AIMS—To assess the accuracy of three commonly used tonometers in eyes after epikeratophakia.
METHODS—Five eye bank eyes with sutured epikeratophakia buttons were connected to a manometer and a pressure transducer. Intraocular pressure was adjusted in 5 mm Hg increments from 0 to 50 mm Hg. The intraocular pressure was measured at each increment using a Goldmann tonometer, a pneumatonometer, and a Tono-pen.
RESULTS—The difference between the manometer (actual pressure) and the Goldmann tonometer ranged from −19 to + 9 mm Hg (mean (SD) overestimation 2.6 (5.8) mm Hg). The pneumatonometer error ranged from −27.5 to + 5.5 mm Hg (mean (SD) overestimation 4.7 (6.1) mm Hg), and for the Tono-pen the range was −18 to + 11 mm Hg (mean (SD) overestimation 0.05 (7.9) mm Hg). The correlation coefficients for the three tonometers were 0.94, 0.92, and 0.87 for the Goldmann tonometer, pneumatonometer, and Tono-pen respectively.
CONCLUSION—The Goldmann tonometer had the best correlation with the manometer in eye bank eyes with epikeratophakia (correlation coefficient 0.94), but none of the tonometers was accurate over the entire range of pressures tested. Detection of glaucoma in eyes with epikeratophakia cannot rely on tonometry alone, but requires examination of the optic nerve and visual field.
Current methods for the production of lenticules for epikeratophakia involve rapid freezing, cryolathing, and slow warming of the donor cornea. We have found that this procedure causes structural damage to the epithelial basement membrane in the donor cornea which may subsequently contribute to poor postoperative re-epithelialisation of the implant, leading to graft failure. Endeavouring to overcome these problems, the effects of cryoprotection of donor cornea were investigated, using dimethyl sulphoxide, in conjunction with different cooling and warming rates as part of the protocol for cryolathing. The structural integrity of the epithelial basement membrane zone (BMZ) was then assessed by electron microscopy and by immunofluorescence microscopy using antibodies to types IV and VII collagen, components of the basal lamina and anchoring fibrils respectively, and an antibody to a component of the anchoring filaments. No differences in the pattern of immunostaining for these components were detected, indicating that the composition of the BMZ was unaltered by the different treatment regimens applied. However, electron microscopy showed that preservation of basement membrane ultrastructure was markedly improved when cornea was warmed rapidly rather than slowly, both in cryoprotected and non-cryoprotected tissue. Epithelial cell retention and preservation of stromal architecture appeared superior in cryoprotected samples, while keratocyte structure was heterogeneous throughout the experimental groups. Further work is in progress to assess the efficacy of these protocols in the preservation of keratocyte viability in association with improved basement membrane structure in donor tissue for epikeratophakia.
This report presents for the first time the results of carrying out epikeratophakia with tissue lathed at room temperature. Using an experimental model of epikeratophakia in the rabbit, we evaluated tissue handling techniques for the preparation of donor lenticules. Details of the technique are described and the in-vivo and histopathological findings reported.
AIM: To study the influence of cryoprotectant, cooling rate, and warming rate on recovery and viability of keratocytes from corneas for cryolathing. METHODS: Corneas were frozen at -50 degrees C for 2 minutes either after exposure to 10% dimethyl sulphoxide in Eagle's MEM for 15 minutes at room temperature (about 22 degrees C), or without earlier exposure to the cryoprotectant. Corneas were cooled either rapidly (20 degrees C/min) or slowly (1 degree C/min), and they were warmed either rapidly (> 50 degrees C/min) by direct transfer into medium at 22 degrees C or slowly (< 20 degrees C/min) in air at 22 degrees C. The cryoprotectant was removed by dilution in medium containing 0.5 mol/l sucrose. Recovery of keratocytes was determined by using collagenase digestion to release the cells from the stroma and trypan blue staining. Viability was assessed by the outgrowth of cells from stromal explants in primary tissue culture. RESULTS: The use of a cryoprotectant before freezing was beneficial, irrespective of the different cooling and warming regimens. Both collagenase digestion and tissue culture revealed that keratocyte survival was improved when corneas were warmed rapidly rather than slowly. The collagenase digestion assay showed an apparently higher recovery of keratocytes after slow cooling (54.3%) than after rapid cooling (34.1%), but no differences in cell viability could be demonstrated by primary tissue culture. CONCLUSION: Although in these experiments slow cooling apparently provided the best recovery of keratocyte numbers (though not viability), previous work had revealed some disruption of the epithelial basement membrane after slow cooling. If viable keratocytes and good preservation of epithelial basement membrane are considered to be prerequisites for epikeratophakia lenticules then it is suggested that corneas should be prepared for cryolathing by freezing rapidly after exposure to 10% dimethyl sulphoxide and, following cryolathing, they should be warmed rapidly.
