Celiac disease is one of the malabsorption syndromes leads to growth and development retardation in children. There is no test lonely can definitely diagnose celiac; however, the collection of clinical findings, serologic tests, intestinal biopsy, and response to treatment may diagnose it. Although diagnostic value is variable in different studies, they are used a non-invasive and appropriate screening methods today. This study aimed to evaluate diagnostic value of celiac serologic tests in children less than 15-year-old.
During two years, this study conducted on children referred to Al-Zahra hospital (Isfahan, Iran). All the children who had duodenal biopsy tests were evaluated in terms of serologic tests and clinical symptoms due to suspected celiac. The results were analyzed through descriptive statistics, chi-square and Fisher's exact tests using SPSS software.
15.8 percent of children were under 2 years, 37.3 percent between age range of 2 to 12 years and 10.5 percent were above 12 years. 8.1 percent of children with negative anti-endomysial antibody (EMA) suffered from celiac; while 20.0 percent of children with positive EMA suffered from celiac. 15.4 percent of children with negative anti-gliadin antibody (AGA) had celiac; while 11.6 percent of those with positive AGA suffered from it. 11.1 percent of those with negative tissue transglutaminase antibody (tTG) and 37.5 percent with positive tTG suffered from celiac.
According to our study results, there is no correlation between gastrointestinal symptoms such as vomiting diarrhea, anorexia, bulimia, and failure to thrive (FFT) with celiac. TTG was the best screening test method to diagnose celiac disease and other tests such as AGA and EMA do not have high diagnostic value.
Celiac; Malabsorption; Anti-gliadin antibody; Anti-endomysial antibody; Tissue transglutaminase antibody
Prematurity is the main cause of death in infants under one year of age and is the main reason for neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization. The stressful environment of NICU exposes preterm infants to inappropriate stimuli. This study aimed to determine and compare the mean heart rate and oxygen saturation of premature infants before and during a designed program in NICU.
In a clinical trial study (before-after intervention) on a single group, 31 hospitalized premature newborns in NICU of Al-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan were selected by simple continuous sampling method. Data were collected through interview, observation and checklist records. The data were analyzed using SPSS and descriptive and inferential statistics.
Out of 31 premature infants in the study, 60% were boys and 35% were girls. The mean (standard deviation) of oxygen saturation before and during the designed program were 92.80 (2.54) and 94.22 (2.59) percent, respectively. The results of paired t test showed a significant difference between the means of oxygen saturation of the infants before and during the program (p = 0.048), but there was no significant difference between the mean of the infants’ heart beat before and during the intervention.
The findings showed that applying daily silence periods can greatly help to increase oxygen saturation and can improve the growth of premature infants. Therefore, by providing more facilities in clinical environments of NICU, conducting programs to reduce light and noise in these wards would be possible.
Programmed instruction; prematurity; newborn; pulse oximetry; noise; light
Hypertension is one of the most crucial health problems and the most common chronic disease in developed and underdeveloped countries. It is called the silent killer which is usually diagnosed incidentally. Although hypertension is a preventable and treatable condition but without treatment it leads to serious and life threatening complications such as heart, kidney and brain disorders which in most cases result in patient's disability. Prevention, plays significant role in controlling this disease which is achieved by increasing the knowledge and awareness of the public and changing their attitude and practice.
A cross-sectional, correlation-descriptive study was conducted in one stage, by one group. Two hundred and thirty four patients were recruited by random sampling among hypertensive patients referring to public health care centers in Khoor & Biabanak in Isfahan province, IRAN. Data gathering was carried out with a questionnaire.
Our findings indicate that there is significant relationship between awareness and knowledge; awareness and attitude; awareness and practice. There is no significant relationship between knowledge and attitude or knowledge and practice. In addition, there is a significant relationship between attitude and practice of the patients.
Although patients relatively had high awareness, knowledge, attitude and practice about their disease but their hypertension was not still under control. Several barriers are associated with uncontrolled hypertension particularly treatment-related barriers. Findings suggest further studies to determine new effective strategies to solve this problem.
