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1.  Gene Expression Profiles Predict Emergence Of Psychiatric Adverse Events In HIV/HCV Coinfected Patients On Interferon-based HCV Therapy 
Background
The efficacy of pegylated IFN-α and ribavirin (pegIFN/RBV) in the treatment of Hepatitis C infection is limited by psychiatric adverse effects (IFN-PE). Our study examined the ability of differential gene expression patterns prior to therapy to predict emergent IFN-PE among 28 HIV/HCV co-infected patients treated with pegIFN-α2b/RBV.
Methods
Patients dually infected with HIV and HCV were evaluated at baseline and during treatment by board-certified psychiatrists who classified patients into 2 groups: those who developed IFN-PE and those who did not (IFN-NPE). Gene expression analysis (Affymetrix HG-U133A) was performed using PBMCs before and after initiation of treatment. ANOVA, post hoc analysis based on pair-wise comparisons and functional annotation analysis identified differentially expressed genes within and between groups. Prediction Analysis for Microarrays was used to test the predictive ability of selected genes.
Results
Twenty-four genes (16 up- and 8 down-regulated) that were differentially expressed at baseline in patients who subsequently developed IFN-PE compared to the IFN-NPE group showed the ability to predict IFN-PE with an accuracy of 82%. In 16 patients with IFN-PE, 135 genes (117 up-; 18 down-regulated) were significantly modulated following treatment. Of these, 10 genes have already been shown to be associated with neuropsychiatric illnesses and were significantly modulated only in patients who experienced IFN-PE.
Conclusions
We describe a novel molecular diagnostic biomarker panel to predict emergent IFN-PE in HIV/HCV-co-infected patients undergoing pegIFN/RBV treatment, which may improve the identification of patients at greatest risk for IFN-PE and suggest candidate therapeutic targets for preventing or treating IFN-PE.
doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e31824c17c4
PMCID: PMC3383605  PMID: 22728749
HIV/HCV; peg-Interferon; psychiatric toxicities; gene expression; prediction
2.  Blood cell, liver function, and response changes by PEG-interferon-α2b plus ribavirin with polaprezinc therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C 
Hepatology International  2008;2(1):111-115.
Purpose
Zinc has been reported to ameliorate hematologic side effects and improve liver function. In addition to its various effects, zinc supplementation in chronic hepatitis C patients with genotype 1b of high viral load enhanced the response to interferon (IFN) monotherapy. This study was aimed at clarifying whether zinc could improve hematologic side effects, improve liver function, and enhance the response to therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with pegylated-interferon (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV).
Methods
The 32 patients enrolled in the study were randomly divided into two groups: a PEG-IFN-α2b plus RBV with zinc group (PEG/RBV + zinc, n = 16) and a PEG-IFN-α2b plus RBV group (PEG/RBV, n = 16). HCV-RNA, serum zinc, ALT, white blood cell, red blood cell, platelet, and hemoglobin (Hb) levels were examined.
Results
Serum zinc levels were significantly higher in the PEG/RBV with zinc group than in the PEG/RBV without zinc group at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. No significant differences were observed in the clearance of HCV-RNA between the two groups. The outcome of the treatment was similar; results of laboratory examinations including ALT before, during, and after therapy revealed no significant differences between the two groups at any point in all items except serum zinc levels. A sustained virological response rate was observed in 50.0% in the PEG/RBV with zinc group and 43.8% in the PEG/RBV without zinc group, with no significant difference between the two groups.
Conclusions
The study demonstrated no evidence that zinc ameliorates hematologic side effects, improves liver function, and enhances the response to the therapy in chronic hepatitis C receiving PEG-IFN-α2b plus RBV.
doi:10.1007/s12072-007-9029-y
PMCID: PMC2716873  PMID: 19669286
Pegylated-interferon; Ribavirin; Zinc; Hematologic side effect; Chronic hepatitis C
3.  Sequence Heterogeneity in NS5A of Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes 2a and 2b and Clinical Outcome of Pegylated-Interferon/Ribavirin Therapy 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(2):e30513.
Pegylated-interferon plus ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) therapy is a current standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C. We previously reported that the viral sequence heterogeneity of part of NS5A, referred to as the IFN/RBV resistance-determining region (IRRDR), and a mutation at position 70 of the core protein of hepatitis C virus genotype 1b (HCV-1b) are significantly correlated with the outcome of PEG-IFN/RBV treatment. Here, we aimed to investigate the impact of viral genetic variations within the NS5A and core regions of other genotypes, HCV-2a and HCV-2b, on PEG-IFN/RBV treatment outcome. Pretreatment sequences of NS5A and core regions were analyzed in 112 patients infected with HCV-2a or HCV-2b, who were treated with PEG-IFN/RBV for 24 weeks and followed up for another 24 weeks. The results demonstrated that HCV-2a isolates with 4 or more mutations in IRRDR (IRRDR[2a]≥4) was significantly associated with rapid virological response at week 4 (RVR) and sustained virological response (SVR). Also, another region of NS5A that corresponds to part of the IFN sensitivity-determining region (ISDR) plus its carboxy-flanking region, which we referred to as ISDR/+C[2a], was significantly associated with SVR in patients infected with HCV-2a. Multivariate analysis revealed that IRRDR[2a]≥4 was the only independent predictive factor for SVR. As for HCV-2b infection, an N-terminal half of IRRDR having two or more mutations (IRRDR[2b]/N≥2) was significantly associated with RVR, but not with SVR. No significant correlation was observed between core protein polymorphism and PEG-IFN/RBV treatment outcome in HCV-2a or HCV-2b infection. Conclusion: The present results suggest that sequence heterogeneity of NS5A of HCV-2a (IRRDR[2a]≥4 and ISDR/+C[2a]), and that of HCV-2b (IRRDR[2b]/N≥2) to a lesser extent, is involved in determining the viral sensitivity to PEG-IFN/RBV therapy.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0030513
PMCID: PMC3271109  PMID: 22319571
4.  The impact of IL28B genotype on the gene expression profile of patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin 
Background
Recent studies of CH-C patients have demonstrated a strong association between IL28B CC genotype and sustained virologic response (SVR) after PEG-IFN/RBV treatment. We aimed to assess whether IL28B alleles rs12979860 genotype influences gene expression in response to PEG-IFN/RBV in CH-C patients.