A series of 67 cases of epikeratophakia is presented with an average time from surgery of 12.2 months. For aphakia there was a delay in the recovery of vision, but by nine months 83% of 57 patients achieved an acuity equal to, or within 1 line of, the preoperative value. 57% were corrected to within 3 dioptres of emmetropia, but in the latter part of the series 75% were within this range. Astigmatism and reduced contrast sensitivity, especially in the presence of glare, were important complications. For keratoconus, 86% of seven patients with over two months of follow-up achieved a spectacle corrected acuity of 6/9 or better. One patient had surgery for myopia and obtained the desired refractive correction.
The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and regulation of the four major inflammatory cytokines in fungal keratitis (FK) with the goal of further understanding its pathogenesis in order to develop more effective therapeutic approaches.
Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans were the corneal pathogens selected for this study to establish murine FK using epikeratophakia with the aid of corneal epithelium erasion. One, three, five, and seven days post-infection, the corneal lesions and inflammatory responses were observed by slit-lamp and histopathology, and the expressions of the four inflammatory cytokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (KC), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), in the infected corneas were determined using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For the intervention experiment with neutralizing antibodies, the experimental mice were then injected subconjunctivally with 5 μl (2 ng/μl) MIP-2 or IL-1β polyclonal antibody 1 h before and 24 h after surgery. Reestablishment of the FK murine model was performed following injection. Effects of MIP-2 or IL-1β polyclonal antibody on the corneal diseases were observed by slit-lamp microscopy, histopathology, and ELISA.
Expression of MIP-2, KC, IL-1β, and IL-6 was upregulated significantly in the infected group one, three, five, and seven days after surgery. Following treatment with an MIP-2 polyclonal antibody, the corneal clinical scores and inflammatory responses decreased, the MIP-2 protein levels were downregulated significantly (p<0.01), and the KC protein levels decreased slightly (p>0.05). Upon administration of IL-1β polyclonal antibodies, the decrease in clinical scores, inflammatory responses, and protein levels of MIP-2 and KC was apparent at 1 and 3 days after infection (p<0.01).
A persistent, high level expression of MIP-2 and IL-1β is an important and even major factor in the corneal pathogenesis of FK. Specific polyclonal neutralizing antibodies may be administered to inhibit the major chemokines and cytokines responsible for corneal damage thus effectively relieving the injury caused by FK.
Over a period of 10 years, 160 children with cataracts underwent operation at the University of Tennessee Medical Center, Memphis. The surgical, optical, and psychosocial rehabilitation of these patients was analyzed and studied. The optical rehabilitation included patients with glasses, intraocular lens implants, epikeratophakia, and contact lenses. Seventy three of these patients were chosen at random and reevaluated as to visual outcome, and 46 were subjected to a psychosocial test to evaluate their quality of life and their rehabilitation. Eighteen of these were also given a psychosocial test to evaluate the quality of life enjoyed by these children at an older age following treatment for the cataract. Surgical, optical, and psychosocial rehabilitation of such children is also discussed. This is the first report of the psychological evaluation of such children. The further needs of these children as they approach adulthood are discussed in detail.
Refractive surgery is now at the forefront of ophthalmological development and has proved to be a safe and effective method of correcting refractive errors. The incisions performed during radial keratotomy flatten the cornea to reduce or eliminate myopia. In keratomileusis, resecting and reshaping a portion of the cornea can correct either myopia or hyperopia when the cornea is sutured back into position. In epikeratophakia, donor corneas become “living contact lenses”. They have the potential for correcting high degrees of myopia and hyperopia. Although there are controversial aspects to refractive surgery, most informed people consider that the benefits outweigh the risks for suitable candidates.
ophthalmology; eye; refractive surgery
Competition for binding to the cellular protein paxillin by the proteins Nudel and focal adhesion kinase is important for the proper regulation of cell adhesion and migration.
Adhesion and detachment are coordinated critical steps during cell migration. Conceptually, efficient migration requires both effective stabilization of membrane protrusions at the leading edge via nascent adhesions and their successful persistence during retraction of the trailing side via disruption of focal adhesions. As nascent adhesions are much smaller in size than focal adhesions, they are expected to exhibit a stronger adhesivity in order to achieve the coordination between cell front and back. Here, we show that Nudel knockdown by interference RNA (RNAi) resulted in cell edge shrinkage due to poor adhesions of membrane protrusions. Nudel bound to paxillin, a scaffold protein of focal contacts, and colocalized with it in areas of active membrane protrusions, presumably at nascent adhesions. The Nudel-paxillin interaction was disrupted by focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in a paxillin-binding–dependent manner. Forced localization of Nudel in all focal contacts by fusing it to paxillin markedly strengthened their adhesivity, whereas overexpression of structurally activated FAK or any paxillin-binding FAK mutant lacking the N-terminal autoinhibitory domain caused cell edge shrinkage. These results suggest a novel mechanism for selective reinforcement of nascent adhesions via interplays of Nudel and FAK with paxillin to facilitate cell migration.