Knowledge; awareness; attitude; practice; hypertension
Hypertension is one of the most crucial health problems and most common chronic disease in developed and underdeveloped countries, which is called silent killer. Usually diagnosis happens suddenly. Despite this fact that is a preventable and treatable condition but without treatment it leads to serious and life threatening complications (such as heart, kidney and brain destruction), and in most cases these complications result in disability. It can be prevented by, increase knowledge and awareness, change attitude and practice. Prevention, plays significant role in controlling this disease.
A cross-sectional, correlation-descriptive study was conducted in one stage, by one group. Two hundred thirty four (234) patients were recruited by random sampling among hypertensive patients referring to public health care centers in Khoor & Biabanak(an area in Isfahan Iran). Data gathering was carried out with a questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out SPSS software with descriptive and inferential statistics.
Findings indicate that there is significant relationship between awareness and knowledge; awareness and attitude; awareness and practice. There is no significant relationship between knowledge and attitude; or knowledge and practice. In addition, there is significant relationship between attitude and practice.
Although patients relatively had high awareness, knowledge, attitude and practice about their disease but still their hypertension was not under control. Several barriers are associated with uncontrolled hypertension particularly treatment-related barriers. Findings suggest further studies to determine new effective strategies to solve this problem.
Knowledge; awareness; attitude; practice; hypertension
Environmental conditions such as lighting and thermal comfort are influencing factors on sleep quality and visual tiredness. The purpose of this study was the determination of the relationship between thermal comfort and light intensity with the sleep quality and eye fatigue in shift nurses. Method. This cross-sectional research was conducted on 82 shift-work personnel of 18 nursing workstations in Isfahan Al-Zahra Hospital, Iran, in 2012. Heat stress monitoring (WBGT) and photometer (Hagner Model) were used for measuring the thermal conditions and illumination intensity, respectively. To measure the sleep quality, visual tiredness, and thermal comfort, Pittsburg sleep quality index, eye fatigue questionnaire, and thermal comfort questionnaire were used, respectively. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Student's t-test, and Pearson correlation. Results. Correlation between thermal comfort which was perceived from the self-reporting of people with eye tiredness was −0.38 (P = 0.002). Pearson correlation between thermal comfort and sleep quality showed a positive and direct relationship (r = 0.241, P = 0.33) but the correlation between thermal comfort, which was perceived from the self-reporting of shift nurses, and WBGT index was a weak relationship (r = 0.019). Conclusion. Based on the obtained findings, it can be concluded that a defect in environmental conditions such as thermal conditions and light intensity and also lack of appropriate managerial plan for night shift-work nurses are destructive and negative factors for the physical and mental health of this group of practitioners.
Through a clinical trial we evaluated statin therapy benefits over stroke outcome.
All patients with moderate stroke in Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) were registered during February 2006 to February 2008, in Al Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. Among 55 patients who were enrolled in the present study, 25 subjects received 20 mg lovastatin daily, for 90 days after stroke attack (group 1) and 30 patients received no treatment (group 2). Patients were assessed at admission, 7 and 90 days after stroke. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score was recorded in the day 1 and 7 in the hospital with a questionnaire and BARTHEL index was estimated 90 days after stroke incidence by a telephone survey or in an outpatient visit. Data were analyzed by means of χ2, ‘t’ test and Independent ‘t’ test.
NIHSS score measured in first day immediately after stroke attack and following 7 days, did not differ significantly in two groups. Moreover, BARTHEL index recorded within 90 days was not also different comparing group 1 and 2. After 90 days, no mortality was recorded in group 2, while one patient expired in group treating with statins (P-value>0.05).
We did not find statins administration to play any role in stroke recovery and consequent long-term prognosis. More researches with larger samples are needed to establish the possible favorable outcome of statins when administered in cerebrovascular diseases.
Ischemic stroke; lovastatin; stroke prognosis; statins
Some studies showed that smoking follows an upward trend in Asian countries as compared with other countries. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cigarette smoking on cardiovascular diseases and risk factors of atherosclerosis in patients with hypertension.
