Imprinted genes are expressed from one allele according to their parent of origin, and many are essential to mammalian embryogenesis. Here we show that the ɛ-sarcoglycan gene (Sgce) and Zac1 (Lot1) are both paternally expressed imprinted genes. They were identified in a subtractive screen for imprinted genes using a cDNA library made from novel parthenogenetic and wild-type fibroblast lines. Sgce is a component of the dystrophin-sarcoglycan complex, Zac1 is a nuclear protein inducing growth arrest and/or apoptosis, and Zac1 is a potential tumor suppressor gene. Sgce and Zac1 are expressed predominantly from their paternal alleles in all adult mouse tissues, except that Zac1 is biallelic in the liver and Sgce is weakly expressed from the maternal allele in the brain. Sgce and Zac1 are broadly expressed in embryos, with Zac1 being highly expressed in the liver primordium, the umbilical region, and the neural tube. Sgce, however, is strongly expressed in the allantoic region on day 9.5 but becomes more widely expressed throughout the embryo by day 11.5. Sgce is located at the proximal end of mouse chromosome 6 and is a candidate gene for embryonic lethality associated with uniparental maternal inheritance of this region. Zac1 maps to the proximal region of chromosome 10, identifying a new imprinted locus in the mouse, homologous with human chromosome 6q24-q25. In humans, unipaternal disomy for this region is associated with fetal growth retardation and transient neonatal diabetes mellitus. In addition, loss of expression of ZAC has been described for a number of breast and ovarian carcinomas, suggesting that ZAC is a potential tumor suppressor gene.
The biallelic expression of the imprinted gene ZAC1/PLAGL1 underlies ∼60% of all cases of transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM) that present with low perinatal insulin secretion. Molecular targets of ZAC1 misexpression in pancreatic β cells are unknown. Here, we identified the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Rasgrf1 as a direct Zac1/Plagl1 target gene in murine β cells. Doubling Zac1 expression reduced Rasgrf1 expression, the stimulus-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways, and, ultimately, insulin secretion. Normalizing Rasgrf1 expression reversed this phenotype. Moreover, the transplantation of Zac1-overexpressing β cells failed to reinstate euglycemia in experimental diabetic mice. In contrast, Zac1 expression did not interfere with the signaling of the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R), and the GLP-1 analog liraglutide improved hyperglycemia in transplanted experimental diabetic mice. This study unravels a mechanism contributing to insufficient perinatal insulin secretion in TNDM and raises new prospects for therapy.
Context: Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) arises by several genetic and epigenetic mechanisms affecting the balance of imprinted gene expression in chromosome 11p15.5. The most frequent alteration associated with BWS is the absence of methylation at the maternal allele of KvDMR1, an intronic CpG island within the KCNQ1 gene. Targeted deletion of KvDMR1 suggests that this locus is an imprinting control region (ICR) that regulates multiple genes in 11p15.5. Cell culture based enhancer blocking assays indicate that KvDMR1 may function as a methylation modulated chromatin insulator and/or silencer.
Objective: To determine the potential consequence of loss of methylation (LOM) at KvDMR1 in the development of BWS.
Methods: The steady state levels of CDKN1C gene expression in fibroblast cells from normal individuals, and from persons with BWS who have LOM at KvDMR1, was determined by both real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and ribonuclease protection assay (RPA). Methylation of the CDKN1C promoter region was assessed by Southern hybridisation using a methylation sensitive restriction endonuclease.
Results: Both qPCR and RPA clearly demonstrated a marked decrease (86–93%) in the expression level of the CDKN1C gene in cells derived from patients with BWS, who had LOM at KvDMR1. Southern analysis indicated that downregulation of CDKN1C in these patients was not associated with hypermethylation at the presumptive CDKN1C promoter.
Conclusions: An epimutation at KvDMR1, the absence of maternal methylation, causes the aberrant silencing of CDKN1C, some 180 kb away on the maternal chromosome. Similar to mutations at this locus, this silencing may give rise to BWS.