Cell migration is an essential process in both single-cell and multicellular organisms. In higher animals, cell migration is important for many biological processes, including embryonic development, the immune response, and wound healing. Cancer cell invasion into healthy tissues occurs as a result of inappropriate cell migration. As can be easily visualized when cultured in the lab, mammalian cells attach to surfaces through focal adhesions, cellular structures characterized by complexes of the transmembrane protein integrin and intracellular proteins including paxillin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). In order for cells to move, they must coordinate two processes: extension of the front edge of the cell and retraction of the back edge. To accomplish this, a cell first protrudes membranous structures from the front edge and then establishes adhesion structures known as nascent adhesions to hold the extensions in place. At the same time, the focal adhesions that hold a cell in place must be disrupted in order for the back edge of the cell to retract. Here, we show that a protein called Nudel is enriched at the front edge of moving cells, where it interacts with paxillin but is not detected in focal adhesions. We further show that the focal adhesion protein FAK is able to abolish the Nudel-paxillin interaction, leading to repression of the formation of nascent adhesions and to the loss of cell extensions. We therefore propose a model in which modulation of paxillin interactions in nascent adhesions and in focal adhesions is critical for coordinated cell movement: the Nudel-paxillin interaction enhances the strength of nascent adhesions to promote the attachment of membrane protrusions at the front edge of the cell, whereas FAK prevents the Nudel-paxillin interaction in focal adhesions in order to facilitate retraction of the back edge of the cell.
Keratocytes are fast-moving cells in which adhesion dynamics are tightly coupled to the actin polymerization motor that drives migration, resulting in highly coordinated cell movement. We have found that modifying the adhesive properties of the underlying substrate has a dramatic effect on keratocyte morphology. Cells crawling at intermediate adhesion strengths resembled stereotypical keratocytes, characterized by a broad, fan-shaped lamellipodium, clearly defined leading and trailing edges, and persistent rates of protrusion and retraction. Cells at low adhesion strength were small and round with highly variable protrusion and retraction rates, and cells at high adhesion strength were large and asymmetrical and, strikingly, exhibited traveling waves of protrusion. To elucidate the mechanisms by which adhesion strength determines cell behavior, we examined the organization of adhesions, myosin II, and the actin network in keratocytes migrating on substrates with different adhesion strengths. On the whole, our results are consistent with a quantitative physical model in which keratocyte shape and migratory behavior emerge from the self-organization of actin, adhesions, and myosin, and quantitative changes in either adhesion strength or myosin contraction can switch keratocytes among qualitatively distinct migration regimes.
Cell migration is important for many biological processes: white blood cells chase down and kill bacteria to guard against infection, epithelial cells crawl across open wounds to promote healing, and embryonic cells move collectively to form organs and tissues during embryogenesis. In all of these cases, migration depends on the spatial and temporal organization of multiple forces, including actin-driven protrusion of the cell membrane, membrane tension, cell-substrate adhesion, and myosin-mediated contraction of the actin network. In this work, we have used a simple cell type, the fish epithelial keratocyte, as a model system to investigate the manner in which these forces are integrated to give rise to large-scale emergent properties such as cell shape and movement. Keratocytes are normally fan-shaped and fast-moving, but we have found that keratocytes migrate more slowly and assume round or asymmetric shapes when cell-substrate adhesion strength is too high or too low. By correlating measurements of adhesion-dependent changes in cell shape and speed with measurements of adhesion and myosin localization patterns and actin network organization, we have developed a mechanical model in which keratocyte shape and movement emerge from adhesion and myosin-dependent regulation of the dynamic actin cytoskeleton.
The LFA-1 integrin plays a pivotal role in sustained leukocyte adhesion to the endothelial surface, which is a precondition for leukocyte recruitment into inflammation sites. Strong correlative evidence implicates LFA-1 clustering as being essential for sustained adhesion, and it may also facilitate rebinding events with its ligand ICAM-1. We cannot challenge those hypotheses directly because it is infeasible to measure either process during leukocyte adhesion following rolling. The alternative approach undertaken was to challenge the hypothesized mechanisms by experimenting on validated, working counterparts: simulations in which diffusible, LFA1 objects on the surfaces of quasi-autonomous leukocytes interact with simulated, diffusible, ICAM1 objects on endothelial surfaces during simulated adhesion following rolling. We used object-oriented, agent-based methods to build and execute multi-level, multi-attribute analogues of leukocytes and endothelial surfaces. Validation was achieved across different experimental conditions, in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo, at both the individual cell and population levels. Because those mechanisms exhibit all of the characteristics of biological mechanisms, they can stand as a concrete, working theory about detailed events occurring at the leukocyte–surface interface during leukocyte rolling and adhesion experiments. We challenged mechanistic hypotheses by conducting experiments in which the consequences of multiple mechanistic events were tracked. We quantified rebinding events between individual components under different conditions, and the role of LFA1 clustering in sustaining leukocyte–surface adhesion and in improving adhesion efficiency. Early during simulations ICAM1 rebinding (to LFA1) but not LFA1 rebinding (to ICAM1) was enhanced by clustering. Later, clustering caused both types of rebinding events to increase. We discovered that clustering was not necessary to achieve adhesion as long as LFA1 and ICAM1 object densities were above a critical level. Importantly, at low densities LFA1 clustering enabled improved efficiency: adhesion exhibited measurable, cell level positive cooperativity.