This study was conducted on 6123 men residing in central Iran (Isfahan and Markazi Provinces) that participated in Isfahan Healthy Heart Project (IHHP). Subjects were randomly selected using cluster sampling method. All the subjects were studied in terms of their history of cardiovascular disease, demographic characteristics, smoking, blood pressure, physical examination, pulse rate, respiratory rate, weight, height, waist circumference, and blood measurements including LDL-C, HDL-C, total cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting blood sugar and 2-hour post prandial test.
While 893 subjects suffered from hypertension, 5230 subjects were healthy. The hypertension prevalence was 2.5 times more in urban areas compared to rural areas that showed a significant difference as it increased to 3.5 times smoking factor was considered. The prevalence of risk factors of atherosclerosis and also cardiovascular complications in patients with hypertension were significantly higher than healthy people. Furthermore, they were higher in smokers with hypertension and those exposed to the cigarette smoke than nonsmokers.
Smoking and passive smoking had an increasing effect on the prevalence of risk factors of atherosclerosis and consequently the incidence of cardiovascular diseases in patients with hypertension.
Hypertension; Cigarette Smoking; Cardiovascular Disease; Risk Factor
Pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus arrived at Isfahan in August 2009. The virus is still circulating in the world. The abnormal thoracic computerized tomographic (CT) scan findings vary widely among the studies of 2009 H1N1 influenza. We evaluated the thoracic CT findings in patients with 2009 H1N1 virus infection to describe findings compared to previously reported findings, and to suggest patterns that may be suggestive for 2009 influenza A (H1N1) in an appropriate clinical setting.
Retrospectively, the archive of all patients with a diagnosis of 2009 H1N1 influenza A were reviewed, in Al-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan, central Iran, between September 23rd 2009 to February 20th 2010. Out of 216 patients with confirmed 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus, 26 cases with abnormal CT were enrolled in the study. Radiologic findings were characterized by the type and pattern of opacities and zonal distribution.
Patchy infiltration (34.6%), lobar consolidation (30.8%), and interstitial infiltration (26.9%) with airbronchogram (38.5%) were the predominant findings in our patients. Bilateral distribution was seen in 80.8% of the patients. Only one patient (3.8%) showed ground-glass opacity, predominant radiographic finding in the previous reports and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).
The most common thoracic CT findings in pandemic H1N1 were patchy infiltration, lobar consolidation, and interstitial infiltration with airbronchogram and bilateral distribution. While these findings can be associated with other infections; they may be suggestive to 2009 influenza A (H1N1) in the appropriate clinical setting. Various radiographic patterns can be seen in thoracic CT scans of the influenza patients. Imaging findings are nonspecific.
Thorax; Computed Tomography (CT); Influenza A Virus; H1N1 Subtype
Hypertension is among the most common chronic condition in middle-aged and older adults. Approximately 50 million Americans are currently diagnosed with this condition, and more than $18.7 billion is spent on hypertension management, including $3.8 billion for medications. There are numerous pharmacological agents that can be chosen to treat hypertension by physicians in clinical practices. The purpose of this study was to assess the cost of alternative antihypertensive treatments in older adults with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH).
Using the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (SHEP) and other data, a cost-minimization analysis was performed. The cost was presented as the cost of number-needed-to treat (NNT) of patients for 5 years to prevent one adverse event associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD).
It was found that the cost of 5 year NNT to prevent one adverse CVD event ranged widely from $6,843 to $37,408 in older patients with ISH. The incremental cost of the 5 year NNT was lower to treat older patients in the very high CVD risk group relative to patients in the lower CVD risk group, ranging from $456 to $15,511. Compared to the cost of the 5 year NNT of other commonly prescribed antihypertensive drugs, the cost of SHEP-based therapy is the lowest. The incremental costs of the 5 year NNT would be higher if other agents were used, ranging from $6,372 to $38,667 to prevent one CVD event relative to SHEP-based drug therapy.
Antihypertensive therapy that is diuretic-based and that includes either low-dose reserpine or atenolol is an effective and relatively inexpensive strategy to prevent cardiovascular events in older adults with isolated systolic hypertension. Use of the diuretic-based therapy is the most cost-effective in patients at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease.