We report a three generation family with Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) in whom we have identified a 330 kb deletion within the KCNQ1 locus, encompassing the 11p15.5 Imprinting Centre II (IC2). The deletion arose on the paternal chromosome in the first generation and was only associated with BWS when transmitted maternally to subsequent generations. The deletion on the maternal chromosome was associated with a lower median level of CDKN1C expression in the peripheral blood of affected individuals when compared to a cohort of unaffected controls (p<0.05), however was not significantly different to the expression levels in BWS cases with loss of methylation (LOM) within IC2 (p<0.78). Moreover the individual with a deletion on the paternal chromosome did not show evidence of elevated CDKN1C expression or features of Russell Silver syndrome. These observations support a model invoking the deletion of enhancer elements required for CDKN1C expression lying within or close to the imprinting centre and importantly extend and validate a single observation from an earlier study. Analysis of 94 cases with IC2 loss of methylation revealed that KCNQ1 deletion is a rare cause of loss of maternal methylation, occurring in only 3% of cases, or in 1.5% of BWS overall.
Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth syndrome, which, in 50–60% of sporadic cases, is caused by hypomethylation of KCNQ1OT1 differentially methylated region (DMR) at chromosome 11p15.5. The underlying defect of this hypomethylation is largely unknown. Recently, recessive mutations of the ZFP57 gene were reported in patients with transient neonatal diabetes mellitus type 1, showing hypomethylation at multiple imprinted loci, including KCNQ1OT1 DMR in some. The aim of our study was to determine whether ZFP57 alterations were a genetic cause of the hypomethylation at KCNQ1OT1 DMR in patients with BWS. We sequenced ZFP57 in 27 BWS probands and in 23 available mothers to test for a maternal effect. We identified three novel, presumably benign sequence variants in ZFP57; thus, we found no evidence for ZFP57 alterations as a major cause in sporadic BWS cases.
Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome; imprinting; hypomethylation; ZFP57; maternal effect genes; germline alterations
Missense mutations in the imprinted gene that encodes cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C, also called p57Kip2) result in a rare disorder associated with prenatal growth retardation (IMAGe syndrome). Loss-of-function mutations in CDKN1C have been previously described in the congenital overgrowth syndrome Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and some cancers. In contrast, a recent study by Arboleda et al. proposes that the CDKN1C mutations associated with IMAGe syndrome have a gain-of-function effect. These findings highlight how rare genetic disorders can provide important insights into the regulation of critical processes such as regulation of cell growth.
The cerebellum is composed of a diverse array of neuronal subtypes. Here we have used a candidate approach to identify Zac1, a tumor suppressor gene encoding a zinc finger transcription factor, as a new player in the transcriptional network required for the development of a specific subset of cerebellar nuclei and a population of Golgi cells in the cerebellar cortex.
We found that Zac1 has a complex expression profile in the developing cerebellum, including in two proliferating progenitor populations; the cerebellar ventricular zone and the external granular layer overlying posterior cerebellar lobules IX and X. Zac1 is also expressed in some postmitotic cerebellar neurons, including a subset of GABAergic interneurons in the medial cerebellar nuclei. Notably, GABAergic interneurons in the cerebellar nuclei are derived from the cerebellar ventricular zone, where Zac1 is also expressed, consistent with a lineage relationship between these two Zac1+ populations. Zac1 is also expressed in a small subset of cells in the posterior vermis, including some neurogranin-immunoreactive (NG+) Golgi cells, which, based on short-term birthdating, are derived from the EGL, where Zac1 is also expressed. However, Zac1+ cells and NG+ Golgi cells in the cerebellar cortex also display unique properties, as they are generated within different, albeit overlapping, time windows. Finally, consistent with the expression profile of Zac1, two conspicuous abnormalities were found in the cerebellum of Zac1 null mice: the medial cerebellar nuclei, and not the others, were significantly reduced in size; and the number of Golgi cells in cerebellar lobule IX was reduced by approximately 60% compared to wild-type littermates.
The data presented here indicate that the tumor suppressor gene Zac1 is expressed in a complex fashion in the developing cerebellum, including in two dividing progenitor populations and in specific subsets of postmitotic neurons, including Golgi cells and GABAergic neurons in the medial nuclei, which require Zac1 for their differentiation. We thus conclude that Zac1 is a critical regulator of normal cerebellar development, adding a new transcriptional regulator to the growing list of factors involved in generating neuronal diversity in the developing cerebellum.