Methods
Clinical data and gene expression data were available for 56 patients treated with PEG-IFN/RBV. Whole blood was used to determine IL28B genotypes. Differential expression of 153 human genes was assessed for each treatment time point (Days: 0, 1, 7, 28, 56) and was correlated with IL28B genotype (IL28B C/C or non-C/C) over the course of the PEG-IFN/RBV treatment. Genes with statistically significant changes in their expression at each time point were used as an input for pathway analysis using KEGG Pathway Painter (KPP). Pathways were ranked based on number of gene involved separately per each study cohort.
Results
The most striking difference between the response patterns of patients with IL28B C/C and T* genotypes during treatment, across all pathways, is a sustained pattern of treatment-induced gene expression in patients carrying IL28B C/C. In the case of IL28B T* genotype, pre-activation of genes, the lack of sustained pattern of gene expression or a combination of both were observed. This observation could potentially provide an explanation for the lower rate of SVR observed in these patients. Additionally, when the lists of IL28B genotype-specific genes which were differentially expressed in patients without SVR were compared at their baseline, IRF2 and SOCS1 genes were down-regulated regardless of patients' IL28B genotype. Furthermore, our data suggest that CH-C patients who do not have the SOCS1 gene silenced have a better chance of achieving SVR. Our observations suggest that the action of SOCS1 is independent of IL28B genotype.
Conclusions
IL28B CC genotype patients with CH-C show a sustained treatment-induced gene expression profile which is not seen in non-CC genotype patients. Silencing of SOCS1 is a negative and independent predictor of SVR. These data may provide some mechanistic explanation for higher rate of SVR in IL28B CC patients who are treated with PEG-IFN/RBV.
doi:10.1186/1479-5876-10-25
PMCID: PMC3296607  PMID: 22313623
HCV; Gene Expression; Pathway Analysis; IL28B; SOCS1; IRF2; chronic hepatitis C; HCV treatment
5.  ITPA Gene Polymorphisms Significantly Affect Hemoglobin Decline and Treatment Outcomes in Patients Coinfected With HIV and HCV 
Journal of medical virology  2012;84(7):1106-1114.
Published studies have described a strong association with a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA) gene and ribavirin (RBV)-induced hemolytic anemia in HCV-infected patients receiving pegylated interferon (pegIFN) and RBV. This study sought to evaluate the effect of these polymorphisms on anemia, hemoglobin reduction, HCV kinetics, and treatment outcomes. Sixty-three patients coinfected with HIV and HCV and 58 patients infected with HCV only were treated with pegIFN/RBV were genotyped using the ABI Taq-Man allelic discrimination kit for the 2 ITPA SNP variants rs1127354 and rs7270101. A composite variable of ITPA deficiency using both SNPs was created as previously reported. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney test or Chi square/Fishers exact test for categorical data and mixed model analysis for multiple variables. Thirty-five patients (30%) were predicted to have reduced ITPA activity. ITPA deficiency was found to be protective against the development of hemoglobin reduction >3 g/dl over the course of treatment. The rates of hemoglobin reduction >3 g/dl decreased in correlation with the severity of ITPA deficiency. ITPA deficiency was associated with slower hemoglobin decline early in treatment (week 4, P = 0.020) and rapid virologic response (RVR) at week 4 (P = 0.017) in patients coinfected with HIV and HCV. ITPA polymorphisms are associated with hemoglobin decline and in patients coinfected with HIV and HCV it is also associated with early virologic outcomes. Determination of ITPA polymorphisms may allow prediction of RBV-induced anemia and earlier initiation of supportive care to ensure optimal therapeutic outcomes.
doi:10.1002/jmv.23302
PMCID: PMC3518921  PMID: 22585729
ribavirin-induced hemolytic anemia; ITPA; HIV/HCV; pharmacogenomics
6.  Replicated Association between an IL28B Gene Variant and a Sustained Response to Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin 
Gastroenterology  2010;138(7):2307-2314.
Background & Aims
Patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV), which is effective in less than 50% of those infected with HCV genotype 1. Genome-wide association studies have linked response to PEG-IFN/RBV with common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the vicinity of IFN-λ genes on chromosome 19. We investigated the association between the polymorphism rs12979860 and treatment response in a diverse cohort of chronic HCV patients.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was performed using data from 1021 consecutive patients enrolled in the Duke Hepatology Clinic Research Database and Biorepository. We analyzed DNA, clinical, and demographic data, along with validated data of the response of 231 subjects to PEG-IFN/RBV. The study included Caucasians (n=178), African Americans (n=53), and HCV genotypes 1 (n=186) and 2/3 (n=45). The rs12979860 genotype was tested for an association with sustained virologic response, defined as undetectable levels of HCV RNA 24 weeks after treatment ended.
