorna | Jacquenet, Sandrine | Degaud, Michaël | Viel, Sébastien | Barre, Annick | Rougé, Pierre | Bienvenu, Jacques | Vitte, Joana | Bensalah, Amel | Cleach, Isabelle | Mousseau, Laurent | Agabriel, Chantal | Liabeuf, Valérie | Birnbaum, Joëlle | Mège, Jean-Louis | Gardner, James | Gandhi, Minal | Kariyawasam, Harsha | Rotiroti, Giuseppina | Regateiro, Frederico | Faria, Emília | Schmid, Johannes Martin | Dahl, Ronald | Hoffmann, Hans Juergen | Pestana, Letícia | Silva, Diana | Vieira, Teresa | Pereira, Ana Maria | Moreira, André | Delgado, Luís | Prates, Sara | Alves, Cátia | Finelli, Elena | Pinto, Paula Leiria | Cardoso, Bárbara Kong | Cruz, Cíntia | Semedo, Filipa | Tomaz, Elza | Inácio, Filipe | Maity, Santanu | Baricevic-Jones, Ivona | Marsh, Justin T. | Johnson, Phil E. | Balasundaram, Anuradha | Hope, Anya-May | Taekema, Aafke | Simpson, Angela | Semic-Jusufagic, Aida | Clare Mills, E. N. | Nelly, Gourdon Dubois | Laetitia, Sellam | Bruno, Pereira | Elodie, Michaud | Khaled, Messaoudi | Bertrand, Evrard | Jean-Luc, Fauquert | Goodman, Richard E. | Plata, Elena Rodríguez | Amaral, Luis | Bartolomé, Borja | Coimbra, Alice | Placido, Jose L | Ganea, Carmen Saviana | Costello, Carol Ann | Sorensen, Martin | Mills, Clare | Rogers, Adrian | Otherhals, Aage | Kalic, Tanja | Ellinger, Isabella | Waltl, Eva | Niederberger-Leppin, Verena | Szczepankiewicz, Dawid | Pruszynska-Oszmalek, Ewa | Skrzypski, Marek | Nowak, Krzysztof W. | Szczepankiewicz, Aleksandra | Jang, Gwang-Cheon | Markovic, Iva | Borowski, Andreas | Vetter, Tina | Wohlmann, Andreas | Kuepper, Michael | Friedrich, Karlheinz | Gracia, Ibon Eguiluz | Bosco, Anthony | Dollner, Ralph | Melum, Guro Reinholt | Jones, Anya C | Lexberg, Maria | Holt, Patrick G | Bækkevold, Espen Sønderaal | Jahnsen, Frode Lars | Sobkowiak, Paulina | Rachel, Marta | Narozna, Beata | Jenerowicz, Dorota | Swiatowy, Witold | Breborowicz, Anna | Nestelbacher, Reinhard | Fukui, Hiroyuki
Clinical and Translational Allergy  2016;6(Suppl 2):1-34.
Table of contents
Symposium 1: Biochemistry, structure and environment of the allergen: what makes a protein an allergen?
O1 Two cell-membrane peptidases carrying galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose are implicated in delayed anaphylactic reactions upon pork kidney ingestion in patients with IgE-antibodies to alpha-Gal
Christiane Hilger, Kyra Swiontek, Jörg Fischer, François Hentges, Christiane Lehners, Martine Morisset, Bernadette Eberlein, Tilo Biedermann, Markus Ollert
O2 Structure solution of Pla l 1 suggests similar folding of Ole e 1-like family members but distinct immunological properties
Sabrina Wildner, Teresa Stemeseder, Regina Freier, Peter Briza, Roland Lang, Eva Batanero, Mayte Villalba, Jonas Lidholm, Thomas Hawranek, Fatima Ferreira, Hans Brandstetter, Gabriele Gadermaier
Symposium 2: New allergen molecules in the spotlight
O3 Identification of the cysteine protease Amb a 11 as a novel major allergen from short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)
Philippe Moingeon, Rachel Groeme, Julien Bouley, Véronique Bordas, Maxime Le Mignon, Laetitia Bussières, Aurélie Lautrette, Laurent Mascarell, Vincent Lombardi, Véronique Baron-Bodo, Henri Chabre, Thierry Batard, Emmanuel Nony
O4 Production and characterization of polybia paulista recombinant antigen 5: a valuable diagnostic tool
Karine Marafigo De Amicis, Alexandra Sayuri Watanabe, Daniele Danella Figo, José Roberto Aparecido Dos Santos-Pinto, Mario Sergio Palma, Fabio Fernandes Morato Castro, Jorge Kalil, Therese Wohlschlager, Peter Briza, Sabrina Wildner, Fatima Ferreira-Briza, Gabriele Gadermaier, Keity Souza Santos
Symposium 3: Progress in molecular and cellular diagnosis
O5 Basophil activation test with recombinant Pru p 3; identifying genuine peach allergic patients
Margaretha Faber, Athina Van Gasse, Vito Sabato, Margo M. Hagendorens, Chris H. Bridts, Luc S. De Clerck, Araceli Diaz Perales, Didier Ebo
O6 Nanofluidic technology enables rapid, near-patient quantification of allergen-specific IgE
Petra Zavadakova, Aurélie Buchwalder, Fabien Rebeaud, Iwan Märki
Symposium 4: Relevance of molecular diagnostics for intervention and treatment
O7 Longitudinal analysis of Bet v 1-specific epitope repertoires during birch pollen immunotherapy
Barbara Gepp, Nina Lengger, Christian Möbs, Wolfgang Pfützner, Christian Radauer, Barbara Bohle
O8 A natural CCD-free tool: is polistes sp. venom suitable for polybia paulista diagnosis and therapy?
Karine Marafigo De Amicis, Alexandra Sayuri Watanabe, Clovis Eduardo Galvao, Daniele Danella Figo, Jose Roberto Aparecido Santos-Pinto, Mario Sergio Palma, Fabio Fernandes Morato Castro, Jorge Kalil, Fatima Ferreira, Gabriele Gadermaier, Keity Souza Santos
Symposium 5: The advent of molecular allergology in epidemiology
O9 Peanut oleosins: from identification to diagnostic testing
Christian Schwager, Skadi Kull, Frauke Schocker, Jochen Behrends, Wolf-Meinhard Becker, Uta Jappe
O10 Endotypes of oral allergy syndrome in childhood: a molecular diagnostic approach
Carla Mastrorilli, Salvatore Tripodi, Carlo Caffarelli, Riccardo Asero, Arianna Dondi, Giampaolo Ricci, Carlotta Povesi Dascola, Elisabetta Calamelli, Andrea Di Rienzo Businco, Annamaria Bianchi, Tullio Frediani, Carmen Verga, Iride Dello Iacono, Diego Peroni, Giuseppe Pingitore, Roberto Bernardini, Paolo Maria Matricardi
Symposium 6: Molecular AIT: which approaches will make it to market?
O11 Mbc4: an innovative molecule to tackle birch pollen and concomitant food allergies
Heidi Hofer, Claudia Asam, Michael Hauser, Peter Briza, Martin Himly, Christof Ebner, Fatima Ferreira
O12 Challenges and solutions associated with the production of recombinant Bet v 1 allergen as a therapeutic protein
Emmanuel Nony, Maxime Le Mignon, Pierrick Lemoine, Karine Jain, Kathy Abiteboul, Monica Arvidsson, Sabina Rak, Philippe Moingeon
Clinical Cases: Breakthroughs and headaches from CRD: interactive session
CC1 Anaphylaxis caused by lipid transfer proteins: a complex clinical pattern syndrome
Inês Mota, Filipe Benito Garcia, Angela Gaspar, Cristina Arêde, Susana Piedade, Graça Sampaio, Graça Pires, Luís Miguel Borrego, Cristina Santa-Marta, Mário Morais-Almeida
CC2 IgE sensitization profile in a patient with asteraceae pollen-exotic fruits association
Florin-Dan Popescu, Mariana Vieru, Florin-Adrian Secureanu
CC3 Food-dependent: exercise induced anaphylaxis. Which component to blame?
Rosa Anita Rodrigues Fernandes, Isabel Carrapatoso, Raquel Gomes, Celso Pereira, Ana Todo-Bom
CC4 Anaphylaxis to intravenous iron preparations in a patient that tolerates oral administration
María Cecilia Martín Fernández De Basoa, Javier Barrios Regio, Juan De Castro Cordova, Antón Fernández Ferreiro
CC5 IgE sensitization pattern in an adult patient with oral allergy syndrome to peanuts and pollinosis from southern Romania
Florin-Dan Popescu, Mariana Vieru, Florin-Adrian Secureanu
CC6 Evidence of specific IgE to plant-derived cross-reactive carbohydrate determinant in a patient with delayed anaphylaxis to red meat
Mariana Vieru, Florin-Dan Popescu, Florin-Adrian Secureanu
Poster Session 1: Molecular allergology and epidemiology
P1 Atopic children produce stronger and more frequent IgG responses than non-atopic children: longitudinal data from the German MAS birth cohort
Olympia Tsilochristou, Serena Perna, Alina Schwarz, Alexander Rohrbach, Antonio Cappella, Laura Hatzler, Carl-Peter Bauer, Ute Hoffmann, Johannes Forster, Fred Zepp, Antje Schuster, Raffael D’amelio, Ulrich Wahn, Thomas Keil, Susanne Lau, Paolo Maria Matricardi
P2 The IgG sensitization profiles against 112 allergenic components support the absence of a protective role of IgG in allergic individuals, outside of the context of SIT
Pol André Apoil, Claire Mailhol, Anne Broué-Chabbert, Agnès Juchet, Alain Didier, Elodie Carrer, Thomas Lanot, Antoine Blancher
P3 The immune response against the timothy grass pollen allergen Phl p 5 in non-allergic humans
Almedina Kurtaj, Christoph Hillebrand, Gerda Fichtinger, Martin Danzer, Christian Gabriel, Theresa Thalhamer, Sandra Scheiblhofer, Josef Thalhamer, Richard Weiss
P4 Analyzing the cross-reactivity profile of the major ragweed allergen Amb a 1
Martin Wolf, Michael Hauser, Ulrike Pichler, Teresa Twaroch, Gabriele Gadermaier, Christof Ebner, Hidenori Yokoi, Toshiro Takai, Alain Didierlaurent, Adriano Mari, Peter Briza, Heidrun Behrendt, Angela Neubauer, Frank Stolz, Fátima Ferreira, Michael Wallner
P5 LTP (Pru p 3) sensitisation in skin prick test: which means in clinical practice?
Sara Carvalho, Tatiana Lourenço, Joana Cosme, Fátima Cabral Duarte, Amélia Spínola Santos, Ana Célia Costa, Manuel Pereira Barbosa
P6 IgE profiles, allergen exposure and lifestyle of 501 Austrian pupils: investigation of influences on the development of allergic sensitizations
Teresa Stemeseder, Eva Klinglmayr, Bettina Schweidler, Lisa Lueftenegger, Stephanie Moser, Patrick Doppler, Roland Lang, Martin Himly, Gertie J. Oostingh, Arne Bathke, Joerg Zumbach, Thomas Hawranek, Gabriele Gadermaier
P7 Molecular profiles of sensitization to perennial inhalant allergens in a middle European region
Petr Panzner, Martina Vachova, Tomas Vlas, Marek Maly
P8 Evolution of the IgE response to house dust mite allergen molecules in childhood
Daniela Posa, Serena Perna, Stephanie Hofmaier, Laura Hatzler, Alexander Rohrbach, Carl-Peter Bauer, Ute Hoffmann, Johannes Forster, Fred Zepp, Antje Schuster, Philippe Stock, Ulrich Wahn, Linus Grabenhenrich, Thomas Keil, Susanne Lau, Kuan-Wei Chen, Yvonne Resch, Susanne Vrtala, Rudolf Valenta, Paolo Maria Matricardi
P9 Tropomyosin (Pen a1): to include or not to include in skin prick testing?
Joana Cosme, Sara Carvalho, Tatiana Lourenço, Amélia Spínola Santos, Manuel Pereira Barbosa
Immunoallergy Department - Hospital de Santa Maria – Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Norte, Lisbon, Portugal, Lisbon, Portugal; Immunoallergy Department - Hospital de Santa Maria – Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Norte, Lisbon, Portugal; Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
P10 Component-resolved IgE profiles in Georgian patients
Tamar Abramidze, Nino Lomidze, Maia Gotua
P11 Cross reactivity between food and pollen allergens in Lithuania according to spIgE evaluation
Austeja Dapkeviciute, Ruta Einikyte, Jolita Norkuniene, Laima Skrickiene, Asta Miskiniene, Violeta Kvedariene
P12 Distribution of inhalant allergy in the population of Lithuania
Ruta Einikyte, Austeja Dapkeviciute, Jolita Norkuniene, Laima Skrickiene, Asta Miskiniene, Violeta Kvedariene
Poster Session 2: Allergen molecules: identification, characterization, structure and function
P13 Interference of antigen 5-based cross-reactivity in the diagnosis of hymenoptera venom allergy
Maximilian Schiener, Bernadette Eberlein, Carmen Moreno-Aguilar, Gunilla Pietsch, Mareike Mc Intyre, Lea Schwarze, Dennis Rußkamp, Tilo Biedermann, Edzard Spillner, Ulf Darsow, Carsten Schmidt-Weber, Markus Ollert, Simon Blank
P14 IgE cross-reactivity between European Hymenoptera and Asian hornet (Vespa velutina) venom allergens
Cyril Longé, Andrea Brazdova, Jean-Louis Brunet, Claire Schwartz, Bruno Girodet, François Lavaud, Joelle Birnbaum, Nhân Pham Thi, Magalie Duchateau, Julia Chamot-Rooke, Laurence Guilloux, Marie-Ange Selva, Rémy Couderc, Hélène Sénéchal, Jean-Pierre Sutra, Pascal Poncet
P15 Carbohydrate composition of house dust mite extracts and major group 1 and group 2 allergens
Steffen Augustin, Linda Pump, Martin Wald, Thomas Eichhorn, Frank Fischer, Christoph Willers
P16 Specificity of monoclonal antibodies against cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants
Michaela Miehe, Melanie Plum, Sara Wolf, Frederic Jabs, Tim Raiber, Frank Bantleon, Henning Seismann, Thilo Jakob, Edzard Spillner
P17 Red meat allergic patients have a selective IgE response to the a-Gal glycan
Danijela Apostolovic, Anh Thu Tran, Sara Sanchez-Vidaurre, Tanja Cirkovic Velickovic, Maria Starkhammar, Carl Hamsten, Marianne Van Hage
P18 Specificity of non-specific lipid transfer proteins and influence of the ligands on their three-dimensional structure
Pawel Dubiela, Piotr Humeniuk, Sabine Pfeifer, Merima Bublin, Tomasz Borowski, Karin Hoffmann-Sommergruber
P19 Real-time PCR analysis of Pru av 1 and Pru av 3 allergens
Martie C.M. Verschuren, Shanna Bastiaan-Net, Defien Depoortere, Kay Foetisch, Stephan Scheurer, Harry J Wichers, Theo Noij
P20 Specificity of anti-Pru av 1 antibodies for the detection of Pru av 1 isoallergens
Martie C.M. Verschuren, Shanna Bastiaan-Net, Nikki M.E. Van Uden, Karel Vandenberghe, Kay Foetisch, Stephan Scheurer, Harry J. Wichers H.J., Theo H.M. Noij
P21 Enhancing recombinant production yield of Bet v 1 through codon usage harmonization
Anargyros Roulias, Maria Alejandra Parigiani, Heidi Hofer, Claudia Asam, Christof Ebner, Fátima Ferreira
P22 Structural and dynamic insights into the world of PR-10 allergens
Linda Ahammer, Sarina Grutsch, Martin Tollinger
Poster Session 3: Allergen molecules: identification, characterization, structure and function
P23 Purification of polcalcin from different pollen allergenic sources by antibody-affinity chromatography
Raquel Moya, Mª Angeles López-Matas, Raquel Reyes, Jerónimo Carnés
P24 Variations of wheat allergens in cultivars measured through a targeted quantitative mass spectrometry approach
Colette Larré, Hélène Rogniaux, Roberta Lupi, Sandra Denery-Papini
P25 Art v 1, Amb a 4 and Par h 1 defensin-like proteins share similar structural features but distinct immunological and allergenic properties
Isabel Maria Pablos, Stephanie Eichhorn, Yoan Machado, Peter Briza, Christof Ebner, Jung-Won Park, Alain Didierlaurent, Naveen Arora, Stefan Vieths, Gabriele Gadermaier, Fatima Ferreira
P26 Homogeneity or diversity of IgE-binding proteins in wheat dependant exercise induced anaphylaxis?
Sandra Denery-Papini, Charlene Tanaka, Florence Pineau, Roberta Lupi, Martine Drouet, Etienne Beaudouin, Martine Morisset, Susan Altenbach
P27 Deciphering the role of disulfide bonds and of repetitive epitopes in immunoglobulin E binding to wheat gliadins
Sandra Denery-Papini, Hamza Mameri, Chantal Brossard, Roberta Lupi, Florence Pineau, Jean Charles Gaudin, Denise Anne Moneret-Vautrin, Etienne Beaudouin, Evelyne Paty, Martine Drouet, Olivier Tranquet, Colette Larré
P28 Assessment of the allergenicity of soluble fractions from bread and durum wheats genotypes
Roberta Lupi, Stefania Masci, Olivier Tranquet, Denise-Anne Moneret-Vautrin, Sandra Denery-Papini, Colette Larré
P29 Isolation and characterization of Ara h 12 and Ara h 13: defensins, a novel class of peanut allergens
Skadi Kull, Arnd Petersen, Marisa Böttger, Sandra Rennert, Wolf-Meinhard Becker, Susanne Krause, Martin Ernst, Thomas Gutsmann, Johann Bauer, Buko Lindner, Uta Jappe
P30 Allergenicity attributes of different peanut market types
Stef Koppelman, Shyamali Jayasena, Dion Luykx, Erik Schepens, Danijela Apostolovic, Govardus De Jong, Tom Isleib, Julie Nordlee, Joe Baumert, Steve Taylor, Soheila Maleki
P31 The impact of peanut lipids on Ara h 1-induced immune responses in monocytes-derived dendritic cells
Chiara Palladino, Barbara Gepp, Sofía Sirvent, Alba Angelina, Merima Bublin, Christian Radauer, Nina Lengger, Thomas Eiwegger, Oscar Palomares, Heimo Breiteneder
P32 Compared allergenicity of native and thermally aggregated ovalbumin as large agglomerated particles
Mathilde Claude, Roberta Lupi, Grégory Bouchaud, Marie Bodinier, Chantal Brossard, Sandra Denery-Papini
P33 Simulation of the gastrointestinal digestion of the hazelnut allergens Cor a 9 and Cor a 11 by an in-vitro model and characterisation of peptidic products including epitopes by HPLC-MS/MS
Robin Korte, Julia Bräcker, Jens Brockmeyer
P34 Analysis of distribution of rice allergens in brown rice grain and allergenicity of the products containing rice bran
Rie Satoh, Reiko Teshima
Poster Session 4: Molecular approaches in AIT
P35 Production of a recombinant hypoallergenic variant of the major peanut allergen Ara h 2 for allergen-specific immunotherapy
Angelika Tscheppe, Dieter Palmberger, Merima Bublin, Christian Radauer, Chiara Palladino, Barbara Gepp, Nina Lengger, Reingard Grabherr, Heimo Breiteneder
P36 Mutagenesis of amino acids critical for calcium-binding leads to the generation of a hypoallergenic Phl p 7 variant
Marianne Raith, Linda Sonnleitner, Doris Zach, Konrad Woroszylo, Margit Focke-Tejkl, Herbert Wank, Thorsten Graf, Annette Kuehn, Ines Swoboda
P37 Are birch pollen allergen immunotherapy induced blocking antibodies protective for cross-reactive allergens?
Claudia Asam, Sara Huber, Heidi Hofer, Roland Lang, Thomas Hawranek, Fátima Ferreira, Michael Wallner
P38 High success of 58 subcutaneous immunotherapy for pets allergy in a polyallergic cohort of patients: a component resolved individually adapted treatment (CRIAT)
Fabienne Gay-Crosier
P39 Neutrophils are potential antigen presenting cells in IgE- mediated allergy
Dominika Polak, Birgit Nagl, Claudia Kitzmüller, Barbara Bohle
P40 Characterization of allergen-specific CD8+ T cells in type I allergy
Nazanin Samadi, Claudia Kitzmüller, Rene Geyeregger, Barbara Bohle, Beatrice Jahn-Schmid
Poster Session 5: Molecular and cellular diagnostic tests
P41 Nanofluidic-based biosensors allow quantification of total circulating IgE from a drop of blood in 5 minutes
Aurélie Buchwalder, Ariel Gomez, Fabien Rebeaud, Iwan Märki
P42 Allergen microarray for the analysis of serum IgE binding profile and allergenic activity
Jaana Haka, Liisa Hattara, Marika Heikkinen, Merja H Niemi, Juha Rouvinen, Petri Saviranta, Pekka Mattila, Kristiina Takkinen, Marja-Leena Laukkanen
P43 Generation of a well-characterized panel of periplaneta americana allergens for component resolved diagnosis
Stephanie Eichhorn, Isabel Pablos, Bianca Kastner, Bettina Schweidler, Sabrina Wildner, Peter Briza, Jung-Won Park, Naveen Arora, Stefan Vieths, Gabriele Gadermaier, Fatima Ferreira
P44 Improved diagnostic sensitivity of recombinant Api m 1 and Ves v 5 in diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy
Mira Silar, Julij Selb, Rok Kogovsek, Mitja Kosnik, Peter Korosec
P45 Added value of biomarkers of primary sensitization and cross-reactivity in patients with hymenoptera venom allergy
Leticia Pestana, Alcinda Campos Melo, Ana Mendes, Maria Elisa Pedro, Manuel Pereira Barbosa, Maria Conceição Pereira Santos
P46 Cosensitization to Alt a 1 and Act d 2: more than a fortuitous association?
Françoise Bienvenu, Claire Goursaud, Lorna Garnier, Sandrine Jacquenet, Michaël Degaud, Sébastien Viel, Annick Barre, Pierre Rougé, Jacques Bienvenu, Joana Vitte
P47 Molecular diagnosis for peanut allergy: ALFA method performs as well as established methods for Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 6, Ara h 9 and CCD
Amel Bensalah, Isabelle Cleach, Laurent Mousseau, Chantal Agabriel, Valérie Liabeuf, Joëlle Birnbaum, Jean-Louis Mège, Joana Vitte
P48 Evaluation of a food challenge service in relation to specific IgE to molecular components in children with suspected peanut allergy
James Gardner, Minal Gandhi, Harsha Kariyawasam, Giuseppina Rotiroti
P49 Component resolved diagnosis in cereal allergy
Isabel Carrapatoso, Celso Pereira, Frederico Regateiro, Emília Faria, Ana Todo-Bom
Poster Session 6: Molecular diagnosis in prevention and therapy
P50 Pretreatment molecular sensitizations determine the sIgG4 induction during the updosing of SCIT and may be useful to identify clinically relevant additional sensitizations
Johannes Martin Schmid, Ronald Dahl, Hans Juergen Hoffmann
P51 Usefulness of recombinant latex allergens in immunotherapy’s decision and follow-up
Inês Mota, Filipe Benito Garcia, Angela Gaspar, Mário Morais-Almeida
P52 Omega-5-gliadin in the diagnosis of wheat-dependent anaphylaxis induced by ibuprofen but not by exercise
Joana Cosme, Letícia Pestana, Amélia Spínola Santos, Manuel Pereira Barbosa
P53 Food dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis: a component-resolved and in vitro depletion approach to access IgE cross-reactivity
Diana Silva, Teresa Vieira, Ana Maria Pereira, André Moreira, Luís Delgado
P54 Olive pollen allergens: what are we missing?
Sara Prates, Cátia Alves, Elena Finelli, Paula Leiria Pinto
P55 Purified Alt a 1 extract in Alternaria alternata allergy diagnosis
Bárbara Kong Cardoso, Cíntia Cruz, Filipa Semedo, Elza Tomaz, Filipe Inácio
P56 Use of specific IgE Bos d8 (casein) to aid early introduction of dietary baked milk in children with cows’ milk allergy
James Gardner, Santanu Maity, Giuseppina Rotiroti, Minal Gandhi
P57 Molecular characterisation and immunoreactivity of a peanut ingredient for use in oral food challenges
Ivona Baricevic-Jones, Justin T. Marsh, Phil E. Johnson, Anuradha Balasundaram, Anya-May Hope, Aafke Taekema, Angela Simpson, Aida Semic-Jusufagic, E.N. Clare Mills
P58 Specific IgE to recombinant allergens of hazelnut and oral food challenge in children
Gourdon Dubois Nelly, Sellam Laetitia, Pereira Bruno, Michaud Elodie, Messaoudi Khaled, Evrard Bertrand, Fauquert Jean-Luc
Poster session 7/8: miscellaneous
P59 What defines a protein as an allergen? A discussion of sources and sufficiency
Richard E. Goodman
P60 Cat allergy: relationship between clinical and molecular diagnostic
María Cecilia Martín Fernández De Basoa, Antón Fernández Ferreiro, Elena Rodríguez Plata
P61 Anaphylaxis to rabbit: the cat came in last
Luis Amaral, Borja Bartolomé, Alice Coimbra, Jose L Placido
P62 Dog allergy: relationship between clinical and molecular diagnostic
María Cecilia Martín Fernández De Basoa, Antón Fernández Ferreiro, Elena Rodríguez Plata
P63 Correlation of serum timothy grass-pollen specific IgE levels determined by two immunoblot test systems
Mariana Vieru, Florin-Dan Popescu, Florin-Adrian Secureanu, Carmen Saviana Ganea
P64 Development of oral food challenge formulations for diagnosis of fish allergy using powdered fish ingredients
Carol Ann Costello, Ivona Baricevic-Jones, Martin Sorensen, Clare Mills, Adrian Rogers, Aage Otherhals
P65 Fish and peanut allergens interact with plasma membranes of intestinal and bronchial epithelial cells and induce differential gene expression of cytokines and chemokines
Tanja Kalic, Isabella Ellinger, Chiara Palladino, Barbara Gepp, Eva Waltl, Verena Niederberger-Leppin, Heimo Breiteneder
P66 Interleukin 4 affects fat tissue metabolism and expression of pro-inflammatory factors in isolated rat adipocytes
Dawid Szczepankiewicz, Ewa Pruszynska-Oszmalek, Marek Skrzypski, Krzysztof W. Nowak, Aleksandra Szczepankiewicz
P67 Ozone induced airway hyperreactivity in PD-L2−/− mice model
Gwang-Cheon Jang
P68 Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and its receptor as targets for the development of anti-inflammatory inhibitory agents
Iva Markovic, Andreas Borowski, Tina Vetter, Andreas Wohlmann, Michael Kuepper, Karlheinz Friedrich
P69 The mononuclear phagocyte system in experimentally-induced allergic rhinitis
Ibon Eguiluz Gracia, Anthony Bosco, Ralph Dollner, Guro Reinholt Melum, Anya C Jones, Maria Lexberg, Patrick G Holt, Espen Sønderaal Bækkevold, Frode Lars Jahnsen
P70 Expression of histamine metabolizing enzymes is increased in allergic children
Aleksandra Szczepankiewicz, Paulina Sobkowiak, Marta Rachel, Beata Narozna, Dorota Jenerowicz, Witold Swiatowy, Anna Breborowicz
P71 Modifying the glycosylation of human IgE towards oligomannosidic structures does not affect its biological activity
Melanie Plum, Sara Wolf, Frank Bantleon, Henning Seismann, Frederic Jabs, Michaela Miehe, Thilo Jakob, Edzard Spillner
P72 Flying Labs: an educational initiative to transfer allergy research into high-school settings
Michael Wallner, Heidi Hofer, Fatima Ferreira, Reinhard Nestelbacher
P73 Clinical significance of antihistamines and Kujin, an anti-allergic Kampo medicine
Hiroyuki Fukui
PMCID: PMC5103240
6.  Child Mortality Estimation: A Global Overview of Infant and Child Mortality Age Patterns in Light of New Empirical Data 
PLoS Medicine  2012;9(8):e1001299.