The most frequent epigenetic alterations in Wilms tumor (WT) occur at WT2, assigned to 11p15. WT2 consists of two domains: telomeric domain 1 (DMRH19) that contains the IGF2 gene and an imprinted maternally expressed transcript (H19) and centromeric domain 2 (KvDMR) that contains the genes KCNQ1, KCNQ1OT1 and CDKN1C. In this work, we used pyrosequencing and MS-MLPA to compare the methylation patterns of DMRH19/KvDMR in blood and tumor samples from 40 WT patients. Normal constitutional KvDMR methylation indicated that most of the epigenetic alterations in WT occur at DMRH19. Constitutional DMRH19 hypermethylation (HM DMRH19) was observed in two patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Pyrosequencing and MS-MLPA showed HM DMRH19 in 28/34 tumor samples: 16/34 with isolated HM DMRH19 and 12/34 with concomitant HM DMRH19 and KvDMR hypomethylation, indicating paternal uniparental disomy. With the exception of one blood sample, the MS-MLPA and pyrosequencing findings were concordant. Diffuse or focal anaplasia was present in five tumor samples and was associated with isolated somatic HM DMRH19 in four of them. Constitutional 11p15 methylation abnormalities were present in 5% of the samples and somatic abnormalities in the majority of tumors. Combined analysis of DMRH19/KvDMR by pyrosequencing and MS-MLPA is beneficial for characterizing epigenetic anomalies in WT, and MS-MLPA is useful and reliable for estimation of DNA methylation in a clinical setting.
epigenetic; histopathology; methylation; MS-MLPA; pyrosequencing
CDKN1C and NAP1L4 in human CDKN1C/KCNQ1OT1 imprinted domain are two key candidate genes responsible for BWS (Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome) and cancer. In order to increase understanding of these genes in pigs, their cDNAs are characterized in this paper. By the IMpRH panel, porcine CDKN1C and NAP1L4 genes were assigned to porcine chromosome 2, closely linked with IMpRH06175 and with LOD of 15.78 and 17.94, respectively. By real-time quantitative RT-PCR and polymorphism-based method, tissue and allelic expression of both genes were determined using F1 pigs of Rongchang and Landrace reciprocal crosses. The transcription levels of porcine CDKN1C and NAP1L4 were significantly higher in placenta than in other neonatal tissues (P < 0.01) although both genes showed the highest expression levels in the lung and kidney of one-month pigs (P < 0.01). Imprinting analysis demonstrated that in pigs, CDKN1C was maternally expressed in neonatal heart, tongue, bladder, ovary, spleen, liver, skeletal muscle, stomach, small intestine, and placenta and biallelically expressed in lung and kidney, while NAP1L4 was biallelically expressed in the 12 neonatal tissues examined. It is concluded that imprinting of CDKN1C is conservative in mammals but has tissue specificity in pigs, and imprinting of NAP1L4 is controversial in mammalian species.
Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a fetal overgrowth and human imprinting disorder resulting from the deregulation of a number of genes, including IGF2 and CDKN1C, in the imprinted gene cluster on chromosome 11p15.5. Most cases are sporadic and result from epimutations at either of the two 11p15.5 imprinting centres (IC1 and IC2). However, rare familial cases may be associated with germline 11p15.5 deletions causing abnormal imprinting in cis. We report a family with BWS and an IC2 epimutation in which affected siblings had inherited different parental 11p15.5 alleles excluding an in cis mechanism. Using a positional-candidate gene approach, we found that the mother was homozygous for a frameshift mutation in exon 6 of NLRP2. While germline mutations in NLRP7 have previously been associated with familial hydatidiform mole, this is the first description of NLRP2 mutation in human disease and the first report of a trans mechanism for disordered imprinting in BWS. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that NLRP2 has a previously unrecognised role in establishing or maintaining genomic imprinting in humans.
A small set of genes (imprinted genes) are expressed in a “parent-of-origin” manner, a phenomenon known as genomic imprinting. Research in human disorders associated with aberrant genomic imprinting provided insights into the molecular mechanisms of genomic imprinting and the role of imprinted genes in normal growth and development. Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a congenital overgrowth syndrome associated with developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to embryonic tumours. BWS results from alterations in expression or function of imprinted genes in the imprinted gene cluster at chromosome 11p15. Although BWS may be caused by a variety of molecular mechanisms, to date, all the genetic and epigenetic defects associated with BWS have been limited to 11p15.5. We report a family with two children affected with BWS and an epigenetic defect at 11p15.5 in which the primary genetic defect mapped outside the imprinted gene cluster. Using autozygosity mapping, we found an extended homozygous region on chromosome 19q13.4 (containing NLRP2 and NLRP7 genes) in the mother. Homozygous inactivating mutations in NLRP7 in women have been associated previously with abnormal imprinting and recurrent hydatidiform moles. We identified a homozygous frameshift mutation in NLRP2 in the mother of the two children with BWS implicating NLRP2 in the establishment and/or maintenance of genomic imprinting/methylation.
Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a human imprinting disorder with a variable phenotype. The major features are anterior abdominal wall defects including exomphalos (omphalocele), pre- and postnatal overgrowth, and macroglossia. Additional less frequent complications include specific developmental defects and a predisposition to embryonal tumours. BWS is genetically heterogeneous and epigenetic changes in the IGF2/H19 genes resulting in overexpression of IGF2 have been implicated in many cases. Recently germline mutations in the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor gene CDKN1C (p57KIP2) have been reported in a variable minority of BWS patients. We have investigated a large series of familial and sporadic BWS patients for evidence of CDKN1C mutations by direct gene sequencing. A total of 70 patients with classical BWS were investigated; 54 were sporadic with no evidence of UPD and 16 were familial from seven kindreds. Novel germline CDKN1C mutations were identified in five probands, 3/7 (43%) familial cases and 2/54 (4%) sporadic cases. There was no association between germline CDKN1C mutations and IGF2 or H19 epigenotype abnormalities. The clinical phenotype of 13 BWS patients with germline CDKN1C mutations was compared to that of BWS patients with other defined types of molecular pathology. This showed a significantly higher frequency of exomphalos in the CDKN1C mutation cases (11/13) than in patients with an imprinting centre defect (associated with biallelic IGF2 expression and H19 silencing) (0/5, p<0.005) or patients with uniparental disomy (0/9, p<0.005). However, there was no association between germline CDKN1C mutations and risk of embryonal tumours. No CDKN1C mutations were identified in six non-BWS patients with overgrowth and Wilms tumour. These findings (1) show that germline CDKN1C mutations are a frequent cause of familial but not sporadic BWS, (2) suggest that CDKN1C mutations probably cause BWS independently of changes in IGF2/H19 imprinting, (3) provide evidence that aspects of the BWS phenotype may be correlated with the involvement of specific imprinted genes, and (4) link genotype-phenotype relationships in BWS and the results of murine experimental models of BWS.
Keywords: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome; CDKN1C (p57KIP2) mutation
Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a model imprinting disorder resulting from mutations or epigenetic events involving imprinted genes at chromosome 11p15.5. Thus, germline mutations in CDKN1C, uniparental disomy (UPD), and loss of imprinting of IGF2 and other imprinted genes have been implicated. Many familial BWS cases have germline CDKN1C mutations. However, most BWS cases are sporadic and UPD or putative imprinting errors predominate in this group. We have identified previously a subgroup of sporadic cases with loss of imprinting (LOI) of IGF2 and epigenetic silencing of H19 proposed to be caused by a defect in a distal 11p15.5 imprinting control element (designated BWSIC1). However, many sporadic BWS patients show biallelic IGF2 expression in the presence of normal H19 methylation and expression patterns. This and other evidence suggested the existence of a further imprinting control element (BWSIC2) at 11p15.5. Recently, we showed that a subgroup of BWS patients have loss of methylation (LOM) at a differentially methylated region (KvDMR1) within the KCNQ1 gene centromeric to the IGF2 and H19 genes. We have now analysed a large series of sporadic cases to define the frequency and phenotypic correlates of epigenetic abnormalities in BWS. LOM at KvDMR1 was detected by Southern analysis or a novel PCR based method in 35 of 69 (51%) sporadic BWS without UPD. LOM at KvDMR1 was often, but not invariably associated with LOI of IGF2. KvDMR1 LOM was not detected in BWS patients with putative BWSIC1 defects and cases with KvDMR1 LOM (that is, putative BWSIC2 defects) invariably had a normal H19 methylation pattern. The incidence of exomphalos in putative BWSIC2 defect patients was not significantly different from that in patients with germline CDKN1C mutations (20/29 and 13/15 respectively), but was significantly greater than that in patients with putative BWSIC1 defects (0/5, p=0.007) and UPD (0/22, p<0.0001). These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that LOM of KvDMR1 (BWSIC2 defect) results in epigenetic silencing of CDKN1C and variable LOI of IGF2. BWS patients with embryonal tumours have UPD or a BWSIC1 defect but not LOM of KvDMR1. This study has further shown how (1) variations in phenotypic expression of BWS may be linked to specific molecular subgroups and (2) molecular analysis of BWS can provide insights into mechanisms of imprinting regulation.