This study was performed to compare the outcomes of open surgical procedure and percutaneously peritoneal dialysis catheter (PDC) insertion using laparoscopic needle.
This randomized clinical trial study was conducted in the Nephrology Department in Noor Hospital, Isfahan, Iran between 2009 and 2010. 64 uremic patients were randomized into two study groups using random allocation software. Thirty four catheters were inserted percutaneously (P group) and 30 catheters were placed surgically (S group). Collected information included demographic data, body mass index, and cause of renal disease, duration of operation and length of hospitalization. Outcomes were considered as mechanical and infectious complications.
There were no significant differences in age, gender, the mean of body mass index, having history of hemodialysis, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and length of hospitalization. Hemopenitoneom was more frequent in S group than P group (13.3% versus 3.2%; p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference between two groups in early peritonitis, early leakage, hernia, hollow viscous perforation, catheter obstruction, and malpositioning and the time of peritoneal dialysis onset. Outflow failure and the exit site infection were more frequent in S group than P group (p < 0.0001). Mean of the operative time was longer in S group than P group (27.70 ± 2.79 minutes versus 10.48 ± 1.91 minutes, p < 0.001).
Percutaneous catheter insertion has fewer rate of complications and is less time consuming in comparison with surgical method.
Laparoscopy; Needles; Catheter Ablation; Peritoneal Dialysis
The elderly are the most rapidly growing population group in the world. Data collected over a 30-year period have demonstrated the increasing prevalence of hypertension with age. The risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, congestive heart disease, chronic kidney insufficiency and dementia is also increased in this subgroup of hypertensives. Hypertension in the elderly patients represents a management dilemma to cardiovascular specialists and other practioners. During the last years and before the findings of the Systolic Hypertension in Europe Trial were published, the general medical opinion considered not to decrease blood pressure values similarly to other younger patients, in order to avoid possible ischemic events and poor oxygenation of the organs (brain, heart, kidney). The aim of this review article is to highlight the importance of treating hypertension in aged population in order to improve their quality of life and lower the incidence of the cardiovascular complications.
Hypertension; Elderly; Pathophysiology; Treatment
To evaluate the importance of a history of hypertension on long‐term mortality in a large cohort of patients hospitalised with congestive heart failure (CHF).
Retrospective analysis of 5491 consecutive patients, of whom 24% had a history of hypertension. 60% of the patients had non‐systolic CHF, and 57% had ischaemic heart disease.
38 primary, secondary and tertiary hospitals in Denmark.
Main outcome measures
Total mortality 5–8 years after inclusion in the registry.
Female sex and preserved left ventricular systolic function was more common among patients with a history of hypertension. 72% of the patients died during follow up. A hypertension history did not affect mortality risk (hazard ratio (HR) 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92 to 1.07). Correction for differences between the normotensive and hypertensive groups at baseline in a multivariate model did not alter this result (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.17, p = 0.06). The hazard ratio was similar in patients with and without a history of ischaemic heart disease. Hence, a specific effect of hypertension in the group of patients with CHF with ischaemic heart disease, as suggested in earlier studies, could not be confirmed.
A history of arterial hypertension did not affect mortality in patients hospitalised with CHF.
Introduction: Hypertension is a chronic disease, which represents one of the most common public health problems in the world and afflicts about 28% of the North Americans, 44% of the Europeans and 26% of the East Mediterranean people aged 35 to 64 years. In Iran, about 11.5% of the people who are over 15 years old are afflicted. Hypertension is the most prevalent cardiovascular disease; it is the leading cause of stroke, heart attack, kidney disease and aortic aneurysm.
Materials and Methods: This is a cross–sectional study, carried out on 200 patients who were referred to the Health centers of Yazd city in center of Iran. We adapted tools from previous studies. All patients were asked to express their personal goals with respect to their hypertension values. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire were determined and their Alfa cronbach was (a=0.83).