Michel Guillot and colleagues did a systematic evaluation to assess what proportion of under-five mortality occurs below age one compared with at age one and above, to determine how much observed values deviate from so called “model age patterns” of under-five mortality
The under-five mortality rate (the probability of dying between birth and age 5 y, also denoted in the literature as U5MR and 5q0) is a key indicator of child health, but it conceals important information about how this mortality is distributed by age. One important distinction is what amount of the under-five mortality occurs below age 1 y (1q0) versus at age 1 y and above (4q1). However, in many country settings, this distinction is often difficult to establish because of various types of data errors. As a result, it is common practice to resort to model age patterns to estimate 1q0 and 4q1 on the basis of an observed value of 5q0. The most commonly used model age patterns for this purpose are the Coale and Demeny and the United Nations systems. Since the development of these models, many additional sources of data for under-five mortality have become available, making possible a general evaluation of age patterns of infant and child mortality. In this paper, we do a systematic comparison of empirical values of 1q0 and 4q1 against model age patterns, and discuss whether observed deviations are due to data errors, or whether they reflect true epidemiological patterns not addressed in existing model life tables.
Methods and Findings
We used vital registration data from the Human Mortality Database, sample survey data from the World Fertility Survey and Demographic and Health Surveys programs, and data from Demographic Surveillance Systems. For each of these data sources, we compared empirical combinations of 1q0 and 4q1 against combinations provided by Coale and Demeny and United Nations model age patterns. We found that, on the whole, empirical values fall relatively well within the range provided by these models, but we also found important exceptions. Sub-Saharan African countries have a tendency to exhibit high values of 4q1 relative to 1q0, a pattern that appears to arise for the most part from true epidemiological causes. While this pattern is well known in the case of western Africa, we observed that it is more widespread than commonly thought. We also found that the emergence of HIV/AIDS, while perhaps contributing to high relative values of 4q1, does not appear to have substantially modified preexisting patterns. We also identified a small number of countries scattered in different parts of the world that exhibit unusually low values of 4q1 relative to 1q0, a pattern that is not likely to arise merely from data errors. Finally, we illustrate that it is relatively common for populations to experience changes in age patterns of infant and child mortality as they experience a decline in mortality.
Existing models do not appear to cover the entire range of epidemiological situations and trajectories. Therefore, model life tables should be used with caution for estimating 1q0 and 4q1 on the basis of 5q0. Moreover, this model-based estimation procedure assumes that the input value of 5q0 is correct, which may not always be warranted, especially in the case of survey data. A systematic evaluation of data errors in sample surveys and their impact on age patterns of 1q0 and 4q1 is urgently needed, along with the development of model age patterns of under-five mortality that would cover a wider range of epidemiological situations and trajectories.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Editors' Summary
In 2000, world leaders agreed on eight Millennium Development Goals designed to end extreme poverty by 2015. The fourth of these goals—MDG 4—aims to reduce under-five mortality (the number of children who die before their fifth birthday) to a third of its 1990 level by 2015. A key indicator used to monitor progress towards this target is the under-five mortality rate (the probability of a child dying before his/her fifth birthday, also denoted as U5MR or 5q0). In developed countries, data collected through vital registration systems (which record all births and deaths) are used to calculate 5q0. However, developing countries, which are where most under-five deaths occur, rarely have vital registration systems, and 5q0 is estimated using data collected by programs such as the World Fertility Survey (WFS) and Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), which conduct nationally representative surveys that ask a sample of women about their living and dead children.
Why Was This Study Done?
Although 5q0 is a key indicator of child health, it conceals important information about the age distribution of child deaths. Public health experts need to know the distribution of 5q0 with respect to 1q0 (the probability that an infant will die before age one) and 4q1 (the probability that a child reaching age one will die below age five) to help them reduce child mortality. At a given level of 5q0, high values of 1q0 indicate high levels of death from congenital (inherited) anomalies and conditions that occur around the time of birth; these deaths can be reduced by improving the care of women during pregnancy and childbirth and the care of newborn babies. By contrast, at a given level of 5q0, high values of 4q1 indicate high levels of death from infectious diseases; these deaths can be reduced by, for example, introducing immunization programs. 1q0 and 4q1 are usually estimated from observed (empirical) values of 5q0 using the Coale and Demeny or United Nations (UN) “model life tables” (mathematical models of the variation of mortality with age), which were constructed in 1966 and 1982, respectively, using the best data available. Since their construction, additional sources of data about under-five mortality have become available; in this study, the researchers systematically compare global empirical values of 1q0 and 4q1 with values obtained using model life tables.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers compared empirical combinations of 1q0 and 4q1 (estimated using vital registration data, WFS and DHS data, and data from Demographic Surveillance Sites in sub-Saharan Africa) with the combinations derived from 5q0 using the Coale and Demeny and UN model life tables. The empirical values mainly fell within the range provided by these tables, but there were important exceptions. For example, empirical values of 4q1 relative to 1q0 tended to be above the range provided by the model life tables for sub-Saharan African countries. This pattern was mainly because of epidemiological reasons (epidemiology is the study of disease patterns in populations), such as the occurrence of diseases such as malaria, measles, and diarrhea that generate excess mortality among children older than one year. Interestingly, the emergence of HIV does not seem to have substantially modified preexisting patterns of 1q0 versus 4q1. Importantly, the researchers also show that populations often experience changes in the age patterns of infant and child mortality as they experience an overall decline in mortality.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings suggest that the existing model life tables do not cover the entire global range of epidemiological situations and trajectories and must, therefore, be used with caution for estimating 1q0 and 4q1 on the basis of 5q0. The development of new model age patterns of under-five mortality that cover a wider range of epidemiological situations should improve this situation, but a systematic analysis of data errors in sample surveys and the impact of such errors on estimates of 1q0 and 4q1 is also urgently needed to ensure that public health experts have access to accurate information on child mortality. Importantly, this overview shows that a wide range of 1q0 and 4q1 combinations can occur at a given level of 5q0. Because the level of 4q1 relative to 1q0 provides important information about the disease processes occurring in a population, this finding highlights the importance of determining 1q0 and 4q1 as well as 5q0 whenever possible.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at
This paper is part of a collection of papers on Child Mortality Estimation Methods published in PLOS Medicine
The United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF) works for children's rights, survival, development, and protection around the world; it provides information on Millennium Development Goal 4, and its Childinfo website provides detailed statistics about child survival and health, including a description of the United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation; the 2011 UN IGME report Levels & Trends in Child Mortality is available
The World Health Organization also has information about Millennium Development Goal 4 and provides estimates of child mortality rates (some information in several languages)
Further information about the Millennium Development Goals is available
Information is also available about the Human Mortality Database, which holds vital registration data; the World Fertility Survey program; the Demographic and Health Surveys program; and model life tables
PMCID: PMC3429403  PMID: 22952438
7.  An interview with Mark G. Hans 
It is a great honor to conduct an interview with Professor Mark G. Hans, after following his outstanding work ahead of the Bolton-Brush Growth Study Center and the Department of Orthodontics at the prestigious Case Western Reserve School of Dental Medicine (CWRU) in Cleveland, Ohio. Born in Berea, Ohio, Professor Mark Hans attended Yale University in New Haven, CT, and earned his Bachelor of Science Degree in Chemistry. Upon graduation, Dr. Hans received his DDS and Masters Degree of Science in Dentistry with specialty certification in Orthodontics at Case Western Reserve University. During his education, Dr. Hans' Master's Thesis won the Harry Sicher Award for Best Research by an Orthodontic Student and being granted a Presidential Teaching Fellowship. As one of the youngest doctors ever certified by the American Board of Orthodontics, Dr. Hans continues to maintain his board certification. He has worked through academics on a variety of research interests, that includes the demographics of orthodontic practice, digital radiographic data, dental and craniofacial genetics, as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, with selected publications in these fields. One of his noteworthy contributions to the orthodontic literature came along with Dr. Donald Enlow on the pages of "Essentials of Facial Growth", being reference on the study of craniofacial growth and development. Dr. Mark Hans's academic career is linked to CWRU, recognized as the renowned birthplace of research on craniofacial growth and development, where the classic Bolton-Brush Growth Study was historically set. Today, Dr. Hans is the Director of The Bolton-Brush Growth Study Center, performing, with great skill and dedication, the handling of the larger longitudinal sample of bone growth study. He is Associate Dean for Graduate Studies, Professor and Chairman of the Department of Orthodontics, working in clinical and theoretical activities with students of the Undergraduate Course from the School of Dental Medicine and residents in the Department of Orthodontics at CWRU. Part of his clinical practice at the university is devoted to the treatment of craniofacial anomalies and to special needs patients. Prof. Mark Hans has been wisely conducting the Joint Cephalometric Experts Group (JCEG) since 2008, held at the School of Dental Medicine (CWRU). He coordinates a team composed of American, Asian, Brazilian and European researchers and clinicians, working on the transition from 2D cephalometrics to 3D cone beam imaging as well as 3D models for diagnosis, treatment planning and assessment of orthodontic outcomes. Dr. Hans travels to different countries to give lectures on his fields of interest. Besides, he still maintains a clinical orthodontic practice at his private office. In every respect, Dr. Hans coordinates all activities with particular skill and performance. Married to Susan, they have two sons, Thomas and Jack and one daughter, Sarah and he enjoys playing jazz guitar for family and friends.
Matilde da Cunha Gonçalves Nojima
PMCID: PMC4296620  PMID: 25162563
8.  Place and Cause of Death in Centenarians: A Population-Based Observational Study in England, 2001 to 2010 
PLoS Medicine  2014;11(6):e1001653.
Catherine J. Evans and colleagues studied how many and where centenarians in England die, their causes of death, and how these measures have changed from 2001 to 2010.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Centenarians are a rapidly growing demographic group worldwide, yet their health and social care needs are seldom considered. This study aims to examine trends in place of death and associations for centenarians in England over 10 years to consider policy implications of extreme longevity.
Methods and Findings
This is a population-based observational study using death registration data linked with area-level indices of multiple deprivations for people aged ≥100 years who died 2001 to 2010 in England, compared with those dying at ages 80-99. We used linear regression to examine the time trends in number of deaths and place of death, and Poisson regression to evaluate factors associated with centenarians’ place of death. The cohort totalled 35,867 people with a median age at death of 101 years (range: 100–115 years). Centenarian deaths increased 56% (95% CI 53.8%–57.4%) in 10 years. Most died in a care home with (26.7%, 95% CI 26.3%–27.2%) or without nursing (34.5%, 95% CI 34.0%–35.0%) or in hospital (27.2%, 95% CI 26.7%–27.6%). The proportion of deaths in nursing homes decreased over 10 years (−0.36% annually, 95% CI −0.63% to −0.09%, p = 0.014), while hospital deaths changed little (0.25% annually, 95% CI −0.06% to 0.57%, p = 0.09). Dying with frailty was common with “old age” stated in 75.6% of death certifications. Centenarians were more likely to die of pneumonia (e.g., 17.7% [95% CI 17.3%–18.1%] versus 6.0% [5.9%–6.0%] for those aged 80–84 years) and old age/frailty (28.1% [27.6%–28.5%] versus 0.9% [0.9%–0.9%] for those aged 80–84 years) and less likely to die of cancer (4.4% [4.2%–4.6%] versus 24.5% [24.6%–25.4%] for those aged 80–84 years) and ischemic heart disease (8.6% [8.3%–8.9%] versus 19.0% [18.9%–19.0%] for those aged 80–84 years) than were younger elderly patients. More care home beds available per 1,000 population were associated with fewer deaths in hospital (PR 0.98, 95% CI 0.98–0.99, p<0.001).
Centenarians are more likely to have causes of death certified as pneumonia and frailty and less likely to have causes of death of cancer or ischemic heart disease, compared with younger elderly patients. To reduce reliance on hospital care at the end of life requires recognition of centenarians’ increased likelihood to “acute” decline, notably from pneumonia, and wider provision of anticipatory care to enable people to remain in their usual residence, and increasing care home bed capacity.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors’ Summary
People who live to be more than 100 years old—centenarians—are congratulated and honored in many countries. In the UK, for example, the Queen sends a personal greeting to individuals on their 100th birthday. The number of UK residents who reach this notable milestone is increasing steadily, roughly doubling every 10 years. The latest Office of National Statistics (ONS) figures indicate that 13,350 centenarians were living in the UK in 2012 (20 centenarians per 100,000 people in the population) compared to only 7,740 in 2002. If current trends continue, by 2066 there may be more than half a million centenarians living in the UK. And similar increases in the numbers of centenarians are being seen in many other countries. The exact number of centenarians living worldwide is uncertain but is thought to be around 317,000 and is projected to rise to about 18 million by the end of this century.
Why Was This Study Done?
Traditional blessings often include the wish that the blessing’s recipient lives to be at least 100 years old. However, extreme longevity is associated with increasing frailty—declining physical function, increasing disability, and increasing vulnerability to a poor clinical outcome following, for example, an infection. Consequently, many centenarians require 24-hour per day care in a nursing home or a residential care home. Moreover, although elderly people, including centenarians, generally prefer to die in a home environment rather than a clinical environment, many centenarians end up dying in a hospital. To ensure that centenarians get their preferred end-of-life care, policy makers and clinicians need to know as much as possible about the health and social needs of this specific and unique group of elderly people. In this population-based observational study, the researchers examine trends in the place of death and factors associated with the place of death among centenarians in England over a 10-year period.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers extracted information about the place and cause of death of centenarians in England between 2001 and 2010 from the ONS death registration database, linked these data with area level information on deprivation and care-home bed capacity, and analyzed the data statistically. Over the 10-year study period, 35,867 centenarians (mainly women, average age 101 years) died in England. The annual number of centenarian deaths increased from 2,823 in 2001 to 4,393 in 2010. Overall, three-quarters of centenarian death certificates stated “old age” as the cause of death. About a quarter of centenarians died in the hospital, a quarter died in a nursing home, and a third died in a care home without nursing; only one in ten centenarians died at home. The proportion of deaths in a nursing home increased slightly over the study period but there was little change in the number of hospital deaths. Compared with younger age groups (80–84 year olds), centenarians were more likely to die from pneumonia and “old age” and less likely to die from cancer and heart disease. Among centenarians, dying in the hospital was more likely to be reported to be associated with pneumonia or heart disease than with dementia; death in the hospital was also associated with having four or more contributing causes of death and with living in a deprived area. Finally, living in an area with a higher care-home bed capacity was associated with a lower risk of dying in the hospital.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings suggest that many centenarians have outlived death from the chronic diseases that are the common causes of death among younger groups of elderly people and that dying in the hospital is often associated with pneumonia. Overall, these findings suggest that centenarians are a group of people living with a risk of death from increasing frailty that is exacerbated by acute lung infection. The accuracy of these findings is likely to be affected by the quality of UK death certification data. Although this is generally high, the strength of some of the reported associations may be affected, for example, by the tendency of clinicians to record the cause of death in the very elderly as “old age” to provide some comfort to surviving relatives. Importantly, however, these findings suggest that care-home capacity and the provision of anticipatory care should be increased in England (and possibly in other countries) to ensure that more of the growing number of centenarians can end their long lives outside hospital.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at
The US National Institute on Aging provides information about healthy aging, including information on longevity (in English and Spanish)
The National End of Life Care Intelligence Network, England is a government organization that gathers data on care provided to adults approaching the end of life to improve service quality and productivity
The Worldwide Palliative Care Alliance promotes universal access to affordable palliative care through the support of regional and national palliative care organizations
The non-for-profit organization AgeUK provides information about all aspects of aging
Wikipedia has a page on centenarians (note that Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia that anyone can edit; available in several languages)
The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population; its “Living Beyond 100” report examines the research base on centenarians and calls for policy to reflect the ongoing UK increase in extreme longevity
This study is part of GUIDE_Care, a project initiated by the Cicely Saunders Institute to investigate patterns in place of death and the factors that affect these patterns
PMCID: PMC4043499  PMID: 24892645
The purpose of this study was to review institutional statistics provided in dean's letters and determine the percentage of honors awarded by institution and clerkship specialty.
Institutional and clerkship aggregate data were compiled from a review of dean's letters from 80 United States medical schools. The percentage of honors awarded during 3rd year clerkships during 2005 were collected for analysis. Across clerkship specialties, there were no statistically significant differences between the mean percentage of honors given by the medical schools examined with Internal Medicine (27.6%) the low and Psychiatry (33.5%) the high. However, inter-institutional variability observed within each clerkship was high, with surgery clerkship percentage of honors ranging from 2% to 75% of the students. This suggests some schools may be more lenient and other more stringent in awarding honors to their students. This inter-institutional variability makes it difficult to compare honors received by students from different medical schools and weakens the receipt of honors as a primary tool for evaluating potential incoming residents.
PMCID: PMC2723699  PMID: 19742092
10.  Donor Funding for Newborn Survival: An Analysis of Donor-Reported Data, 2002–2010 
PLoS Medicine  2012;9(10):e1001332.
With recent increases in development assistance money for maternal and child health, Catherine Pitt and colleagues examine whether foreign aid specifically for newborns has changed, whether it's on par with the burden of newborn deaths worldwide, and how such funding can be tracked.
Neonatal mortality accounts for 43% of global under-five deaths and is decreasing more slowly than maternal or child mortality. Donor funding has increased for maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH), but no analysis to date has disaggregated aid for newborns. We evaluated if and how aid flows for newborn care can be tracked, examined changes in the last decade, and considered methodological implications for tracking funding for specific population groups or diseases.
Methods and Findings
We critically reviewed and categorised previous analyses of aid to specific populations, diseases, or types of activities. We then developed and refined key terms related to newborn survival in seven languages and searched titles and descriptions of donor disbursement records in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's Creditor Reporting System database, 2002–2010. We compared results with the Countdown to 2015 database of aid for MNCH (2003–2008) and the search strategy used by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Prior to 2005, key terms related to newborns were rare in disbursement records but their frequency increased markedly thereafter. Only two mentions were found of “stillbirth” and only nine references were found to “fetus” in any spelling variant or language. The total value of non-research disbursements mentioning any newborn search terms rose from US$38.4 million in 2002 to US$717.1 million in 2010 (constant 2010 US$). The value of non-research projects exclusively benefitting newborns fluctuated somewhat but remained low, at US$5.7 million in 2010. The United States and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) provided the largest value of non-research funding mentioning and exclusively benefitting newborns, respectively.
Donor attention to newborn survival has increased since 2002, but it appears unlikely that donor aid is commensurate with the 3.0 million newborn deaths and 2.7 million stillbirths each year. We recommend that those tracking funding for other specific population groups, diseases, or activities consider a key term search approach in the Creditor Reporting System along with a detailed review of their data, but that they develop their search terms and interpretations carefully, taking into account the limitations described.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
In 1990, 12 million children—most of them living in developing countries—died before they reached their fifth birthday. Faced with this largely avoidable loss of young lives, in 2000, world leaders set a target of reducing under-five mortality (deaths) to one-third of its 1990 level by 2015 as Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4); this goal, together with seven others, aims to eradicate extreme poverty globally. In recent years, progress towards reducing child mortality has accelerated but remains insufficient to achieve MDG4, in part, because progress towards reducing neonatal mortality—deaths during the first 28 days of life—has been particularly slow. Neonatal deaths now account for a greater proportion of global child deaths than in 1990—43% of the 7 million children who died before their fifth birthday in 2011 died during the neonatal period. The major causes of neonatal deaths are complications of preterm and term delivery and infections. Simple interventions such as improved hygiene at birth and advice on breastfeeding can substantially reduce neonatal deaths.
Why Was This Study Done?
To achieve MDG4, more must be done to prevent deaths among newborn babies. One reason that progress in reducing neonatal mortality is slow could be insufficient donor funding (aid) for newborn health. Previous analyses by, for example, Countdown to 2015 (which tracks coverage levels for health interventions that reduce maternal, newborn, and child mortality) indicate that donor funding has increased for maternal, newborn, and child health over the past decade, but how much of this aid directly benefits newborns is unknown. Here, the researchers develop a method for tracking aid flows for newborns and examine changes in this flow over the past decade by applying their new strategy to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Creditor Reporting System (CRS) Aid Activity database. This database collects information about official development assistance for health given (disbursed) to developing countries by member countries of the OECD Development Assistance Committee, international organizations, and some private donors.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers developed a comprehensive set of search terms related to newborn survival by piloting it on the Countdown to 2015 official development assistance database, which covers the years 2003–2008. They then used their list of 24 key terms to search the CRS database from 2002 (the first year for which relatively complete disbursement data are available) to 2010 (the most recent year for which data are available) and classified each retrieved project according to whether its funding activities aimed to benefit newborns exclusively or to improve the health of other population groups as well. The researchers found that key terms related to newborns were rare in disbursement records before 2005 but that their frequency increased markedly thereafter. The total value of non-research disbursements (aid provided for programmatic or advocacy activities) that mentioned any newborn search terms increased from US$38.4 million in 2002 to US$717.1 million in 2010. The value of non-research projects that exclusively benefitted newborns fluctuated; in 2010, it was $US5.7 million. Finally, the US and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) provided the largest value of non-research funding mentioning newborns and exclusively benefitting newborns, respectively.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings indicate that the value of aid disbursements mentioning newborns or an activity likely to benefit newborns increased 20-fold between 2002 and 2010 and constituted an increasing proportion of aid for maternal, newborn, and child health. Although this increase may partly reflect increased detail in aid disbursement reporting, it is also likely to reflect an increase in donor attention to newborn survival. The accuracy of these findings is likely to be affected by limitations in the search strategy and in the CRS database, which does not capture aid flows from emerging donors such as China or from many private foundations. Moreover, because these findings take no account of domestic expenditure, they do not provide a comprehensive estimate of the value of resources available in developing countries for newborn health. Nevertheless, investment in newborn survival is unlikely to be commensurate with global newborn mortality. Thus, an expansion of programmatic funding from donors as well as increased governmental support for newborn health in developing countries is urgently needed to catalyze the scale-up of cost-effective interventions to save newborn lives and to meet MDG4.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at
The United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF) works for children's rights, survival, development, and protection around the world; it provides information on Millennium Development Goal 4 and its Childinfo website provides detailed statistics about child survival and health, including the 2012 report of UN Inter-agency Group of Child Mortality Estimation; its Committing to Child Survival: a Promise Renewed webpage includes links to its 2012 progress report, to a video about progress made in reducing child deaths worldwide, and to stories about child survival in the field
The World Health Organization has information about Millennium Development Goal 4 and about maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health (some information in several languages)
Countdown to 2015 provides additional information on maternal, newborn, and child survival, including its 2012 report Building a Future for Women and Children
The Healthy Newborn Network (HNN) is a community of more than 70 partner organizations addressing critical knowledge gaps for newborn health providing recent data on newborn survival and analyses of country programs
Information on and access to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation Development Creditor Reporting System Aid Activities database is available
Further information about the Millennium Development Goals is available
PMCID: PMC3484125  PMID: 23118619
11.  Gender Differences in Homicide of Neonates, Infants, and Children under 5 y in South Africa: Results from the Cross-Sectional 2009 National Child Homicide Study 
PLoS Medicine  2016;13(4):e1002003.
Homicide of children is a global problem. The under-5-y age group is the second largest homicide age group after 15–19 y olds, but has received little research attention. Understanding age and gender patterns is important for assisting with developing prevention interventions. Here we present an age and gender analysis of homicides among children under 5 y in South Africa from a national study that included a focus on neonaticide and infanticide.
Methods and Findings
A retrospective national cross-sectional study was conducted using a random sample of 38 medico-legal laboratories operating in 2009 to identify homicides of children under 5 y. Child data were abstracted from the mortuary files and autopsy reports, and both child and perpetrator data data were collected from police interviews. We erred towards applying a conservative definition of homicide and excluded sudden infant death syndrome cases. We estimated that 454 (95% CI 366, 541) children under the age of 5 y were killed in South Africa in 2009. More than half (53.2%; 95% CI 46.7%, 59.5%) were neonates (0–28 d), and 74.4% (95% CI 69.3%, 78.9%) were infants (under 1 y), giving a neonaticide rate of 19.6 per 100,000 live births and an infanticide rate of 28.4 per 100,000 live births. The majority of the neonates died in the early neonatal period (0–6 d), and abandonment accounted for 84.9% (95% CI 81.5%, 87.8%) of all the neonates killed. Distinct age and gender patterns were found, with significantly fewer boy children killed in rural settings compared to urban settings (odds ratio 0.6; 95% CI 0.4, 0.9; p = 0.015). Abuse-related killings and evidence of sexual assault were more common among older girls than in all other age and gender groups. Mothers were identified as the perpetrators in all of the neonaticides and were the most common perpetrators overall (71.0%; 95% CI 63.9%, 77.2%). Abandoned neonates were mainly term babies, with a mean gestational age of 38 wk. We did not have information on abandonment motives for all newborns and did not know if babies were abandoned with the intention that they would die or with the hope that they would be found alive. We therefore considered all abandoned babies as homicides.
Homicide of children is an extreme form or consequence of violence against children. This national study provides one of the first analyses of neonaticide and infanticide by age and gender and shows the failure of reproductive and mental health and social services to identify and help vulnerable mothers. Multi-sectoral prevention strategies are needed.
Jewkes and colleagues present a cross-sectional study that reveals levels of child homicide in South Africa. Identifying causes and vulnerable mothers will lead to prevention methods and strategies.
Editors' Summary
Child mortality (death) is a global public health concern. In 2015, 5.9 million children (43 out of every 1,000 children born alive) died before their fifth birthday. Nearly half of these deaths occurred among neonates (babies 28 days old or younger); three-quarters of them occurred among infants (children less than one year old). Most of these deaths happened in resource-limited countries following delivery complications, infections, and other natural causes. Some, however, were homicides. Infanticide (the killing of a child under one year old) and neonaticide (the killing of a newborn within 24 hours or 28 days of birth, depending on the definition used) can be active (deliberate killing by, for example, suffocation) or passive (killing through nutritional, physical, or emotional neglect). Many infanticides and neonaticides are the result of abandonment—the mother leaves her infant or newborn in a place without care or protection, either with the intention of killing the child or with the hope that someone will find and care for him/her. Unwanted pregnancies are the most common cause of infanticide and neonaticide, but some infants are also killed because they are disabled or of the wrong gender—in some cultures male children are considered more socially valuable than female children.