Keywords: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome; epigenotype-phenotype correlations; imprinting
Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a phenotypically and genotypically heterogeneous overgrowth syndrome characterized by somatic overgrowth, macroglossia and abdominal wall defects. Other usual findings are hemihyperplasia, embryonal tumours, adrenocortical cytomegaly, ear anomalies, visceromegaly, renal abnormalities, neonatal hypoglycaemia, cleft palate, polydactyly and a positive family history. BWS is a complex, multigenic disorder associated, in up to 90% of patients, with alteration in the expression or function of one or more genes in the 11p15.5 imprinted gene cluster. There are several molecular anomalies associated with BWS and the large proportion of cases, about 85%, is sporadic and karyotypically normal. One of the major categories of BWS molecular alteration (10–20% of cases) is represented by mosaic paternal uniparental disomy (pUPD), namely patients with two paternally derived copies of chromosome 11p15 and no maternal contribution for that. In these patients, in addition to the effects of IGF2 overexpression, a decreased level of the maternally expressed gene CDKN1C may contribute to the BWS phenotype. In this paper, we reviewed a series of nine patients with BWS because of pUPD using several methods with the aim to evaluate the percentage of mosaicism, the methylation status at both loci, the extension of the pUPD at the short arm and the breakpoints of recombination. Fine mapping of mitotic recombination breakpoints by single-nucleotide polymorphism-array in individuals with UPD and fine estimation of epigenetic defects will provide a basis for understanding the aetiology of BWS, allowing more accurate prognostic predictions and facilitating management and surveillance of individuals with this disorder.
Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome; uniparental disomy; breakpoint; SNP-array
A cluster of imprinted genes at chromosome 11p15.5 is associated with the growth disorders, Silver–Russell syndrome (SRS) and Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). The cluster is divided into two domains with independent imprinting control regions (ICRs). We describe two maternal 11p15.5 microduplications with contrasting phenotypes. The first is an inverted and in cis duplication of the entire 11p15.5 cluster associated with the maintenance of genomic imprinting and with the SRS phenotype. The second is a 160 kb duplication also inverted and in cis, but resulting in the imprinting alteration of the centromeric domain. It includes the centromeric ICR (ICR2) and the most 5′ 20 kb of the non-coding KCNQ1OT1 gene. Its maternal transmission is associated with ICR2 hypomethylation and the BWS phenotype. By excluding epigenetic mosaicism, cell clones analysis indicated that the two closely located ICR2 sequences resulting from the 160 kb duplication carried discordant DNA methylation on the maternal chromosome and supported the hypothesis that the ICR2 sequence is not sufficient for establishing imprinted methylation and some other property, possibly orientation-dependent, is needed. Furthermore, the 1.2 Mb duplication demonstrated that all features are present for correct imprinting at ICR2 when this is duplicated and inverted within the entire cluster. In the individuals maternally inheriting the 160 kb duplication, ICR2 hypomethylation led to the expression of a truncated KCNQ1OT1 transcript and to down-regulation of CDKN1C. We demonstrated by chromatin RNA immunopurification that the KCNQ1OT1 RNA interacts with chromatin through its most 5′ 20 kb sequence, providing a mechanism likely mediating the silencing activity of this long non-coding RNA.
Epigenetics, and in particular imprinted genes, play a critical role in the development and function of the placenta, which in turn, plays a central role in the regulation of fetal growth and development. A unique characteristic of imprinted genes is their expression from only one allele, maternal or paternal, dependent on parent-of-origin. This unique expression pattern may have arisen as a mechanism to control the flow of nutrients from the mother to the fetus/offspring, with maternally expressed imprinted genes reducing the flow of resources and paternally expressed genes increasing resources to the fetus. As a result, any epigenetic deregulation affecting this balance can result in fetal growth abnormalities. In humans, imprinting- associated disorders such as Beckwith-Wiedemann and Angelman syndrome, support the role of imprinted genes in fetal growth. Similarly, assisted reproductive technologies in animals have been shown to affect the epigenome of the early embryo as well as expression of imprinted genes. Their role in disorders such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) appears to be more complex in that imprinted gene expression can be seen as both causative and protective of fetal growth restriction. This protective or compensatory effect needs to be more fully explored.
Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome is an overgrowth syndrome that is characterized by hypoglycemia at birth, coarse face, hemihypertrophy and an increased risk to develop embryonal tumors. In approximately 15% of patients, the inheritance is autosomal dominant with variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance, whereas the remainder of Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome cases are sporadic. Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome molecular etiologies are complex and involve the two imprinting centers 1 (IC1) and 2 (IC2) of 11p15 region. This case report describes, for the first time, the unusual association of ovotesticular disorder in a patient from Morelia, Mexico with Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome.