Results
The rs12979860 CC genotype (found in ~40% of Caucasians) predicted a sustained virologic response to therapy among Caucasians (odds ratio 5.79; 95% confidence interval 2.67–12.57; p=9.0 × 10-6), independent of HCV genotype and other covariates. Rs12979860 CC predicted a sustained response with 78% specificity and 65% sensitivity in patients infected with HCV genotype 1—better than HCV genotype (currently used to predict treatment response).
Conclusions
rs12979860 genotype is a significant independent predictor of response to PEG-IFN/RBV in patients with chronic HCV infection; tests for this genotype might be used to determine the best course of treatment for patients considering antiviral therapy.
doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2010.02.009
PMCID: PMC2883666  PMID: 20176026
pharmacogenetic; interferon lambda; viral load; single nucleotide polymorphism
7.  Can Antidepressants Prevent Pegylated Interferon-α/Ribavirin-Associated Depression in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C: Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials? 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e76799.
Background
Antidepressants are effective in treating interferon-α/ribavirin (IFN-α/RBV)-associated depression during or after treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Whether antidepressant prophylaxis is necessary in this population remains under debate.
Methods
Comprehensive searches were performed in Medline, Embase, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and PubMed. Reference lists were searched manually. The methodology was in accordance with the 2009 PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) Statement.
Results
We identified six randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials involving 522 CHC patients treated with pegylated (PEG)-IFN-α plus RBV. The antidepressants used were escitalopram, citalopram, and paroxetine, which are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). The rates of depression (17.9% vs. 31.0%, P = 0.0005), and rescue therapy (27.4% vs. 42.7%, P<0.0001) in the SSRI group were significantly lower than those in the placebo group. The rate of sustained virological response (SVR) (56.8% vs. 50.0%, P = 0.60) and drug discontinuation (18.7% vs. 21.1%, P = 0.63) in the SSRI group did not differ significantly to those in the placebo group. In terms of safety, the incidence of muscle and joint pain (40.8% vs. 52.4%, P = 0.03) and respiratory problems (29.3% vs. 40.1%, P = 0.03) were lower, but the incidence of dizziness was significantly higher (22.3% vs. 10.2%, P = 0.001) in the SSRI group.
Conclusion
Prophylactic SSRI antidepressants can significantly reduce the incidence of PEG-IFN-α/RBV-associated depression in patients with CHC, with good safety and tolerability, without reduction of SVR.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076799
PMCID: PMC3813681  PMID: 24204676
8.  Excellent superiority and specificity of COBAS TaqMan HCV assay in an early viral kinetic change during pegylated interferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin treatment 
BMC Gastroenterology  2010;10:38.
Background
An early virological response (EVR) after the start of interferon (IFN) treatment for chronic hepatitis C leads to a successful virological outcome. To analyze an association between sustained virological response (SVR) and EVR by comparing TaqMan with Amplicor assays in HCV genotype 1-infected patients treated with pegylated (PEG)-IFN alpha-2b plus ribavirin (RBV).
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed a total of 80 HCV genotype 1 patients (39 SVR and 41 non-SVR patients), who received an enough dosage and a complete 48-week treatment of PEG-IFN alpha-2b plus RBV. Serum HCV RNA levels were measured by both TaqMan and Amplicor assays for each patients at Weeks 2, 4, 8 and 12 after the start of the antiviral treatment.
Results
Of the 80 patients with undetectable HCV RNA by Amplicor, 17 (21.3%) patients were positive for HCV RNA by TaqMan at Weeks 12. The quantification results showed that no significant difference in the decline of HCV RNA level between TaqMan and Amplicor 10-fold method assays within the initial 12 weeks of the treatment was found. However, the qualitative analysis showed significant differences of the positive predictive rates for SVR were found between TaqMan (100% at weeks 4 and 100% at weeks 8) and Amplicor (80.0% and 69.6%, respectively).
Conclusions
The COBAS TaqMan HCV assay is very useful for monitoring HCV viremia during antiviral treatment to predict a SVR in HCV genotype 1 patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-10-38
PMCID: PMC2873600  PMID: 20398383
9.  Ribavirin Impairs Salivary gland function During Combination Treatment With Pegylated Interferon Alfa-2a In HEpatitis C patients 
Hepatitis Monthly  2011;11(11):918-924.
Background
Xerostomia is a common adverse event of unknown etiology observed during pegylated interferon (PegIFN)/Ribavirin (Rbv) treatment.
Objectives
To assess the frequency and mechanisms of xerostomia during PegIFN/Rbv therapy.
Patients and Methods
Thirty-one naïve patients with chronic hepatitis C consecutively received PegIFN-α2a (180 μg/week) plus Rbv (800–1200 mg/day). The controls were 10 patients with chronic hepatitis B who received PegIFN-α2a (180 μg/week). During treatment and follow-up, all patients underwent basal and masticatory stimulated sialometry,otorhinolaryngoiatric (ORL) examination, and a questionnaire survey to subjectively assess symptoms of oral dryness.