Why Was This Study Done?
To develop interventions to prevent child homicide, we need to understand when, where, and why these deaths occur. However, little research has been done on neonaticide and infanticide, particularly in resource-limited settings, because these deaths are often poorly identified and reported. In Africa, for example, although quantitative (numerical) research on child homicide is rare, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, has one of the highest reported rates of neonaticide (27.7 homicides within 24 hours of birth per 100,000 live births); by comparison, a review of studies undertaken in the US, UK, and New Zealand reported incidences of infanticide and neonaticide ranging between 2.1 and 6.9 per 100,000 live births. Here, the researchers use data collected in a national cross-sectional mortuary-based study of child homicides committed in 2009 to investigate patterns among homicides of neonates, infants, and children under five years old in South Africa.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers chose a random sample of 38 medico-legal laboratories (mortuaries where postmortem examinations were performed on all unnatural deaths) across South Africa. They used data extracted from mortuary files, autopsy reports, and police interviews to identify homicides of children under five years old. The researchers estimated that 454 children under five years old were killed in South Africa in 2009. More than half of the children who died were neonates, and nearly three-quarters were infants, giving a neonaticide rate (defined in this study as homicide within the first 28 days of life) of 19 per 100,000 live births and an infanticide rate of 28 per 100,000 live births. Most of the neonates died in the early neonatal period—only eight out of 241 neonates were more than six days old when they died. Abandonment accounted for 84.9% of neonaticides, and abandoned neonates were mainly term babies. Overall, there was no gender bias among child homicides, but 56% of homicides of boys took place in an urban setting, compared to 44% of homicides of girls. Finally, young mothers were the most common perpetrators of child homicide.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings show that, in 2009, the rates of infanticide and neonaticide in South Africa were much higher than the rates previously reported for the US, UK, and New Zealand. The rates reported here are likely to be underestimates because it is often difficult to distinguish infanticide from other causes of death during infancy. Another important limitation of this study is the lack of data on the motive for abandonment of newborns. Importantly, however, these findings suggest that a child born in South Africa is at the highest risk of being killed during its first six days of life. This may mean that mothers who abandon their babies simply do not want a child, and suggests that reproductive, mental health, and social services are failing to identify and help vulnerable mothers in South Africa. The researchers suggest, therefore, that multi-sectoral prevention strategies are needed to reduce child homicides in South Africa. A pilot child death review system that has been initiated in South Africa to identify and describe patterns and causes of child death could assist in the development of such prevention strategies.
Additional Information
This list of resources contains links that can be accessed when viewing the PDF on a device or via the online version of the article at
This study is further discussed in a PLOS Medicine Perspective by Delan Devakumar and David Osrin
The World Health Organization (WHO) provides information on child health and child mortality and global efforts to reduce child mortality and a factsheet on child maltreatment (available in several languages); a previous paper by the researchers on child homicide is available on the WHO website
The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) works for children’s rights, survival, development, and protection around the world; its UNICEF Data website provides detailed statistics about child health and mortality; its 2014 report Children in Danger: Act to End Violence against Children provides detailed information about violence against children; Hidden in Plain Sight is a 2014 UNICEF statistical analysis of violence against children
The international non-governmental organization Humanium, which works to stop violations of children’s rights worldwide, has an article on infanticide (in several languages)
Child Trends is a US not-for-profit organization that aims to improve the lives and prospects of children and youth in the US by conducting research; it provides up-to-date information about infanticide in the US
Information on the South African pilot child death review system is available; a guide on the child death review system in the UK for parents and carers is available
PMCID: PMC4846035  PMID: 27115771
12.  Child Mortality Estimation: A Comparison of UN IGME and IHME Estimates of Levels and Trends in Under-Five Mortality Rates and Deaths 
PLoS Medicine  2012;9(8):e1001288.
Leontine Alkema and Danzhen You compare and summarize differences in underlying data and modelling approaches used by two key groups who publish data on global under-5 mortality rates
Millennium Development Goal 4 calls for a reduction in the under-five mortality rate (U5MR) by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In 2011, estimates were published by the United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UN IGME) and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME). The difference in the U5MR estimates produced by the two research groups was more than 10% and corresponded to more than ten deaths per 1,000 live births for 10% of all countries in 1990 and 20% of all countries in 2010, which can lead to conflicting conclusions with respect to countries' progress. To understand what caused the differences in estimates, we summarised differences in underlying data and modelling approaches used by the two groups, and analysed their effects.
Methods and Findings
UN IGME and IHME estimation approaches differ with respect to the construction of databases and the pre-processing of data, trend fitting procedures, inclusion and exclusion of data series, and additional adjustment procedures. Large differences in U5MR estimates between the UN IGME and the IHME exist in countries with conflicts or civil unrest, countries with high HIV prevalence, and countries where the underlying data used to derive the estimates were different, especially if the exclusion of data series differed between the two research groups. A decomposition of the differences showed that differences in estimates due to using different data (inclusion of data series and pre-processing of data) are on average larger than the differences due to using different trend fitting methods.
Substantial country-specific differences between UN IGME and IHME estimates for U5MR and the number of under-five deaths exist because of various differences in data and modelling assumptions used. Often differences are illustrative of the lack of reliable data and likely to decrease as more data become available. Improved transparency on methods and data used will help to improve understanding about the drivers of the differences.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Editors' Summary
In 2010, more than seven million children died before they reached their fifth birthday, and the global under-five mortality rate (also denoted in the literature as U5MR and 5q0) was 57 deaths per 1,000 live births. Most deaths before the age of five years occur in developing countries (about half occur in just five countries—India, Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan, and China), and most are caused by preventable or treatable diseases such as pneumonia, diarrhea, and malaria. Faced with this largely avoidable loss of young lives, in 1990, the United Nations (UN) World Summit for Children pledged to improve the survival of children. Later, in 2000, world leaders set a target of reducing under-five mortality to one-third of its 1990 level (12 million) by 2015, as Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4). This goal, together with seven others, is designed to improve the social, economic, and health conditions in the world's poorest countries.
Why Was This Study Done?
Although progress towards MDG 4 is accelerating, MDG 4 is unlikely to be reached. It is important, therefore, to know which countries are making poor progress towards MDG 4 so that extra resources can be concentrated in these areas. To monitor both national and global progress, accurate, up-to-date estimates of U5MR are essential. The first step in estimating U5MR is the collection of data on child deaths, usually through vital registration systems (which record all births and deaths) in developed countries and through surveys that ask women about their living and dead children in developing countries. Country-specific U5MR estimates that are comparable over time and across countries are obtained from these data using a statistical process called trend fitting. Two groups—the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UN IGME) and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME)—recently published new estimates of the levels and trends in U5MR and under-five deaths across the world. However, their estimates differ somewhat and, for some countries, disagree on the progress being made towards MDG 4. Here, the researchers examine the differences in the underlying data and the trend fitting approaches used by the UN IGME and the IHME to try to understand why their estimates are different.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers first compared the estimates produced by the two groups. From 1990 to 2010, the UN IGME's global estimates of U5MR and under-five deaths were consistently slightly higher than those of the IHME. For example, in 2010, the UN IGME and IMHE estimates of U5MR were 56.7 and 53.9 deaths per 1,000 births, respectively. However, although the global estimates from the two groups were broadly similar, there were important differences between the two sets of estimates at the country level, particularly in countries where there was conflict or civil unrest (for example, Somalia) or high HIV prevalence. The researchers then examined the data used by the two groups to estimate under-five deaths and U5MR, the method used for U5MR trend fitting, and additional adjustment procedures (for example, the UN IGME incorporates feedback from experts and country consultations in its estimates). The UN IGME and IHME estimation approaches included differences in all of these areas, but differences in the data used caused on average larger differences in the estimates than the use of different trend fitting methods did.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings show that the substantial country-specific differences between UN IGME and IHME estimates for U5MR and the number of under-five deaths are the result of several differences between the data and trend fitting methods used by the two groups. In particular, the findings indicate that the lack of reliable data in many developing countries, especially those where there is civil unrest or ongoing conflicts, is often responsible for differences in estimates. These differences should, therefore, decrease as more reliable data become available. For now, though, the differences between the UN IGME and IHME national estimates of child mortality may cause confusion about the true extent of progress towards MDG 4 and could foster policy inactivity if the reasons for the discrepancies are not made clear. The researchers call, therefore, for more transparency on the methods and data used in the estimation of U5MR and for a concerted effort by governments, UN agencies, and non-governmental organizations to improve the collection of reliable data on child deaths.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at
This paper is part of a collection of papers on Child Mortality Estimation Methods published in PLOS Medicine
The United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF) works for children's rights, survival, development, and protection around the world; it provides information on Millennium Development Goal 4, and its Childinfo website provides detailed statistics about child survival and health, including a description of the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation and a link to its database; the 2011 UN IGME report on Levels and Trends in Child Mortality is available
The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation website includes a summary of their 2011 analysis of U5MR and under-five deaths
The World Health Organization also has information about Millennium Development Goal 4 and provides estimates of child mortality rates (some information in several languages)
Further information about the Millennium Development Goals is available
PMCID: PMC3429386  PMID: 22952434
13.  Effect of Removing Direct Payment for Health Care on Utilisation and Health Outcomes in Ghanaian Children: A Randomised Controlled Trial 
PLoS Medicine  2009;6(1):e1000007.
Delays in accessing care for malaria and other diseases can lead to disease progression, and user fees are a known barrier to accessing health care. Governments are introducing free health care to improve health outcomes. Free health care affects treatment seeking, and it is therefore assumed to lead to improved health outcomes, but there is no direct trial evidence of the impact of removing out-of-pocket payments on health outcomes in developing countries. This trial was designed to test the impact of free health care on health outcomes directly.
Methods and Findings
2,194 households containing 2,592 Ghanaian children under 5 y old were randomised into a prepayment scheme allowing free primary care including drugs, or to a control group whose families paid user fees for health care (normal practice); 165 children whose families had previously paid to enrol in the prepayment scheme formed an observational arm. The primary outcome was moderate anaemia (haemoglobin [Hb] < 8 g/dl); major secondary outcomes were health care utilisation, severe anaemia, and mortality. At baseline the randomised groups were similar. Introducing free primary health care altered the health care seeking behaviour of households; those randomised to the intervention arm used formal health care more and nonformal care less than the control group. Introducing free primary health care did not lead to any measurable difference in any health outcome. The primary outcome of moderate anaemia was detected in 37 (3.1%) children in the control and 36 children (3.2%) in the intervention arm (adjusted odds ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 0.66–1.67). There were four deaths in the control and five in the intervention group. Mean Hb concentration, severe anaemia, parasite prevalence, and anthropometric measurements were similar in each group. Families who previously self-enrolled in the prepayment scheme were significantly less poor, had better health measures, and used services more frequently than those in the randomised group.
In the study setting, removing out-of-pocket payments for health care had an impact on health care-seeking behaviour but not on the health outcomes measured.
Trial registration: (#NCT00146692).
Evelyn Ansah and colleagues report on whether removing user fees has an impact on health care-seeking behavior and health outcomes in households with children in Ghana.
Editors' Summary
Every year, about 10 million children worldwide die before their fifth birthday. About half these deaths occur in developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Here, 166 children out of every 1,000 die before they are five. A handful of preventable diseases—acute respiratory infections, diarrhea, malaria, measles, and HIV/AIDS—are responsible for most of these deaths. For all these diseases, delays in accessing medical care contribute to the high death rate. In the case of malaria, for example, children are rarely taken to a clinic or hospital (formal health care) when they first develop symptoms, which include fever, chills, and anemia (lack of red blood cells). Instead, they are taken to traditional healers or given home remedies (informal health care). When they are finally taken to a clinic, it is often too late to save their lives. Many factors contribute to this delay in seeking formal health care. Sometimes, health care simply isn't available. In other instances, parents may worry about the quality of the service provided or may not seek formal health care because of their sociocultural beliefs. Finally, many parents cannot afford the travel costs and loss of earnings involved in taking their child to a clinic or the cost of the treatment itself.
Why Was This Study Done?
The financial cost of seeking formal health care is often the major barrier to accessing health care in poor countries. Consequently, the governments of several developing countries have introduced free health care in an effort to improve their nation's health. Such initiatives have increased the use of formal health care in several African countries; the introduction of user fees in Ghana in the early 1980s had the opposite effect. It is generally assumed that an increase in formal health care utilization improves health—but is this true? In this study, the researchers investigate the effect of removing direct payment for health care on health service utilization and health outcomes in Ghanaian children in a randomized controlled trial (a trial in which participants are randomly assigned to an “intervention” group or “control” group and various predefined outcomes are measured).
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers enrolled nearly 2,600 children under the age of 5 y living in a poor region of Ghana. Half were assigned to the group in which a prepayment scheme (paid for by the trial) provided free primary and basic secondary health care—this was the intervention arm. The rest were assigned to the control group in which families paid for health care. The trial's main outcome was the percentage of children with moderate anemia at the end of the malaria transmission season, an indicator of the effect of the intervention on malaria-related illness. Other outcomes included health care utilization (calculated from household diaries), severe anemia, and death. The researchers report that the children in the intervention arm attended formal health care facilities slightly more often and informal health care providers slightly less often than those in the control arm. About 3% of the children in both groups had moderate anemia at the end of the malaria transmission season. In addition, similar numbers of deaths, cases of severe anemia, fever episodes, and known infections with the malaria parasite were recorded in both groups of children.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings show that, in this setting, the removal of out-of-pocket payments for health care changed health care-seeking behavior but not health outcomes in children. This lack of a measured effect does not necessarily mean that the provision of free health care has no effect on children's health—it could be that the increase in health care utilization in the intervention arm compared to the control arm was too modest to produce a clear effect on health. Alternatively, in Ghana, the indirect costs of seeking health care may be more important than the direct cost of paying for treatment. Although the findings of this trial may not be generalizable to other countries, they nevertheless raise the possibility that providing free health care might not be the most cost-effective way of improving health in all developing countries. Importantly, they also suggest that changes in health care utilization should not be used in future trials as a proxy measure of improvements in health.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at
This research article is further discussed in a PLoS Medicine Perspective by Valéry Ridde and Slim Haddad
The World Health Organization provides information on child health and on global efforts to reduce child mortality, Millennium Development Goal 4; it also provides information about health in Ghana
The United Nations Web site provides further information on all the Millennium Development Goals, which were agreed to by the nations of the world in 2000 with the aim of ending extreme poverty by 2015 (in several languages)
The UK Department for International Development also provides information on the progress that is being made toward reducing child mortality
PMCID: PMC2613422  PMID: 19127975
14.  Child Mortality Estimation: Estimating Sex Differences in Childhood Mortality since the 1970s 
PLoS Medicine  2012;9(8):e1001287.
Cheryl Sawyer uses new methods to generate estimates of sex differences in child mortality which can be used to pinpoint areas where these differences in mortality merit closer examination.
Producing estimates of infant (under age 1 y), child (age 1–4 y), and under-five (under age 5 y) mortality rates disaggregated by sex is complicated by problems with data quality and availability. Interpretation of sex differences requires nuanced analysis: girls have a biological advantage against many causes of death that may be eroded if they are disadvantaged in access to resources. Earlier studies found that girls in some regions were not experiencing the survival advantage expected at given levels of mortality. In this paper I generate new estimates of sex differences for the 1970s to the 2000s.
Methods and Findings
Simple fitting methods were applied to male-to-female ratios of infant and under-five mortality rates from vital registration, surveys, and censuses. The sex ratio estimates were used to disaggregate published series of both-sexes mortality rates that were based on a larger number of sources. In many developing countries, I found that sex ratios of mortality have changed in the same direction as historically occurred in developed countries, but typically had a lower degree of female advantage for a given level of mortality. Regional average sex ratios weighted by numbers of births were found to be highly influenced by China and India, the only countries where both infant mortality and overall under-five mortality were estimated to be higher for girls than for boys in the 2000s. For the less developed regions (comprising Africa, Asia excluding Japan, Latin America/Caribbean, and Oceania excluding Australia and New Zealand), on average, boys' under-five mortality in the 2000s was about 2% higher than girls'. A number of countries were found to still experience higher mortality for girls than boys in the 1–4-y age group, with concentrations in southern Asia, northern Africa/western Asia, and western Africa. In the more developed regions (comprising Europe, northern America, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand), I found that the sex ratio of infant mortality peaked in the 1970s or 1980s and declined thereafter.
The methods developed here pinpoint regions and countries where sex differences in mortality merit closer examination to ensure that both sexes are sharing equally in access to health resources. Further study of the distribution of causes of death in different settings will aid the interpretation of differences in survival for boys and girls.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Editors' Summary
In 2000, world leaders agreed to eradicate extreme poverty by 2015. To help track progress towards this global commitment, eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were set. MDG 4, which aims to reduce child mortality, calls for a reduction in under-five mortality (the number of children who die before their fifth birthday) to a third of its 1990 level of 12 million by 2015. The under-five mortality rate is also denoted in the literature as U5MR and 5q0. Progress towards MDG 4 has been substantial, but with only three years left to reach it, efforts to strengthen child survival programs are intensifying. Reliable estimates of trends in childhood mortality are pivotal to these efforts. So, since 2004, the United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UN IGME) has used statistical regression models to produce estimates of trends in under-five mortality and infant mortality (death before age one year) from data about childbearing and child survival collected by vital registration systems (records of all births and deaths), household surveys, and censuses.
Why Was This Study Done?
In addition to estimates of overall childhood mortality trends, information about sex-specific childhood mortality trends is desirable to monitor progress towards MDG 4, although the interpretation of trends in the relative mortality of girls and boys is not straightforward. Newborn girls survive better than newborn boys because they are less vulnerable to birth complications and infections and have fewer inherited abnormalities. Thus, the ratio of infant mortality among boys to infant mortality among girls is greater than one, provided both sexes have equal access to food and medical care. Beyond early infancy, girls and boys are similarly vulnerable to infections, so the sex ratio of deaths in the 1–4-year age group is generally lower than that of infant mortality. Notably, as living conditions improve in developing countries, infectious diseases become less important as causes of death. Thus, in the absence of sex-specific differences in the treatment of children, the sex ratio of childhood mortality is expected be greater than one and to increase as overall under-five mortality rates in developing countries decrease. In this study, the researcher evaluated national and regional changes in the sex ratios of childhood mortality since the 1970s to investigate whether girls and boys have equal access to medical care and other resources.
What Did the Researcher Do and Find?
The researcher developed new statistical fitting methods to estimate trends in the sex ratio of mortality for infants and young children for individual countries and world regions. When considering individual countries, the researcher found that for 92 countries in less developed regions, the median sex ratio of under-five mortality increased between the 1970s and the 2000s, in line with the expected changes just described. However, the average sex ratio of under-five mortality for less developed regions, weighted according to the number of births in each country, did not increase between the 1970s and 2000s, at which time the average under-five mortality rate of boys was about 2% higher than that of girls. This discrepancy resulted from India and China—the two most populous developing countries—having sex ratios for both infant and under-five mortality that remained constant or declined over the study period and were below one in the 2000s, a result that indicates excess female mortality. In China, for example, infant mortality was found to be 12% higher for boys than for girls in the 1970s, but 24% lower for boys than for girls in the 2000s. Finally, although in the less developed regions (excluding India and China) girls went from having a slight survival disadvantage at ages 1–4 years in the 1970s, on average, to having a slight advantage in the 2000s, girls remained more likely to die than boys in this age group in several Asian and African countries.
What Do These Findings Mean?
Although the quality of the available data is likely to affect the accuracy of these findings, in most developing countries the ratio of male to female under-five mortality has increased since the 1970s, in parallel with the decrease in overall childhood mortality. Notably, however, in a number of developing countries—including several each in sub-Saharan Africa, northern Africa/western Asia, and southern Asia—girls have higher mortality than boys at ages 1–4 years, and in India and China girls have higher mortality in infancy. Thus, girls are benefitting less than boys from the overall decline in childhood mortality in India, China, and some other developing countries. Further studies are needed to determine the underlying reasons for this observation. Nevertheless, the methods developed here to estimate trends in sex-specific childhood mortality pinpoint countries and regions where greater efforts should be made to ensure that both sexes have equal access to health care and other important resources during early life.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at
This paper is part of a collection of papers on Child Mortality Estimation Methods published in PLOS Medicine
The United Nations Childrens Fund works for children's rights, survival, development, and protection around the world; it provides information on Millennium Development Goal 4, and its Childinfo website provides detailed statistics about child survival and health, including a description of the United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation; the 2011 UN IGME report Levels & Trends in Child Mortality is available
The World Health Organization also has information about Millennium Development Goal 4 and provides estimates of child mortality rates (some information in several languages)
Further information about the Millennium Development Goals is available
A 2011 report by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs entitled Sex Differentials in Childhood Mortality is available
PMCID: PMC3429399  PMID: 22952433
15.  Redox Pioneer: Professor Joseph Loscalzo 
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling  2010;13(7):1125-1132.
Professor Joseph Loscalzo
Dr. Joseph Loscalzo (M.D., 1978; Ph.D., 1977) is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer because he has published two articles in the field of antioxidant/redox biology that have been cited more than 1,000 times and 22 articles that have been cited more than 100 times. Dr. Loscalzo is known for his seminal contributions to our understanding of the vascular biology of nitric oxide. His initial discovery that the antiplatelet effects of organic nitrates are potentiated by thiols through a mechanism that involved metabolism to S-nitrosothiols was followed by the demonstration that S-nitrosothiols are formed endogenously through S-transnitrosation, stabilize nitric oxide, and facilitate the transport and transfer of nitric oxide between and within cells of the vessel wall. These properties led to the development of S-nitrosothiol–containing pharmacotherapies to treat disease states characterized by nitric oxide deficiency. Dr. Loscalzo's other scientific contributions include identifying the vascular functional consequences of genetic deficiencies of antioxidant enzymes that decrease nitric oxide bioavailability, collectively termed the “oxidative enzymopathies,” and demonstrating the role of mitochondria in modulating the disulfide subproteome, and in redox signaling in hypoxia. He has received numerous awards and honors for his scientific contributions, including election to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 13, 1125–1132.
PMCID: PMC2959177  PMID: 20443733
16.  Reframing climate change as a public health issue: an exploratory study of public reactions 
BMC Public Health  2010;10:299.
Climate change is taking a toll on human health, and some leaders in the public health community have urged their colleagues to give voice to its health implications. Previous research has shown that Americans are only dimly aware of the health implications of climate change, yet the literature on issue framing suggests that providing a novel frame - such as human health - may be potentially useful in enhancing public engagement. We conducted an exploratory study in the United States of people's reactions to a public health-framed short essay on climate change.
U.S. adult respondents (n = 70), stratified by six previously identified audience segments, read the essay and were asked to highlight in green or pink any portions of the essay they found "especially clear and helpful" or alternatively "especially confusing or unhelpful." Two dependent measures were created: a composite sentence-specific score based on reactions to all 18 sentences in the essay; and respondents' general reactions to the essay that were coded for valence (positive, neutral, or negative). We tested the hypothesis that five of the six audience segments would respond positively to the essay on both dependent measures.
There was clear evidence that two of the five segments responded positively to the public health essay, and mixed evidence that two other responded positively. There was limited evidence that the fifth segment responded positively. Post-hoc analysis showed that five of the six segments responded more positively to information about the health benefits associated with mitigation-related policy actions than to information about the health risks of climate change.
Presentations about climate change that encourage people to consider its human health relevance appear likely to provide many Americans with a useful and engaging new frame of reference. Information about the potential health benefits of specific mitigation-related policy actions appears to be particularly compelling. We believe that the public health community has an important perspective to share about climate change, a perspective that makes the problem more personally relevant, significant, and understandable to members of the public.
PMCID: PMC2898822  PMID: 20515503
17.  Measuring Adult Mortality Using Sibling Survival: A New Analytical Method and New Results for 44 Countries, 1974–2006 
PLoS Medicine  2010;7(4):e1000260.
Julie Rajaratnam and colleagues describe a novel method, called the Corrected Sibling Survival method, to measure adult mortality in countries without good vital registration by use of histories taken from surviving siblings.
For several decades, global public health efforts have focused on the development and application of disease control programs to improve child survival in developing populations. The need to reliably monitor the impact of such intervention programs in countries has led to significant advances in demographic methods and data sources, particularly with large-scale, cross-national survey programs such as the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). Although no comparable effort has been undertaken for adult mortality, the availability of large datasets with information on adult survival from censuses and household surveys offers an important opportunity to dramatically improve our knowledge about levels and trends in adult mortality in countries without good vital registration. To date, attempts to measure adult mortality from questions in censuses and surveys have generally led to implausibly low levels of adult mortality owing to biases inherent in survey data such as survival and recall bias. Recent methodological developments and the increasing availability of large surveys with information on sibling survival suggest that it may well be timely to reassess the pessimism that has prevailed around the use of sibling histories to measure adult mortality.
Methods and Findings
We present the Corrected Sibling Survival (CSS) method, which addresses both the survival and recall biases that have plagued the use of survey data to estimate adult mortality. Using logistic regression, our method directly estimates the probability of dying in a given country, by age, sex, and time period from sibling history data. The logistic regression framework borrows strength across surveys and time periods for the estimation of the age patterns of mortality, and facilitates the implementation of solutions for the underrepresentation of high-mortality families and recall bias. We apply the method to generate estimates of and trends in adult mortality, using the summary measure 45q15—the probability of a 15-y old dying before his or her 60th birthday—for 44 countries with DHS sibling survival data. Our findings suggest that levels of adult mortality prevailing in many developing countries are substantially higher than previously suggested by other analyses of sibling history data. Generally, our estimates show the risk of adult death between ages 15 and 60 y to be about 20%–35% for females and 25%–45% for males in sub-Saharan African populations largely unaffected by HIV. In countries of Southern Africa, where the HIV epidemic has been most pronounced, as many as eight out of ten men alive at age 15 y will be dead by age 60, as will six out of ten women. Adult mortality levels in populations of Asia and Latin America are generally lower than in Africa, particularly for women. The exceptions are Haiti and Cambodia, where mortality risks are comparable to many countries in Africa. In all other countries with data, the probability of dying between ages 15 and 60 y was typically around 10% for women and 20% for men, not much higher than the levels prevailing in several more developed countries.
Our results represent an expansion of direct knowledge of levels and trends in adult mortality in the developing world. The CSS method provides grounds for renewed optimism in collecting sibling survival data. We suggest that all nationally representative survey programs with adequate sample size ought to implement this critical module for tracking adult mortality in order to more reliably understand the levels and patterns of adult mortality, and how they are changing.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Governments and international health agencies need accurate information on births and deaths in populations to help them plan health care policies and monitor the effectiveness of public-health programs designed, for example, to prevent premature deaths from preventable causes such as tobacco smoking. In developed countries, full information on births and deaths is recorded in “vital registration systems.” Unfortunately, very few developing countries have complete vital registration systems. In most African countries, for example, less than one-quarter of deaths are counted through vital registration systems. To fill this information gap, scientists have developed several methods to estimate mortality levels (the proportion of deaths in populations) and trends in mortality (how the proportion of deaths in populations changes over time) from data collected in household surveys and censuses. A household survey collects data about family members (for example, number, age, and sex) for a national sample of households randomly selected from a list of households collected in a census (a periodic count of a population).
