CCL5/RANTES is a key proinflammatory chemokine produced by virus-infected epithelial cells and present in respiratory secretions of asthmatics. To examine the role of CCL5 in viral lung disease, we measured its production during primary respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection and during secondary infection after sensitizing vaccination that induces Th2-mediated eosinophilia. A first peak of CCL5 mRNA and protein production was seen at 18 to 24 h of RSV infection, before significant lymphocyte recruitment occurred. Treatment in vivo with Met-RANTES (a competitive chemokine receptor blocker) throughout primary infection decreased CD4+ and CD8+ cell recruitment and increased viral replication. In RSV-infected, sensitized mice with eosinophilic disease, CCL5 production was further augmented; Met-RANTES treatment again reduced inflammatory cell recruitment and local cytokine production. A second wave of CCL5 production occurred on day 7, attributable to newly recruited T cells. Paradoxically, mice treated with Met-RANTES during primary infection demonstrated increased cellular infiltration during reinfection. We therefore show that RSV induces CCL5 production in the lung and this causes the recruitment of RSV-specific cells, including those making additional CCL5. If this action is blocked with Met-RANTES, inflammation decreases and viral clearance is delayed. However, the exact effects of chemokine modulation depend critically on time of administration, a factor that may potentially complicate the use of chemokine blockers in inflammatory diseases.
CD8 T cells assist in the clearance of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection from the lungs. However, disease after RSV infection is in part caused by excessive T cell activity, and a balance is therefore needed between beneficial and harmful cellular immune responses. The chemokine CCL3 (MIP1α) is produced following RSV infection and is broadly chemotactic for both T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. We therefore investigated its role in RSV disease.
CCL3 was produced biphasically, in both the early (day 1) and late (day 6–7) stages of infection. CCL3 depletion did not alter the recruitment of natural killer (NK) cells to the lungs during the early stage, but depletion did affect the later adaptive phase. While fewer T cells were recruited to the lungs of either CCL3 knockout or anti-CCL3 treated RSV infected mice, more RSV-specific pro-inflammatory T cells were recruited to the lung when CCL3 responses were impaired. This increase in RSV-specific pro-inflammatory T cells was accompanied by increased weight loss and illness after RSV infection.
CCL3 regulates the balance of T cell populations in the lung and can alter the outcome of RSV infection. Understanding the role of inflammatory mediators in the recruitment of pathogenic T cells to the lungs may lead to novel methods to control RSV disease.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major viral pathogen of infants that also reinfects adults. During RSV infection, inflammatory host cell recruitment to the lung plays a central role in determining disease outcome. Chemokines mediate cell recruitment to sites of inflammation and are influenced by, and influence, the production of cytokines. We therefore compared chemokine production in a mouse model of immunopathogenic RSV infection in which either Th1 or Th2 immunopathology is induced by prior sensitization to individual RSV proteins. Chemokine expression profiles were profoundly affected by the nature of the pulmonary immunopathology: “Th2” immunopathology in BALB/c mice was associated with increased and prolonged expression of CCL2 (MCP-1), CXCL10 (IP-10), and CCL11 (eotaxin) starting within 24 h of challenge. C57BL/6 mice with “Th2” pathology (enabled by a deficiency of CD8+ cells) also showed increased CCL2 production. No differences in chemokine receptor expression were detected. Chemokine blockers may therefore be of use for children with bronchiolitis.