Results
Twenty-seven patients on PegIFN/Rbv and 4 on PegIFN (87% vs. 40%, P = 0.006) reported xerostomia. Thirty patients on PegIFN/Rbv combination therapy and 2 patients on monotherapy had ORL signs of salivary gland hypofunction (97% vs. 20%, P < 0.0001).Mean basal (A) and stimulated (B) salivary flow rates (mL/min) progressively decreased during PegIFN/Rbv treatment (A, 0.49 at baseline vs. 0.17 at the end of treatment, P < 0.0001; B, 1.24 at baseline vs. 0.53 at the end of treatment, P = 0.0004). At week 24 following PegIFN/Rbv treatment, salivary flow rates were similar to baseline (A, 0.53 at the end of follow-up vs. 0.49 at baseline; B, 1.19 at the end of follow-up vs. 1.24 at baseline). Salivary function was unaffected in monotherapy patients.
Conclusions
Rbv causes salivary gland hypofunction in hepatitis C patients receiving PegIFN/Rbv therapy, which promptly reverts to normal upon cessation of treatment.
doi:10.5812/kowsar.1735143X.733
PMCID: PMC3269061  PMID: 22308157
Ribavirin; Peginterferon Alfa-2a; Salivary Glands; Hepatitis C; Hepatitis B
10.  A reduced dose of ribavirin does not influence the virologic response during pegylated interferon alpha-2b and ribavirin combination therapy in patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C 
Clinical and molecular hepatology  2012;18(3):272-278.
Background/Aims
When combined with pegylated interferon alpha-2b (Peg-IFN α-2b) for the treatment of genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in Korea, the current guideline for the initial ribavirin (RBV) dose is based on body weight. However, since the mean body weight is lower for Korean patients than for patients in Western countries, current guidelines might result in Korean patients being overdosed with RBV.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with genotype 1 CHC who were treated with Peg-IFN α-2b and RBV combination therapy. We divided the patients into groups A (≥15 mg/kg/day, n=23) and B (<15 mg/kg/day, n=26), given that the standard dose is 15 mg/kg/day. The clinical course in terms of the virologic response, adverse events, and dose modification rate was compared between the two groups after therapy completion.
Results
The early response rates (92.0% vs. 83.3%, P=0.634) and sustained virologic response rates (82.6% vs. 73.1%, P=0.506) did not differ significantly between the two groups. During the treatment period, the RBV dose reduction rate was significantly higher in group A than in group B (60.9% vs. 23.1%, P=0.01).
Conclusions
RBV dose reduction is performed frequently when patients are treated according to the current Korean guidelines. Given that lowering the RBV dose did not appear to decrease the virologic response during therapy, reducing RBV doses below the current Korean guideline may be effective for treatment, especially in low-weight patients.
doi:10.3350/cmh.2012.18.3.272
PMCID: PMC3467430  PMID: 23091807
Ribavirin; Pegylated interferon alpha-2b; Chronic hepatitis C; Sustained virologic response; Koreans
11.  Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Associated with Pegylated Interferon-α Plus Ribavirin Treatment for Chronic Hepatitis C: Case Report and Literature Review 
Combined pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN)+ribavirin (RBV) therapy has been used as a primary treatment for chronic hepatitis C. However, IFN-induced autoimmune disease, including type 1 diabetes mellitus, has been highlighted as one of the problems with this therapy. Here we report the case of a patient who developed type 1 diabetes mellitus during combined PEG-IFN+RBV therapy for hepatitis C but who showed no exacerbation of diabetes despite continued use of IFN. A 63-year-old man with chronic hepatitis C and a nonresponder to previous IFNα treatments, was admitted to our hospital because of excessive thirst, polydipsia, and polyuria 24 weeks after the start of PEG-IFNα+RBV therapy. High levels of blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin and low levels of C-peptide and immunoreactive insulin were observed. The serum antiglutamic acid decarboxylase antibody titer was 27,700 U/mL. We diagnosed IFN-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus; however PEG-IFNα+RBV therapy was continued for 48 weeks. Serum HCV remains negative five years after this treatment. Intensive insulin therapy was started immediately after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. Although the patient initially required 22 U/day of insulin, the dosage could be gradually reduced after completion of PEG-IFNα+RBV therapy and blood glucose remained well controlled. Prediction of onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus on the basis of baseline measurement of pancreas-associated autoantibodies is difficult. Therefore, it would be advisable to consider the possibility of onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus in all patients receiving IFN+RBV therapy.
doi:10.4137/CMED.S7815
PMCID: PMC3411538  PMID: 22879793
type 1 diabetes mellitus; pegylated interferon; ribavirin; hepatitis C
12.  Ex vivo induction of IFN-λ3 by a TLR7 agonist determines response to Peg-IFN/Ribavirin therapy in chronic hepatitis C patients 
Journal of Gastroenterology  2013;49:126-137.
Background
Genetic variation around interleukin-28B (IL28B), encoding IFN-λ3, predict non-responders to pegylated interferon-α/ribavirin (Peg-IFN/RBV) therapy in chronic hepatitis C (CHC). However, it remains unclear the expression and the role of IL28B itself. The aim of this study is to develop easy and useful methods for the prediction of treatment outcomes.
Methods
The mRNA and protein levels of IFN-λ3 induced by ex vivo stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or magnetically selected dendritic cells (DCs) with toll-like receptor agonists (TLR3; poly I:C, TLR7; R-837) were measured by the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and our newly developed chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassays, respectively, and compared with the clinical data.