Why Was This Study Done?
To date, global public-health efforts have concentrated on improving child survival. Consequently, methods for calculating child mortality levels and trends from surveys are well-developed and generally yield accurate estimates. By contrast, although attempts have been made to measure adult mortality using sibling survival histories (records of the sex, age if alive, or age at death, if dead, of all the children born to survey respondents' mothers that are collected in many household surveys), these attempts have often produced implausibly low estimates of adult mortality. These low estimates arise because people do not always recall deaths accurately when questioned (recall bias) and because families that have fallen apart, possibly because of family deaths, are underrepresented in household surveys (selection bias). In this study, the researchers develop a corrected sibling survival (CSS) method that addresses the problems of selection and recall bias and use their method to estimate mortality levels and trends in 44 developing countries between 1974 and 2006.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers used a statistical approach called logistic regression to develop the CSS method. They then used the method to estimate the probability of a 15-year-old dying before his or her 60th birthday from sibling survival data collected by the Demographic and Health Surveys program (DHS, a project started in 1984 to help developing countries collect data on population and health trends). Levels of adult mortality estimated in this way were considerably higher than those suggested by previous analyses of sibling history data. For example, the risk of adult death between the ages of 15 and 60 years was 20%–35% for women and 25%–45% for men living in sub-Saharan African countries largely unaffected by HIV and 60% for women and 80% for men living in countries in Southern Africa where the HIV epidemic is worst. Importantly, the researchers show that their mortality level estimates compare well to those obtained from vital registration data and other data sources where available. So, for example, in the Philippines, adult mortality levels estimated using the CSS method were similar to those obtained from vital registration data. Finally, the researchers used the CSS method to estimate mortality trends. These calculations reveal, for example, that there has been a 3–4-fold increase in adult mortality since the late 1980s in Zimbabwe, a country badly affected by the HIV epidemic.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings suggest that the CSS method, which applies a correction for both selection and recall bias, yields more accurate estimates of adult mortality in developing countries from sibling survival data than previous methods. Given their findings, the researchers suggest that sibling survival histories should be routinely collected in all future household survey programs and, if possible, these surveys should be expanded so that all respondents are asked about sibling histories—currently the DHS only collects sibling histories from women aged 15–49 years. Widespread collection of such data and their analysis using the CSS method, the researchers conclude, would help governments and international agencies track trends in adult mortality and progress toward major health and development targets.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at
This study and two related PLoS Medicine Research Articles by Rajaratnam et al. and by Murray et al. are further discussed in a PLoS Medicine Perspective by Mathers and Boerma
Information is available about the Demographic and Health Surveys
The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation makes available high-quality information on population health, its determinants, and the performance of health systems
Grand Challenges in Global Health provides information on research into better ways for developing countries to measure their health status
The World Health Organization Statistical Information System (WHOSIS) is an interactive database that brings together core health statistics for WHO member states, including information on vital registration of deaths; the WHO Health Metrics Network is a global collaboration focused on improving sources of vital statistics
PMCID: PMC2854132  PMID: 20405004
18.  Examining the relationship between typical drinking behavior and 21st birthday drinking behavior among college students: implications for event-specific prevention 
Addiction (Abingdon, England)  2008;104(5):760-767.
The purpose of this research was to: (i) compare 21st birthday drinking with typical drinking; (ii) assess the prevalence of negative consequences and risk behaviors experienced during the 21st birthday week; and (iii) examine the role of typical drinking and 21st birthday drinking in explaining 21st birthday week negative consequences and risk behaviors.
Setting and participants
Participants (n = 306; 50% male) included college students turning 21 at a Midwestern public university in the United States.
Design and measurement
Approximately 1 week prior to their 21st birthday, students completed measures of typical past 3-month alcohol consumption via a web-based survey. Following their birthday, students (n = 296; 50% male) completed measures of 21st birthday week drinking as well as negative consequences and risk behaviors.
Findings indicated that students consumed considerably larger amounts of alcohol during the week of their 21st birthdays in comparison to typical weekly consumption. Additionally, students experienced a variety of negative consequences and risk behaviors during the week of their 21st birthday, including hangovers, vomiting and not remembering part of the previous evening. Negative binomial regression results indicated that those most likely to experience more negative consequences and risk behaviors associated with 21st birthday drinking were those who consumed heavy amounts of alcohol the week of their birthday, but who did not typically drink excessively.
Findings underscore the need to develop event-specific prevention approaches for occasions associated with extreme drinking and provide direction for considering who may be at greatest risk for problems associated with celebratory drinking.
PMCID: PMC2684626  PMID: 19344447
Alcohol; alcohol-related problems; college students; event-specific drinking; event-specific prevention; 21st birthday
19.  A tribute to Robert Edwards and Howard Jones Jr 
“2010 was a fascinating year. Robert Edwards finally received the Nobel prize for Medicine and his friend in the United States, Howard W. Jones Jr. was honored in Denver by the American Society of Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) upon his Centennial Birthday. He turned 100 on December 30th”
PMCID: PMC3991406  PMID: 24753845
20.  EPMA-World Congress 2015 
Abraham, Jella-Andrea | Golubnitschaja, Olga | Akhmetov, Ildar | Andrews, Russell J. | Quintana, Leonidas | Andrews, Russell J. | Baban, Babak | Liu, Jun Yao | Qin, Xu | Wang, Tailing | Mozaffari, Mahmood S. | Bati, Viktoriia V. | Meleshko, Tamara V. | Levchuk, Olga B. | Boyko, Nadiya V. | Bauer, Joanna | Boerner, Ewa | Podbielska, Halina | Bomba, Alojz | Petrov, Viktor O. | Drobnych, Volodymyr G. | Bubnov, Rostyslav V. | Bykova, Oksana M. | Boyko, Nadiya V. | Brunner-La Rocca, Hans-Peter | Fleischhacker, Lutz | Golubnitschaja, Olga | Heemskerk, Frank | Helms, Thomas | Jaarsma, Tiny | Kinkorová, Judita | Ramaekers, Jan | Ruff, Peter | Schnur, Ivana | Vanoli, Emilio | Verdu, Jose | Brunner-La Rocca, Hans-Peter | Bubnov, Rostyslav V. | Grabovetskyi, Sergiy A. | Mykhalchenko, Olena M. | Tymoshok, Natalia O. | Shcherbakov, Oleksandr B. | Semeniv, Igor P. | Spivak, Mykola Y. | Bubnov, Rostyslav V. | Ostapenko, Tetyana V. | Bubnov, Rostyslav V. | Kobyliak, Nazarii M. | Zholobak, Nadiya M. | Spivak, Mykola Ya. | Cauchi, John Paul | Cherepakhin, Dmitrii | Bakay, Marina | Borovikov, Artem | Suchkov, Sergey | Cieślik, Barbara | Migasiewicz, Agnieszka | Podbielska, Maria-Luiza | Pelleter, Markus | Giemza, Agnieszka | Podbielska, Halina | Cirak, Sebahattin | Del Re, Marzia | Bordi, Paola | Citi, Valentina | Palombi, Marta | Pinto, Carmine | Tiseo, Marcello | Danesi, Romano | Einhorn, Lukas | Fazekas, Judit | Muhr, Martina | Schoos, Alexandra | Panakova, Lucia | Herrmann, Ina | Manzano-Szalai, Krisztina | Oida, Kumiko | Fiebiger, Edda | Singer, Josef | Jensen-Jarolim, Erika | Elnar, Arpiné A. | Ouamara, Nadia | Boyko, Nadiya | Coumoul, Xavier | Antignac, Jean-Philippe | Le Bizec, Bruno | Eppe, Gauthier | Renaut, Jenny | Bonn, Torsten | Guignard, Cédric | Ferrante, Margherita | Chiusano, Maria Liusa | Cuzzocrea, Salvatore | O’Keeffe, Gerard | Cryan, John | Bisson, Michelle | Barakat, Amina | Hmamouchi, Ihsane | Zawia, Nasser | Kanthasamy, Anumantha | Kisby, Glen E. | Alves, Rui | Pérez, Oscar Villacañas | Burgard, Kim | Spencer, Peter | Bomba, Norbert | Haranta, Martin | Zaitseva, Nina | May, Irina | Grojean, Stéphanie | Body-Malapel, Mathilde | Harari, Florencia | Harari, Raul | Yeghiazaryan, Kristina | Golubnitschaja, Olga | Calabrese, Vittorio | Nemos, Christophe | Soulimani, Rachid | Evsevyeva, Maria E. | Mishenko, Elena A. | Kumukova, Zurida V. | Chudnovsky, Evgeniy V. | Smirnova, Tatyana A. | Evsevyeva, Maria E. | Ivanova, Ludmila V. | Eremin, Michail V. | Rostovtseva, Maria V. | Evsevyeva, Maria E. | Eremin, Michail V. | Koshel, Vladimir I. | Sergeeva, Oksana V. | Konovalova, Nadesgda M. | Girotra, Shantanu | Golubnitschaja, Olga | Golubnitschaja, Olga | Debald, Manuel | Kuhn, Walther | Yeghiazaryan, Kristina | Bubnov, Rostyslav V. | Goncharenko, Vadym M. | Lushchyk, Ulyana | Grech, Godfrey | Konieczka, Katarzyna | Golubnitschaja, Olga | Erwich, Jan Jaap | Costigliola, Vincenzo | Yeghiazaryan, Kristina | Gembruch, Ulrich | Goncharenko, Vadym M. | Beniuk, Vasyl O. | Kalenska, Olga V. | Bubnov, Rostyslav V. | Goncharenko, Vadym M. | Beniuk, Vasyl O. | Bubnov, Rostyslav V. | Melnychuk, Olga | Gorbacheva, Irina A. | Orekhova, Lyudmila Y. | Tachalov, Vadim V. | Grechanyk, Olena I. | Abdullaiev, Rizvan Ya. | Bubnov, Rostyslav V. | Hagan, Suzanne | Martin, Eilidh | Pearce, Ian | Oliver, Katherine | Haytac, Cenk | Salimov, Fariz | Yoksul, Servin | Kunin, Anatoly A. | Moiseeva, Natalia S. | Herrera-Imbroda, Bernardo | del Río-González, Sergio | Lara, Maria Fernanda | Angulo, Antonia | Machuca Santa-Cruz, Francisco Javier | Herrera-Imbroda, Bernardo | del Río-González, Sergio | Lara, Maria Fernanda | Ionescu, John | Isamulaeva, Alfiya Z. | Kunin, Anatoly A. | Magomedov, Shamil Sh. | Isamulaeva, Aida I. | Josifova, Tatjana | Kapalla, Marko | Kubáň, Juraj | Golubnitschaja, Olga | Costigliola, Vincenzo | Costigliola, Vincenzo | Kapalla, Marko | Kubáň, Juraj | Golubnitschaja, Olga | Kent, Anthony | Fisher, Tom | Dias, Tilak | Kinkorová, Judita | Topolčan, Ondřej | Kohl, Matthias | Kunin, Anatoly A. | Moiseeva, Natalia S. | Kurchenko, Andrii I. | Beniuk, Vasyl A. | Goncharenko, Vadym M. | Bubnov, Rostyslav V. | Boyko, Nadiya V. | Strokan, Andriy M. | Kzhyshkowska, Julia | Gudima, Alexandru | Stankevich, Ksenia S. | Filimonov, Victor D. | Klüter, Harald | Mamontova, Evgeniya M. | Tverdokhlebov, Sergei I. | Lushchyk, Ulyana B. | Novytskyy, Viktor V. | Babii, Igor P. | Lushchyk, Nadiya G. | Riabets, Lyudmyla S. | Legka, Ivanna I. | Marcus-Kalish, Mira | Mitelpunkt, Alexis | Galili, Tal | Shachar, Neta | Benjamini, Yoav | Migasiewicz, Agnieszka | Pelleter, Markus | Bauer, Joanna | Dereń, Ewelina | Podbielska, Halina | Moiseeva, Natalia S. | Kunin, Anatoly A. | Kunin, Dmitry A. | Moiseeva, Natalia S. | Ippolitov, Yury A. | Kunin, Dmitry A. | Morozov, Alexei N. | Chirkova, Natalia V. | Aliev, Nakhid T. | Mozaffari, Mahmood S. | Liu, Jun Yao | Baban, Babak | Mozaffari, Mahmood S. | Liu, Jun Yao | Abdelsayed, Rafik | Shi, Xing-Ming | Baban, Babak | Novák, Jaroslav | Štork, Milan | Zeman, Václav | Oosterhuis, Wytze P. | Theodorsson, Elvar | Orekhova, Lyudmila Y. | Kudryavtseva, Tatyana V. | Isaeva, Elena R. | Tachalov, Vadim V. | Loboda, Ekaterina S. | Pazzagli, Mario | Malentacchi, Francesca | Mancini, Irene | Brandslund, Ivan | Vermeersch, Pieter | Schwab, Matthias | Marc, Janja | van Schaik, Ron H. N. | Siest, Gerard | Theodorsson, Elvar | Di Resta, Chiara | Pleva, Matus | Juhar, Jozef | Pleva, Matus | Juhar, Jozef | Polívka jr., Jiří | Janků, Filip | Pešta, Martin | Doležal, Jan | Králíčková, Milena | Polívka, Jiří | Polívka, Jiří | Lukešová, Alena | Müllerová, Nina | Ševčík, Petr | Rohan, Vladimír | Richter, Kneginja | Miloseva, Lence | Niklewski, Günter | Richter, Kneginja | Acker, Jens | Niklewski, Guenter | Safonicheva, Olga | Costigliola, Vincenzo | Safonicheva, Olga | Sautin, Maxim | Sinelnikova, Janna | Suchkov, Sergey | Secer, Songül | von Bandemer, Stephan | Shapira, Niva | Shcherbakov, Aleksandr | Kunin, Anatoly A. | Moiseeva, Natalia S. | Shumilovich, Bogdan R. | Lipkind, Zhanna | Vorobieva, Yulia | Kunin, Dmitry A. | Sudareva, Anastasiia V. | Smokovski, Ivica | Milenkovic, Tatjana | Solís-Herrera, Arturo | Arias-Esparza, María del Carmen | Suchkov, Sergey | Sridhar, Krishna Chander | Golubnitschaja, Olga | Studneva, Maria | Song, Sihong | Creeden, James | Мandrik, Мark | Suchkov, Sergey | Theodorsson, Elvar | Tofail, Syed A. M. | Topolčan, Ondřej | Kinkorová, Judita | Fiala, Ondřej | Karlíková, Marie | Svobodová, Šárka | Kučera, Radek | Fuchsová, Radka | Třeška, Vladislav | Šimánek, Václav | Pecen, Ladislav | Šoupal, Jan | Svačina, Štěpán | Tretyak, Evgeniya | Studneva, Maria | Suchkov, Sergey | Trovato, Francesca M. | Martines, Giuseppe Fabio | Brischetto, Daniela | Catalano, Daniela | Musumeci, Giuseppe | Trovato, Guglielmo M. | Tsangaris, George Th. | Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K. | Tsangaris, George Th. | Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K. | Verdú, José | Gutiérrez, German | Rovira, Jordi | Martinez, Marta | Fleischhacker, Lutz | Green, Donna | Garson, Arthur | Tamburini, Elena | Cuomo, Stefano | Martinez-Leon, Juan | Abrisqueta, Teresa | Brunner-La Rocca, Hans-Peter | Jaarsma, Tiny | Arredondo, Teresa | Vera, Cecilia | Fico, Giuseppe | Golubnitschaja, Olga | Arribas, Fernando | Onderco, Martina | Vara, Isabel | Verdú, José | Sambo, Francesco | Di Camillo, Barbara | Cobelli, Claudio | Facchinetti, Andrea | Fico, Giuseppe | Bellazzi, Riccardo | Sacchi, Lucia | Dagliati, Arianna | Segnani, Daniele | Tibollo, Valentina | Ottaviano, Manuel | Gabriel, Rafael | Groop, Leif | Postma, Jacqueline | Martinez, Antonio | Hakaste, Liisa | Tuomi, Tiinamaija | Zarkogianni, Konstantia | Volchek, Igor | Pototskaya, Nina | Petrov, Andrey | Volchek, Igor | Pototskaya, Nadezhda | Petrov, Andrey | Voog-Oras, Ülle | Jagur, Oksana | Leibur, Edvitar | Niibo, Priit | Jagomägi, Triin | Nguyen, Minh Son | Pruunsild, Chris | Piikov, Dagmar | Saag, Mare | Wang, Wei | Wang, Wei | Weinhäusel, Andreas | Pulverer, Walter | Wielscher, Matthias | Hofner, Manuela | Noehammer, Christa | Soldo, Regina | Hettegger, Peter | Gyurjan, Istvan | Kulovics, Ronald | Schönthaler, Silvia | Beikircher, Gabriel | Kriegner, Albert | Pabinger, Stephan | Vierlinger, Klemens | Yüzbaşıoğlu, Ayşe | Özgüç, Meral
The EPMA Journal  2016;7(Suppl 1):9.
Table of contents
A1 Predictive and prognostic biomarker panel for targeted application of radioembolisation improving individual outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma
Jella-Andrea Abraham, Olga Golubnitschaja
A2 Integrated market access approach amplifying value of “Rx-CDx”
Ildar Akhmetov
A3 Disaster response: an opportunity to improve global healthcare
Russell J. Andrews, Leonidas Quintana
A4 USA PPPM: proscriptive, profligate, profiteering medicine-good for 1 % wealthy, not for 99 % unhealthy
Russell J. Andrews
A5 The role of IDO in a murine model of gingivitis: predictive and therapeutic potentials
Babak Baban, Jun Yao Liu, Xu Qin, Tailing Wang, Mahmood S. Mozaffari
A6 Specific diets for personalised treatment of diabetes type 2
Viktoriia V. Bati, Tamara V. Meleshko, Olga B. Levchuk, Nadiya V. Boyko
A7 Towards personalized physiotherapeutic approach
Joanna Bauer, Ewa Boerner, Halina Podbielska
A8 Cells, animal, SHIME and in silico models for detection and verification of specific biomarkers of non-communicable chronic diseases
Alojz Bomba, Viktor O. Petrov, Volodymyr G. Drobnych, Rostyslav V. Bubnov, Oksana M. Bykova, Nadiya V. Boyko
A9 INTERACT-chronic care model: Self-treatment by patients with decision support e-Health solution
Hans-Peter Brunner-La Rocca, Lutz Fleischhacker, Olga Golubnitschaja, Frank Heemskerk, Thomas Helms, Tiny Jaarsma, Judita Kinkorova, Jan Ramaekers, Peter Ruff, Ivana Schnur, Emilio Vanoli, Jose Verdu
A10 PPPM in cardiovascular medicine in 2015
Hans-Peter Brunner-La Rocca
A11 Magnetic resonance imaging of nanoparticles in mice, potential for theranostic and contrast media development – pilot results
Rostyslav V. Bubnov, Sergiy A. Grabovetskyi, Olena M. Mykhalchenko, Natalia O. Tymoshok, Oleksandr B. Shcherbakov, Igor P. Semeniv, Mykola Y. Spivak
A12 Ultrasound diagnosis for diabetic neuropathy - comparative study
Rostyslav V. Bubnov, Tetyana V. Ostapenko
A13 Ultrasound for stratification patients with diabetic foot ulcers for prevention and personalized treatment - pilot results
Rostyslav V. Bubnov, Nazarii M. Kobyliak, Nadiya M. Zholobak, Mykola Ya. Spivak
A14 Project ImaGenX – designing and executing a questionnaire on environment and lifestyle risk of breast cancer
John Paul Cauchi
A15 Genomics – a new structural brand of predictive, preventive and personalized medicine or the new driver as well?
Dmitrii Cherepakhin, Marina Bakay, Artem Borovikov, Sergey Suchkov
A16 Survey of questionnaires for evaluation of the quality of life in various medical fields
Barbara Cieślik, Agnieszka Migasiewicz, Maria-Luiza Podbielska, Markus Pelleter, Agnieszka Giemza, Halina Podbielska
A17 Personalized molecular treatment for muscular dystrophies
Sebahattin Cirak
A18 Secondary mutations in circulating tumour DNA for acquired drug resistance in patients with advanced ALK + NSCLC
Marzia Del Re, Paola Bordi, Valentina Citi, Marta Palombi, Carmine Pinto, Marcello Tiseo, Romano Danesi
A19 Recombinant species-specific FcεRI alpha proteins for diagnosis of IgE-mediated allergies in dogs, cats and horses
Lukas Einhorn, Judit Fazekas, Martina Muhr, Alexandra Schoos, Lucia Panakova, Ina Herrmann, Krisztina Manzano-Szalai, Kumiko Oida, Edda Fiebiger, Josef Singer, Erika Jensen-Jarolim
A20 Global methodology for developmental neurotoxicity testing in humans and animals early and chronically exposed to chemical contaminants
Arpiné A. Elnar, Nadia Ouamara, Nadiya Boyko, Xavier Coumoul, Jean-Philippe Antignac, Bruno Le Bizec, Gauthier Eppe, Jenny Renaut, Torsten Bonn, Cédric Guignard, Margherita Ferrante, Maria Liusa Chiusano, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Gerard O'Keeffe, John Cryan, Michelle Bisson, Amina Barakat, Ihsane Hmamouchi, Nasser Zawia, Anumantha Kanthasamy, Glen E. Kisby, Rui Alves, Oscar Villacañas Pérez, Kim Burgard, Peter Spencer, Norbert Bomba, Martin Haranta, Nina Zaitseva, Irina May, Stéphanie Grojean, Mathilde Body-Malapel, Florencia Harari, Raul Harari, Kristina Yeghiazaryan, Olga Golubnitschaja, Vittorio Calabrese, Christophe Nemos, Rachid Soulimani
A21 Mental indicators at young people with attributes hypertension and pre-hypertension
Maria E. Evsevyeva, Elena A. Mishenko, Zurida V. Kumukova, Evgeniy V. Chudnovsky, Tatyana A. Smirnova
A22 On the approaches to the early diagnosis of stress-induced hypertension in young employees of State law enforcement agencies
Maria E. Evsevyeva, Ludmila V. Ivanova, Michail V. Eremin, Maria V. Rostovtseva
A23 Сentral aortic pressure and indexes of augmentation in young persons in view of risk factors
Maria E. Evsevyeva, Michail V. Eremin, Vladimir I. Koshel, Oksana V. Sergeeva, Nadesgda M. Konovalova
A24 Breast cancer prediction and prevention: Are reliable biomarkers in horizon?