CCL3 is a proinflammatory chemokine that mediates many of the cellular changes occurring in pulmonary disease. Here, CCL3−/− mice were used to investigate the role of this chemokine during respiratory herpesvirus infection. Compared to wild-type mice, CCL3−/− mice infected with the alphaherpesvirus equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) displayed reduced body weight loss but had higher pulmonary viral loads. Lungs from infected CCL3−/− mice suffered a milder interstitial pneumonia, and fewer immune cells were recovered from the pulmonary airways after infection. We could also demonstrate that herpesvirus-encoded chemokine-binding glycoprotein G (gG) was capable of inhibiting the chemotactic functions of CCL3. This CCL3-mediated chemotaxis, however, was restored in the presence of gG-specific antibodies, which puts into question the advertised use of gG deletion mutants as marker vaccines. In summary, we concluded that CCL3 is a major player in controlling herpesvirus replication in the target organ, the lung, and does so by evoking a strong inflammatory response. The immunomodulatory activity of CCL3 is balanced by the expression of viral gG, whose chemokine-binding activity is mitigated in secondary infections by the production of anti-gG antibodies.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection in young infants worldwide. Previous studies have reported that the induction of interleukin-8/CXCL8 and RANTES/CCL5 correlates with disease severity in humans. The production of these chemokines is elicited by viral replication and is NF-κB dependent. RSV, a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus, requires full-length positive-sense RNA for synthesis of new viral RNA. The aim of our studies was to investigate whether active viral replication by RSV could evoke chemokine production through TLR3-mediated signaling pathways. In TLR3-transfected HEK 293 cells, live RSV preferentially activated chemokines in both a time- and dose-dependent manner compared to vector controls. RSV was also shown to upregulate TLR3 in human lung fibroblasts and epithelial cells (MRC-5 and A549). Targeting the expression of TLR3 with small interfering RNA decreased synthesis of IP-10/CXCL10 and CCL5 but did not significantly reduce levels of CXCL8. Blocking the expression of the adapter protein MyD88 established a role for MyD88 in CXCL8 production, whereas CCL5 synthesis was found to be MyD88 independent. Production of CCL5 by RSV was induced directly through TLR3 signaling pathways and did not require interferon (IFN) signaling through the IFN-α/β receptor. TLR3 did not affect viral replication, since equivalent viral loads were recovered from RSV-infected cells despite altered TLR3 expression. Taken together, our studies indicate that TLR3 mediates inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in RSV-infected epithelial cells.
It is widely assumed that apoptosis of eosinophils is a central component of resolution of allergic airway disease. However, this has not been demonstrated in human allergic airways in vivo. Based on animal in vivo observations we hypothesised that steroid-induced resolution of human airway eosinophilic inflammation involves inhibition of CCL5 (RANTES), a CC-chemokine regulating eosinophil and lymphocyte traffic, and elimination of eosinophils without evident occurrence of apoptotic eosinophils in the diseased tissue.
To determine mucosal eosinophilia, apoptotic eosinophils, general cell apoptosis and cell proliferation, and expression of CCL5 and CCL11 (eotaxin) in human allergic airway tissues in vivo at resolution of established symptomatic eosinophilic inflammation.
Twenty-one patients with intermittent (birch and/or grass) allergic rhinitis received daily nasal allergen challenges for two seven days' periods separated by more than two weeks washout. Five days into these "artificial pollen seasons", nasal treatment with budesonide was instituted and continued for six days in a double blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, and crossover design. This report is a parallel group comparison of nasal biopsy histochemistry data obtained on the final day of the second treatment period.
Treatments were instituted when clinical rhinitis symptoms had been established. Compared to placebo, budesonide reduced tissue eosinophilia, and subepithelial more than epithelial eosinophilia. Steroid treatment also attenuated tissue expression of CCL5, but CCL11 was not reduced. General tissue cell apoptosis and epithelial cell proliferation were reduced by budesonide. However, apoptotic eosinophils were not detected in any biopsies, irrespective of treatment.
Inhibition of CCL5-dependent recruitment of cells to diseased airway tissue, and reduced cell proliferation, reduced general cell apoptosis, but not increased eosinophil apoptosis, are involved in early phase steroid-induced resolution of human allergic rhinitis.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of acute bronchiolitis in infancy, a syndrome characterized by wheezing, respiratory distress, and the pathologic findings of peribronchial mononuclear cell infiltration and release of inflammatory mediators by basophil and eosinophil leukocytes. Composition and activation of this cellular response are thought to rely on the discrete target cell selectivity of C-C chemokines. We demonstrate that infection in vitro of human epithelial cells of the lower respiratory tract by RSV induced dose- and time-dependent increases in mRNA and protein secretion for RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and presumably secreted), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α). Production of MCP-1 and MIP-1α was selectively localized only in epithelial cells of the small airways and lung. Exposure of epithelial cells to gamma interferon (IFN-γ), in combination with RSV infection, induced a significant increase in RANTES production that was synergistic with respect to that obtained by RSV infection or IFN-γ treatment alone. Epithelial cell-derived chemokines exhibited a strong chemotactic activity for normal human blood eosinophils. Furthermore, eosinophils were susceptible to RSV and released RANTES and MIP-1α as a result of infection. Therefore, the inflammatory process in RSV-induced bronchiolitis appears to be triggered by the infection of epithelial cells and further amplified via mechanisms driven by IFN-γ and by the secretion of eosinophil chemokines.