Results: The mean number of years with hypertension was 8.7[+/–]7.6. Men and women showed moderately high means for attitudes, subjective norms, and positive anticipated emotions toward trying to reduce or maintain their blood pressure. The data indicated there is significantly different between the personnel and housewives, with p<0.001. In addition, the personnel's mean grade scores for trying the self–regulation of their blood pressure was (15.9[+/–]4.08) and, in the housewives was (12.49[+/–]4.33).
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the Model of Goal Behavior can explain more than 52% of the self–regulation of hypertension, so, this Model can be a basic Model for intervention in education, in order to decrease and control hypertension in patients.
High blood pressure; Educational Model; Behavior; Regulation
Obesity and sedentary lifestyle are known as important risk factors of coronary artery disease. The prevalence of obesity has increased among both men and women in the world. Therefore, the present study tried to evaluate the effectiveness of a cardiac rehabilitation program on functional capacity and body mass index (BMI) in obese and non-obese women with coronary artery disease.
In an observational study during 2000-11, we evaluated a total of 205 women with coronary artery disease who referred to the cardiac rehabilitation unit of Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan, Iran. BMI and functional capacity of each patient were assessed before and after the program. The patients were categorized as obese or non-obese based on their BMI. All participants completed the full course of the program. Data was analyzed by independent t-test and paired t-test in SPSS15.
Our finding showed that an 8-week cardiac rehabilitation program had significant effects on functional capacity in obese and non-obese female patients (P < 0.01 for both). The program also resulted in BMI improvements in both groups (P < 0.01 for both). Comparing the changes in the two groups did not reveal any significant differences in functional capacity. However, the two groups were significantly different in terms of BMI changes.
Cardiac rehabilitation programs are a major step in restoration of functional capacity and improvement of BMI in obese and non-obese women with coronary artery disease.
Cardiac Rehabilitation Program; Coronary Artery Disease; Obesity; Functional Capacity; Body Mass Index
More than half of elderly men and women have hypertension, leading to a significant risk of increased morbidity and mortality. The cause of hypertension in this age group is unknown. Left ventricular hypertrophy is frequently present, often associated with diastolic dysfunction. Systolic hypertension in the elderly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, but there are no good data to show that the treatment of isolated systolic hypertension reduces the morbidity or mortality. Good evidence indicates that antihypertensive treatment in this group decreases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality up to age 80, so most elderly hypertensive patients should be treated. An empiric trial of nonpharmacologic therapy can be initiated in those with mild hypertension and no cardiovascular disease, but most patients will require drug therapy. Most elderly hypertensive patients have accompanying illnesses for which they may or may not be taking medications. Some antihypertensive drugs exacerbate coexisting diseases while others augment treatment regimens. Similarly, drugs may interact in a beneficial or adverse way. Finally, drug metabolism is altered by age, leading to problems with toxicity or diminished efficacy. The choice of medication should be based on all such considerations, including the cost and convenience of the drugs available.
Studies on cardiovascular risk factors among diabetic persons in Ethiopia are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of the cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity, dyslipidemia and smoking) among diabetic patients at the diabetic clinic of Jimma University Specialized Hospital.
A cross-sectional study was conducted from October to December 2007. Three hundred one individuals were randomly selected from 950 patients on follow-up. Data were collected using a structured format and appropriate equipments and reagents. Laboratory data were recorded in a separate checklist. The data were entered into SPSS for Windows version 12. Multivariate regression analysis was carried out to identify predictors of hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia.
Two hundred and fifty six (85.1%) of the sample participated in the study. The prevalence of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, physical inactivity and current smoking was 46.5%, 23.4%, 63.5%, 55.1% and 5.5% respectively. Age ≥ 45 years, type 2 diabetes and obesity were predictors of hypertension. Females were less likely to be hypertensive (OR =2.26, 3.37, 3.79 and 0.48 respectively). Type 2 diabetics and females were more while rural diabetics were less likely to be obese. (OR =6.08, 4.17 and 0.37 respectively). Female gender, hypertension and fasting blood glucose ≥ 180mg/dl were predictors of dyslipidemia. Alcohol users were less likely to be dyslipidemic. (OR =4.25, 3.5, 3.56 and 0.39, respectively)
Hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia and physical inactivity were common while smoking was uncommon among diabetic patients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Type 2 DM was a predictor of hypertension and obesity. Diabetic women were more likely to be obese and dyslipidemic. We recommend screening and management of these risk factors.