Results
We found that BDCA-4+ plasmacytoid and BDCA-3+ myeloid DCs were the main producers of IFN-λs when stimulated with R-837 and poly I:C, respectively. Detectable levels of IFN-λs were inducible even in a small amount of PBMC, and IFN-λ3 was more robustly up-regulated by R-837 in PBMC of CHC patients with favorable genotype for the response to Peg-IFN/RBV (TT in rs8099917) than those with TG/GG. Importantly, the protein levels of IFN-λ3 induced by R-837 clearly differentiated the response to Peg-IFN/RBV treatment (p = 1.0 × 10−10), including cases that IL28B genotyping failed to predict the treatment response. The measurement of IFN-λ3 protein more accurately predicted treatment efficacies (95.7 %) than that of IL28B genotyping (65.2 %).
Conclusions
Genetic variations around IL28B basically affect IFN-λ3 production, but different amounts of IFN-λ3 protein determines the outcomes of Peg-IFN/RBV treatment. This study, for the first time, presents compelling evidence that IL28B confer a functional phenotype.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00535-013-0814-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s00535-013-0814-1
PMCID: PMC3895210  PMID: 23591768
Chronic hepatitis C; IL28B; IFN-λ3; Peg-IFN/RBV
13.  Abacavir does not influence the rate of sustained virological response in HIV-HCV co-infected patients treated with pegylated interferon and weight adjusted ribavirin 
Antiviral therapy  2008;13(7):953-957.
Introduction
Combination of pegylated-interferon (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV) is the standard-of-care for hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment in HIV coinfected individuals. In 2007, abacavir (ABC)-based antiretroviral therapy was for the first time reported to be associated with early virological failure during HCV treatment. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of ABC on the response rate to HCV-therapy.
Methods
Retrospective analysis of HIV-HCV-coinfected patients treated with PEG-IFN and weight-adjusted RBV in four hospitals in Spain was performed. A descriptive baseline variables analysis was conducted. Logistic regression models were used to test possible associations between non-response and pre-treatment characteristics including antiretroviral drugs.
Results
A total of 244 HIV/HCV co-infected patients treated with pegylated-interferon and ribavirin were included. Eighty-five % of patients were on HAART and of them 24% received ABC-based regimens. The most frequent genotypes were 1 and 3. RBV dosing was ≥13.2 mg/kg/day in 97% of the patients. In the global intent-to-treat analyses, 46.3% of patients reached SVR (46.2% in ABC group vs. 46.7% in non-ABC group, p=1). The only two factors in the multivariate analysis statistically associated with an increased risk of failure to achieve SVR were HCV genotype 1/4 and older age. The use of ABC was not associated with failure to achieve SVR in none of the other time points evaluated.
Conclusions
Our data suggest that the use of ABC-based regimens in the context of HCV therapy does not negatively affects the outcome of this treatment.
PMCID: PMC2883773  PMID: 19043930
ABACAVIR; RIBAVIRIN; SVR; HCV treatment
14.  Acute Pancreatitis Associated with Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C, Genotype 1b with High Viral Load 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2009;3(3):372-376.
Acute pancreatitis, an uncommon side effect of pegylated interferon α (PEG-IFN α) and ribavirin (RBV) combination therapy, has rarely been reported in the English language literature. Here, acute pancreatitis associated with PEG-IFN plus RBV treatment is described in three patients with chronic hepatitis C, genotype 1b with high serum hepatitis C virus RNA levels. The patients had been started on weekly subcutaneous injections of PEG-IFN α (60, 80, and 90 μg) plus a daily oral dose of RBV (600 mg). The therapy was discontinued, however, because of the onset of acute pancreatitis (after 15 weeks, 48 weeks, and 3 weeks respectively). The drug-induced pancreatitis was diagnosed on the basis of elevated levels of amylase and lipase and the absence of other identifiable causes. High tumor necrosis factor-α was found in one patient and high interleukin-6 in the other two. The immune system stimulated by PEG-IFN and RBV combination therapy might have caused the acute pancreatitis. Further study is needed to clarify the mechanism of the onset of drug-induced pancreatitis by PEG-IFN and RBV combination therapy.
doi:10.1159/000256557
PMCID: PMC2988932  PMID: 21103256
Acute pancreatitis; Pegylated interferon; Ribavirin; Chronic hepatitis C, high serum hepatitis C viral RNA; Genotype 1b; Tumor necrosis factor-α; Interleukin-6; Drug-induced pancreatitis
15.  Complexity and Catalytic Efficiency of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) NS3 and NS4A Protease Quasispecies Influence Responsiveness to Treatment with Pegylated Interferon plus Ribavirin in HCV/HIV-Coinfected Patients▿† 
Journal of Virology  2011;85(12):5961-5969.