Shantanu Girotra, Olga Golubnitschaja
A25 Flammer Syndrome and potential formation of pre-metastatic niches: A multi-centred study on phenotyping, patient stratification, prediction and potential prevention of aggressive breast cancer and metastatic disease
Olga Golubnitschaja, Manuel Debald, Walther Kuhn, Kristina Yeghiazaryan, Rostyslav V. Bubnov, Vadym M. Goncharenko, Ulyana Lushchyk, Godfrey Grech, Katarzyna Konieczka
A26 Innovative tools for prenatal diagnostics and monitoring: improving individual pregnancy outcomes and health-economy in EU
Olga Golubnitschaja, Jan Jaap Erwich, Vincenzo Costigliola, Kristina Yeghiazaryan, Ulrich Gembruch
A27 Immunohistochemical assessment of APUD cells in endometriosis
Vadym M. Goncharenko, Vasyl O. Beniuk, Olga V. Kalenska, Rostyslav V. Bubnov
A28 Updating personalized management algorithm of endometrial hyperplasia in pre-menopause women
Vadym M. Goncharenko, Vasyl O. Beniuk, Rostyslav V. Bubnov, Olga Melnychuk
A29 The personified treatment approach of polimorbid patients with periodontal inflammatory diseases
Irina A. Gorbacheva, Lyudmila Y. Orekhova, Vadim V. Tachalov
A30 Ukrainian experience in hybrid war – the challenge to update algorithms for personalized care and early prevention of different military injuries
Olena I. Grechanyk, Rizvan Ya. Abdullaiev, Rostyslav V. Bubnov
A31 Tear fluid biomarkers: a comparison of tear fluid sampling and storage protocols
Suzanne Hagan, Eilidh Martin, Ian Pearce, Katherine Oliver
A32 The correlation of dietary habits with gingival problems during menstruation
Cenk Haytac, Fariz Salimov, Servin Yoksul, Anatoly A. Kunin, Natalia S. Moiseeva
A33 Genomic medicine in a contemporary Spanish population of prostate cancer: our experience
Bernardo Herrera-Imbroda, Sergio del Río-González, Maria Fernanda Lara, Antonia Angulo, Francisco Javier Machuca Santa-Cruz
A34 Challenges, opportunities and collaborations for personalized medicine applicability in uro-oncological disease
Bernardo Herrera-Imbroda, Sergio del Río-González, Maria Fernanda Lara
A35 Metabolic hallmarks of cancer as targets for a personalized therapy
John Ionescu
A36 Influence of genetic polymorphism as a predictor of the development of periodontal disease in patients with gastric ulcer and 12 duodenal ulcer
Alfiya Z. Isamulaeva, Anatoly A. Kunin, Shamil Sh. Magomedov, Aida I. Isamulaeva
A37 Challenges in diabetic macular edema
Tatjana Josifova
A38 Overview of the EPMA strategies in laboratory medicine relevant for PPPM
Marko Kapalla, Juraj Kubáň, Olga Golubnitschaja, Vincenzo Costigliola
A39 EPMA initiative for effective organization of medical travel: European concepts and criteria
Vincenzo Costigliola, Marko Kapalla, Juraj Kubáň, Olga Golubnitschaja
A40 Design and innovation in e-textiles: implications for PPPM
Anthony Kent, Tom Fisher, Tilak Dias
A41 Biobank in Pilsen as a member of national node BBMRI_CZ
Judita Kinkorová, Ondřej Topolčan
A42 Big data in personalized medicine: hype and hope
Matthias Kohl
A43 The 3P approach as the platform of the European Dentistry Department (DPPPD)
Anatoly A. Kunin, Natalia S. Moiseeva
A44 The endometrium cytokine patterns for predictive diagnosis of proliferation severity and cancer prevention
Andrii I. Kurchenko, Vasyl A. Beniuk, Vadym M. Goncharenko, Rostyslav V. Bubnov, Nadiya V. Boyko, Andriy M. Strokan
A45 A monocyte-based in-vitro system for testing individual responses to the implanted material: future for personalized implant construction
Julia Kzhyshkowska, Alexandru Gudima, Ksenia S. Stankevich, Victor D. Filimonov4, Harald Klüter, Evgeniya M. Mamontova, Sergei I. Tverdokhlebov
A46 Prediction and prevention of adverse health effects by meteorological factors: Biomarker patterns and creation of a device for self-monitoring and integrated care
Ulyana B. Lushchyk, Viktor V. Novytskyy, Igor P. Babii, Nadiya G. Lushchyk, Lyudmyla S. Riabets, Ivanna I. Legka
A47 Targeting "disease signatures" towards personalized healthcare
Mira Marcus-Kalish, Alexis Mitelpunkt, Tal Galili, Neta Shachar, Yoav Benjamini
A48 Influence of the skin imperfection on the personal quality of life and possible tools for objective diagnosis
Agnieszka Migasiewicz, Markus Pelleter, Joanna Bauer, Ewelina Dereń, Halina Podbielska
A49 The new direction in caries prevention based on the ultrastructure of dental hard tissues and filling materials
Natalia S. Moiseeva, Anatoly A. Kunin, Dmitry A. Kunin
A50 The use of LED radiation in prevention of dental diseases
Natalia S. Moiseeva, Yury A. Ippolitov, Dmitry A. Kunin, Alexei N. Morozov, Natalia V. Chirkova, Nakhid T. Aliev
A51 Status of endothelial progenitor cells in diabetic nephropathy: predictive and preventive potentials
Mahmood S. Mozaffari, Jun Yao Liu, Babak Baban
A52 The status of glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper protein in salivary gland in Sjögren’s syndrome: predictive and personalized treatment potentials
Mahmood S. Mozaffari, Jun Yao Liu, Rafik Abdelsayed, Xing-Ming Shi, Babak Baban
A53 Maximal aerobic capacity - important quality marker of health
Jaroslav Novák, Milan Štork, Václav Zeman
A54 The EMPOWER project: laboratory medicine and Horizon 2020
Wytze P. Oosterhuis, Elvar Theodorsson
A55 Personality profile manifestations in patient’s attitude to oral care and adherence to doctor’s prescriptions
Lyudmila Y. Orekhova, Tatyana V. Kudryavtseva, Elena R. Isaeva, Vadim V. Tachalov, Ekaterina S. Loboda
A56 Results of an European survey on personalized medicine addressed to directions of laboratory medicine
Mario Pazzagli, Francesca Malentacchi, Irene Mancini, Ivan Brandslund, Pieter Vermeersch, Matthias Schwab, Janja Marc, Ron H.N. van Schaik, Gerard Siest, Elvar Theodorsson, Chiara Di Resta
A57 MCI or early dementia predictive speech based diagnosis techniques
Matus Pleva, Jozef Juhar
A58 Personalized speech based mobile application for eHealth
Matus Pleva, Jozef Juhar
A59 Circulating tumor cell-free DNA as the biomarker in the management of cancer patients
Jiří Polívka jr., Filip Janků, Martin Pešta, Jan Doležal, Milena Králíčková, Jiří Polívka
A60 Complex stroke care – educational programme in Stroke Centre University Hospital Plzen
Jiří Polívka, Alena Lukešová, Nina Müllerová, Petr Ševčík, Vladimír Rohan
A61 Sleep apnea and sleep fragmentation contribute to brain aging
Kneginja Richter, Lence Miloseva, Günter Niklewski
A62 Personalised approach for sleep disturbances in shift workers
Kneginja Richter, Jens Acker, Guenter Niklewski
A63 Medical travel and innovative PPPM clusters: new concept of integration
Olga Safonicheva, Vincenzo Costigliola
A64 Medical travel and women health
Olga Safonicheva
A65 Continuity of generations in the training of specialists in the field of reconstructive microsurgery
Maxim Sautin, Janna Sinelnikova, Sergey Suchkov
A66 Telemonitoring of stroke patients – empirical evidence of individual risk management results from an observational study in Germany
Songül Secer, Stephan von Bandemer
A67 Women’s increasing breast cancer risk with n-6 fatty acid intake explained by estrogen-fatty acid interactive effect on DNA damage: implications for gender-specific nutrition within personalized medicine
Niva Shapira
A68 Cytobacterioscopy of the gingival crevicular fluid as a method for preventive diagnosis of periodontal diseases
Aleksandr Shcherbakov, Anatoly A. Kunin, Natalia S. Moiseeva
A69 Use of specially treated composites in dentistry to avoid violations of aesthetics
Bogdan R. Shumilovich, Zhanna Lipkind, Yulia Vorobieva, Dmitry A. Kunin, Anastasiia V. Sudareva
A70 National eHealth system – platform for preventive, predictive and personalized diabetes care
Ivica Smokovski, Tatjana Milenkovic
A72 The common energy levels of Prof. Szent-Györgyi, the intrinsic chemistry of melanin, and the muscle physiopathology. Implications in the context of Preventive, Predictive, and Personalized Medicine
Arturo Solís-Herrera, María del Carmen Arias-Esparza, Sergey Suchkov
A73 Plurality and individuality of hepatocellular carcinoma: PPPM perspectives
Krishna Chander Sridhar, Olga Golubnitschaja
A74 Strategic aspects of higher medical education reforms to secure newer educational platforms for getting biopharma professionals matures
Maria Studneva, Sihong Song, James Creeden, Мark Мandrik, Sergey Suchkov
A75 Overview of the strategies and activities of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, (EFLM)
Elvar Theodorsson, EFLM
A76 New spectroscopic techniques for point of care label free diagnostics
Syed A. M. Tofail
A77 Tumor markers for personalized medicine and oncology - the role of Laboratory Medicine
Ondřej Topolčan, Judita Kinkorová, Ondřej Fiala, Marie Karlíková, Šárka Svobodová, Radek Kučera, Radka Fuchsová, Vladislav Třeška, Václav Šimánek, Ladislav Pecen, Jan Šoupal, Štěpán Svačina2
A78 Modern medical terminology (MMT) as a driver of the global educational reforms
Evgeniya Tretyak, Maria Studneva, Sergey Suchkov
A79 Juvenile hypertension; the relevance of novel predictive, preventive and personalized assessment of its determinants
Francesca M. Trovato, G. Fabio Martines, Daniela Brischetto, Daniela Catalano, Giuseppe Musumeci, Guglielmo M. Trovato
A80 Proteomarkers Biotech
George Th. Tsangaris, Athanasios K. Anagnostopoulos
A81 Proteomics and mass spectrometry based non-invasive prenatal testing of fetal health and pregnancy complications
George Th. Tsangaris, Athanasios K. Anagnostopoulos
A82 Integrated Ecosystem for an Integrated Care model for Heart Failure (HF) patients including related comorbidities (ZENITH)
José Verdú, German Gutiérrez, Jordi Rovira, Marta Martinez, Lutz Fleischhacker, Donna Green, Arthur Garson, Elena Tamburini, Stefano Cuomo, Juan Martinez-Leon, Teresa Abrisqueta, Hans-Peter Brunner-La Rocca, Tiny Jaarsma, Teresa Arredondo, Cecilia Vera, Giuseppe Fico, Olga Golubnitschaja, Fernando Arribas, Martina Onderco, Isabel Vara, on behalf of ZENITH consortium
A83 Predictive, preventive and personalized medicine in diabetes onset and complication (MOSAIC project)
José Verdú, Francesco Sambo, Barbara Di Camillo, Claudio Cobelli, Andrea Facchinetti, Giuseppe Fico, Riccardo Bellazzi, Lucia Sacchi, Arianna Dagliati, Daniele Segnani, Valentina Tibollo, Manuel Ottaviano, Rafael Gabriel, Leif Groop, Jacqueline Postma, Antonio Martinez, Liisa Hakaste, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Konstantia Zarkogianni, on behalf of MOSAIC consortium
A84 Possibilities for personalized therapy of diabetes using in vitro screening of insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents
Igor Volchek, Nina Pototskaya, Andrey Petrov
A85 The innovative technology for personalized therapy of human diseases based on in vitro drug screening
Igor Volchek, Nadezhda Pototskaya, Andrey Petrov
A86 Bone destruction and temporomandibular joint: predictive markers, pathogenetic aspects and quality of life
Ülle Voog-Oras, Oksana Jagur, Edvitar Leibur, Priit Niibo, Triin Jagomägi, Minh Son Nguyen, Chris Pruunsild, Dagmar Piikov, Mare Saag
A87 Sub-optimal health management – global vision for concepts in medical travel
Wei Wang
A88 Sub-optimal health management: synergic PPPM-TCAM approach
Wei Wang
A89 Innovative technologies for minimal invasive diagnostics
Andreas Weinhäusel, Walter Pulverer, Matthias Wielscher, Manuela Hofner, Christa Noehammer, Regina Soldo, Peter Hettegger, Istvan Gyurjan, Ronald Kulovics, Silvia Schönthaler, Gabriel Beikircher, Albert Kriegner, Stephan Pabinger, Klemens Vierlinger
A90 Rare disease diobanks for personalized medicine
Ayşe Yüzbaşıoğlu, Meral Özgüç, Member of EuroBioBank - European Network of DNA, Cell and Tissue Banks for Rare Diseases
PMCID: PMC4896262
21.  Presentation of the 2009 Morris F Collen Award to Betsy L Humphreys, with remarks from the recipient 
The American College of Medical Informatics is an honorary society established to recognize those who have made sustained contributions to the field. Its highest award, for lifetime achievement and contributions to the discipline of medical informatics, is the Morris F Collen Award. Dr Collen's own efforts as a pioneer in the field stand out as the embodiment of creativity, intellectual rigor, perseverance, and personal integrity. The Collen Award, given once a year, honors an individual whose attainments have, throughout a whole career, substantially advanced the science and art of biomedical informatics. In 2009, the college was proud to present the Collen Award to Betsy Humphreys, MLS, deputy director of the National Library of Medicine. Ms Humphreys has dedicated her career to enabling more effective integration and exchange of electronic information. Her work has involved new knowledge sources and innovative strategies for advancing health data standards to accomplish these goals. Ms Humphreys becomes the first librarian to receive the Collen Award. Dr Collen, on the occasion of his 96th birthday, personally presented the award to Ms Humphreys.
PMCID: PMC2995660  PMID: 20595319
22.  Measuring Under-Five Mortality: Validation of New Low-Cost Methods 
PLoS Medicine  2010;7(4):e1000253.
There has been increasing interest in measuring under-five mortality as a health indicator and as a critical measure of human development. In countries with complete vital registration systems that capture all births and deaths, under-five mortality can be directly calculated. In the absence of a complete vital registration system, however, child mortality must be estimated using surveys that ask women to report the births and deaths of their children. Two survey methods exist for capturing this information: summary birth histories and complete birth histories. A summary birth history requires a minimum of only two questions: how many live births has each mother had and how many of them have survived. Indirect methods are then applied using the information from these two questions and the age of the mother to estimate under-five mortality going back in time prior to the survey. Estimates generated from complete birth histories are viewed as the most accurate when surveys are required to estimate under-five mortality, especially for the most recent time periods. However, it is much more costly and labor intensive to collect these detailed data, especially for the purpose of generating small area estimates. As a result, there is a demand for improvement of the methods employing summary birth history data to produce more accurate as well as subnational estimates of child mortality.
Methods and Findings
We used data from 166 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) to develop new empirically based methods of estimating under-five mortality using children ever born and children dead data. We then validated them using both in- and out-of-sample analyses. We developed a range of methods on the basis of three dimensions of the problem: (1) approximating the average length of exposure to mortality from a mother's set of children using either maternal age or time since first birth; (2) using cohort and period measures of the fraction of children ever born that are dead; and (3) capturing country and regional variation in the age pattern of fertility and mortality. We focused on improving estimates in the most recent time periods prior to a survey where the traditional indirect methods fail. In addition, all of our methods incorporated uncertainty. Validated against under-five estimates generated from complete birth histories, our methods outperformed the standard indirect method by an average of 43.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 41.2–45.2). In the 5 y prior to the survey, the new methods resulted in a 53.3% (95% CI 51.3–55.2) improvement. To illustrate the value of this method for local area estimation, we applied our new methods to an analysis of summary birth histories in the 1990, 2000, and 2005 Mexican censuses, generating subnational estimates of under-five mortality for each of 233 jurisdictions.
The new methods significantly improve the estimation of under-five mortality using summary birth history data. In areas without vital registration data, summary birth histories can provide accurate estimates of child mortality. Because only two questions are required of a female respondent to generate these data, they can easily be included in existing survey programs as well as routine censuses of the population. With the wider application of these methods to census data, countries now have the means to generate estimates for subnational areas and population subgroups, important for measuring and addressing health inequalities and developing local policy to improve child survival.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Every year, more than 8 million children die before their fifth birthdays. Most of these deaths occur in developing countries, and most are the result of diseases or combinations of diseases that could have been prevented or treated. Measles, for example, is a major killer in low-income countries and undernutrition contributes to one-third of childhood deaths. Faced with this largely avoidable loss of young lives, in 1990, the United Nations' World Summit for Children pledged to improve the survival of children. Later, in 2000, world leaders set a target of reducing child mortality to one-third of its 1990 level by 2015 as Millennium Development Goal 4. This goal, together with seven others, is designed to alleviate extreme poverty by 2015. In 2006, for the first time since mortality records began, annual deaths among children under five fell below 10 million as a result of public-health programs such as the Measles Initiative, which has reduced global measles mortality by more than two-thirds by vaccinating 500 million children, and the Nothing but Nets campaign, which distributed insecticide-treated antimalaria nets in Africa.
Why Was This Study Done?
Although global under-five mortality is declining, it is unlikely that Millennium Development Goal 4 will be reached by 2015. Indeed, in some countries, little or no progress is being made toward this goal. To improve progress and to monitor the effects of public-health interventions, accurate, up-to-date estimates of national and subnational child mortality rates are essential. In developed countries, vital registration systems—records of all births and deaths—mean that under-five mortality rates can be directly calculated. But many developing countries lack vital registration systems, and child mortality has to be estimated using data collected in surveys. In “complete birth history” surveys, mothers are asked numerous questions about each living child and each dead child. Such surveys can be used to estimate under-five mortality accurately for recent time periods but they are expensive and time-consuming. By contrast, in “summary birth history” surveys, each mother is simply asked how many live births she had and how many of her children have survived. Under-five mortality can be indirectly calculated from this information and the age of the mother, but the current methods for making this calculation cannot provide reliable estimates of under-five mortality more recently than 3 years before the survey. In this study, therefore, the researchers develop methods for estimating more recent under-five mortality rates from summary birth histories.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers used data about all children born and dead children extracted from 169 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS; a project started in 1984 to help developing countries collect data on health and population trends) covering 70 countries to develop four new methods to estimate under-five mortality. They tested these new methods and a method that combined all four approaches by comparing the estimates of under-five mortality provided by these methods and the standard indirect method to the estimates obtained from an analysis of the complete birth data in the DHS. The new methods all outperformed the standard indirect method, particularly for the most recent 5 years. The researchers also used their new methods to generate estimates of under-five mortality for each of the 233 jurisdictions in Mexico from summary birth histories collected in the 1990, 2000, and 2005 Mexico censuses. The overall trends of these subnational estimates, they report, mirrored those obtained from vital registration data.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings suggest that application of the new methods developed by the researchers could significantly improve the accuracy of estimates of under-five mortality based on summary birth history data. The researchers warn that although their methods can provide accurate estimates of recent under-five mortality, they might not capture rapid fluctuations in mortality such as those that occur during wars. However, they suggest, the two questions needed to generate the data required to apply these new methods could easily be included in existing survey programs and in routine censuses. Consequently, systematic application of the methods proposed in this study should provide policy makers with the information about levels, recent trends, and inequalities in child mortality that they need to accelerate efforts to reduce the global toll of childhood deaths.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at