Diabetes Mellitus; Hypertension; Obesity; Dyslipidemia; Ethiopia
Background. Chronic kidney disease is frequently seen in patients with congestive cardiac failure and is an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in patients with hypertension associated congestive cardiac failure. Method. One hundred and fifty patients with hypertension associated congestive cardiac failure were recruited consecutively from the medical outpatient department and the medical wards of the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi over a one year period, January to December 2010. Patients' biodata and medical history were obtained, detailed physical examination done and each patient had a chest X-ray, 12 lead ECG, urinalysis, serum urea and creatinine assay done. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethical Review Board of our institution and data analysed using SPSS-version 16. Results. There were 86 males and 64 females with mean age 62.7 ± 12.5 years. The mean blood pressures were systolic 152.8 ± 28.5 mmHg and diastolic 94.3 ± 18 mmHg. 84.7% had blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg on presentation. The mean GFR was 70.1 ± 31.3 mls/min. 76% of subjects had GFR <90 mls/min and no statistical significant difference between males and females, P = 0.344. The mean serum urea was 7.2 ± 51 mmol/L while the mean serum creatinine was 194 ± 416.2 mmol/L. Conclusions. This study has demonstrated that majority of patients presenting with hypertension associated congestive cardiac failure have some degree of chronic kidney disease.
There is insufficient evidence to conclude that the timing of tracheostomy alters the duration of mechanical ventilation, hence this study was designed to investigate the correlation between timing of tracheostomy and duration of mechanical ventilation for patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) with potentially normal lungs.
Materials and Methods:
In a retrospective study for a period of 2 years, all adult patients admitted to the medical ICU of Al-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences who needed endotracheal intubation and prolonged mechanical ventilation were considered for inclusion in this study. Data of underlying disease, causes of respiratory failure, age and gender, duration of mechanical ventilation, and interval between intubation time and tracheostomy were collected. The correlations between intubation period and ventilation period were analyzed using a Pearson correlation test.
Sixty-six percent of patients (100 patients) were men. The mean ± SD of age of patients was 56.2 ± 20.8 years (18–90 years.). The timing of tracheostomy (duration of endotracheal intubation until tracheostomy) did not exhibit any correlation with the length of mechanical ventilation (P = 0.43, r = 0.08). The timing of tracheostomy had not any correlation with the age of patients (P = 0.20, r = 0.129). The length of mechanical ventilation had not any correlation with the age of patients (P = 0.83, r = 0.02). The timing of tracheostomy was similar in men and women (P = 0.5). Mechanical ventilation period was not significantly different in both genders (P = 0.89).
Our study with mentioned sample size could not show any relationship between timing of tracheostomy and duration of mechanical ventilation in patients under mechanical ventilation with good pulmonary function in ICU.
Critical illness; intensive care unit; mechanical ventilation; tracheostomy
To assess the epidemiological characteristics of hypertensive patients in urban population of Yazd, A central city in Iran.
This cross sectional study was conducted from 2005–2006 and carried out on population aging 20–74 years. It is a part of the phase I of Yazd healthy heart program that it is a community interventional study for prevention of cardiovascular disease. Data obtained from questionnaires were analyzed by SPSS version 13. P value less than 0.05 were considered significant level.
This study comprised of 2000 participants that 847 (42.5%) were diagnosed as being hypertensive. After age adjustment, prevalence of hypertension was 25.6% (23.3% for women and 27.5% for men (P< 0.001). Age, Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting blood glucose, impaired glucose tolerance test, body mass index and waist were significantly higher in the hypertensive groups. 53.7% of hypertensive cases were aware of own condition, 45% were treated, and 33.9% of treated were controlled (30.7% and 35.4% in men and women respectively). In other word, 24% of all hypertensives (aware or unaware about own blood pressure condition) were treated and only 8% of them were controlled. Men significantly had less awareness (P< 0.001), lower tendency to take medication (P< 0.001), and less were controlled (P= 0.046).