The role of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease in ablating the signaling pathway involved in the production of alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) suggests a relationship between NS3/4A proteolytic activity and a patient's response to IFN-based therapy. To identify viral factors associated with the HCV treatment response, we analyzed the pretreatment NS3/4A protease gene quasispecies composition of 56 HCV genotype 1–HIV-1-coinfected patients treated in our clinic with pegylated IFN (pegIFN) plus ribavirin (RBV). The catalytic efficiency of the dominant (i.e., the most abundant) quasispecies was also assayed for Cardif cleavage and correlated with treatment outcome. A total of 1,745 clones were isolated and sequenced. Significantly less nucleotide quasispecies heterogeneity and lower Shannon entropy values were detected within the responder group (P < 0.05). A correlation was also found between the efficiency of NS3/4A protease Cardif cleavage and therapy outcome. Proteases from sustained responder patients were more efficient at processing Cardif (mean ± standard error of the mean [SEM], 0.8960 ± 0.05568; n = 19) than proteases from nonresponders (mean ± SEM, 0.7269 ± 0.05306; n = 37; P < 0.05). Finally, the amino acid p distance (the proportion [p] of nucleotide sites at which two sequences being compared are different) was significantly shorter in patients with an interleukin-28B (IL-28B) risk allele (P < 0.01), suggesting that IL-28B risk allele carriers exert a lower positive selection pressure on the NS3/4A protease. NS3/4A protease efficiency in cleaving Cardif may be associated with the pegIFN-RBV treatment response, as shown in our cohort of HIV-HCV-coinfected patients. Greater NS3/4A nucleotide heterogeneity and higher Shannon entropy values in nonresponders suggest that less HCV quasispecies complexity may favor a better response to pegIFN-RBV.
doi:10.1128/JVI.00308-11
PMCID: PMC3126303  PMID: 21471227
16.  Impact of Interferon/Ribavirin Treatment on Hepatitis C Virus Protease Quasispecies Diversity in HIV/HCV Co-infected Patients 
The Journal of infectious diseases  2010;202(6):889-893.
HCV/HIV co-infected patients who have failed prior HCV treatment with interferon (IFN)/ribavirin (RBV) may require subsequent treatment with new HCV protease inhibitors (PIs). We evaluated HCV NS3 diversity in 26 HIV co-infected patients on stable antiretroviral therapy (ART) who were treated with IFN/RBV. Plasma HCV RNA clonal analysis was performed. There was greater baseline NS3 diversity in nonresponse/relapse patients than in those with sustained virologic response. IFN/RBV did not result in significant changes in HCV protease gene diversity or significant HCV PI resistance mutations. In HIV co-infected patients receiving ART, the effect of prior IFN/RBV treatment on HCV NS3 will likely not impact potential HCV PI efficacy.
doi:10.1086/655784
PMCID: PMC2924472  PMID: 20677940
Antiviral Agents; Genetic Variation; Hepatitis C; chronic; HIV; Serine Endopeptidases; Serine Proteinase Inhibitors
17.  New antiviral therapies for chronic hepatitis C 
Hepatology International  2010;4(3):548-561.
Chronic hepatitis C is an important health issue worldwide. The current standard therapy is based on a combination of pegylated-interferon (pegIFN) and ribavirin (RBV), but this treatment leads to only ~50% sustained virological response (SVR) in patients with HCV genotype 1 and high viral loads, who were mostly null-responders or relapsers. Among HCV genotypes other than HCV genotype 1, especially HCV genotype 4 patients show only 40–70% SVR by this treatment. Although new drugs also depend on the combination of pegIFN and RBV, it appears that these drugs improve not only rapid virological response (RVR) but also early virological response, leading to SVR in these patients. In the near future, we predict higher SVR rates in chronic hepatitis C patients treated with these new drugs.
doi:10.1007/s12072-010-9193-3
PMCID: PMC2940000  PMID: 21063477
EVR; Protease inhibitor; Polymerase inhibitor; Ribavirin; Vitamin D
18.  A Fast and Cost-Effective Method for Identifying a Polymorphism of Interleukin 28B Related to Hepatitis C 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e78142.
Approximately 170 million people are chronic carriers of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Patients with chronic hepatitis C are currently treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV). A genome-wide association with PEG-IFN/RBV treatment response and a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs12979860) has been identified near the interleukin 28B gene that encodes interferon-λ-3. In this paper, we describe an innovative, fast, and low-cost multiplex polymerase chain reaction with confronting two-pair primers that detects the rs12979860 polymorphism. The assay is internally controlled and does not require the use of restriction endonucleases or special equipment. Moreover, the assay decreases costs, being about 40% cheaper than direct sequencing methods.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078142
PMCID: PMC3805516  PMID: 24167602
19.  Dynamics of resistance mutations to NS3 protease inhibitors in a cohort of Brazilian patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (genotype 1) treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin: a prospective longitudinal study 
Virology Journal  2013;10:57.
Abstract
About sixty thousand new cases of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are recorded in Brazil each year. These cases are currently treated with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) with an overall success rate of 50%. New compounds for anti-HCV therapy targeted to the HCV NS3 protease are being developed and some already form the components of licensed therapies. Mapping NS3 protease resistance mutations to protease inhibitors or anti-viral drug candidates is important to direct anti-HCV drug treatment.
Methods
Sequence analysis of the HCV NS3 protease was conducted in a group of 68 chronically infected patients harboring the HCV genotype 1. The patients were sampled before, during and after a course of PEG-IFN-RBV treatment.
Results
Resistance mutations to the protease inhibitors, Boceprevir and Telaprevir were identified in HCV isolated from three patients (4.4%); the viral sequences contained at least one of the following mutations: V36L, T54S and V55A. In one sustained virological responder, the T54S mutation appeared during the course of PEG-IFN and RBV therapy. In contrast, V36L and V55A mutations were identified in virus isolated from one relapsing patient before, during, and after treatment, whereas the T54S mutation was identified in virus isolated from one non-responding patient, before and during the treatment course.