To gain access to sites of inflammation, leukocytes must first adhere to the blood vessel wall using integrin molecules. It has been hypothesized that integrin clustering is essential for sustaining adhesion prior to transmigration into the inflamed tissue. We cannot challenge such hypotheses directly because it is infeasible to measure molecular level events during the leukocyte adhesion process. At best correlative relationships have been made. The alternative approach undertaken was to experimentally challenge the hypothesized mechanisms in silico. We used object-oriented, software engineering methods to build and execute multi-level, multi-attribute analogues of leukocytes and binding surfaces. The simulated leukocytes contained diffusible objects (representing integrins) on their surface that were allowed to interact with binding partners on simulated endothelial surfaces. Validation was achieved across different experimental conditions, in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo, at both the individual cell and population levels. Consequently, the finalized virtual mechanisms stand as a concrete, working theory about detailed events occurring at the leukocyte-surface interface during adhesion. We challenged mechanistic hypotheses by conducting experiments in which the consequences of multiple mechanistic events were tracked. We discovered that integrin clustering was not necessary to achieve adhesion as long as integrin and binding partner object densities were above a critical level. Importantly, at low densities integrin clustering enabled adhesion that exhibited measurable, cell level positive cooperativity.
Free-living flatworms, in both marine and freshwater environments, are able to adhere to and release from a substrate several times within a second. This reversible adhesion relies on adhesive organs comprised of three cell types: an adhesive gland cell, a releasing gland cell, and an anchor cell, which is a modified epidermal cell responsible for structural support. However, nothing is currently known about the molecules that are involved in this adhesion process.
In this study we present the detailed morphology of the adhesive organs of the free-living marine flatworm Macrostomum lignano. About 130 adhesive organs are located in a horse-shoe-shaped arc along the ventral side of the tail plate. Each organ consists of exactly three cells, an adhesive gland cell, a releasing gland cell, and an anchor cell. The necks of the two gland cells penetrate the anchor cell through a common pore. Modified microvilli of the anchor cell form a collar surrounding the necks of the adhesive- and releasing glands, jointly forming the papilla, the outer visible part of the adhesive organs. Next, we identified an intermediate filament (IF) gene, macif1, which is expressed in the anchor cells. RNA interference mediated knock-down resulted in the first experimentally induced non-adhesion phenotype in any marine animal. Specifically, the absence of intermediate filaments in the anchor cells led to papillae with open tips, a reduction of the cytoskeleton network, a decline in hemidesmosomal connections, and to shortened microvilli containing less actin.
Our findings reveal an elaborate biological adhesion system in a free-living flatworm, which permits impressively rapid temporary adhesion-release performance in the marine environment. We demonstrate that the structural integrity of the supportive cell, the anchor cell, is essential for this adhesion process: the knock-down of the anchor cell-specific intermediate filament gene resulted in the inability of the animals to adhere. The RNAi mediated changes of the anchor cell morphology are comparable to situations observed in human gut epithelia. Therefore, our current findings and future investigations using this powerful flatworm model system might contribute to a better understanding of the function of intermediate filaments and their associated human diseases.