Human rhinovirus is responsible for the majority of virus-induced asthma exacerbations. To determine the immunologic mechanisms underlying rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations, we combined mouse models of allergic airways disease and human rhinovirus infection. We inoculated ovalbumin-sensitized and challenged BALB/c mice with rhinovirus serotype 1B, a minor group strain capable of infecting mouse cells. Compared to sham-infected, ovalbumin-treated mice, virus-infected mice showed increased lung infiltration with neutrophils, eosinophils and macrophages, airway cholinergic hyperresponsiveness, and increased lung expression of cytokines including eotaxin-1/CCL11, IL-4, IL-13 and IFN-γ. Administration of anti-eotaxin-1 attenuated rhinovirus-induced airway eosinophilia and responsiveness. Immunohistochemistry showed eotaxin-1 in the lung macrophages of virus-infected, ovalbumin-treated mice, and confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed co-localization of rhinovirus, eotaxin-1 and IL-4 in CD68-positive cells. RV inoculation of lung macrophages from ovalbumin-treated, but not PBS-treated, mice induced expression of eotaxin-1, IL-4, and IL-13 ex vivo. Macrophages from ovalbumin-treated mice showed increased expression of arginase-1, Ym-1, Mgl-2 and IL-10, indicating a shift in macrophage activation status. Depletion of macrophages from ovalbumin-sensitized and -challenged mice reduced eosinophilic inflammation and airway hyperreactivity following RV infection. We conclude that augmented airway eosinophilic inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in RV-infected mice with allergic airways disease is directed in part by eotaxin-1. Airway macrophages from mice with allergic airways disease demonstrate a change in activation state characterized in part by altered eotaxin and IL-4 production in response to RV infection. These data provide a new paradigm to explain RV-induced asthma exacerbations.
Previous studies established that IL-5–producing CD4+ T cells play a pivotal role in allergic respiratory inflammation. It was also reported that CD4+ T cells express higher levels of CD44 in the airway than in peripheral blood of patients with allergic respiratory diseases. We have used experimental pulmonary eosinophilia induced in mice by Ascaris suum (Asc) extract to investigate the role of CD44 in the development of allergic respiratory inflammation. Intraperitoneal administration of anti-CD44 mAb prevented both lymphocyte and eosinophil accumulation in the lung. Anti-CD44 mAb also blocked antigen-induced elevation of Th2 cytokines as well as chemokines (CCL11, CCL17) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Treatment with anti-CD44 mAb inhibited the increased levels of hyaluronic acid (HA) and leukotriene concentrations in BALF that typically result from antigen challenge. Anti-CD44 mAb also blocked antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. An anti-CD44 mAb (IM7) inhibited the HA-binding ability of splenocytes associated with decreased levels of CD44. Soluble CD44 levels in serum were increased in Asc-challenged IM7–treated mice, but not in KM201-treated mice, compared with Asc-challenged rat IgG–treated mice. Ab’s that block CD44-HA binding reduced allergic respiratory inflammation by preventing lymphocyte and eosinophil accumulation in the lung. Thus, CD44 may be critical for development of allergic respiratory inflammation.
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a clinico-pathological defined esophageal disorder that is characterized by eosinophil migration into esophageal tissues. There is growing support for EE being an allergic disease and for a contribution of Th2-associated cytokines in disease pathogenesis. The respiratory system has been shown to be critical in driving the development of EE in animal models. However, the mechanisms underlying the recruitment of eosinophils into the esophagus remain unclear.
We sought to investigate the influence of Th2-associated cytokines on the production of eosinophil-specific chemokines from the esophagus directly.
In order to eliminate the potential involvement of the lung, we utilized isolated esophageal rings. These were treated in vitro with IL-4 or IL-13 and the expression and production of CCL11 and CCL24 determined.