Conclusions
The incidence and persistence of protease resistance mutations occurring in HCV from chronically infected patients in Brazil should be considered when using protease inhibitors to treat HCV disease. In addition, patients treated with the current therapy (PEG-IFN and RBV) that are relapsing or are non-responders should be considered candidates for protease inhibitor therapy.
doi:10.1186/1743-422X-10-57
PMCID: PMC3599441  PMID: 23409973
HCV NS3 protease; Drug resistance persistency; Selection pressure; Antiviral drugs; Chronic Hepatitis C infection
20.  IL28B SNP rs12979860 Is a Critical Predictor for On-Treatment and Sustained Virologic Response in Patients with Hepatitis C Virus Genotype-1 Infection 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(3):e18322.
Background
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of interleukin-28B (IL28B) have received considerable interest for their association with sustained virological response (SVR) when treating patients of genotype-1 hepatitis C virus (GT1-HCV) chronic infection with pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV). This study was to investigate the predictive power of IL28B SNPs for on-treatment responses and SVR in treatment-naïve patients with GT1-HCV chronic infection.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We analyzed ten SNPs of IL28B in 191 treatment-naïve patients with GT1-HCV chronic infection who received PegIFN/RBV. In these patients, rapid virological response (RVR), early virological response (EVR) and SVR were achieved in 69.6%, 95.8% and 68.6% of the patients, respectively. Multivariate analysis (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval; P value) indicated age (0.96; 0.93–0.99; 0.012), low baseline viral load (4.65; 2.23–9.66; <0.001) and CC genotype of rs12979860 (7.74; 2.55–23.53; <0.001) but no other SNPs were independent predictors for SVR. In addition, none of the ten SNPs examined were associated with baseline viral load and stages of liver fibrosis. Regarding RVR, low baseline viral load (2.83; 1.40–5.73; 0.004) and CC genotype of rs12979860 (10.52; 3.45–32.04; <0.001) were two critical predictors. As for EVR, only CC genotype of rs12979860 (36.21; 6.68–196.38; <0.001) was the predictor. Similarly, for end of treatment response (ETR), CC genotype of rs12979860 (15.42; 4.62–51.18; <0.001) was the only predictor. For patients with RVR, only low baseline viral load (3.90; 1.57–9.68; 0.003) could predict the SVR. For patients without RVR, only rs12979860 (4.60; 1.13–18.65; 0.033) was the predictor for SVR.
Conclusions/Significance
rs12979860 is the critical predictor for RVR, EVR, ETR and SVR in treatment-naïve patients of GT1-HCV chronic infection. Furthermore, this SNP is the only predictor for SVR in patients without RVR. These results have provided evidence that rs12979860 is the ideal IL28B SNP for genetic testing in treating patients of GT1-HCV chronic infection.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018322
PMCID: PMC3068186  PMID: 21479134
21.  Impact of ribavirin dose on retreatment of chronic hepatitis C patients 
AIM: To study the efficacy and factors associated with a sustained virological response (SVR) in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) relapsing patients.
METHODS: Out of 1228 CHC patients treated with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV), 165 (13%) had a relapse. Among these, 62 patients were retreated with PEG-IFN-α2a or -α2b and RBV. Clinical, biological, virological and histological data were collected. Initial doses and treatment modifications were recorded. The efficacy of retreatment and predictive factors for SVR were analyzed.
RESULTS: An SVR was achieved in 42% of patients. SVR was higher in young (< 50 years) (61%) than old patients (27%) (P = 0.007), and in genotype 2 or 3 (57%) than in genotype 1 or 4 (28%) patients (P = 0.023). Prolonging therapy for at least 24 wk more than the previous course was associated with higher SVR rates (53% vs 28%, P = 0.04). Also, a better SVR rate was observed with RBV dose/body weight > 15.2 mg/kg per day (70% vs 35%, P = 0.04). In logistic regression, predictors of a response were age (P = 0.018), genotype (P = 0.048) and initial RBV dose/body weight (P = 0.022). None of the patients without a complete early virological response achieved an SVR (negative predictive value = 100%).
CONCLUSION: Retreatment with PEG-IFN/RBV is eff-ective in genotype 2 or 3 relapsers, especially in young patients. A high dose of RBV seems to be important for the retreatment response.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i23.2966
PMCID: PMC3380324  PMID: 22736920
Chronic hepatitis C; Relapse; Retreatment; Ribavirin; Pegylated interferon
22.  Test of IL28B Polymorphisms in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients Treated with PegIFN and Ribavirin Depends on HCV Genotypes: Results from a Meta-Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(9):e45698.
Background
Many studies have been published on the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) near the IL28B gene and response to the combined treatments of pegylated-interferon (PegIFN) and ribavirin (RBV) in chronic HCV-infected patients, but without identical conclusions. The aim of this study was to assess impact of the IL28B polymorphisms on the effect of HCV standard treatment using meta-analysis based method.
Methods
Association studies between polymorphisms of rs12979860 or rs8099917 and response to PegIFN/RBV treatment in chronic HCV patients were retrieved from PubMed. Data of qualified studies on sustained virological response (SVR) in different genotypes were extracted and analyzed using meta-analysis method in Stata 10 software.
Results
Thirty-four papers, containing 46 independent studies, were included in the analysis. In the HCV G1/4 patients without treatment history, individuals carrying rs12979860 CC genotype were more likely to achieve SVR (OR 3.97, 95%CI 3.29–4.80) compared to those carrying CT/TT genotypes. Similar results were observed in the HCV G1/4 patients with unsuccessful or unknown treatment history (OR 3.76, 95%CI 2.67–5.28) or in the patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (OR 5.20, 95%CI 3.04–8.90). However, associations could not be observed in HCV G2/3 patients. For rs8099917, similar results were obtained for genotype TT compared to genotypes TG/GG, indicating that TT genotype was significantly associated with better treatment response in patients infected with genotype 1 or 4 HCV, but not genotype 2 or 3 HCV.