We understand high prevalence, low awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and higher prevalence of other traditional metabolic risk factors in these cases. It seems that urgent preventional studies should be conducted in this population.
Epidemiology; Awareness treatment and control; Hypertension; Urban Population
The current study aims to determine the relation between ankle–brachial index (ABI) and angiographic findings and major cardiovascular risk factors in patients with suspected coronary artery diseases (CAD) in Isfahan.
In this cross-sectional descriptive-analytic research, patients with suspected CAD were studied. Characteristics of studied subjects including demographics, familial history, past medical history and atherosclerotic risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and smoking were obtained using a standard questionnaire. ABI was measured in all studied patients. ABI≤0.9 (ABI+) was considered as peripheral vessel disease and ABI>0.9 (ABI-) was considered as normal. Then, all studied patients underwent coronary artery angiography. The results of the questionnaire and angiographic findings were compared in ABI+ and ABI- groups. Data were analyzed by SPSS 15 using ANOVA, t-test, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, and discriminant analysis.
In this study, 125 patients were investigated. ABI≤0.9 was seen in 25 patients (20%). The prevalence of ABI+ among men and women was 25.9% and 7.5%, respectively (P=0.01). The prevalence of atherosclerotic risk factors was significantly higher in ABI+ patients than in ABI- ones (P<0.05). ABI+ patients had more significant stenosis than ABI- ones. The mean of occlusion was significantly higher in ABI+ patients with left main artery (LMA), right coronary artery (RCA), left anterior descending artery (LAD), diagonal artery 1 (D1) and left circumflex artery (LCX) involvements (P<0.05).
The findings of this research indicated that ABI could be a useful method in assessing both the atherosclerotic risk factors and the degree of coronary involvements in suspected patients. However, in order to make more accurate decisions for using this method in diagnosing and preventing CAD, we should plan further studies in large sample sizes of general population.
Ankle–Brachial Index; Angiography; Atherosclerotic Risk Factors.
Background. Evidence-based guidelines should in most cases be followed also in the treatment of elderly. Older people are often suboptimally treated with the recommended drugs. Objectives. To describe how well general practitioners adhere to current guidelines in the treatment of elderly with cardiovascular disease and evaluate local education as a tool for improvement. Method. Data was collected from the medical records of patients aged ≥65, who visited a primary health care center in Sweden 2006 and had one or more of the following diagnoses: hypertension, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, chronic atrial fibrillation, or prior stroke. Local education was organized and included feed-back to the patient's doctor and discussion about regional guidelines. Repeated measurements were performed in 2008. Results and Conclusion. The adherence to guidelines was low. Approximately one-third of the patients with hypertension reached target blood pressure, stroke patients more often. More patients with heart failure were treated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor than in other European countries, but still only 60%. Half of the patients with chronic atrial fibrillation were treated with Warfarin, although more than two-thirds had a CHADS2 score indicating the need. Educational efforts appeared to increase the adherence and hence should be encouraged.
Reports suggest that hypertension and death due to hypertensive disease are commoner among black than among white people. One hundred and thirty-five black patients attending hypertension clinics at three English hospitals were compared with age-, sex-, and clinicmatched white patients. The black women had higher blood pressures and weighed more than the white women, but there were no differences between the men. The black patients had not increased risk from family, obstetric, or smoking history. Proteinuria and nocturia were more common in black patients while urinary infections were less common. Heart size and left ventricular voltage were greater in black patients. Haemoglobin and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were smaller and serum globulin concentration greater in black patients. No difference in response to treatment, attributable to race, was observed during the period of clinic attendance, which averaged 1.7 years. There was a slightly greater rate of default among black men during the first year of attendance.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of obesity and overweight on diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN) control in a healthy lifestyle intervention program in Iran.
Within the framework of the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP), a community trial that was conducted to prevent and control cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, two intervention counties (Isfahan and Najafabad) and one reference county (Arak) were selected. Demographic information, medical history, anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive medications use were asked by trained interviewers in addition to physical examination and laboratory tests for 12514 adults aged more than 19 years in 2001 and were repeated for 9572 adults in 2007.