We report the case of a Mexican six-year-old girl with Beckwith–Wiedemann Syndrome, ambiguous genitalia, and bilateral ovotestes. She has a 46,XX karyotype without evidence of Y-chromosome sequences detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization with both SRY and wcp-Y probes.
Although a random association between these two conditions cannot be excluded, future analysis of this patient with Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome and 46,XX ovotesticular disorder may lead to new insights into these complex pathologies. We speculate that a possible misregulation in the imprinted genes network has a fundamental role in the coexistence of these two disorders.
The region of human chromosome 11p15.5 is linked with Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome that is associated with susceptibility to Wilms’ tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma and hepatoblastoma. TSSC5 (tumor-suppressing subchromosomal transferable fragment cDNA; also known as ORCTL2/IMPT1/BWR1A/SLC22A1L) is located in the region. The expression of TSSC5 and other genes in the region is regulated through paternal imprinting. Mutations and/or reduced expression of TSSC5 have been found in certain tumors. TSSC5 encodes an efflux transporter-like protein with 10 transmembrane domains, whose regulation may affect drug sensitivity, cellular metabolism and growth. Here, we present evidences indicating that RING105, a novel conserved RING-finger protein with a PA (protease-associated) domain and a PEST sequence, is a ubiquitin ligase for TSSC5 that can function in concert with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UbcH6. The polyubiquitin target site on TSSC5 was mapped to a region in the 6th hydrophilic loop. Ectopic expression of RING105 in HeLa cells caused an accumulation of cells during G1 that was not observed with the expression of a form of RING105 in which a residue within the RING finger was mutated to inactivate its ligase activity. UbcH6-RING105 may define a novel ubiquitin–proteasome pathway that targets TSSC5 in mammalian cells.
TSSC5; protease associated; RING finger; ubiquitin ligase; UbcH6; 11p15.5
Transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM) is a rare inherited diabetic syndrome apparent in the first weeks of life and again during early adulthood. The relative contributions of reduced islet β cell number and impaired β cell function to the observed hypoinsulinemia are unclear. The inheritance pattern of this imprinted disorder implicates overexpression of one or both genes within the TNDM locus: ZAC, which encodes a proapoptotic zinc finger protein, and HYMAI, which encodes an untranslated mRNA. To investigate the consequences for pancreatic function, we have developed a high-copy transgenic mouse line, TNDM29, carrying the human TNDM locus. TNDM29 neonates display hyperglycemia, and older adults, impaired glucose tolerance. Neonatal hyperglycemia occurs only on paternal transmission, analogous to paternal dependence of TNDM in humans. Embryonic pancreata of TNDM29 mice showed reductions in expression of endocrine differentiation factors and numbers of insulin-staining structures. By contrast, β cell mass was normal or elevated at all postnatal stages, whereas pancreatic insulin content in neonates and peak serum insulin levels after glucose infusion in adults were reduced. Expression of human ZAC and HYMAI in these transgenic mice thus recapitulates key features of TNDM and implicates impaired development of the endocrine pancreas and β cell function in disease pathogenesis.
The imprinted expression of the IGF2 and H19 genes is controlled by the imprinting control region 1 (ICR1) located at chromosome 11p15.5. DNA methylation defects involving ICR1 result in two growth disorders with opposite phenotypes: an overgrowth disorder, the Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (maternal ICR1 hypermethylation in 10% of BWS cases) and a growth retardation disorder, the Silver–Russell syndrome (paternal ICR1 loss of methylation in 60% of SRS cases). In familial BWS, hypermethylation of ICR1 has been found in association with microdeletion of repetitive DNA motifs within ICR1 that bind the zinc finger protein CTCF; but more recently, ICR1 point mutations were described in BWS pedigrees. We present a case report of two brothers with BWS and prolonged post-pubertal growth resulting in very large stature. A maternally inherited point mutation was identified in ICR1 in both brothers, which altered binding of OCT transcription factors. The same mutation was present on the paternally inherited allele of their unaffected mother. This is a second report of a point mutation causing ICR1 hypermethylation by altering an OCT-binding motif. The atypical growth phenotype of the brothers may be connected to the unusual underlying cause of their BWS.
Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome; IGF2/H19 ICR1; OCT-binding site; DNA methylation; imprinting disorder
Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon restricting gene expression in a manner dependent on parent of origin. Imprinted gene products are critical regulators of growth and development, and imprinting disorders are associated with both genetic and epigenetic mutations, including disruption of DNA methylation within the imprinting control regions (ICRs) of these genes. It was recently reported that some patients with imprinting disorders have a more generalised imprinting defect, with hypomethylation at a range of maternally methylated ICRs. We report a cohort of 149 patients with a clinical diagnosis of Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), including 81 with maternal hypomethylation of the KCNQ1OT1 ICR. Methylation analysis of 11 ICRs in these patients showed that hypomethylation affecting multiple imprinted loci was restricted to 17 patients with hypomethylation of the KCNQ1OT1 ICR, and involved only maternally methylated loci. Both partial and complete hypomethylation was demonstrated in these cases, suggesting a possible postzygotic origin of a mosaic imprinting error. Some ICRs, including the PLAGL1 and GNAS/NESPAS ICRs implicated in the aetiology of transient neonatal diabetes and pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1b, respectively, were more frequently affected than others. Although we did not find any evidence for mutation of the candidate gene DNMT3L, these results support the hypotheses that trans-acting factors affect the somatic maintenance of imprinting at multiple maternally methylated loci and that the clinical presentation of these complex cases may reflect the loci and tissues affected with the epigenetic abnormalities.
Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS); KCNQ1OT1; methylation; imprinting; imprinting disorder; hypomethylation of imprinted loci (HIL)
In an attempt to elucidate the role of methylation in parental imprinting at the IGF-II gene locus, for which imprinting has already been described in the mouse, we undertook an allele specific methylation study of the human IGF-II gene (mapped to 11p15.5) in a control population and in patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. In control leucocyte DNA (16 unrelated adults and eight families), the maternal allele of the IGF-II gene was specifically hypomethylated, whereas no such allele specific methylation was found for either the insulin or the calcitonin genes which are located in 11p15.5 and 11p15.1, respectively. Furthermore, the IGF-II gene specific hypomethylation was localised on the 5' portion of exon 9. In the patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome in which the IGF-II gene is thought to be involved and where paternal isodisomy has been described, hypomethylation of the maternal allele was conserved in leucocyte DNA, but abnormal methylation was detected in malformed tissues where the paternal allele was also demethylated. Some specific mechanism linked to methylation therefore seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.
At chromosome 11p15.5, the imprinting centre 1 (IC1) controls the parent of origin-specific expression of the IGF2 and H19 genes. The 5 kb IC1 region contains multiple target sites (CTS) for the zinc-finger protein CTCF, whose binding on the maternal chromosome prevents the activation of IGF2 and allows that of H19 by common enhancers. CTCF binding helps maintaining the maternal IC1 methylation-free, whereas on the paternal chromosome gamete-inherited DNA methylation inhibits CTCF interaction and enhancer-blocking activity resulting in IGF2 activation and H19 silencing. Maternally inherited 1.4–2.2 kb deletions are associated with methylation of the residual CTSs and Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome, although with different penetrance and expressivity. We explored the relationship between IC1 microdeletions and phenotype by analysing a number of previously described and novel mutant alleles. We used a highly quantitative assay based on next generation sequencing to measure DNA methylation in affected families and analysed enhancer-blocking activity and CTCF binding in cultured cells. We demonstrate that the microdeletions mostly affect IC1 function and CTCF binding by changing CTS spacing. Thus, the extent of IC1 inactivation and the clinical phenotype are influenced by the arrangement of the residual CTSs. A CTS spacing similar to the wild-type allele results in moderate IC1 inactivation and is associated with stochastic DNA methylation of the maternal IC1 and incomplete penetrance. Microdeletions with different CTS spacing display severe IC1 inactivation and are associated with IC1 hypermethylation and complete penetrance. Careful characterization of the IC1 microdeletions is therefore needed to predict recurrence risks and phenotypical outcomes.
Genomic imprinting refers to an epigenetic marking resulting in monoallelic gene expression and has a critical role in fetal development. Various imprinting diseases have recently been reported in humans and animals born after the use of assisted reproductive technology (ART). All the epimutations implicated involve a loss of methylation of the maternal allele (demethylation of KvDMR1/KCNQ1OT1 in Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), demethylation of SNRPN in Angelman syndrome and demethylation of DMR2/IGF2R in large offspring syndrome), suggesting that ART impairs the acquisition or maintenance of methylation marks on maternal imprinted genes. However, it is unknown whether this epigenetic imprinting error is random or restricted to a specific imprinted domain.
To analyse the methylation status of various imprinted genes (IGF2R gene at 6q26, PEG1/MEST at 7q32, KCNQ1OT1 and H19 at 11p15.5, and SNRPN at 15q11–13) in 40 patients with BWS showing a loss of methylation at KCNQ1OT1 (11 patients with BWS born after the use of ART and 29 patients with BWS conceived naturally).