Conclusion
Polymorphisms of rs12979860 and rs8099917 near IL28B only associate with the treatment response to PegIFN/RBV in patients infected with HCV genotype 1 or 4 but not with genotype 2 or 3, irrespective of the previous treatment history or HIV co-infected status. Therefore, identification of IL28B genotypes is necessary only in patients infected with relatively difficult-to-treat genotype 1 or 4 HCV.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0045698
PMCID: PMC3448689  PMID: 23029188
23.  Hepatitis C Viral Kinetics in the Era of Direct Acting Antiviral Agents and IL28B 
Current hepatitis reports  2011;10(3):214-227.
In the last decade hepatitis C virus (HCV) kinetics has become an important clinical tool for the optimization of therapy with (pegylated)-interferon-α (IFN) and ribavirin (RBV). Mathematical models have generated important insights into HCV pathogenesis, HCV- host dynamics, and IFN and RBV’s modes of action. Clinical trials with direct acting agents (DAAs) against various steps of the HCV life cycle have revealed new viral kinetic patterns that have not been observed with IFN±RBV. Very recently, studies have showed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL28B gene region were associated with race/ethnicity and with response to IFN±RBV. Here we review our current knowledge of HCV kinetics and related mathematical models during IFN±RBV and/or DAA based therapies, HCV pathogenesis, and the role of IL28B polymorphism on early HCV kinetics. Better understanding of the mode of actions of drug(s) and viral kinetics may help to develop, in the near future, new individualized therapeutic regimens that include DAAs in combination with IFN+RBV.
doi:10.1007/s11901-011-0101-7
PMCID: PMC3237049  PMID: 22180724
24.  Pegylated interferon-alfa-2a monotherapy in patients infected with HCV genotype 2 and importance of rapid virological response 
BMC Research Notes  2011;4:316.
Background
Pegylated (PEG)-interferon (IFN)-alfa-2a plus ribavirin (RBV) therapy for 24 weeks is now a standard treatment protocol for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2. As RBV cannot be used in certain situations, we examined whether PEG-IFN-alfa-2a monotherapy for 24 weeks or less would be sufficient to obtain a sustained virological response (SVR) in patients infected with HCV genotype 2.
Methods
Forty-nine consecutive patients with HCV genotype 2 received PEG-IFN-alfa-2a (180 μg/week) subcutaneously without oral RBV for 8-64 weeks. HCV RNA level was determined by COBAS AMPLICOR HCV Test, v2.0.
Results
HCV RNA was equal to or less than 100 KIU/mL (defined as low viral load) in 15 of 49 patients, and the remaining 34 had HCV RNA above 100 KIU/mL (defined as high viral load). All 15 patients with low viral load achieved rapid virological response (RVR; HCV RNA negative at week 4), and also achieved SVR with an average treatment duration of 17.1 weeks. The 34 patients with high viral load were treated for 33.7 weeks on average, and 19 of them (55.9%) achieved RVR. The SVR rates of these patients were significantly higher in those with RVR than without RVR (16/19 vs. 6/15 p = 0.0074).
Conclusion
PEG-IFN-alfa-2a monotherapy for 24 weeks or less might be sufficient to treat selected patients with HCV genotype 2, especially those with low viral load and becoming negative for HCV RNA by week 4 of treatment.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-4-316
PMCID: PMC3224591  PMID: 21884572
25.  Identification of Treatment Efficacy–Related Host Factors in Chronic Hepatitis C by ProteinChip Serum Analysis 
Molecular Medicine  2010;17(1-2):70-78.
Recent development of proteomic array technology, including protein profiling coupling ProteinChip array with surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF/MS), provides a potentially powerful tool for discovery of new biomarkers by comparison of its profiles according to patient phenotypes. We used this approach to identify the host factors associated with treatment response in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) receiving a 48-wk course of pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) alpha 2b plus ribavirin (RBV). Protein profiles of pretreatment serum samples from 32 patients with genotype 1b and high viral load were conducted by SELDI-TOF/MS by using the three different ProteinChip arrays (CM10, Q10, IMAC30). Proteins showed significantly different peak intensities between sustained virological responders (SVRs), and non-SVRs were identified by chromatography, SDS-PAGE, TOF/MS and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) assay. Eleven peak intensities were significantly different between SVRs and non-SVRs. The three SVR-increased peaks could be identified as two apolipoprotein (Apo) fragments and albumin and, among the eight non–SVR-increased proteins, four peaks identified as two iron-related and two fibrogenesis-related protein fragments, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the serum ferritin and three peak intensity values (Apo A1, hemopexin and transferrin) were independent variables associated with SVRs, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for SVR prediction by using the Apo A1/hemopexin and hemopexin/transferrin were 0.964 and 0.936. In conclusion, pretreatment serum protein profiling by SELDI-TOF/MS is variable for identification of response-related host factors, which are useful for treatment efficacy prediction in CHC receiving PEG-IFN plus RBV. Our data also may help us understand the mechanism for treatment resistance and development of more effective antiviral therapy targeted toward the modulation of lipogenesis or iron homeostasis in CHC patients.
doi:10.2119/molmed.2010.00124
PMCID: PMC3022982  PMID: 20927485

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