This study and two related PLoS Medicine Research Articles by Obermeyer et al and by Murray et al are further discussed in a PLoS Medicine Perspective by Mathers and Boerma
The United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF) works for children's rights, survival, development and protection around the world; it provides information on Millennium Development Goal 4 and its Childinfo website provides detailed statistics about child survival and health (some information in several languages)
Further information about the Millennium Development Goals is available
The World Health Organization also has information about Millennium Development Goal 4 and provides estimates of child mortality rates
Information is also available about the Demographic and Health Surveys
PMCID: PMC2854123  PMID: 20405055
23.  Effects of 21st Birthday Brief Interventions on College Student Celebratory Drinking: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis 
Addictive behaviors  2015;50:13-21.
College students' 21st birthday celebrations often involve consumption of extreme amounts of alcohol as well as alcohol-related risks. This systematic review aims to determine whether birthday-focused, individually-targeted, no-contact (email or letter-based) brief alcohol interventions (BAIs) reduce college students' 21st birthday celebratory drinking.
A systematic search identified 9 randomized evaluations with 10 interventions to reduce 21st birthday drinking. Quantity of alcohol consumed and estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) were measured. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to summarize the effects of the interventions.
There was no evidence that birthday-focused BAIs reduce quantities of alcohol consumed during birthday celebrations (ḡ = 0.05, 95% CI [-0.03 to 0.13]). The interventions were associated with significant reductions in estimated BAC levels (ḡ = 0.20, 95% CI [0.07 to 0.33]), but this effect was small in absolute terms. The quality of this body of evidence was very low, as evaluated using the GRADE approach. In particular, it was limited by substantial participant attrition post-randomization due to included studies' recruitment and randomization procedures.
There is no evidence that birthday-focused, individually-targeted BAIs reduce the quantity of alcohol consumed by students during 21st birthday celebrations, although these interventions may yield small beneficial effects on estimated BAC. Many methodological concerns were identified in included studies. This area of research would benefit from theory-based RCTs that are well-designed and executed. Future research should also investigate strategies other than birthday-focused, individually-targeted, brief interventions to curb 21st birthday celebratory drinking.
PMCID: PMC4515368  PMID: 26093502
meta-analysis; alcohol; binge drinking; college students; 21st birthday celebration; prevention
24.  XXIV World Allergy Congress 2015 
Lee, Heung-Man | Park, Il-Ho | Shin, Jae-Min | Yoon, Hyun-Sun | Park, Gyeong Yul | Zeher, Margit | Matsui, Katsuhiko | Tamai, Saki | Ikeda, Reiko | Suri, Drsushil | Suri, Dranu | Arani, Marzieh Heidarzadeh | Lubis, Azwin | Endaryanto, Anang | Koga, Shinichiro | Suk, Lee Ju | Tsuzuki, Yasunobu | Kim, Seo Hyeong | Shin, Jung U. | Noh, Ji Yeon | Jin, Shan | Jin, Shan | Lee, Hemin | Lee, Jungsoo | Park, Chang Ook | Lee, Kwang Hoon | Lee, Kwang Hoon | Tepetam, Fatma Merve | Park, Chun Wook | Son, Jee Hee | Cho, Soo Ick | Cho, Yong Se | Byun, Yun Sun | Yang, Yoon Seok | Chung, Bo Young | Kim, Hye One | Cho, Hee Jin | Katada, Yoshinori | Tanaka, Toshio | Nakabayashi, Akihiko | Nishida, Koji | Aoyagi, Kenichi | Tsukamoto, Yuki | Konma, Kazushi | Matsuura, Motoo | Park, Jung-Won | Harada, Yoshinori | Jeong, Kyoung Yong | Yura, Akiko | Yoshimura, Maiko | Kyung, Tae-Suk | Kim, Young Hyo | Park, Chang-Shin | Jang, Tae Young | Heo, Min-Jeong | Jung, Ah-Yeoun | Yang, Seung-Chan | Kim, Hye One | Cho, Yong Se | Byun, Yun Sun | Yang, Yoon Seok | Chung, Bo Young | Son, Jee Hee | Park, Chun Wook | Cho, Hee Jin | Pfaar, Oliver | Sager, Angelika | Agarwal, Amit | Singh, Meenu | Chatterjee, Bishnupda | Chauhan, Anil | Striz, Ilja | Cecrdlova, Eva | Petrickova, Katerina | Kolesar, Libor | Sekerkova, Alena | Svachova, Veronika | Petricek, Miroslav | Kwon, Hyuck Hoon | Kim, Kyu Han | Kumar, Suman | Manzon, Lou Ver Leigh Arciaga | Andaya, Pilar Agnes Gonzalez | Lew, Bark-Lynn | Oh, Youngjun | Suh, Dongwoo | Sim, Woo-Young | Jeong, Kyoung Yong | Yi, Myung-Hee | Son, Mina | Lyu, Dongpyo | Lee, Jae-Hyun | Yong, Tai-Soon | Hong, Chein-Soo | Park, Jung-Won | Jeong, Kyoung Yong | Yi, Myung-Hee | Son, Mina | Lyu, Dongpyo | Lee, Jae-Hyun | Yong, Tai-Soon | Hong, Chein-Soo | Park, Jung-Won | Siavashi, Mohammadreza | Yun, Hey Suk | Kang, Ha-Na | Oh, Jae-Won | Choi, Young Jin | Oh, Jae-Won | Choi, Young Jin | Kang, Ha-Na | Sentsova, Tatiana | Vorozhko, Ilya | Chernyak, Olga | Revyakina, Vera | Timopheeva, Anna | Donnikov, Andrey | Sentsova, Tatiana | Vorozhko, Ilya | Chernyak, Olga | Revyakina, Vera | Timopheeva, Anna | Lee, Ji Hyun | Park, Young Min | Choi, Sang Soo | Han, Kyung Do | Jung, Han Mi | Youn, Young Hoon | Lee, Jun Young | Park, Yong Gyu | Lee, Seung-Hwan | Li, Jing | Feng, Mulin | Roponen, Marjut | Schaub, Bianca | Wong, Gary W. K. | Yang, Zhaowei | Choi, Young Jin | Kang, Ha-Na | Oh, Jae-Won | Sun, Baoqing | Zheng, Peiyan | Park, Yoon-Sung | Son, Sang Wook | Kose, Sukran | Kiraz, Kemal | Yalcin, Arzu Didem | Yune, Sehyo | Paeng, Jae-Won | Oh, Mi-Jung | Lee, Byung-Jae | Choi, Dong-Chull | Lim, Young Hee | Ha, Kyoung Won | Lee, Jin-Young | Yamamoto-Hanada, Kiwako | Narita, Masami | Futamura, Masaki | Ohya, Yukihiro | Kim, Jihyun | Choi, Jinwha | Kim, Kwanghoon | Choi, Jaehee | Ahn, Kangmo | Chang, Sun-Ho/Brian | Li, Lisha | Adachi, Yu-Ichi | Kanatani, Kumiko Tsuji | Narabayashi, Shigeyuki | Okafuji, Ikuo | Tanaka, Yuya | Tsuruta, Satoru | Takamatsu, Nobue | Kim, Soo Whan | Kim, Do Hyun | Yoon, Jong-Seo | Kim, Jin Tack | Kim, Hwan Soo | Chun, Yoon Hong | Kim, Hyun Hee | Won, Sul Mui | Hon, Kam Lun E. | Chow, Chung Mo | Leung, Ting Fan | Kim, Do Hyun | Kim, Soo Whan | Esguerra, Gemmalyn | Resurreccion, Emily | Kionisala, Kristine Elisa | Dela Cruz, Jenni Rose | Imran, Muhammad | Choe, Yun Seon | Kim, Kyu Han | Choi, Mira | Kim, Byung Soo | Lee, Hyun-Joo | Kim, Jeong-Min | Kim, Jeong-Min | Kim, Gun-Wook | Mun, Je-Ho | Mun, Je-Ho | Kim, Hoon-Soo | Song, Margaret | Ko, Hyun-Chang | Ko, Hyun-Chang | Kim, Moon-Bum | Yoon, Sun-Young | Kandhare, Amit | Yahiro, Noriko | Agarwal, Amit | Singh, Meenu | Kaur, Jasleen | Pawankar, Ruby | Pant, Pankaj | Singh, Sukhmanjeet | Kim, Hwan Soo | Yoon, Jong-Seo | Won, Sul Mui | Chun, Yoon Hong | Kim, Jin Tack | Kim, Hyun Hee | Kim, Hwan Soo | Won, Sul Mui | Chun, Yoon Hong | Yoon, Jong-Seo | Kim, Hyun Hee | Kim, Jin Tack | Kampitak, Thatchai | Kim, So Min | Lee, Hyun Joo | Kim, Hei Sung | Lee, Jeong Deuk | Cho, Sang Hyun | Godse, Kiran | Soekarno, Juwita | Ratnasari, Sarie | Datau, E. Alwi | Surachmanto, Eko | Matheos, JC | Leung, Ting Fan | Kwok, Jamie Sui-Lam | Tung, Christine Kit-Ching | Tang, Man Fung | Tsui, Stephen Kwok-Wing | Wong, Gary WK | Hon, Kam Lun Ellis | Tam, Wing Hung | Sy, Hing Yee | Lee, Sohee | Shin, Hyun-Woo | Lee, Mingyu | Kim, Dae Woo | Khalmuratova, Roza | Kim, Mi Yeoung | Jeong, Jaewon | Park, Chansun | Wai, Christine Yee Yan | Leung, Patrick S. C. | Leung, Nicki Y. H. | Chu, Ka Hou | Lee, Hee Seon | Lee, Kyung Eun | Hong, Jung Yeon | Kim, Mi Na | Kim, Min Jung | Kim, Yoon Hee | Sol, In Suk | Yoon, Seo Hee | Kim, Kyung Won | Sohn, Myung Hyun | Kim, Kyu-Earn | Kim, Ji Hye | Park, Hae-Sim | Shin, Yoo Seob | Ye, Young Min | Seo, Daehong | Yoon, Moon Gyeong | Lee, Young Mok | Seo, Daehong | Kim, Ji Hye | Lee, Young-Mok | Ye, Young Min | Park, Hae-Sim | Ban, Ga Young | Cho, Kumsun | Kim, Seung-Hyun | Kwon, Yong Eun | Yoon, Moon Gyeong | Kim, Ji Hye | Shin, Yoo Seob | Ye, Young Min | Nahm, Dong-Ho | Park, Hae-Sim | Andaya, Pilar Agnes Gonzalez | Andaya, Pilar Agnes Gonzalez | Ban, Ga Young | Jung, Chang Gyu | Lee, Seung-Ihm | Le Pham, Duy | Suh, Dong-Hyeon | Yang, Eun-Mi | Ye, Young Min | Shin, Yoo Seob | Park, Hae-Sim | Wang, Wan Jun | Xian, MO | Xie, Yan Qing | Zheng, Jing Ping | Li, Jing | Savilahti, Emma Merike | Mäkitie, Outi | Kukkonen, Anna Kaarina | Andersson, Sture | Viljakainen, Heli | Savilahti, Erkki | Kuitunen, Mikael | Godse, Kiran | Le Pham, Duy | Ban, Ga Young | Kim, Seung-Hyun | Yang, Eun-Mi | Park, Hae-Sim | Lee, Ji-Ho | Chwae, Yong-Joon | Chin, Li-Ming | Shieh, Chi-Chang | Kim, Ji Hye | Yoo, Hye-Soo | Yoon, Moon Gyeong | Ban, Ga Young | Ban, Ga Young | Shin, Yoo Seob | Ye, Young Min | Park, Hae-Sim | Sung, Myong Soon | Choi, Jin Uck | Kim, Sung Won | Hwang, Yong Jin | Park, Arum | Lee, Eun | Yang, Song-I | Cho, Hyun-Ju | Yu, Jinho | Lee, Dong Hun | Kim, Eun Ju | Kim, Yeon Kyung | Doh, Eun Jin | Eun, Hee Chul | Chung, Jin Ho | Lee, Young Mee | Jin, Seon Pil | Li, Xingnan | Kaminski, Naftali | Wenzel, Sally | Bleecker, Eugene | Meyers, Deborah | Huasong, Zeng | Mo, Ji-Hun | Samivel, Ramachandran | Kim, Eun-Hee | Kim, Ji-Hye | Bae, Jun-Sang | Chung, Young-Jun | Kim, Dae Woo | Lee, Eun | Lee, Si Hyeon | Kim, Young-Ho | Cho, Hyun-Ju | Yu, Ho-Sung | Kang, Mi-Jin | Yang, Song-I | Jung, Young-Ho | Kim, Hyung Young | Seo, Ju-Hee | Kim, Byoung-Ju | Kim, Hyo-Bin | Lee, So-Yeon | Kwon, Ho-Jang | Hong, Soo-Jong | Palikhe, Sailesh | Park, Hae-Sim | Kim, Seung-Hyun | Kim, Ji Hye | Yang, Eun-Mi | Sibunruang, Suda | Klaewsongkram, Jettanong | Sentsova, Tatiana | Vorozhko, Ilya | Timopheeva, Anna | Chernyak, Olga | Revyakina, Vera | Sokolnikov, Andrey | Nisihino, Makoto | Okada, Yu | Yanagida, Noriyuki | Ebisawa, Motohiro | Sato, Sakura | Ogura, Kiyotake | Asaumi, Tomoyuki | Nagakura, Kenichi | Manabe, Tetsuharu | Unno, Hirotoshi | Rodrigues, Pedro M. | Schrama, Denise | Mohamed, Gadija | Hüsselmann, Lizex | Hüsselmann, Lizex | Ndimba, Bongani | Shim, Jae-Uoong | Koh, Young Il | Rhee, Joon Haeng | Jeong, Ji-Ung | Van Nguyen, Dinh | Chu, Hieu Chi | Tran, Mui Thi | Vidal, Christopher | Fernando, Suran | Van Nunen, Sheryl | Van Than, Sy | Feng, Mulin | Li, Jing | Kim, Dong-Kyu | Hong, Seung-No | Eun, Kyoung Mi | Jin, Hong Ryul | Kim, Dae Woo | Bao, Jun | Bao, Yi-Xiao | Podder, Sanjoy | Kumar, Goutam | Dutta, Shampa | Ghosh, Amlan | Saha, Goutam Kumar | Podder, Sanjoy | Gupta, Salil Kumar | Trinh, Tu/Hoang Kim | Shin, Yoo Seob | Park, Hae-Sim | Liu, Jing-Nan | Le Pham, Duy | Ko, Hyun-Chang | Kim, Byung Soo | Kim, Moon-Bum | Özbudak, Ömer | Üzer, Fatih | Al-Ahmad, Mona | Alowayesh, Maryam | Carroll, Norman | Singh, Anand Bahadur | Pérez-Llano, Yordanis | Lorenzo, María Del Carmen Luzardo | González, Wendy Ramírez | Cruz, Carlos Calcines | Quintana, Rady Laborde | Morejón, Alain | Bourg, Virgilio | Stoker, Marilé Hechavarría | Bae, Jun-Sang | Samivel, Ramachandran | Kim, Eun-Hee | Kim, Ji-Hye | Mo, Ji-Hun | Hanaoka, Keiko | Hide, Michihiro | Tanaka, Akio | Hiragun, Makiko | Kawai, Mikio | Kim, Kwanghoon | Kim, Hye-Young | Kim, Jihyun | Ahn, Kangmo | Han, Youngshin | Kim, Gun-Wook | Ko, Hyun-Chang | Kim, Byung Soo | Kim, Moon-Bum | Song, Margaret | Matsubara, Takeshi | Iwamoto, Hiroshi | Nakazato, Yuki | Namba, Kazuyoshi | Takeda, Yasuhiro | Lee, Jae Hoon | Bae, Woo Yong | De Schryver, Els | Calus, Lien | Gevaert, Philippe | Van Zele, Thibaut | Bachert, Claus | Mori, Akio | Kouyama, Satoshi | Yamaguchi, Miyako | Iijima, Yo | Abe-Ohtomo, Akemi | Hayashi, Hiroaki | Watai, Kentaroh | Mitsui, Chihiro | Oshikata, Chiyako | Sekiya, Kiyoshi | Tsuburai, Takahiro | Ohtomo, Mamoru | Fukutomi, Yuma | Taniguchi, Masami | Kang, Ju Wan | Kim, Jeong Hong | Kim, Jeong Hong | Lee, Keun-Hwa | Lee, Hye-Sook | Hong, Seong-Chul | Lee, Jaechun | Seo, Ji Won | Lee, Jae Hoon | Bae, Woo Yong | Kuznecovs, Ivans Sergejs | Kuznecova, Galina | Bergmann, Karl-Christian | Zuberbier, Torsten | Salame, Joseph | Sehlinger, Torsten | Bölke, Georg | Kim, Yoo Suk | Chang, Jung Hyun | Kim, Jeong Hong | Kang, Ju Wan | Hong, Seung-No | Han, Doo Hee | Rhee, Chae-Seo | Ko, Young-Joo | Kim, Young Hyo | Kim, Dae-Young | Jang, Tae Young | Yokooji, Tomoharu | Hirano, Taiki | Matsuo, Hiroaki | Kuznecova, Galina | Kuznecovs, Ivans Sergejs | Wani, Roohi Rasool | Syed, Shafia Alam | Hassan, Ghulam | Gul, Ayaz | Nissar, Saniya | Shah, Zaffar Amin | Pereira, Marilyn Urrutia | Fernandez, Carmen | Sole, Dirceu | Neto, Herberto Jose Chong | Acosta, Veronica | Cepeda, Alfonso Mario | Castello, Mirta Alvarez | Almendarez, Claudia | Saenz, Jose Santos Lozano | Sisul, Juan C. | Filho, Nelson Rosario | Castillo, Antonio | Rostan, Marylin Valentin | Avila, Jennifer | Badellino, Hector | Manotas, Maria Carolina | Almarales, Raúl Lázaro Castro | León, Mayda González | Kim, Woo Kyung | Yoon, Hae-Sun | Kobayashi, Takehito | Noguchi, Tooru | Soma, Tomoyuki | Nakagome, Kazuyuki | Nakamoto, Hidetomo | Kita, Hirohito | Nagata, Makoto | Pereira, Marilyn Urrutia | Sole, Dirceu | Neto, Herberto Jose Chong | Cepeda, Alfonso Mario | Almarales, Raúl Lázaro Castro | Sisul, Juan C. | Rostan, Marylin Valentin | Badellino, Hector | Avalos, Miguel Alejandro Medina | Castillo, Antonio | Almendarez, Claudia | Filho, Nelson Rosario | Silot, Caridad Sanchez | Avila, Jennifer | Rodriguez, Felicia Berroa | Saenz, Jose Santos Lozano | Castello, Mirta Alvarez | Fernandez, Carmen | Soh, Wai Tuck | Jacquet, Alain | Ruxrungtham, Kiat | Nony, Emmanuel | Le Mignon, Maxime | Lee-Wong, Mary | McClelland, Suzanne | McClelland, Suzanne | Silverberg, Nanette B. | Song, Christian E. | Yang, Zhaowei | Zhang, Jiukai | Zheng, Wentao | Zhong, Nanshan | Li, Jing | Bae, Jung Ho | Cho, Young Joo | Kim, Joo Yeon | Vourdas, Dimitrios | Grigoreas, Christos | Petalas, Konstantinos | Zhang, Yuan | Shin, Seung-Heon | Ye, Mi-Kyung | Kim, Jeong-Kyu | Feng, Yong | Shang, Yunxiao | Seo, Sungchul | Choung, Ji Tae | Kim, Dohyeong | Yoo, Young | Lim, Hyunwook | Zhu, Wenjing | Liu, Chuanhe | Sha, Li | Chang, Li | Zhao, Min | Zhao, Linqing | Qian, Yuan | Chen, Yuzhi | Kim, Min-Hye | Cho, Young Joo | Rho, Mina | Kim, Jung-Won | Kang, Yeon-Mi | Yum, Kyung-Eun | Choi, Hyeon-Il | Choi, Jun-Pyo | Park, Han-Ki | Min, Taek-Ki | Pyun, Bok-Yang | Kim, Yoon-Keun | Wang, Xueyan | Kim, Woo Kyung | Nam, Yu Ran | Nam, Joo Hyun | Kim, Jung-Won | Kim, Min-Hye | Rho, Mina | Kang, Yeon-Mi | Yum, Kyung-Eun | Choi, Hyeon-Il | Choi, Jun-Pyo | Park, Han-Ki | Min, Taek-Ki | Cho, Young Joo | Pyun, Bok-Yang | Kim, Yoon-Keun | Narita, Hiroshi | Hirose, Junko | Kizu, Kumiko | Matsunaga, Ayu | Li, Jingyun | Zhang, Yuan | Zhang, Luo | Choi, Yean Jung | Shin, Hye Lim | Yang, Song-I | Lee, So-Yeon | Kwon, Sung-Ok | Jung, Young-Ho | Kwon, Ji-Won | Kim, Hyung Young | Seo, Ju-Hee | Kim, Byoung-Ju | Kim, Hyo-Bin | Oh, Se-Young | Kwon, Ho-Jang | Lee, Eun | Kang, Mi-Jin | Hong, Soo-Jong | Lee, Yun-Jeong | Kim, Joonil | Choi, Joon Young | Kang, Ji Young | Kim, Seok Chan | Kim, Sei Won | Kim, Seung Joon | Kim, Young Kyoon | Rhee, Chin Kook | Lee, Hea Yon | Lee, Hwa Young | Lee, Sook Young | Koh, Tae Kyung | Kim, Sung Wan | Lee, Kun Hee | Kwon, Chul | Jo, Joong-Saeng | Dong, Sung-Hwa | Byun, Young Seok | Song, Charles | Kang, Ji Young | Lee, Hwa Young | Kim, In Kyoung | Kim, Sei Won | Rhee, Chin Kook | Kim, Seung Joon | Kim, Seok Chan | Lee, Sook Young | Kim, Young Kyoon | Kwon, Soon Seog | Choi, Joon Young | Park, Pona | Jin, Hong Ryul | Kim, Dong-Kyu | Kim, Dae Woo | Hogenkamp, Astrid | Knippels, Leon | Van Esch, Betty C.a.m. | Van Bilsen, Jolanda | Jeurink, Prescilla V. | Gros, Marjan | Garssen, Johan | Smit, Joost J. | Pieters, Raymond H. H. | Kim, Boo-Young | Kim, Soo Whan | Lleonart, Ramon | Lay, Christophe | Benamor, Kaouther | Chen, Chua Mei | Knol, Jan | Chew, Charmaine | Chongsrisawat, Voranush | Goh, Anne | Chiang, Wen Chin | Rao, Rajeshwar | Chaithongwongwatthana, Surasith | Khemapech, Nipon | Yhi, Ji Young | Kim, Sang-Heon | Park, Dong Won | Moon, Ji-Yong | Kim, Tae Hyung | Sohn, Jang Won | Shin, Dong Ho | Yoon, Ho Joo | Cho, Seok Hyun | Kim, Sang-Heon | Moon, Ji-Yong | Lee, Jae-Hyun | Ban, Ga Young | Kim, Sujeong | Kim, Mi-Ae | Kim, Joo-Hee | Kim, Min-Hye | Park, Chan-Sun | Kwon, Hyouk-Soo | Kwon, Jae-Woo | Jung, Jae Woo | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Park, Jong-Sook | Kim, Tae-Bum | Park, Heung Woo | Cho, You Sook | Yoo, Kwang-Ha | Oh, Yeon-Mok | Lee, Sang-Rok | Julge, Kaja | Vasar, Maire | Vasar, Maire | Voor, Tiia | Rebane, Tiina | Kim, Yu Jin | Lee, Sang Min | Kang, Shin Myung | Kim, Sojeong | Kyung, Sun Young | Jeong, Sung Hwan | Park, Jeong-Woong | Hwang, Hyunjung | Seon, Yong Han | Park, Sanghui | Lee, Sang Pyo | Iordache, Marius | Jeong, Yeongsang | Eun, Sohee | Choi, Byung Min | Choung, Ji Tae | Seo, Wonhee | Zhang, Liang | Pawankar, Ruby | Nonaka, Manabu | Hayashi, Miyuki | Yamanishi, Shingo | Suzaki, Harumi | Itoh, Yasuhiko | Watanabe, So | Kobayashi, Hitome | Zotter, Zsuzsanna | Farkas, Henriette | Varga, Lilian | Veszeli, Nora | Imreh, Eva | Kovacs, Gabor | Nallbani, Marsel | Zheleznov, Semen | Urzhumtseva, Galina | Petrova, Natalia | Sarsaniia, Zhanna | Didkovskii, Nikolai | Zuberbier, Torsten | Gerdabi, Nader Dashti | Khodadadi, Ali | Abdoli, Zahra | Ghafourian, Mehri | Assarehzadegan, Mohammad Ali | Ghorban, Khodayar | Kim, Hyo-Bin | Zhou, Hui | Kim, Jeong Hee | Habre, Rima | Bastain, Theresa | Gilliland, Frank | Bae, Jong-Wook | Han, Kyu-Hyung | Jee, Young-Koo | Choi, Misoo | Hong, Seung-Phil | Kim, Seung-Hyun | Kim, Hee-Kyoo | Choi, Gil-Soon | Heo, Jeonghoon | Kim, Young-Ho | Park, Eun-Kee | Inoue, Takashi | Ogura, Kiyotake | Yanagida, Noriyuki | Unno, Hirotoshi | Nagakura, Kenichi | Manabe, Tetsuharu | Asaumi, Tomoyuki | Sato, Sakura | Okada, Yu | Ebisawa, Motohiro | Kim, Min-Gu | Cho, You Sook | Kim, Tae-Bum | Moon, Hee-Bom | Kim, Jung-Hyun | Kim, Hyo-Jung | Park, So-Young | Seo, Bomi | Kwon, Hyouk-Soo | Lee, Jaemoon | Lee, Taehoon | Yoo, Hye-Soo | Kim, Jieun | Kim, Inok | Kim, Haejin | Chang, Younhee | Park, Hae-Sim | Lee, Sooyoung | Lee, Sooyoung | Kuzume, Kazuyo | Koizumi, Munemitsu | Nishimura, Koji | Okamoto, Michiko | Kim, Seung-Hyun | Ye, Young Min | Hur, Gyu Young | Park, Hae-Sim | Kim, Sang-Heon | Jee, Young-Koo | Kim, Seung-Hyun | Choi, Hyunna | Ye, Young Min | Park, Hae-Sim | Van Khanh, Bui | Chu, Hieu Chi | Nguyet, Nguyen Nhu | Phuong, Nguyen Hoang | Roh, Joo Young | Kim, Hyun Jeong | Kim, Jung Eun | Lew, Bark-Lynn | Lee, Kyung Ho | Hong, Seung-Phil | Jang, Yong Hyun | Park, Kui Young | Seo, Seong Jun | Bae, Jung Min | Choi, Eung Ho | Suhr, Ki Beom | Lee, Seung Chul | Ko, Hyun-Chang | Park, Young Lip | Son, Sang Wook | Seo, Young Jun | Lee, Yang Won | Cho, Sang Hyun | Park, Chun Wook | Lee, Kun Hee | Kim, Sung Wan | Chu, Chia-Yu | Aw, Derrick | Ye, Young-Min | Bader, Giovanni | Dolfi, Fabrizio | Oliveira, Nathalie | Choi, Jae Chol | Jung, Jae Woo | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Kim, Kijeong | Choi, Byoung Whui | Shin, Jong Wook | Jung, Jae Woo | Choi, Jae Chol | Park, In Won | Choi, Byoung Whui | Kim, Jae Yeol | Lee, Jin-Young | Ha, Kyoung Won | Jeung, Yun-Jin | Yune, Sehyo | Lee, Byung-Jae | Choi, Dong-Chull | Oh, Mi-Jung | Lim, Young Hee | Lee, Eui Jun | Suh, Dongin | Suh, Dongin | Woo, Sung-Il | Woo, Sung-Il | Cho, Hwa Jin | Cho, Hwa Jin | Chung, Eun Hee | Chung, Eun Hee | Chung, Soo Youn | Shah, Ashok | Gera, Kamal | Ha, Kyoung Won | Oh, Mi-Jung | Lim, Young Hee | Yune, Sehyo | Paeng, Jae-Won | Jang, Mi-Jin | Lee, Byung-Jae | Choi, Dong-Chull | Lee, Jin-Young | Jang, Mi-Jin | Paeng, Jae-Won | Jeung, Yun-Jin | Lim, Young Hee | Oh, Mi-Jung | Ha, Kyoung Won | Lee, Byung-Jae | Choi, Dong-Chull | Yune, Sehyo | Lee, Jin-Young | Ito, Takahiro | Lee, Jin-Young | Yune, Sehyo | Lee, Byung-Jae | Choi, Dong-Chull | Jang, Mi-Jin | Paeng, Jae-Won | Kim, Young Eun | Kim, Young Nam | Lee, Yongseok | Kim, Jihye | Lee, Hwa Young | Lee, Sook Young | Kwon, Soon Seog | Kim, Young Kyoon | Rhee, Chin Kook | Kim, Sei Won | Lee, Hea Yon | Choi, Joon Young | Kim, In Kyoung | Aranzabal, Maria Ascension | Joral, Alejandro | Lizarza, Susana | Echenagusia, Miguel | Lasa, Eva Maria | Navarro, Jose Antonio | Jo, Eun-Jung | Jang, Sun-Mi | Song, Seung-Eon | Na, Hae-Jung | Kim, Chang-Hoon | Lee, Woo-Seop | Park, Hye-Kyung | Miyauchi, Sachiko | Uchida, Yoshitaka | Soma, Tomoyuki | Yamazaki, Susumu | Noguchi, Toru | Kobayashi, Takehito | Nakagome, Kazuyuki | Nagata, Makoto | Oh, Hea Lin | Kim, Do Kyun | Suh, Dongin | Koh, Young Yull | Lee, Jin-Young | Lee, Byung-Jae | Choi, Dong-Chull | Paeng, Jae-Won | Jang, Mi-Jin | Kim, Jihye | Kim, Young Nam | Yune, Sehyo | Kim, Sang-Hoon | Sohn, Jang Won | Yoon, Ho Joo | Shin, Dong Ho | Lee, Jae Hyung | Lee, Byoung Hoon | Kim, Youn-Seup | Park, Jae-Seuk | Jee, Young-Koo | Kim, Sang-Heon | Lee, Jin-Young | Paeng, Jae-Won | Jang, Mi-Jin | Choi, Dong-Chull | Lee, Byung-Jae | Lee, Yongseok | Kim, Young Eun | Yune, Sehyo | Yoon, Jisun | Zhang, Li | Cai, Xuxu | Feng, Yong | Yoon, Jong-Seo | Jeong, Kyunguk | Yoo, Hye-Soo | Lee, Sooyoung | Lee, Sooyoung | Lee, Hae-Jin | Lee, Noo Ri | Kim, Bo-Kyung | Jung, Minyoung | Kim, Dong Hye | Moniaga, Catharina S. | Kabashima, Kenji | Choi, Eung Ho | Yanagida, Noriyuki | Sato, Sakura | Sugizaki, Chizuko | Ebisawa, Motohiro | Kiehm, Jamie | Ponda, Punita | Farzan, Sherry | Weiss, Jared | Elera, Claudia | Destio, Catherine | Sison, Cristina | Lee, Annette | Ri, Soo Hyun | Lim, Chang Hoon | Pulido, Iñaki Izquierdo | Taubel, Jorg | Ferber, Georg | Masdeu, Eva Santamaria | Khayatzadeh, Alireza | Movahedi, Masoud | Ebisawa, Motohiro | Gharagozlou, Mohammad | Atasoy, Ulus | Techasintana, Patsharaporn | Gubin, Matt | Glascock, Jacqueline | Ridenhour, Suzanne | Magee, Joseph | Filho, Nelson Rosario | Neto, Herberto Jose Chong | Wandalsen, Gustavo Falbo | Dela Bianca, Ana Caroline | Aranda, Carolina | Sole, Dirceu | Mallol, Javier | Garcia-Marcos, Luis | Garcia-Marcos, Luis | Toh, Jennifer | Lee, Yoomie | Huang, Joyce | Jerschow, Elina | Shliozberg, Jenny | Satitsuksanoa, Pattraporn | Suratannon, Narissara | Wongpiyabovorn, Jongkonnee | Chatchatee, Pantipa | Ruxrungtham, Kiat | Jacquet, Alain | Yang, Min Suk | Lee, Jin Yong | Kim, Ja Yeun | Park, Han-Ki | Kim, Ju-Young | Song, Woo-Jung | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Park, Heung Woo | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Cho, Sang-Heon | Min, Kyung-up | Park, Chang-Han | Chang, Suk-Il | Song, Sook-Hee | Kim, Si-Heon | Choi, Gil-Soon | Kim, Su-Chin | Kim, Ji Hye | Ban, Ga Young | Shin, Yoo Seob | Park, Hae-Sim | Ye, Young Min | Hwang, Yoon Ha | Sim, Da Woon | Park, Kyung Hee | Park, Kyung Hee | Park, Hye Jung | Park, Hye Jung | Park, Jung-Won | Park, Jung-Won | Lee, Jae-Hyun | Lee, Jae-Hyun | Allen, Katrina | Beck, Cara | Koplin, Jennifer | Matheson, Melanie | Tang, Mimi | Ponsonby, Anne-Louise | Gurrin, Lyle | Dharmage, Shyamali | Wake, Melissa | Mcwilliam, Vicki | Liu, Xiaoying | Wang, Jing | Xiang, Li | Wang, Qun | Lee, Ji-Eun | Kim, Dong-Young | Rhee, Chae-Seo | Rhee, Chae-Seo | Vazquez-Nava, Francisco | Cho, Sang-Heon | Jeong, Jaewon | Perng, Diahn-Warng | Price, David | Neira, Glenn | Lin, Jiangtao | Semernik, Olga | Kim, Ha-Su | Jung, Jin-a | Jung, Ji-in | Miao, Qing | Xiang, Li | Cho, Sang-Heon | Jeong, Jaewon | Perng, Diahn-Warng | Lin, Jiangtao | Price, David | Neira, Glenn | Lee, Hyun Young | Park, Hae-Sim | Ye, Young Min | Kim, Su Chin | Farrokhi, Shokrollah | Gheiby, Mohammadkazem | Kim, Sang-Heon | Park, Heung Woo | Kim, Sang-Hoon | Jee, Young-Koo | Park, Sunjoo | Moon, Keun Ai | Kwon, Hyouk-Soo | Kim, Tae-Bum | Cho, You Sook | Moon, Hee-Bom | Lee, Kyoung Young | Hong, Gyong Hwa | Ha, Eun Hee | Han, Heejae | Park, Hye Jung | Park, Yoon Hee | Kim, Yoon-Jo | Lee, Kangtaek | Park, Jung-Won | Lee, Jae-Hyun | Slavyanskaya, Tatiana | Derkach, Vladislava | Park, Hye Jung | Hong, Chein-Soo | Lee, Jae-Hyun | Kim, Sungryeol | Park, Kyung Hee | Lee, Choong-Kun | Kang, Beodeul | Beom, Seung-Hoon | Shin, Sang Joon | Jung, Minku | Park, Jung-Won | Kim, Eun-Hee | Kim, Ji-Hye | Mo, Ji-Hun | Chung, Young-Jun | Kim, Mi-Ae | Park, Hae-Sim | Yoon, Moon Gyeong | Lee, Young-Soo | Kim, Ji Hye | Ban, Ga Young | Yoo, Hye-Soo | Shin, Yoo Seob | Ye, Young Min | Nahm, Dong-Ho | Miao, Qing | Xiang, Li | Li, Ying-Ji | Shimizu, Takako | Inagaki, Hirofumi | Hirata, Yukiyo | Takizawa, Hajime | Azuma, Arata | Yamamoto, Masayuki | Kawada, Tomoyuki | Kim, Min-Gu | Hong, Gyong Hwa | Lee, Kyoung Young | Ha, Eun Hee | Moon, Keun Ai | Park, Sunjoo | Kwon, Hyouk-Soo | Kim, Tae-Bum | Moon, Hee-Bom | Cho, You Sook | Kim, Jung-Hyun | Kim, Hyo-Jung | Park, So-Young | Seo, Bomi | Kim, Ji-Hye | Samivel, Ramachandran | Kim, Eun-Hee | Chung, Young-Jun | Mo, Ji-Hun | Soumya, M. S. | Inbaraj, G. | Chellaa, R. | Pawankar, Ruby | Choi, Wonsun | Park, Hae-Sim | Ye, Young Min | Kim, Ji Hye | Ban, Ga Young | Shin, Yoo-Seob | Braber, Saskia | Verheijden, Kim | Kraneveld, Aletta | Garssen, Johan | Folkerts, Gert | Willemsen, Linette | Eichhorn, Stephanie | Ferreira, Fatima | Pablos, Isabel | Kastner, Bianca | Schweidler, Bettina | Wildner, Sabrina | Briza, Peter | Park, Jung-Won | Arora, Naveen | Vieths, Stefan | Gadermaier, Gabriele | Park, Sung-Min | Lee, Won-Ku | Kim, Jeong-Min | Kim, Gun-Wook | Mun, Je-Ho | Kim, Hoon-Soo | Song, Margaret | Ko, Hyun-Chang | Kim, Moon-Bum | Kim, Byung Soo | Kim, Young Nam | Yune, Sehyo | Lee, Jin-Young | Kim, Jihye | Kim, Young Eun | Paeng, Jae-Won | Jang, Mi-Jin | Choi, Dong-Chull | Lee, Byung-Jae | Lee, Yongseok | Goh, Si Hui | Lee, Bee Wah | Soh, Jian Yi | Kang, Hyungoo | Kim, Hyunhee | Yum, Hye-Yung | Ye, Young Min | Park, Hae-Sim | Ban, Ga-Young | Kim, Ji Hye | Shin, Yoo Seob | Takizawa, Takumi | Tabata, Masahiko | Aizawa, Akira | Yagi, Hisako | Nishida, Yutaka | Arakawa, Hirokazu | Morikawa, Akihiro | Orosoo, Solongo | Braber, Saskia | Bol-Schoenmakers, Marianne | Akbari, Peyman | Jeurink, Prescilla V. | Jeurink, Prescilla V. | De Graaff, Priscilla | Smit, Joost J. | Van Esch, Betty C. A. M. | Garssen, Johan | Garssen, Johan | Fink-Gremmels, Johanna | Pieters, Raymond H. H. | Kim, Gun-Woo | Jo, Eun-Jung | Kim, Sujeong | Song, Woo-Jung | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Faruqi, Shoaib | Kim, Ju-Young | Kang, Mingyu | Kim, Min-Hye | Plevkova, Jana | Park, Heung Woo | Cho, Sang-Heon | Morice, Alyn | Lee, So-Hee | Kim, Sun-Sin | Lee, Seoung-Eun | Gemicioglu, Bilun | Misirligil, Zeynep | Cimrin, Arif Hikmet | Gunen, Hakan | Ozlu, Tevfik | Cilli, Aykut | Akyildiz, Levent | Bayram, Hasan | Uzaslan, Esra | Abadoglu, Oznur | Suerdem, Mecit | Kainuma, Keigo | Kim, Hyun-a | Kim, Ha-Su | Bae, Woo Yong | Jung, Jin-a | Kamenwa, Rose | Macharia, William | Said, Nusrat | Nerurkar, Vidya | Patel, Meenal | Bhatia, Simi | Choi, Inseon S. | Kim, Soo-Jeong | Won, Joo-Min | Park, Myeong-Soo | Nagao, Mizuho | Park, Dong Won | Sohn, Jang Won | Yhi, Ji Young | Moon, Ji-Yong | Kim, Sang-Heon | Kim, Tae Hyung | Shin, Dong Ho | Yoon, Ho Joo | Hyo, Yukiyoshi | Lee, Jaechun | Kim, Su Hee | Lee, Eunkyoung | Jung, Hahn Jin | Lim, Jaehyun | Hong, Seung-No | Han, Doo Hee | Rhee, Chae-Seo | Lee, Kun Song | Lee, Jaechun | Yang, Sun Young | Ahn, Mi Young | Lee, Jong Hoo | Golez, Jasmina | Tian, Hui-Qin | Cheng, Lei | Chen, Xin-Yuan | Moon, Ji-Yong | Kim, Sang-Heon | Kim, Tae Hyung | Yhi, Ji Young | Yoon, Ho Joo | Sohn, Jang Won | Shin, Dong Ho | Park, Dong Won | Cho, Won Im | Choi, Jong Sub | Suh, Dongin | Kang, Gyeong Hoon | Moon, Jin Soo | Ko, Jae Sung | Lee, Kyung Jae | Choi, Shin Jie | Luo, Wenting | Sun, Baoqing | Gao, Qi | Xiang, Li | Shen, Kunling | Jang, Yong Hyun | Bergmann, Karl-Christian | Sehlinger, Torsten | Bölke, Georg | Berger, Uwe | Zuberbier, Torsten | Kolodziejczyk, Joanna | Wojciechowska, Milena | Hnatyszyn-Dzikowska, Anna | Chojnacki, Micha | Bartuzi, Zbigniew | Masaki, Katsunori | Fukunaga, Koichi | Kamatani, Takashi | Ohtsuka, Kengo | Tanosaki, Takae | Matsusaka, Masako | Mochimaru, Takao | Kabata, Hiroki | Ueda, Soichiro | Suzuki, Yusuke | Kamei, Katsuhiko | Asano, Koichiro | Betsuyaku, Tomoko | Trafford, Karlee | Bulut, Ismet | Ozseker, Zeynep Ferhan | Horimukai, Kenta | Morita, Hideaki | Narita, Masami | Niizeki, Hironori | Matsumoto, Kenji | Ohya, Yukihiro | Saito, Hirohisa | Kabashima, Shigenori | Kondo, Mai | Inoue, Eisuke | Siebers, Robert | Wu, Francis F. S. | Siebers, Robert | Wu, Francis F. S. | Ting, Ming-Hui | Laio, Hung-En | Kuo, Tsung-Huai | Lee, Pei-Yuan | Maddox, Daniel Eugene | Ryu, Gwanghui | Kim, Hyo Yeol | Dhong, Hun-Jong | Hong, Sang Duk | Chung, Seung-Kyu | Higuchi, Osamu | Adachi, Yu-Ichi | Itazawa, Toshiko | Adachi, Yoko | Hamamichi, Miki | Nakabayashi, Motokazu | Ito, Yasunori | Wada, Takuya | Murakami, Gyoukei | Takao, Miki | Yamamoto, Junko | Jin, Hyun Jung | Yoon, Moon Gyeong | Ye, Young Min | Shin, Yoo-Seob | Kim, Seung-Hyun | Park, Hae-Sim | Min, Taek-Ki | Pyun, Bok-Yang | Lee, So-Yeon | Kim, Hyun Hee | Jang, Gwang-Cheon | Yu, Jinho | Suh, Dongin | Lee, Sooyoung | Park, Yong Mean | Kim, Jeong Hee | Yum, Hye-Yung | Kim, Kyung Won | Yang, Hyeon-Jong | Ahn, Kangmo | Kwon, Ji-Won | Sohn, Myung Hyun | Lee, Hae Ran | Kwon, Jung Hyun | Kim, Kyu-Earn | Hong, Soo-Jong | Cho, Su-Mi | Nahm, Dong-Ho | Kim, Myoung-Eun | Lee, Jin Hwa | Rhee, Chin Kook | Park, Hye Yun | Kim, Woo Jin | Park, Yong Bum | Yoo, Kwang-Ha | Kang, Heejeong | Yang, Hyeon-Jong | Min, Taek-Ki | Pyun, Bok-Yang | Suk, Lee Ju | Kim, Cheol Hong | Kwon, Jung Hyun | Lee, Sang Hyun | Seo, Wonhee | Kim, Kang-in | Park, Young Cheon | Yang, Hyeon-Jong | Min, Taek-Ki | Pyun, Bok-Yang | Kim, Sujeong | Jin, Sun | Lee, Jong-Myung | Jung, Hye-Jin | Park, Jung-Wha | Kim, Hyo-Jung | Kim, Tae-Bum | Cho, You Sook | Moon, Hee-Bom | Kwon, Hyouk-Soo | Park, So Young | Park, So-Young | Kim, Jung-Hyun | Seo, Bomi | Kim, Min-Gu | Kim, Youn Yee | Lee, Yena | Min, Taek-Ki | Yang, Hyeon-Jong | Pyun, Bok-Yang | Han, Suk Hee | Park, Suyeon | Lee, Jeongho | Hahn, Won-Ho | Jeon, Youhoon | Kim, Joo-Hee | Shin, Tae-Rim | Kim, Cheol-Hong | Hyun, In-Gyu | Choi, Jeong-Hee | Jang, Sun-Mi | Na, Hae-Jung | Song, Seung-Eon | Park, Hye-Kyung | Jo, Eun-Jung | Lee, Dong Hun | Lee, Jin-Young | Park, Yang | Oh, Jae-Won | Lee, Mi Hee | Hong, Soo-Jong | Hong, Soo-Jong | Lee, So-Yeon | Park, Joon Soo | Nahm, Dong-Ho | Yum, Hye-Yung | Yum, Hye-Yung | Choi, Kyu Young | Kim, Dong-Young | Palapinyo, Sirinoot | Klaewsongkram, Jettanong | Chen, Xing | Jin, Yuting | Hou, Xiaoming | Liu, Fengqin | Guo, Chunyan | Wang, Yulin | Okafuji, Ikuo | Tanaka, Yuya | Narabayashi, Shegeyuki | Tsuruta, Satoru | Jang, Yong Hyun | Ahn, Jun-Hong | Lee, Dong-Won | Chung, Jin Hong | Jin, Hyun Jung | Sohn, Min-Su | Park, Young a | Jeong, Kyunguk | Kim, Yoon Hee | Sol, In Suk | Yoon, Seo Hee | Kim, Kyung Won | Sohn, Myung Hyun | Kim, Kyu-Earn | Lee, Sooyoung | Kim, Ho | Kim, Ja Yeun | Lee, So-Yeon | Min, Taek-Ki | Song, Tae-Won | Ahn, Kangmo | Kim, Jihyun | Jang, Gwang-Cheon | Yang, Hyeon-Jong | Pyun, Bok-Yang | Kwon, Ji-Won | Sohn, Myung Hyun | Kim, Kyu-Earn | Yu, Jinho | Hong, Soo-Jong | Kwon, Jung-Hyun | Kim, Sung-Won | Lee, Sooyoung | Kim, Woo Kyung | Kim, Hyung Young | Kim, Hye-Young | Jeon, Youhoon | Lim, Chang Hoon | Jeong, Yeongsang | Kim, Su Jung | Chang, Hun Soo | Heo, Jeong-Seok | Bae, Da-Jeong | Lee, Jong-Uk | Kim, Ji-Na | Min, Chang-Gi | Song, Hyun Ji | Park, Jong-Sook | Kim, Soo Hyun | Park, Choon-Sik | Liu, Jing-Nan | Choi, Youngwoo | Shin, Yoo Seob | Park, Hae-Sim | Rezaei, Nima | Mahneh, Sedigheh Bahrami | Rezaei, Arezou | Sadr, Maryam | Movahedi, Masoud | Gang, Jun Seak | Park, Joon Soo | Kim, Seung Soo | Bang, Hyun Ho | Park, Kyeong Bae | Kim, Hye Sun | Kim, Tae Ho | Hwangbo, Young | Lee, Hyun Jung | Yoo, Gyeong Hee | Kim, Young Chang | Sato, Sakura | Yanagida, Noriyuki | Ebisawa, Motohiro | Palikhe, Sailesh | Park, Hae-Sim | Kim, Seung-Hyun | Kim, Ri-Yeon | Yang, Eun-Mi | Lee, Li Yuan Gabriella Nadine | Aw, Marion | Aw, Marion | Lee, Bee Wah | Lee, Bee Wah | Loo, Evelyn Xiu Ling | Chan, Yiong Huak | Shek, Lynette | Shek, Lynette | Kuo, I-Chun | Kuo, I-Chun | Quah, Phaik Ling | Quah, Phaik Ling | Llanora, Genevieve | Irvin, Gerez | Jung, Joo Hyun | Kang, Il Gyu | Kim, Seon Tae | Park, Hyoungmin | Kim, Seon Tae | Jung, Joo Hyun | Kang, Il Gyu | Park, Hyoungmin | Ko, Kwang-Pil | Lee, Jungsoo | Chu, Howard | Lee, Hemin | Shin, Jung U. | Park, Chang Ook | Lee, Kwang Hoon | Lee, Kwang Hoon | Kang, Hong Kyu | Lee, Dong Chang | Kim, Geun Jeon | Hwang, Jae Hyung | Ha, Jin Bu | Jeong, Su Hee | Kim, Ho | Hwang, Shinha | Lee, Whahee | Bazarsad, Enkhbayar | Narantsetseg, Logii | Sonomjamts, Munkhbayarlakh | Jang, Gwang-Cheon | Lee, Hyun-Hee | Lee, Chang-Jong | Lim, Huynsun | Soh, Ji-Eun | Song, Dae-Jin | Kwon, Ji-Won | Kim, Hyung Young | Seo, Ju-Hee | Kim, Byoung-Ju | Kim, Hyo-Bin | Lee, So-Yeon | Jang, Gwang-Cheon | Kim, Woo Kyung | Jung, Young-Ho | Hong, Soo-Jong | Shim, Jung Yeon | Bazarsad, Enkhbayar | Narantsetseg, Logii | Sonomjamts, Munkhbayarlakh | Pv, Prabhakarrao | Nadendla, Ranjitha | Fang, Juan | Zhao, Jing | Song, Dae-Jin | Seo, Sungchul | Yoo, Young | Kim, Yu-Ri | Choung, Ji Tae | Lee, Jee Hoo | Berings, Margot | De Ruyck, Natalie | Bachert, Claus | Gevaert, Philippe | Holtappels, Gabriële | Lee, Pureun-Haneul | Kim, Byeong-Gon | Park, Choon-Sik | Leikauf, George D. | Jang, An-Soo | Kimc, Byeong-Gon | Lee, Pureun-Haneul | Park, Choon-Sik | Jang, An-Soo | Park, Yang | Sohn, Min-Su | Jin, Hyun Jung | Lee, Dong-Won | Ahn, Jun-Hong | Chung, Jin Hong | Kim, Sae-in | Park, Han-Ki | Kim, Do-Yeon | Rho, Mina | Choi, Jun-Pyo | Kim, Yoon-Keun | Kamchaisatian, Wasu | Hiranras, Thitikul | Wongpun, Surinda | Chiraphorn, Phornthip | Tantachun, Anupan | Wongrassamee, Wannipa | Vatanasurkitt, Planee | Somboonkul, Naratip | Juthacharoenwong, Nattipat | Techapaitoon, Surangkana | Tuchinda, Montri | An, Sejin | Lee, Jae Ho | Shin, Ji-Hyeon | Kim, Soo Whan | Kim, Si Won | Kang, Jun Myung | Kim, Boo-Young | Kim, Byung-Guk | Kwon, Ji-Won | Kim, Woo Kyung | Kim, Hyung Young | Kim, Hyo-Bin | Seo, Ju-Hee | Lee, So-Yeon | Jang, Gwang-Cheon | Jung, Young-Ho | Hong, Soo-Jong | Kim, Byoung-Ju | Song, Dae-Jin | Shim, Jung Yeon | Lee, Jung-Won | Kim, Kyung Ho | Yoo, Young | Yoon, Won Suck | Seo, Sungchul | Kang, In Soon | Choi, Jae Won | Lim, Hye-Young | Choung, Ji Tae | Buela, Michelle | Nishimura, Koji | Park, Sang Chul | Chung, Hyo Jin | Kim, Chang-Hoon | Kang, Ju Wan | Hong, Seong-Chul | Lee, Keun-Hwa | Lee, Jaechun | Lee, Hye-Sook | Kim, Jeong Hong | Logii, Narantsetseg | Nyamdavaa, N. | Enkhbayar, B. | Oyuntsatsral, B. | Munkhbayarlakh, S. | Bazarsad, Enkhbayar | Sonomjamts, Munkhbayarlakh | Omarjee, Bashir | Li, Shuo | Hayashi, Miyuki | Pawankar, Ruby | Yamanishi, Shingo | Igarashi, Toru | Itoh, Yasuhiko | Gantulga, B. | Enkhbayar, B. | Munkhbayarlakh, S. | Narantsetseg, L. | Batsaikhan, Oyuntsatsral | Chen, Pei-Chi | Wang, Jiu-Yao | Leung, Nicki Y. H. | Wai, Christine Yee Yan | Leung, Patrick S. C. | Chu, Ka Hou | Doh, Eun Jin | Lee, Dong Hun | Choi, Mira | Yoon, Hyun-Sun | Kim, Kyu Han | Lim, Ji Soo | Baek, Ji Hyeon | Han, Man Yong | Lee, Seung Jin | Jeon, Youhoon | Lee, Kyung Suk | Jung, Young-Ho | Jee, Hye Mi | Shin, Youn Ho | Jiang, Yi | Liu, Miao | Naing, Chaw Su | Tan, Tze Chin | Chong, Yong Yeow | Kim, Young-Ho | Lee, Eun | Yang, Song-I | Cho, Hyun-Ju | Kim, Hyung Young | Kwon, Ji-Won | Jung, Young-Ho | Kim, Byoung-Ju | Seo, Ju-Hee | Kwon, Ho-Jang | Kim, Hyo-Bin | Lee, So-Yeon | Hong, Soo-Jong | Kim, Soo Hyun | Joseph, Jacqueline Elizabeth | Soumya, M. S. | Pawankar, Ruby | Kumar, Harshitha | Yang, Sohyoung | Woo, Sung-Il | Rezaei, Nima | Kose, Sukran | Serin, Basak Gol | Yalcin, Arzu Didem | Senger, Süheyla Serin | Erden, Mehmet | Serin, Ertan | Leung, Ting Fan | Leung, Agnes Sze-Yin | Kumar, Harshitha | Soumya, M. S. | Joseph, Jacqueline Elizabeth | Pawankar, Ruby | Chung, Eun Hee | Kim, Eunji | Yoo, Young | Yoo, Young | Choung, Ji Tae | Choung, Ji Tae | Seo, Sungchul | Seo, Sungchul | Kang, In Soon | Lee, Jue Seong | Hwang, Ji Hyen | Lee, Sang Min | Jung, Joo Hyun | Choi, Seung Joon | Joe, Eugene | Hwang, Hyunjung | Kang, Shin Myung | Kim, Yu Jin | Kyung, Sun Young | Park, Jeong-Woong | Jeong, Sung Hwan | Lee, Sang Pyo | Gaisina, Alina | Shilovskiy, Igor | Nikonova, Aleksandra | Kamyshnikov, Oleg | Khaitov, Musa | Mitin, Alexander | Viktoriya, Komogorova | Litvina, Marina | Sharova, Nina | Faiah, M. J. | Ismail, Intan H. | Miles, E. A. | Jamli, Faizah Mohamed | Choi, Jun-Pyo | Choi, Han-Byul | Kim, Yoon-Keun | Choi, Hyeon-Il | Yoon, Da-Il | Kang, Mingyu | Kim, Mi Yeoung | Kim, Sujeong | Jo, Eun-Jung | Lee, Seoung-Eun | Song, Woo-Jung | Lee, Sang Min | Park, Chansun | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Lee, Jaechun | Jee, Young-Koo | Choi, Inseon S. | Min, Kyung-up | Cho, Sang-Heon | Cho, Sang-Heon | Laskin, Anton | Kamyshnikov, Oleg | Babakhin, Alexander | Berzhets, Valentina | Khaitov, Musa | Lee, Jae Ho | An, Sejin | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Min, Kyung-up | Cho, Sang-Heon | Kim, Sae-Hoon | Kwon, Yong Eun | Jee, Young-Koo | Kim, Tae-Bum | Moon, Hee-Bom | Park, Hye-Kyung | Kang, Sung-Yoon | Choi, Jun-Pyo | Park, Han-Ki | Lee, Ji-Hyun | Kim, Yoon-Keun | Kim, Sang-Yoon | Hwang, Hyunjung | Joe, Eugene | Lee, Sang Min | Choi, Seung Joon | Jung, Joo Hyun | Seon, Yong Han | Kang, Shin Myung | Kim, Yu Jin | Kyung, Sun Young | Park, Jeong-Woong | Jeong, Sung Hwan | Lee, Sang Pyo | Khramykhoverchenko, Natalya | Sultana, Asma | Halwani, Rabih | Bahammam, Ahmed | Al Muhsen, Saleh | Kim, Sun Kyung | Nam, Kwang Il | Yang, Hyung Chae | Kim, Jeong-Eun | Lee, Ju Suk | Lee, Ji Hyun | Kang, Kyung Woo | Kim, Je-Kyung | Hahn, Youn-Soo | Jung, Jae-Yub | Baba, Yosuke | Yamazaki, Sususmu | Inage, Eisuke | Mori, Mari | Ohtsuka, Yoshikazu | Kantake, Masato | Shimizu, Toshiaki | Honjoh, Asuka | Yokokura, Tomoaki | Elhassan, Shaza Ali Mohammed | Beck, Caroline | Adeli, Mehdi | Baek, Heysung | Lee, Seung Jin | Baek, Ji Hyeon | Yoon, Jungwon | Choi, Sun Hee | Jung, Young-Ho | Shin, Youn Ho | Han, Man Yong | Na, Min Sun | Compalati, Enrico | Marogna, Maurizio | Huang, Huimin | Sun, Baoqing | Bai, Mingyu | Huo, Yiting | Zheng, Peiyan | Wei, Nili | Luo, Wenting | Andiappan, Anand | Minisini, Rosalba | Rötzschke, Olaf | Boggio, Elena | Gigliotti, Luca | Clemente, Nausicaa | Chiocchetti, Annalisa | Dianzani, Umberto | Pirisi, Mario | Villa, Elisa | Yamaide, Fumiya | Yonekura, Syuji | Shimojo, Naoki | Inoue, Yuzaburo | Okamoto, Yoshitaka | Setyoningrum, Retno Asih | Setiawati, Landia | Sumei, Sri | Iskandar, Deddy | Kompiyang, Indriyani Sang Ayu | Oguma, Tsuyoshi | Tanaka, Jun | Tomomatsu, Katsuyoshi | Asano, Koichiro | Uno, Keisuke | Matsuwaki, Yoshinori | Omura, Kazuhiro | Hayashi, Eika | Tatsumi, Norifumi | Kita, Hirohito | Otori, Nobuyoshi | Kojima, Hiromi | Khorasgani, Mohammadreza Fatemi | Lew, Dukhee/Betty | Lemessurier, Kim/S. | Moore, Joseph/a | Park, Jeoung-Eun | Yi, Ae-Kyung | Song, Chi/Young | Malik, Kafait/U | Kim, Ja Kyoung | Yang, Hyeon-Jong | Kim, Bong-Seong | Shin, Youn Ho | Lee, So-Yeon | Park, Geunhwa | Kim, Woo Kyung | Kim, Hyo-Bin | Baek, Heysung | Lim, Dae Hyun | Lim, Dae Hyun | Kim, Jin Tack | Suh, Dongin | Nano, Aimee Lou Manalo | Sun, Baoqing | Luo, Wenting | Nacaroglu, Hikmet Tekin | Erdem, Semiha Bahceci | Sumer, Ozlem | Karaman, Sait | Karkiner, Canan Sule Unsal | Asilsoy, Suna | Gunay, Ilker | Can, Demet | Kiers, Danielle | Wang, Jiu-Yao | Yin, Hsu Han | Kaplan, Allen | Joseph, Kusumam | Tholanikunnel, Baby G. | Dudek, Radim | Bilgin, Gulden | Surer, Hatice | Kilinc, Aytun Sadan | Yucel, Dogan | Lee, Ji Young | Kim, Jihyun | Yang, Hea-Kyoung | Kim, Minji | Lee, Sang-Il | Ahn, Kangmo | Moon, Sung Do | Kim, Byung-Keun | Cho, Sang-Heon | Min, Kyung-up | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Park, Heung Woo | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Song, Woo-Jung | Kang, Min-Koo | Kim, Ju-Young | Sohn, Kyonghee | Won, Ha Kyung | Lee, Seoung-Eun | Kim, Kyung-Mook | Bachert, Claus | Hsieh, Miao-Hsi | Wang, Jiu-Yao | Smith, Helen | Brown, Clare | Jones, Christina | Davies, Mark | Yoon, Won Suck | Lee, Hemin | Chu, Howard | Lee, Jungsoo | Shin, Jung U. | Park, Chang Ook | Lee, Kwang Hoon | Lee, Kwang Hoon | Kim, Seo Hyeong | Kim, Seo Hyeong | Noh, Ji Yeon | Kim, Ji Hye | Kim, Ji Hye | Yoon, Won Suck | L’huillier, Jean-Pierre | Autegarden, Jean-Eric | Bertrand, Catherine | Tardy, Dominique | Ismail, Intan Hakimah | Tang, Mimi | Licciardi, Paul | Oppedisano, Frances | Boyle, Robert | Robins-Browne, Roy | Yagi, Hisako | Koyama, Harumi | Nishida, Yutaka | Takizawa, Takumi | Arakawa, Hirokazu | Kang, Hong Kyu | Lee, Hemin | Lee, Jungsoo | Shin, Jung U. | Lee, Kwang Hoon | Lee, Kwang Hoon | Chu, Howard | Park, Chang Ook | Yoon, Na Young | Lee, Hyeyoung | Seo, Seong Jun | Choi, Eunhee | Wang, Hye-Young | Jung, Minyoung | Choi, Eung Ho | Kim, Dong Hye | Kim, Joo-Hee | Jang, Young-Sook | Choi, Jeong-Hee | Park, Sunghoon | Hwang, Young Il | Jang, Seung Hun | Jung, Ki-Suck | Kang, Mi-Jin | Suh, Dongin | Lee, Eun | Choi, Kil Yong | Jung, Young-Ho | Yang, Song-I | Kim, Bong-Soo | Kim, Ha-Jung | Koh, Juneyoung | Kim, Hyun-Jin | Ahn, Kangmo | Shin, Youn Ho | Cho, Hyun-Ju | Kim, Byoung-Ju | Kim, Young-Ho | Jung, Yean | Mamura, Mizuko | Yoon, Jeong-Hwan | Nakae, Susumu | Lee, Inkyu | Matsumoto, Isao | Sumida, Takayuki | Han, Jin Soo | Sudo, Katsuko | Ju, Ji Hyeon | Yap, Gaik Chin | Liu, Wen Tso | Oh, Seungdae | Hong, Pei Ying | Huang, Chiung Hui | Aw, Marion | Shek, Lynette | Lee, Bee Wah | Byun, Young Seok | Kim, Sung Wan | Koh, Tae Kyung | Jo, Joong-Saeng | Lee, Kun Hee | Kwon, Chul | Dong, Sung-Hwa | Kim, Myung Shin | Park, Chansun | Cho, Han Seok | Kim, Min-Ju | Kim, Min Ji | Park, Young Ok | Lee, Hye Yeong | Kim, Hee Seong | Lee, Eun | Cho, Hyun-Ju | Yu, Jinho | Hong, Soo-Jong | Hwang, Keum Hee | Kim, Jung-Hyun | Cho, You Sook | Kim, Sae-Hoon | Kwon, Hyouk-Soo | Yoo, Mira | Kim, Hyo-Jung | Park, So-Young | Shin, Bomi | Park, So Young | Seo, Bomi | Kim, Min-Gu | Moon, Hee-Bom | Park, Jin-Ah | Kim, Tae-Bum | Lee, Jaemoon | Jeong, Jin Hyeok | Kang, Tae Wook | Yoo, Han Seok | Cho, Yong Hee | Cho, Seok Hyun | Kim, Kyung Rae | Lee, Jue Seong | Kee, Sun-Ho | Kim, Sewon | Yoo, Young | Na, Heung Sik | Back, Seung Keun | Lee, Seung Jin | Seo, Bo Seon | Baek, Ji Hyeon | Lee, Kyung Suk | Jung, Young-Ho | Jee, Hye Mi | Shin, Youn Ho | Han, Man Yong | Kim, Mi-Ae | Nam, Young-Hee | Jeon, Dong Sub | Lee, Soo-Keol | Park, Jisun | Moon, Seung Hyun | Lin, Rong Jun | Guan, Ren Zheng | Park, Gyeong Yul | Yoon, Hyun-Sun | Choi, Woo-Hyeok | Baek, Heysung | Park, Jin-Sung | Kwon, Eunmi | Callaway, Zac | Kim, Chang-Keun | Fujisawa, Takao | Zhang, Qingling | Qiu, Rihuang | Li, Naijian | Yang, Zhaowei | Li, Jing | Chung, Kian Fan | Zhong, Nanshan | Hon, Kam Lun E. | Tsang, Yin Ching K. | Leung, Ting Fan | Jang, Yoon Young | Chung, Hai Lee | Lee, Seung Gook | Na, Ji Hyun | Lee, Jong Hoon | Nam, Young-Hee | Jeon, Dong Sub | Lee, Soo-Keol | Yamamoto, Mikita | Sato, Sakura | Yanagida, Noriyuki | Ogawa, Ayako | Ogura, Kanako | Takahashi, Kyohei | Nagakura, Kenichi | Emura, Shigehito | Asaumi, Tomoyuki | Iikura, Katsuhito | Ebisawa, Motohiro | Okada, Yu | Luo, Jiaying | Lan, Xiao | Sun, Baoqing | Chen, Zhao | Sun, Guiyuan | Li, Shimin | Hu, Jiaqing | Choi, Woo-Hyeok | Baek, Heysung | Nam, Young-Hee | Jeon, Dong Sub | Nam, Hee-Joo | Noh, Yeo Myeong | Kim, Sang Hee Kim | Park, Ye Suel | Lee, Soo-Keol | Choi, Yean Jung | Lee, Si Hyeon | Kim, Young-Ho | Kang, Mi-Jin | Cho, Hyun-Ju | Lee, Eun | Yang, Song-I | Shin, Youn Ho | Ahn, Kangmo | Kim, Kyung Won | Kim, Yoon Hee | Lee, So-Yeon | Chang, Hyoung Yoon | Choi, In Ae | Lee, Kyung-Sook | Shin, Yee-Jin | Kim, Yoon Hee | Kim, Min Jung | Sol, In Suk | Yoon, Seo Hee | a Park, Young | Kim, Kyung Won | Sohn, Myung Hyun | Kim, Kyu-Earn | Lee, Yong Ju | Sol, In Suk | Kim, Kyu-Earn | Kim, Yoon Hee | Kim, Min Jung | Yoon, Seo Hee | Lee, Yong Ju | Kim, Kyung Won | a Park, Young | Sohn, Myung Hyun | Park, Sung Joo | Kwon, Ji-Won | Kim, Woo Kyung | Kim, Hyung Young | Kim, Hyo-Bin | Seo, Ju-Hee | Lee, So-Yeon | Jang, Gwang-Cheon | Jung, Young-Ho | Hong, Soo-Jong | Kim, Byoung-Ju | Song, Dae-Jin | Yang, Yun Seok | Shim, Jung Yeon | Jang, Yoon Young | Chung, Hai Lee | Kim, Ji Hye | Lee, Hyun Seok | Lee, Chang Ho | Cho, Changbum | Lim, Yun-Kyu | Kim, Kyu Rang | Kim, Mijin | Kim, Baek-Jo | Kim, Young-Min | Han, Youngshin | Kim, Jihyun | Cheong, Hae-Kwan | Jeon, Byoung-Hak | Ahn, Kangmo | Ming, Chuang/Yao | Wang, Jiu-Yao | Ling, Ye/Yi | Huang, Huimin | Sun, Baoqing | Chen, Yun | Zheng, Peiyan | Wei, Nili | Luo, Wenting | Lee, Do Hyeong | Choi, Gil-Soon | Kim, Hee-Kyoo | Park, Han Su | Park, So-Young | Kim, Hyo-Jung | Seo, Bomi | Kim, Jung-Hyun | Kim, Min-Gu | Kwon, Hyouk-Soo | Cho, You Sook | Moon, Hee-Bom | Kim, Tae-Bum | Lee, Yoon Su | Shin, Eun-Soon | Tanaka, Akio | Morioke, Satoshi | Ohya, Yukihiro | Shimojo, Naoki | Akasawa, Akira | Hide, Michihiro | Shizukawa, Hiroko | Watanabe, Naoto | Shin, Meeyong | Jang, Myeong Sun | Nam, Young-Hee | Noh, Yeo Myeong | Jeon, Dong Sub | Nam, Hee-Joo | Kim, Sang Hee Kim | Park, Ye Suel | Lee, Soo-Keol | Jung, Ji-in | Kim, Ha-Su | Kim, Hyun-a | Jung, Jin-a | Goh, Anne | Rao, Rajeshwar | Nandanan, Bindu | Van Elburg, Ruurd | Chien, Chua Mei | Jo, Juandy | Garssen, Johan | Garssen, Johan | Knippels, Leon | Sandalova, Elena | Chiang, Wen Chin | Nam, Young-Hee | Juong, Ji Young | Kim, Soo Jin | Kim, Eun Young | Lee, Su Mi | Son, Young Ki | Nam, Hee-Joo | Kim, Ki-Ho | Lee, Soo-Keol | Park, Da-Eun | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Park, Heung Woo | Lee, Hyun Seung | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Park, Jung-Won | Cho, Sang-Heon | Min, Kyung-up | Song, Woo-Jung | Lim, Hyunwook | Seo, Sungchul | Choung, Ji Tae | Yoo, Young | Park, Jun-Sik | Kim, Byung Kwan | Won, Ha Kyeong | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Kim, Byung-Keun | Moon, Sung Do | Kim, Ju-Young | Lee, So-Hee | Song, Woo-Jung | Park, Heung Woo | Kang, Min-Koo | Kim, Sun-Sin | Cho, Sang-Heon | Min, Kyung-up | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Sohn, Kyoung Hee | Kim, Kyung-Mook | Kim, Ki-Woong | Jang, Hak Chul | Nam, Young-Hee | Jeon, Dong Sub | Nam, Hee-Joo | Noh, Yeo Myeong | Kim, Sang Hee Kim | Park, Ye Suel | Lee, Soo-Keol | Leung, Ting Fan | Tang, Man Fung | Sy, Hing Yee | Chan, Wa Cheong | Tam, Wilson Wai San | Chung, Seung Kyu | Kim, Sujin | Hong, Sang Duk | Kim, Hyo Yeol Kim Hyo Yeol | Dhong, Hun-Jong | Jeong, Jong in | Nam, Young-Hee | Jeon, Dong Sub | Lee, Soo-Keol | Lee, Ji Won | Kang, Mingyu | Kim, Soon-Hee | Bae, Boram | Kim, Sujeong | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Song, Woo-Jung | Park, Da-Eun | Lee, Hyun Seung | Park, Heung Woo | Park, Han-Ki | Park, Jung-Won | Nam, Young-Hee | Jeon, Dong Sub | Nam, Hee-Joo | Noh, Yeo Myeong | Kim, Sang Hee Kim | Park, Ye Suel | Lee, Soo-Keol | Hou, Yung-I | Wang, Jiu-Yao | Kim, Ja Hyeong | Hee, Seol Jae | Ha, Eun-Hee | Park, Hyesook | Ha, Mina | Hong, Yun-Chul | Kim, Yangho | Chang, Namsoo | Soma, Yuta | Watanabe, So | Pawankar, Ruby | Suzaki, Harumi | Kobayashi, Hitome | Nam, Young-Hee | Park, Chansun | Lee, Soo-Keol | Lee, Jongrok | Roh, Jooyoung | Ryu, Haryeong | Kim, Cheol-Woo | Cho, Jae Hwa | Eom, Mi Ra | Kang, Ji Young | Lee, Hye Gyeung | Choi, Hae Young | Lee, Hye Jin | Woo, Ju Yun | Byun, Ji Yeon | Choi, You Won | Kim, Ja Hyeong | Ha, Eun-Hee | Park, Hyesook | Ha, Mina | Hong, Yun-Chul | Kim, Yangho | Chang, Namsoo | Kwon, Jae-Woo | Chang, Hun Soo | Heo, Jeong-Seok | Lee, Jong-Uk | Park, Jong-Sook | Kim, Eusom | Kim, Soo Hyun | Park, Choon-Sik | Choi, Hae Young | Byun, Ji Yeon | Woo, Ju Yun | Choi, You Won | Jin, Hyun-Ju | Son, Jin-Hwa | Kim, Jeong-Min | Kim, Gun-Wook | Mun, Je-Ho | Song, Margaret | Ko, Hyun-Chang | Kim, Moon-Bum | Kim, Hoon-Soo | Kim, Byung Soo | Van Nunen, Sheryl | Van Nguyen, Dinh | Elias, Anthony | Lauer, Susannah Olivia | Lee, Seung-Chul | Lee, Ho-June | Bae, Jung Min | Ono, Emi | Dong, Sung-Hwa | Koh, Tae Kyung | Byun, Young Seok | Kim, Sung Wan | Jo, Joong-Saeng | Kwon, Chul | Lee, Kun Hee | Liu, Li-Fan | Lee, Sunghee | Chen, Wei-Leng | Wang, Jiu-Yao | Bae, Youin | Park, Gyeong-Hun | Kim, Suk Yeon | Lee, Hyun Seung | Song, Woo-Jung | Kang, Mingyu | Park, Han-Ki | Park, Da-Eun | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Park, Heung Woo | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Kim, Hye-Young | Min, Kyung-up | Cho, Sang-Heon | Lee, Ji-Won | Bae, Boram | Park, Jung-Won | Suzuki, Yasuhiro | Bulut, Ismet | Ozseker, Zeynep Ferhan | Ismail, Intan Hakimah | Boyle, Robert | Licciardi, Paul | Oppedisano, Frances | Robins-Browne, Roy | Tang, Mimi | Lee, Ji Won | Lee, Hyun Seung | Kang, Mingyu | Park, Da-Eun | Park, Han-Ki | Kim, Soon-Hee | Song, Woo-Jung | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Park, Heung Woo | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Park, Chang-Han | Chang, Suk-Il | Song, Sook-Hee | Min, Kyung-up | Cho, Sang-Heon | Bae, Boram | Shieh, Grace | Kim, Min Jung | Hong, Jung Yeon | Yoon, Seo Hee | Shim, Doo Hee | Sol, In Suk | Kim, Yoon Hee | Kim, Mi Na | Lee, Kyung Eun | Kim, Kyung Won | Sohn, Myung Hyun | Kim, Kyu-Earn | Lee, Jae Myun | Chng, Hiok Hee | Kim, Dong Chan | Yang, Song-I | Lee, Hae Ran | Seo, An Deok | Lee, So Yeon | Artesani, Maria Cristina | Francalanci, Paola | Dahdah, Lamia | Schreiner, Thomas | Fiocchi, Alessandro | Chakraborty, Kaushik | Won, Ha Kyeong | Kim, Ju-Young | Jo, Eun-Jung | Sohn, Kyoung Hee | Kim, Kyung-Mook | Park, Heung Woo | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Cho, Sang-Heon | Song, Woo-Jung | Kim, Byung-Keun | Yonekura, Syuji | Okamoto, Yoshitaka | Hur, Gyu Young | Ye, Young Min | Kim, Joo-Hee | Jung, Ki-Suck | Kim, Junga | Shim, Jae Jeong | Park, Hae-Sim | Sekimoto, Kazuhiro | Sugai, Kazuko | Tsuchimoto, Keiji | Uehara, Hiromi | Ikeda, Masanori | Chung, Euncho | Park, Kang Seo | Choi, Yean Jung | Park, Jeewon | Hong, Soo-Jong | Lee, So Yeon | Jacquet, Alain | Buaklin, Arun | Malainual, Nat | Roopashree, S. | Kim, Kyu Rang | Kim, Mijin | Cho, Changbum | Kim, Baek-Jo | Oh, Jae-Won | Han, Mae Ja | Cho, Hyun-Ju | Shin, Youn Ho | Lee, Eun | Kim, Young-Ho | Lee, Darae | Kang, Mi-Jin | Yang, Song-I | Ahn, Kangmo | Kim, Kyung Won | Kim, Yoon Hee | Won, Hye-Sung | Kim, Soo Hyun | Choi, Suk-Joo | Kim, Young Han | Jun, Jong Kwan | Kim, Eun-Jin | Lee, Jeom Gyu | Lee, So-Yeon | Hong, Soo-Jong | Suh, Dongin | Amagai, Yosuke | Tanaka, Akane | Matsuda, Hiroshi | Mösges, Ralph | Dieterich, Pauline | Astvatsatourov, Anatoli | Hüser, Christoph | Singh, Jaswinder | Shah-Hosseini, Kija | Allekotte, Silke | Compalati, Enrico | Sohn, Kyoung Hee | Song, Woo-Jung | Kim, Byung-Keun | Kim, Ju-Young | Yang, Min Suk | Lee, So-Hee | Kim, Sae-Hoon | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Park, Heung Woo | Kim, Sun-Sin | Min, Kyung-up | Cho, Sang-Heon | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Chang, Woo-Sung | Do, Ji-Hye | Kim, Yeon-Seop | Yoon, Dankyu | Lim, Hye-Sun | Lee, Jeom-Kyu | Kim, Eun-Jin | Thong, Bernard | Cheng, Yew Kuang | Hou, Jinfeng | Leong, Khai Pang | Tan, Justina | Chia, Faith | Chan, Grace | Tan, Sze-Chin | Tan, Teck Choon | Tang, Chwee Ying | Chng, Hiok Hee | Park, Chan-Sun | Kim, Mi Yeoung | Kim, Eun-Young | Shin, Jae-Gook | Choi, Jae-Hyeog | Park, Saegwang | Kim, Yeonye | Lim, Kyung-Hwan | Jung, Jae Woo | Kang, Mingyu | Kim, Ju-Young | Kim, Ju-Young | Kim, Hyun Jeong | Woo, Yeon-Ju | Jung, Soo-Youn | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Porée, Thierry | Boukhettala, Nabile | Furon, Emeline | Bullimore, Alan David | Heath, Matthew | Hewings, Simon | Skinner, Murray | Kurowski, Marcin | Krysztofiak, Hubert | Wardzynska, Aleksandra | Jarzebska, Marzanna | Jurczyk, Janusz | Kowalski, Marek L. | Kim, So Ri | Lee, Yong Chul | Kim, Dong Im | Rhee, Yang Keun | Lee, Heung Bum | Park, Seoung Ju | Choe, Yeong Hun Choe | Park, Seung Yong | Kim, Joo-Hee | Park, Sunghoon | Hwang, Young Il | Jang, Seung Hun | Jung, Ki-Suck | Min, Jiang | Guang-Min, Nong | Nag, Nalin | Indawati, Wahyuni | Bullimore, Alan David | Heath, Matthew | Skinner, Murray | Seo, Seong Jun | Oh, Won Jong | Bullimore, Alan David | Skinner, Murray | Heath, Matthew | Bell, Andrew | Hasanzadeh, Hournaz | Sadeghzade, Salman | Rezaei, Nima | Zarebidoki, Alireza | Cho, Kyu-Sup | Oh, Moo-Young | Kim, Sung-Woo | Koizumi, Munemitsu | Kuzume, Kazuyo | Park, Kui Young | Oh, Won Jong | Babaie, Delara | Nabavi, Mohammad | Zandieh, Fariborz | Moini, Mehrdad Amir | Chavoshzadeh, Zahra | Seifi, Hamideh | Sahragard, Mitra | Mesdaghi, Mehrnaz | Bemanian, Mohammad Hassan | Choi, Sun Young | No, Yeon a | Kiedik, Dorota | Muszynska, Agnieszka | Pirogowicz, Iwona | Fal, Andrzej M. | Motomura, Chikako | Wakatsuki, Masatoshi | Akamine, Yuko | Iwata, Mihoko | Matsuzaki, Hiroshi | Taba, Naohiko | Murakami, Yoko | Odajima, Hiroshi | Ghrahani, Reni | Takaoka, Yuri | Lee, Jong-Uk | Heo, Jeong-Seok | Bae, Da-Jeong | Song, Hyun Ji | Park, Choon-Sik | Park, Jong-Sook | Cho, Jae Hoon | Choi, Ji Ho | Febriana, Fiska | Ghrahani, Reni | Sapartini, Gartika | Setiabudiawan, Budi | Nam, Young-Hee | Kim, Mi Yeoung | Choi, Gil-Soon | Park, Chan-Sun | Huang, Chiung-Hui | Soh, Jian Yi | Shek, Lynette | Shek, Lynette | Delsing, Dianne J. | Lee, Bee Wah | Lee, Bee Wah | Goh, Si Hui | Chiang, Wen Chin | Loh, Wenyin | Yang, Hea-Kyoung | Lee, Ji Young | Kim, Minji | Ahn, Kangmo | Kim, Jihyun | Kim, Young-Min | Kim, Hye-Young | Park, Yong Mean | Kim, Woo Kyung | Lee, So-Yeon | Jeong, Jongin | Hong, Sang Duk | Chung, Seung Kyu | Dhong, Hun-Jong | Kim, Hyo Yeol | Kim, Sujin | Bak, Hana | Son, Hye-Rim | Lee, Si-Eun | Kim, Kwang-Jin | Lim, Young-Wook | Kim, Ho-Hyun | Lee, Yong-Won | Han, Man Yong | Jung, Young-Ho | Jee, Hye Mi | Lee, Seung Jin | Lee, Kyung Suk | Kim, Mi-Ae | Lee, Jaechun | Lee, Eunkyoung | Golez, Jasmina | Bae, Da-Jeong | Min, Chang-Gi | Lee, Jong-Uk | Park, Jong-Sook | Chang, Hun Soo | Park, Choon-Sik | Jang, An-Soo | Kim, Ha-Jung | Kim, Young-Joon | Jung, Bok Kyoung | Lee, Seung-Hwa | Kang, Mi-Jin | Jeong, Sekyoo | Lee, Eun | Cho, Hyun-Ju | Kim, Young-Ho | Yang, Song-I | Kim, Seo Hee | Hong, Soo-Jong | Halwani, Rabih | Al Muhsen, Saleh | Sultana, Asma | Al-Faraj, Achraf | Kanana, Rosan | Afzal, Sibtain | Al Kufaidi, Roaa | Kim, Hee-Kyoo | Oak, Chul-Ho | Choi, Gil-Soon | Moon, Ye-Jin | Park, Eun-Kee | Abrari, Mina | Amirzargar, Ali Akbar | Zarebidoki, Alireza | Ha, Mina | Hong, Soo-Jong | Seo, Ju-Hee | Kang, Mingyu | Cho, Byung-Ha | Park, Han-Ki | Park, Han-Ki | Kim, Kyung-Mook | Park, Chang-Han | Park, Heung Woo | Park, Heung Woo | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Song, Sook-Hee | Kim, Mi-Kyeong | Kim, Mi-Kyeong | Cho, Sang-Heon | Chang, Suk-Il | Min, Kyung-up | Min, Kyung-up | Morice, Alyn | Choi, Jungi | Han, Yusok | Park, Jin-Sung | Kwon, Eunmi | Kim, Chang-Keun | Sapartini, Gartika | Kim, Ji-Na | Shin, Seungwoo | Chang, Hun Soo | Shim, Eun-Young | Jun, Ji Ah | Lee, Hyeonju | Park, Jong-Sook | Park, Choon-Sik | Sepiashvili, Revaz | Khachapuridze, Darejan | Gamkrelidze, Sofio | Chikhladze, Manana | Lee, Seung-Eun | Kim, Yun-Seong | Jeon, Doo-Soo | Cho, Woo-Hyun | Yeo, Hye-Ju | Yoon, Seong-Hoon | Kim, Seung-Hyun | Lee, Taehyeong | Song, Hyun Ji | Park, Choon-Sik | Jun, Ji Ah | Park, Jong-Sook | Yoon, Dankyu | Kim, Yeon-Seop | Chang, Woo-Sung | Kang, Mi-Jin | Hong, Soo-Jong | Lee, Jeom-Kyu | Kim, Eun-Jin | Park, Minkee | Lee, Nanju Alice | Rost, Johanna | Muralidharan, Sridevi | Campbell, Dianne | Mehr, Sam | Lee, Seung-Hwa | Yoon, Seon-Joo | Kim, Ha-Jung | Lee, Eun | Yang, Song-I | Jung, Young-Ho | Yu, Ho-Sung | Kim, Hee-Suk | Park, Yeon Hee | Lee, So-Yeon | Park, Jun-Sung | Jun, Hyun Ok | Won, Ha Kyeong | Kang, Min-Koo | Moon, Sung Do | Kim, Byung-Keun | Kim, Ju-Young | Cho, Sang-Heon | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Shim, Ji-Su | Chung, Soo Jie | Choi, Jaehee | Ahn, Kangmo | Kim, Kwanghoon | Kim, Jihyun | Lee, Jiyoung | Park, Bo Bae | Nho, In Young | Park, Chang-Han | Kim, Jang Min | Chang, Suk-Il | Kim, Sun Kyung | Yang, Hyung Chae | Nam, Kwang Il | Lee, Jeongmin | Lee, Sooyoung | Jeong, Kyunguk | Jeon, Se-Ah | Fujiwara, Midori | Shindo, Shoko | Murota, Hiroyuki | Tahara, Mayuko | Takahashi, Aya | Katayama, Ichiro | Jung, Jae Woo | Song, Hyun Ji | Lee, Taehyeong | Jang, An-Soo | Park, Jong-Sook | Chang, Hun Soo | Park, Choon-Sik | Choi, Byoung Whui | Kim, Min-Hye | Bae, Da-Jeong | Song, Hyun Ji | Lee, Taehyeong | Jun, Ji Ah | Park, Jong-Sook | Jang, An-Soo | Chang, Hun Soo | Cho, Young Joo | Park, Choon-Sik | Mun, Sue Jean | Kuroda, Etsushi | Ozasa, Koji | Ishii, Ken | Kim, Sunmi | Park, Gyeong-Hun | Song, Hyun Ji | Lee, Taehyeong | Jun, Ji Ah | Chang, Hun Soo | Park, Jong-Sook | Park, Choon-Sik | Kim, Mi-Ae | Shin, Seungwoo | Park, Jong-Sook | Chang, Hun Soo | Cho, You Sook | Park, Hae-Sim | Park, Choon-Sik | Min, Zhang | Yoon, Seo Hee | Sol, In Suk | a Park, Young | Kim, Yoon Hee | Kim, Min Jung | Kim, Kyung Won | Sohn, Myung Hyun | Kim, Kyu-Earn | Shiquan, Wu | Lee, Yongwon | Bak, Hana | Ching, Maricar Wisco | Ramos, John Donnie | Jeong, Kyunguk | Lee, Sooyoung | Ahn, Kangmo | Sohn, Myung Hyun | Kim, Kyung Won | Lee, So-Yeon | Song, Tae Won | Jeon, Youhoon | Kim, Jihyun | Min, Taek Ki | Kim, Kyu-Earn | Pyun, Bok-Yang | Yang, Hyeon-Jong | Lee, Hae Ran | Ahn, Youngmin | Kwon, Ji-Won | Lim, Dae Hyun | Kim, Jeong Hee | Suh, Dongin | Ki, Hyung Young | Jeong, Kyunguk | Park, Byeong Sub | Lee, Sooyoung | Jeon, Se-Ah | Park, Kyu Jung | Yang, Song-I | Lee, Eun | Cho, Hyun-Ju | Kim, Young-Ho | Kang, Mi-Jin | Choi, Yean Jung | Choi, Kil Yong | Shin, Youn Ho | Ahn, Kangmo | Kim, Kyung Won | Kim, Byoung-Ju | Lee, So-Yeon | K, Eun-Jin | Dario, Roccatello | Liao, Jing | Feng, Yong | Shang, Yunxiao | Lee, Yongwon | Bak, Hana | Kim, Hyung Young | Kim, Byoung-Ju | Kwon, Ji-Won | Seo, Ju-Hee | Lee, Eun | Lee, So-Yeon | Yang, Song-I | Jung, Young-Ho | Kim, Hyo-Bin | Kwon, Ho-Jang | Park, Hee Ju | Min, Zhang | Guang-Min, Nong | Min, Jiang | Hur, Gyu Young | Sim, Eun Jung | Yoon, Sora | Choi, Juwhan | Kim, Junga | Sim, Jae Keom | Oh, Jee Youn | Jeong, Kyunguk | Park, Byeong Sub | Lee, Jeong-Min | Lee, Sooyoung | Cheon, Eunjae | Na, Youngjoo | Park, Kyu Jung | Lee, Eunjoo | Yang, William | Kelly, Suzanne | Perrins, Rob | Yang, Jimmy | Yang, William | Kelly, Suzanne | Perrins, Rob | Karsh, Jacob | Yang, Jimmy | Badellino, Hector | Teijeiro, Alvaro | Cuello, Mabel | Pereira, Marilyn Urrutia | Egues, Gustavo | Aktas, Ayse | Chun, Jin-Kyong | Mujuru, Hilda Angela | Sibanda, Elopy N. | Popescu, Andreea Ioana | Greblescu, Raluca | Rahman, Suheyla | Aktas, Ayse | Tataurshchikova, Nataly | Dissanayake, Eishika | Inoue, Yuzaburo | Shimojo, Naoki | Nakano, Taiji | Tanjung, Conny | Jensen-Jarolim, Erika | Fazekas, Judit | Singer, Josef | Lukschal, Anna | Horvat, Reinhard | Achatz-Straussberger, Gertrude | Achatz, Gernot | Fujita, Yuji | Ikegami, Shuji | Nakamura, Yoshitaka | Inoue, Yuzaburo | Shimojo, Naoki | Kohno, Yoichi | Suzuki, Shuichi | Ozawa, Naoko | Kubota, Takayuki | Nonaka, Ken | Ohara, Osamu | Masuda, Kentaro | Rhee, Chin Kook | Lee, Sook Young | Lee, Hwa Young | Lee, Hea Yon | Kang, Ji Young | Kim, Sei Won | Kwon, Soon Seog | Kim, Young Kyoon | Kim, Gun-Woo | Kim, Ju-Young | Cho, Sang-Heon | Cho, Sang-Heon | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Kang, Hye-Ryun | Kim, Hyo-Soo | Han, Jung Gyu | Lee, Jin | Lee, Ji Young | Go, Ji Young | Park, So Jung | Kim-Chang, Julie | Love, Cassandra | Lugar, Patricia | Citraresmi, Endah | Kaswandani, Nastiti | Utami, Cynthia | Said, Mardjanis | Jung, Young-Ho | Yang, Song-I | Kim, Byoung-Ju | Kwon, Ji-Won | Kim, Hwan-Cheol | Leem, Jong-Han | Seo, Ju-Hee | Kim, Hyung Young | Lee, So-Yeon | Kwon, Ho-Jang | Kim, Hyo-Bin | Cho, Hyun-Ju | Yamazaki, Susumu | Nakano, Nobuhiro | Honjoh, Asuka | Inage, Eisuke | Baba, Yosuke | Ohtsuka, Yoshikazu | Shimizu, Toshiaki | M., Ishaq | Khan, Sameera M. I. | Khan, Imran | Khan, Sabeen | Loo, Evelyn Xiu Ling | Goh, Anne | Teoh, Oon Hoe | Chan, Yiong Huak | Saw, Seang Mei | Kwek, Kenneth | Gluckman, Peter D | Godfrey, Keith M | Van Bever, Hugo | Chong, Yap Seng | Lee, Bee Wah | Shek, Lynette | Lee, Alison Joanne | Rossi, Daniela | Nemeth, Agnes | Sehlinger, Torsten | Bergmann, Karl-Christian | Goergen, Frank | Ehlayel, Mohammad S. | Bener, Abdul Bari | Chu, Hieu Chi | Do, Nga Thi Quynh | Van Nguyen, Dinh | Nguyen, Ha Thi Thu | Le, Huong Thi Minh | Van Nunen, Sheryl | Vidal, Christopher | Fernando, Suran | Psarros, Fotis | Syrigou, Ekaterini | Politi, Ekaterini | Chrysoulakis, Spyridon | Vourdas, Dimitrios | Petalas, Konstantinos | Saha, Mouli | Bhattacharya, Kashinath | Jain, Subir | Song, Xiaolian | Lin, Haiyan | Nishikawa, Kyohei | Shimada, Takashi | Yasueda, Hiroshi | Enomoto, Tadao | Aizawa, Daisuke | Kobayashi, Takayoshi | R., Chellaa | Jain, Subir | Jain, Subir | Yudina, Marina | M., Ishaq | Khan, Sameera M. I. | Khan, Imran | Khan, Sabeen | Saito, Mayako | Sari, Nurul Iman Nilam | Kim, Jae Young | Song, Jaechul | Kim, Inah |