Our data demonstrates that IL-13 is a potent and direct inducer of both CCL11 and CCL24 production from the esophagus, as is IL-4 also. The expression of CCL11 precedes CCL24 by several hours but is then diminished over time, as well as at high concentrations of IL-13. We demonstrate that there is an up-regulation of the inhibitory IL-13 receptor, IL-13Rα2 but that IL-13Rα1 remains unaltered. Esophagus rings isolated from STAT6-/- mice were unable to produce CCL11 or CCL24 upon IL-13 treatment. Lastly, we demonstrate that esophageal production of CCL11 and CCL24 upon IL-13 stimulation is sufficient to promote eosinophil migration.
IL-13 is capable of directly stimulating esophageal tissue to produce eosinophil-attracting chemokines and drive eosinophil migration.
Esophagus; eosinophil; IL-13; chemokine; eotaxin; STAT6; esophagitis
Viral bronchiolitis is the most common cause of hospitalization in infants under 6 months of age, and 70% of all cases of bronchiolitis are caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Early RSV infection is associated with respiratory problems such as asthma and wheezing later in life. RSV infection is usually spread by contaminated secretions and infects the upper then lower respiratory tracts. Infected cells release proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including IL-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, and IL-8. These activate other cells and recruit inflammatory cells, including macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, and T lymphocytes, into the airway wall and surrounding tissues. The pattern of cytokine production by T lymphocytes can be biased toward 'T-helper-1' or 'T-helper-2' cytokines, depending on the local immunologic environment, infection history, and host genetics. T-helper-1 responses are generally efficient in antiviral defense, but young infants have an inherent bias toward T-helper-2 responses. The ideal intervention for RSV infection would be preventive, but the options are currently limited. Vaccines based on protein subunits, live attenuated strains of RSV, DNA vaccines, and synthetic peptides are being developed; passive antibody therapy is at present impractical in otherwise healthy children. Effective vaccines for use in neonates continue to be elusive but simply delaying infection beyond the first 6 months of life might reduce the delayed morbidity associated with infantile disease.
antiviral agents; asthma; bronchiolitis; respiratory syncytial virus
Host defenses, while effecting viral clearance, contribute substantially to inflammation and disease. This double action is a substantial obstacle to the development of safe and effective vaccines against many agents, particularly respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). RSV is a common cold virus and the major cause of infantile bronchiolitis worldwide. The role of αβ T cells in RSV-driven immunopathology is well studied, but little is known about the role of “unconventional” T cells. During primary RSV challenge of BALB/c mice, some Vγ7+ γδ T cells were present; however, immunization with a live vaccinia vector expressing RSV F protein substantially enhanced Vγ4+ γδ T cell influx after RSV infection. Harvested early, these cells produced IFN-γ, TNF, and RANTES after ex vivo stimulation. By contrast, those recruited 5 days after challenge made IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10. Depletion of γδ T cells in vivo reduced lung inflammation and disease severity and slightly increased peak viral replication but did not prevent viral clearance. These studies demonstrate a novel role for γδ T cells in the development of immunopathology and cellular influx into the lungs after immunization and RSV challenge. Though a minor population, γδ T cells have a critical influence on disease and are an attractive interventional target in the alleviation of viral lung disease.
We have documented that exposure of rhesus monkeys to house dust mite aeroallergen during postnatal development resulted in significant recruitment of eosinophils into the airway mucosa (Clin Exp Allergy 33:1686–1694, 2003). Because eosinophils were not uniformly distributed throughout the five conducting airway generations examined, we speculated that trafficking within anatomic microenvironments of the lung is mediated by differential chemokine expression. To address this question, we used quantitative real-time RT-PCR to evaluate the related eosinophilic chemokines, eotaxin (CCL11), eotaxin-2 (CCL24), and eotaxin-3 (CCL26) within isolated airways of infant monkey lung. Overall, chemokine mRNA expression levels in house dust mite–exposed airways were as follows: eotaxin-3 > eotaxin > eotaxin-2. Immunofluorescence staining for eotaxin-3 and CC chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) showed positive cells within epithelium and peripherally located nerve fiber bundles of the airway wall. Epithelial volume of eotaxin-3 within the trachea correlated with epithelial volume of major basic protein. CCR3+ and MHC Class II+ dendritic cells, but not eosinophils or mast cells, co-localized within eotaxin-3+ nerve fiber bundles. We conclude that localized expression of eotaxin-3 plays an important role in the recruitment of diverse CCR3+ cell populations to different anatomic microenvironments within the infant airway in response to chronic allergen exposure.
lung; development; chemokine; eosinophil
Respiratory viral infections are the leading cause of acute illness during infancy and are closely linked to chronic inflammatory airway diseases later in life. However, the determinants of susceptibility to acute respiratory infections still need to be defined.