Flatworm; Intermediate filaments; Duo-gland system; Attachment; Bioadhesion
Platelets, activated by various agonists, produce microparticles (MP) from the plasma membrane, which are released into the extracellular space. Although the mechanism of MP formation has been clarified, their biological importance remains ill defined. We have recently shown that platelet-derived MP influence platelet and endothelial cell function. In this study, we have further examined the mechanism of cellular activation by platelet MP. To address the possibility that they may influence monocyte-endothelial interactions, we used an in vitro assay to examine their effects on the adhesion of monocytes to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Platelet MP increased the adhesion of monocytes to HUVEC in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Maximal adhesion of monocytes to resting HUVEC was observed after 24 h of stimulation with MP. Similar kinetics were observed with U-937 (human promonocytic leukemia) cells, used as a model for the blood-borne monocyte. Maximal adhesion of resting monocytes to MP-stimulated HUVEC was observed after 5 h of stimulation with MP. The EC50s for MP-induced increases in HUVEC, monocyte, and U-937 cell adhesion is 8.74, 43.41, and 10.83 microg/ml of MP protein, respectively. The induction of monocyte-endothelial adhesion was mimicked by arachidonic acid isolated from MP. The observed increased cellular adhesiveness correlated with MP-induced upregulation of cell adhesion molecules. MP-stimulated HUVEC increased intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) but not vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), P-, or E-selectin expression. Monocyte and U-937 lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (CD11a/CD18) and macrophage antigen-1 (CD11b/ CD18, alpham/beta2) were both upregulated upon MP stimulation, but an increase in p150,95 (CD11c/CD18), very late antigen-1, or ICAM-1 expression was not observed. The functional importance of these changes was demonstrated with blocking antibodies. MP also induced the chemotaxis of U-937 cells in a dose-dependent manner with an EC50 of 4.40 microg/ml of MP protein. Similarly, arachidonic acid isolated from MP mimicked the chemotactic response. A role for PKC was implicated in both adhesion and chemotaxis. GF 109203X, a specific inhibitor of PKC, significantly reduced monocyte-endothelial adhesion, as well as U-937 chemotaxis. The demonstration that platelet MP may modulate important aspects of endothelial and monocyte function provides a novel mechanism by which platelets may interact with such cells in human atherosclerosis and inflammation.
Cell-matrix adhesions are of great interest because of their contribution to numerous biological processes, including cell migration, differentiation, proliferation, survival, tissue morphogenesis, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. Adhesions are dynamic structures that are classically defined on two-dimensional (2D) substrates, though the need to analyze adhesions in more physiologic three-dimensional (3D) environments is being increasingly recognized. However, progress has been greatly hampered by the lack of available tools to analyze adhesions in 3D environments. To address this need, we have developed a platform for the automated analysis, segmentation, and tracking of adhesions (PAASTA) based on an open source MATLAB framework, CellAnimation. PAASTA enables the rapid analysis of adhesion dynamics and many other adhesion characteristics, such as lifetime, size, and location, in 3D environments and on traditional 2D substrates. We manually validate PAASTA and utilize it to quantify rate constants for adhesion assembly and disassembly as well as adhesion lifetime and size in 3D matrices. PAASTA will be a valuable tool for characterizing adhesions and for deciphering the molecular mechanisms that regulate adhesion dynamics in 3D environments.
Entactin is an integral component of basement membranes that plays a major role in basement membrane assembly through its ability to bind avidly to both laminin and type IV collagen. Because neutrophil (PMN) interactions with entactin have not been examined, we investigated the ability of natural and recombinant entactin to mediate PMN adhesion and chemotaxis. With both forms of entactin, we observed that entactin-coated surfaces promoted PMN adhesion and that entactin stimulated PMN chemotaxis. The increase in adhesion to entactin over control was two to threefold whereas the chemotactic response to 15 ng/ml (1 x 10(-10) M) entactin was equivalent to the chemotactic response elicited with 1 x 10(-8) M formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). HL-60 cells, after differentiation with dimethylsulfoxide, also demonstrated adhesion and chemotaxis to entactin. A synthetic peptide of the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) domain in entactin, SIGFRGDGQTC (S-RGD), mediated PMN adhesion and chemotaxis, and preexposure of PMN to S-RGD blocked PMN adhesion and chemotaxis induced by entactin without diminishing the adhesive and chemotactic activities of fMLP. In contrast, preexposure to peptides SIGFRGEGQTCA or SIGFKGDGQTCA had no effect. The findings with synthetic peptides were confirmed with a recombinant entactin mutant in which aspartic acid at residue 674 was replaced with glutamic acid, thus converting the RGD sequence of entactin to RGE. RGE-entactin was neither adhesive nor chemotactic for neutrophils. Monoclonal antibodies to the leukocyte response integrin (LRI) and the integrin-associated protein blocked entactin-mediated adhesion and chemotaxis whereas monoclonal antibodies to beta 1 and beta 2 integrins had no effect and PMN from an individual with leukocyte-adhesion deficiency adhered normally to entactin-coated surfaces. These data demonstrate that entactin mediates biologically and pathologically important functions of PMN through its RGD domain and that LRI, which has been shown previously to mediate RGD-stimulated phagocytosis, is also capable of mediating RGD-stimulated PMN adhesion and chemotaxis.