In women, the frequency of HTN control change significantly neither in normal weight nor in those with high body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) or waist to hip ratio (WHR). In men, the frequency of HTN control was only significant among those with high WHR, whereas the interaction between changes in intervention compared to reference area from 2001 to 2007 was significant in men with normal or high WC or WHR. In intervention area, the number of women with high BMI who controlled their DM increased significantly from 2001 to 2007 (p = 0.008), however, this figure decreased in men. In reference area, obesity indices had no significant association with DM control. The percentage of diabetic subjects with high WC who controlled their DM decreased non-significantly in intervention area compared to reference area in 2007. A non-significant increase in controlled DM among men and women with high WHR was observed between intervention and reference areas.
Our lifestyle interventions did not show any improving effect on HTN or DM control among obese subjects based on different obesity indices. Other lifestyle intervention strategies are suggested.
Hypertension; Diabetes; Obesity; Control; Prevention; Iran
There is a lack of data in our society on the outcomes, complications, and prognostic factors in patients with coronary artery disease who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We evaluated the success rate, early and late outcomes, and prognostic factors in a referral university center in Isfahan, IRAN.
This prospective cohort study was conducted in Chamran University Hospital in Isfahan (IRAN) from March 2010 to February 2011. Patients consequently were included if they have the indication for emergent or elective PCI. Outcomes included procedural success, complications, and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) during hospitalization and 6 months follow-up.
A total of 282 patients (74.1% females) with mean age of 57.0±3.2 years were studied. Most of the patients (89.7%) underwent elective PCI. Angiographic and procedure success rates were 95.7% and 94.6%, respectively. In-hospital MACE included two cases of death (0.7%) and one MI (0.3%); 2/29 (6.9%) of the emergent PCI and 1/253 (0.4%) of the elective PCI cases. MACE during follow-up included three cases of death (1.0%) and two MI (0.7%); 2/252 (0.8%) of the elective PCI and 1/28 (3.5%) of the emergent PCI cases. The overall MACE was calculated as 8 cases (2.8%) which included 5/29 (17.2%) of the emergent and 3/253 (1.1%) of the elective cases; P<0.001. In multivariate analysis, none of the factors including gender, age, emergency of the procedure, lesion type, number of stenotic vessels, or stent type were associated with total MACE (P>0.05).
PCI is performed with an acceptable success rate in our center in Isfahan and mortality and complications are within the range reported by other highly specialized centers in IRAN. Further studies with larger sample size are needed to find predictive factors.
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention; Myocardial Infarction; Acute Coronary Syndrome; Reperfusion Therapy; Outcome; Mortality
Determining the risk factors in developing or increasing the relapses of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) may help health and preventive systems to launch new programs. Up to 90% of normal population changes to seropositive for BK virus by the age of 10 years. Whether this oncogenic virus is responsible for evolving ALL is unclear. In this study, we evaluated the excretion of urinary BK virus in newly diagnosed children with ALL compared with normal population.
This case–control study was carried out on 62 participants (32 ALL patients and 32 normal subjects), aged 1–18 years, in Saint Al-Zahra and Sayyed-Al-Shohada University Hospitals, Isfahan, Iran. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was used to detect the BK virus in specimens. PCR amplification was performed using specific primers of PEP-1 (5′-AGTCTTTAGGGTCTTCTACC-3′) and PEP-2 (5′-GGTGCCAACCTATGGAACAG-3′).
Thirty-five out of 62 participants (54.8%) were males and the remaining were females. The mean duration of disease was 9.6 ± 9.69 months. Central nervous system (CNS) relapse was seen in 29% of the patients. Positive PCR for urine BK virus was seen in three children with ALL (9.7%). No positive result for urine BKV was achieved in the control group. However, Fisher's exact test did not show any significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). In addition, there was no significant correlation between BKV positivity and frequency of relapses.
To demonstrate the role of BK virus in inducing ALL or increasing the number of relapses, prospective studies on larger scale of population and evaluating both serum and urine for BK virus are recommended.
BK virus; acute lymphoblastic leukemia; children