We investigated whether the individual variation in the antiviral response at birth determines the risk for acute respiratory illness in the first year of life.
We studied 82 children who were enrolled in a birth cohort study of inner-city children with at least one parent with allergy or asthma. We cultured cord blood monocytes and assessed interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and C-C chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5) mRNA production at 24 hours after inoculation with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We also monitored the frequency of acute respiratory illness at 3-month intervals and analyzed nasal lavage samples for respiratory viruses at the time of illness during the first year..
Respiratory infection was reported for 88% of subjects, and respiratory viruses were recovered in 74% of symptomatic children. We observed a wide range of antiviral responses in cord blood monocytes across the population. Furthermore, a decrease in production of IFN-γ (but not CCL5) mRNA in response to RSV infection of monocytes was associated with a significant increase in the frequency of upper respiratory tract infections (r = -0.42, p<0.001) and prevalence of ear and, sinus infections, pneumonias and respiratory hospitalizations.
Individual variations in the innate immune response to respiratory viruses are detectable even at birth, and these differences predict the susceptibility to acute respiratory illness during the first year of life.
Individual variations in the immune response to respiratory viruses are detectable at birth, and these differences predict the susceptibility to acute respiratory illness during first year of life.
respiratory virus infection; cord blood monocytes; infants; asthma; allergic disease
The underlying inflammation present in chronic airway diseases is orchestrated by increased expression of CC chemokines that selectively recruit leukocyte populations into the pulmonary system. Human CCL26 signals through CC chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3), is dramatically upregulated in challenged asthmatics, and stimulates recruitment of eosinophils (EOSs) and other leukocytes. CCL26 participates in regulation of its receptor CCR3 and modulates expression of a variety of chemokines in alveolar type II cells. Utilizing the A549 alveolar type II epithelial cell culture model, we carried out studies to test the hypothesis that CCL26-siRNA treatment of these cells would ameliorate Th2-driven release of the eotaxins and other CCR3 ligands that would, in turn, decrease recruitment and activation of EOSs. Results demonstrate that CCL26-siRNA treatments decreased interleukin-4-induced CCL26 and CCL24 expression by >70%. CCL26-directed small-interfering RNA (siRNA) treatments significantly decreased release of CCL5 (RANTES), CCL15 (MIP-1δ), CCL8 (MCP-2), and CCL13 (MCP-4). In bioactivity assays it was shown that EOS migration and activation were reduced up to 80% and 90%, respectively, when exposed to supernatants of CCL26-siRNA-treated cells. These results provide evidence that CCL26 may be an appropriate target for development of new therapeutic agents designed to alleviate the underlying inflammation associated with chronic diseases of the airways.
Eosinophils have been implicated as playing a major role in allergic airway responses. However, the importance of these cells to the development of this disease has remained ambiguous despite many studies, partly because of lack of appropriate model systems. In this study, using transgenic murine models, we more clearly delineate a role for eosinophils in asthma. We report that, in contrast to results obtained on a BALB/c background, eosinophil-deficient C57BL/6 ΔdblGATA mice (eosinophil-null mice via the ΔDblGATA1 mutation) have reduced airway hyperresponsiveness, and cytokine production of interleukin (IL)-4, -5, and -13 in ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation. This was caused by reduced T cell recruitment into the lung, as these mouse lungs had reduced expression of CCL7/MCP-3, CC11/eotaxin-1, and CCL24/eotaxin-2. Transferring eosinophils into these eosinophil-deficient mice and, more importantly, delivery of CCL11/eotaxin-1 into the lung during the development of this disease rescued lung T cell infiltration and airway inflammation when delivered together with allergen. These studies indicate that on the C57BL/6 background, eosinophils are integral to the development of airway allergic responses by modulating chemokine and/or cytokine production in the lung, leading to T cell recruitment.