Cellular recognition and adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) has a complex molecular basis, involving both integrins and cell surface proteoglycans (PG). The current studies have used specific inhibitors of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) synthesis along with anti- alpha 4 integrin subunit monoclonal antibodies to demonstrate that human melanoma cell adhesion to an A-chain derived, 33-kD carboxyl- terminal heparin binding fragment of human plasma fibronectin (FN) involves both cell surface CSPG and alpha 4 beta 1 integrin. A direct role for cell surface CSPG in mediating melanoma cell adhesion to this FN fragment was demonstrated by the identification of a cationic synthetic peptide, termed FN-C/H-III, within the fragment. FN-C/H-III is located close to the amino terminal end of the fragment, representing residues #1721-1736 of intact FN. FN-C/H-III binds CSPG directly, can inhibit CSPG binding to the fragment, and promotes melanoma cell adhesion by a CSPG-dependent, alpha 4 beta 1 integrin- independent mechanism. A scrambled version of FN-C/H-III does not inhibit CSPG binding or cell adhesion to the fragment or to FN-C/H-III, indicating that the primary sequence of FN-C/H-III is important for its biological properties. Previous studies have identified three other synthetic peptides from within this 33-kD FN fragment that promote cell adhesion by an arginyl-glycyl-aspartic acid (RGD) independent mechanism. Two of these synthetic peptides (FN-C/H-I and FN-C/H-II) bind heparin and promote cell adhesion, implicating cell surface PG in mediating cellular recognition of these two peptides. Additionally, a third synthetic peptide, CS1, is located in close proximity to FN-C/H-I and FN-C/H-II and it promotes cell adhesion by an alpha 4 beta 1 integrin-dependent mechanism. In contrast to FN-C/H-III, cellular recognition of these three peptides involved contributions from both CSPG and alpha 4 integrin subunits. Of particular importance are observations demonstrating that CS1-mediated melanoma cell adhesion could be inhibited by interfering with CSPG synthesis or expression. Since CS1 does not bind CSPG, the results suggest that CSPG may modify the function and/or activity of alpha 4 beta 1 integrin on the surface of human melanoma cells. Together, these results support a model in which the PG and integrin binding sites within the 33-kD fragment may act in concert to focus these two cell adhesion receptors into close proximity on the cell surface, thereby influencing initial cellular recognition events that contribute to melanoma cell adhesion on this fragment.
The Achilles tendon is the most frequently ruptured tendon. Both acute and chronic (neglected) tendon ruptures can dramatically affect a patient’s quality of life, and require a prolonged period of recovery before return to pre-injury activity levels. This paper describes the use of an adhesive-coated biologic scaffold to augment primary suture repair of transected Achilles tendons. The adhesive portion consisted of a synthetic mimic of mussel adhesive proteins that can adhere to various surfaces in a wet environment, including biologic tissues. When combined with biologic scaffolds such as bovine pericardium or porcine dermal tissues, these adhesive constructs demonstrated lap shear adhesive strengths significantly greater than that of fibrin glue, while reaching up to 60% of the strength of a cyanoacrylate-based adhesive. These adhesive constructs were wrapped around transected cadaveric porcine Achilles tendons repaired with a combination of parallel and three-loop suture patterns. Tensile mechanical testing of the augmented repairs exhibited significantly higher stiffness (22–34%), failure load (24–44%), and energy to failure (27–63%) when compared to control tendons with suture repair alone. Potential clinical implications of this novel adhesive biomaterial are discussed.
Galectin-1 is known to be one of the extracellular matrix proteins. To elucidate the biological roles of galectin-1 in cell adhesion and invasion of human anaplastic large cell lymphoma, we performed cell adhesion and invasion assays using the anaplastic large cell lymphoma cell line H-ALCL, which was previously established in our laboratory. From the cell surface lectin array, treatment with neuraminidase from Arthrobacter ureafaciens which cleaves all linkage types of cell surface sialic acid enhanced Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Helix pomatia (HPA) and Phaseolus vulgaris-L (L-PHA) lectin binding reactivity to cell surface of lymphoma cells suggesting that neuraminidase removes cell surface sialic acid. In cell adhesion and invasion assays treatment with neuraminidase markedly enhanced cell adhesion to galectin-1 and decreased cell invasive capacity through galectin-1. α2,6-linked sialic acid may be involved in masking the effect of the interaction between galectin-1 and cell surface glycans. H-ALCL cells expressed the β-galactoside-α2,6-sialyltransferase ST6Gal1. On resialylation assay by recombinant ST6Gal1 with CMP-Neu5Ac, α2,6-resialylation of L-PHA reactive oligosaccharide by ST6Gal1 resulted in inhibition of H-ALCL cell adhesion to galectin-1 compared to the desialylated H-ALCL cells. On knockdown experiments, knockdown of ST6Gal1 dramatically enhanced cell adhesion to galectin-1. N-glycosylation inhibitor swainsonine treatment resulted in enhancement of cell adhesion to galectin-1. In glycomic analysis using the lectin blocking assay treatment with PNA, Artocarpus integrifolia (Jacalin), Glycine max (SBA), Helix pomatia (HPA), Vicia villosa (VVA), Ulex europaeus (UEA-1), Triticum vulgaris (WGA), Canavalia ensiformis (ConA), Phaseolus vulgaris-L (L-PHA), Phaseolus vulgaris-E4 (E-PHA), Datura stramonium (DSA) lectins resulted in modulation of lymphoma cell to galectin-1 suggesting that several types of glycans may regulate cell adhesion to galectin-1 by steric hindrance. The adhesive capacity of H-ALCL cells is regulated by phosphatidylinositol 3 phosphate kinase (PI3K) and actin cytoskeleton, and the invasive capacity of H-ALCL cells is regulated by PI3K, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), Rho and actin cytoskeleton. Furthermore, galectin-1-induced cell death in H-ALCL cells was accompanied by inhibition of CD45 protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity. In conclusion, cell adhesion and invasion to galectin-1 appeared to be regulated by cell surface sialylation and N-glycosylation, and galectin-1 regulates cell death through inhibition of CD45 PTP activity of H-ALCL.