3 of the 11 (27%) patients conceived using ART and 7 of the 29 (24%) patients conceived normally displayed an abnormal methylation at a locus other than KCNQ1OT1.
Some patients with BWS show abnormal methylation at loci other than the 11p15 region, and the involvement of other loci is not restricted to patients with BWS born after ART was used. Moreover, the mosaic distribution of epimutations suggests that imprinting is lost after fertilisation owing to a failure to maintain methylation marks during pre‐implantation development.
Heterogeneous molecular defects affecting the 11p15.5 imprinted gene cluster are associated with the opposite growth disorders Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome (BWS) and Silver Russell syndrome (SRS). Maternal deletions of the centromeric domain usually result in BWS, but paternal deletions have been so far associated with normal phenotype. Here we describe a case of recurrent severe Intra-Uterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) with paternal transmission of an 11p15.5 60 kb deletion.
Methods and results
Chromosome microarray (CMA), PCR and DNA sequencing analyses showed that two fetuses conceived by a normal couple inherited from their father a 60 kb deletion encompassing the Imprinting Control Region of the 11p15.5 centromeric domain. The two fetuses died in utero with severe growth restriction. PCR amplification of parental DNAs indicated that the father carried the mutation in the mosaic state. DNA methylation and gene expression analyses showed that the deletion led to an imprinting alteration restricted to the centromeric domain and resulting in silencing of KCNQ1OT1 and activation of CDKN1C and PHLDA2.
Our data demonstrate that the phenotype associated with 11p15.5 deletions is strongly influenced by the size of the region involved and indicate imprinting defects leading to CDKN1C and PHLDA2 activation as cause of severe IUGR.
Epigenetics; Imprinting; Chromosomal; Molecular genetics
The CDKN1B gene encodes the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27KIP1, an atypical tumor suppressor playing a key role in cell cycle regulation, cell proliferation, and differentiation. Impaired p27KIP1 expression and/or localization are often observed in tumor cells, further confirming its central role in regulating the cell cycle. Recently, germline mutations in CDKN1B have been associated with the inherited multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 4, an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by varying combinations of tumors affecting at least two endocrine organs. In this study we identified a 4-bp deletion in a highly conserved regulatory upstream ORF (uORF) in the 5′UTR of the CDKN1B gene in a patient with a pituitary adenoma and a well-differentiated pancreatic neoplasm. This deletion causes the shift of the uORF termination codon with the consequent lengthening of the uORF–encoded peptide and the drastic shortening of the intercistronic space. Our data on the immunohistochemical analysis of the patient's pancreatic lesion, functional studies based on dual-luciferase assays, site-directed mutagenesis, and on polysome profiling show a negative influence of this deletion on the translation reinitiation at the CDKN1B starting site, with a consequent reduction in p27KIP1 expression. Our findings demonstrate that, in addition to the previously described mechanisms leading to reduced p27KIP1 activity, such as degradation via the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway or non-covalent sequestration, p27KIP1 activity can also be modulated by an uORF and mutations affecting uORF could change p27KIP1 expression. This study adds the CDKN1B gene to the short list of genes for which mutations that either create, delete, or severely modify their regulatory uORFs have been associated with human diseases.
Gene expression can be modulated at different steps on the way from DNA to protein including control of transcription, translation, and post-translational modifications. An abnormality in the regulation of mRNA and protein expression is a hallmark of many human diseases, including cancer. In some eukaryotic genes translation can be influenced by small DNA sequences termed upstream open reading frames (uORFs). These elements located upstream to the gene start codon may either negatively influence the ability of the translational machinery to reinitiate translation of the main protein or, much less frequently, stimulate protein translation by enabling the ribosomes to bypass cis-acting inhibitory elements. CDKN1B, which encodes the cell cycle inhibitor p27KIP1, includes an uORF in its 5′UTR sequence. p27KIP1 expression is often reduced in cancer, and germline mutations have been identified in CDKN1B in patients affected with a syndrome (MEN4) characterized by varying combinations of tumors in endocrine glands. Here we show that a small deletion in the uORF upstream to CDKN1B reduces translation reinitiation efficiency, leading to underexpression of p27KIP1 and coinciding with tumorigenesis. This study describes a novel mechanism by which p27KIP1 could be underexpressed in human tumors. In addition, our data provide a new insight to the unique pathogenic potential of uORFs in human diseases.