galectin-1; glycosylation; sialic acid; sialyltransferase; cell adhesion; cell death; lectin array
Adhesion of platelets onto immobilized fibrinogen is of importance in initiation and development of thrombosis. According to a recent increase in evidence of a multiple biological property of antithrombin, we evaluated the influence of antithrombin on platelet adhesion onto immobilized fibrinogen using an in-vitro flow system.
Platelets in anticoagulated whole blood (29 healthy blood donors) were labelled with fluorescence dye and perfused through a rectangular flow chamber (shear rates of 13 s-1 to 1500 s-1). Platelet adhesion onto fibrinogen-coated slips was assessed using a fluorescence laser-scan microscope and compared to the plasma antithrombin activity. Additionally the effect of supraphysiological AT supplementation on platelets adhesion rate was evaluated.
Within a first minute of perfusion, an inverse correlation between platelet adhesion and plasma antithrombin were observed at 13 s-1 and 50 s-1 (r = -0.48 and r = -0.7, p < 0.05, respectively). Significant differences in platelet adhesion related to low (92 ± 3.3%) and high (117 ± 4.1%) antithrombin activity (1786 ± 516 U vs. 823 ± 331 U, p < 0.05) at low flow rate (13 s-1, within first minute) have been found. An in-vitro supplementation of whole blood with antithrombin increased the antithrombin activity up to 280% and platelet adhesion rate reached about 65% related to the adhesion rate in a non-supplemented blood (1.25 ± 0.17 vs. 1.95 ± 0.4 p = 0.008, respectively).
It appears that antithrombin in a low flow system suppresses platelet adhesion onto immobilized fibrinogen independently from its antithrombin activity. A supraphysiological substitution of blood with antithrombin significantly reduces platelet adhesion rate. This inhibitory effect might be of clinical relevance.
Adhesive secretions occur in both aquatic and terrestrial animals, in which they perform diverse functions. Biological adhesives can therefore be remarkably complex and involve a large range of components with different functions and interactions. However, being mainly protein based, biological adhesives can be characterized by classical molecular methods. This review compiles experimental strategies that were successfully used to identify, characterize and obtain the full-length sequence of adhesive proteins from nine biological models: echinoderms, barnacles, tubeworms, mussels, sticklebacks, slugs, velvet worms, spiders and ticks. A brief description and practical examples are given for a variety of tools used to study adhesive molecules at different levels from genes to secreted proteins. In most studies, proteins, extracted from secreted materials or from adhesive organs, are analysed for the presence of post-translational modifications and submitted to peptide sequencing. The peptide sequences are then used directly for a BLAST search in genomic or transcriptomic databases, or to design degenerate primers to perform RT-PCR, both allowing the recovery of the sequence of the cDNA coding for the investigated protein. These sequences can then be used for functional validation and recombinant production. In recent years, the dual proteomic and transcriptomic approach has emerged as the best way leading to the identification of novel adhesive proteins and retrieval of their complete sequences.
biological adhesion; metazoans; protein characterization
Epithelial wound closure is a complex biological process that relies on the concerted action of activated keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts to resurface and close the exposed wound. Modulation of cell-cell adhesion junctions is thought to facilitate cellular proliferation and migration of keratinocytes across the wound. In particular, desmosomes, adhesion complexes critical for maintaining epithelial integrity, are downregulated at the wound edge. It is unclear, however, how compromised desmosomal adhesion would affect wound reepithelialization, given the need for a delicate balance between downmodulating adhesive strength to permit changes in cellular morphology and maintaining adhesion to allow coordinated migration of keratinocyte sheets. Here, we explore the contribution of desmosomal adhesion to wound healing using mice deficient for the desmosomal component Perp. We find that Perp conditional knockout mice display delayed wound healing relative to controls. Furthermore, we determine that while loss of Perp compromises cell-cell adhesion, it does not impair keratinocyte proliferation and actually enhances keratinocyte migration in in vitro assays. Thus, Perp's role in promoting cell adhesion is essential for wound closure. Together, these studies suggest a role for desmosomal adhesion in efficient wound healing.
Many arachnids possess adhesive pads on their feet that help them climb smooth surfaces and capture prey. Spider and gecko adhesives have converged on a branched, hairy structure, which theoretically allows them to adhere solely by dry (solid-solid) intermolecular interactions. Indeed, the consensus in the literature is that spiders and their smooth-padded relatives, the solifugids, adhere without the aid of a secretion.
Methodology and Principal Findings
We investigated the adhesive contact zone of living spiders, solifugids and mites using interference reflection microscopy, which allows the detection of thin liquid films. Like insects, all the arachnids we studied left behind hydrophobic fluid footprints on glass (mean refractive index: 1.48–1.50; contact angle: 3.7–11.2°). Fluid was not always secreted continuously, suggesting that pads can function in both wet and dry modes. We measured the attachment forces of single adhesive setae from tarantulas (Grammostola rosea) by attaching them to a bending beam with a known spring constant and filming the resulting deflection. Individual spider setae showed a lower static friction at rest (26%±2.8 SE of the peak friction) than single gecko setae (Thecadactylus rapicauda; 96%±1.7 SE). This may be explained by the fact that spider setae continued to release fluid after isolation from the animal, lubricating the contact zone.
This finding implies that tarsal secretions occur within all major groups of terrestrial arthropods with adhesive pads. The presence of liquid in an adhesive contact zone has important consequences for attachment performance, improving adhesion to rough surfaces and introducing rate-dependent effects. Our results leave geckos and anoles as the only known representatives of truly dry adhesive pads in nature. Engineers seeking biological inspiration for synthetic adhesives should consider whether model species with fluid secretions are appropriate to their design goals.
Assuring cell adhesion to an underlying biomaterial surface is vital in implant device design and tissue engineering, particularly under circumstances where cells are subjected to potential detachment from overriding fluid flow. Cell-substrate adhesion is a highly regulated process involving the interplay of mechanical properties, surface topographic features, electrostatic charge, and biochemical mechanisms. At the nanoscale level the physical properties of the underlying substrate are of particular importance in cell adhesion. Conventionally, natural, pro-adhesive, and often thrombogenic, protein biomaterials are frequently utilized to facilitate adhesion. In the present study nanofabrication techniques are utilized to enhance the biological functionality of a synthetic polymer surface, polymethymethacrylate, with respect to cell adhesion. Specifically we examine the effect on cell adhesion of combining: 1. optimized surface texturing, 2. electrostatic charge and 3. cell adhesive ligands, uniquely assembled on the substrata surface, as an ensemble of nanoparticles trapped in nanowells. Our results reveal that the ensemble strategy leads to enhanced, more than simply additive, endothelial cell adhesion under both static and flow conditions. This strategy may be of particular utility for enhancing flow-resistant endothelialization of blood-contacting surfaces of cardiovascular devices subjected to flow-mediated shear.
cell adhesion; ensemble surface; detachment resistance; nanopatterning; nanotextured surface
Notch family members were first identified as cell adhesion molecules by cell aggregation assays in Drosophila studies. However, they are generally recognized as signaling molecules, and it was unclear if their adhesion function was restricted to Drosophila. We previously demonstrated that a mouse Notch ligand, Delta-like 1 (Dll1) functioned as a cell adhesion molecule. We here investigated whether this adhesion function was conserved in the diversified mammalian Notch ligands consisted of two families, Delta-like (Dll1, Dll3 and Dll4) and Jagged (Jag1 and Jag2). The forced expression of mouse Dll1, Dll4, Jag1, and Jag2, but not Dll3, on stromal cells induced the rapid and enhanced adhesion of cultured mast cells (MCs). This was attributed to the binding of Notch1 and Notch2 on MCs to each Notch ligand on the stromal cells themselves, and not the activation of Notch signaling. Notch receptor-ligand binding strongly supported the tethering of MCs to stromal cells, the first step of cell adhesion. However, the Jag2-mediated adhesion of MCs was weaker and unlike other ligands appeared to require additional factor(s) in addition to the receptor-ligand binding. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the function of cell adhesion was conserved in mammalian as well as Drosophila Notch family members. Since Notch receptor-ligand interaction plays important roles in a broad spectrum of biological processes ranging from embryogenesis to disorders, our finding will provide a new perspective on these issues from the aspect of cell adhesion.
In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are water-impervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion.
adhesion; biomimetics; marine mussel (Mytilus edulis); recombinant protein