Acute viral bronchiolitis is one of the most common causes of hospitalisation during infancy in our region with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) historically being the major causative agent. Many infants with early-life RSV bronchiolitis have sustained bronchial hyperreactivity for many years after hospitalisation and the reasons for this are probably multifactorial. The principal aim of the present study was to investigate if children hospitalised for any acute viral bronchiolitis during infancy in our region, and not only those due to RSV, had more episodes of subsequent wheezing up to age seven years and reduced lung function at that age compared to children not hospitalised for acute bronchiolitis during infancy. A secondary aim was to compare the hospitalised infants with proven RSV bronchiolitis (RS+) to the hospitalised infants with non-RSV bronchiolitis (RS-) according to the same endpoints.
57 infants hospitalised at least once with acute viral bronchiolitis during two consecutive winter seasons in 1993–1994 were examined at age seven years. An age-matched control group of 64 children, who had not been hospitalised for acute viral bronchiolitis during infancy, were recruited from a local primary school. Epidemiological and clinical data were collected retrospectively from hospital discharge records and through structured clinical interviews and physical examinations at the follow-up visit.
The children hospitalised for bronchiolitis during infancy had decreased lung function, more often wheezing episodes, current medication and follow-up for asthma at age seven years than did the age matched controls. They also had lower average birth weight and more often first order family members with asthma. We did not find significant differences between the RSV+ and RSV- groups.
Children hospitalised for early-life bronchiolitis are susceptible to recurrent wheezing and reduced pulmonary function by seven years compared to age-matched children not hospitalised for early-life bronchiolitis. We propose that prolonged bronchial hyperreactivity could follow early-life RSV negative as well as RSV positive bronchiolitis.
Infants experiencing severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis have an increased frequency of wheeze and asthma in later childhood. Since most severe RSV infections occur between the 8th and 24th postnatal week, we examined whether age at first infection determines the balance of cytokine production and lung pathology during subsequent rechallenge. Primary RSV infection in newborn mice followed the same viral kinetics as in adults but was associated with reduced and delayed IFN-γ responses. To study rechallenge, mice were infected at 1 day or 1, 4, or 8 weeks of age and reinfected at 12 weeks. Neonatal priming produced more severe weight loss and increased inflammatory cell recruitment (including T helper 2 cells and eosinophils) during reinfection, whereas delayed priming led to enhanced interferon γ production and less severe disease during reinfection. These results show the crucial importance of age at first infection in determining the outcome of reinfection and suggest that the environment of the neonatal lung is a major determinant of cytokine production and disease patterns in later life. Thus, simply delaying RSV infection beyond infancy might reduce subsequent respiratory morbidity in later childhood.
bronchiolitis; asthma; immunity; pneumovirinae; virus
The attachment (G) protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is synthesized as two mature forms: a membrane-anchored form and a smaller secreted form. BALB/c mice scarified with vaccinia virus (VV) expressing the secreted form develop a greater pulmonary eosinophilic influx following RSV challenge than do mice scarified with VV expressing the membrane-anchored form. To determine if a soluble form of an RSV protein was sufficient to induce eosinophilia following RSV challenge, a cDNA that encoded a secreted form of the fusion (F) protein of RSV was constructed and expressed in VV (VV-Ftm−). Splenocytes and lung lymphocytes from mice primed with VV-Ftm− produced significantly more of the Th2 cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-5 than did mice vaccinated with VV expressing either the native (membrane-anchored) form of the F protein or the G protein. Although mice scarified with VV-Ftm− developed a slight increase in the number of pulmonary eosinophils following RSV infection, the increase was not as great as that seen in VV-G-primed mice. Despite the increased IL-4 and IL-5 production and in contrast to mice primed with VV-G, mice primed with VV-Ftm− developed RSV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and maintained high levels of gamma interferon production. These data demonstrate that recombinant VV strains expressing soluble forms of RSV proteins induce immune responses that are more Th2-like. However, this change alone does not appear sufficient to induce vaccine-augmented disease in the face of active CD8+ CTL populations.
Chemokine CCL24 is the second member of eotaxins, a group of eosinophils’ selectively chemoattractants. Via binding to its only receptor CCR3, CCL24 mainly mediates atopic disorders, parasitic infections and systemic diseases. It is well-known that CCR3 is expressed at the maternal-fetal interface; nevertheless whether CCL24 is located there and which role CCL24/CCR3 axis played is unclear. In this article, we assessed the expression of CCL24 and CCR3 in decidual stromal cells (DSCs) and trophoblasts, investigated the effects of DSCs-trophoblasts contact and pregnancy-associated hormones on the expression of CCR3 by DSCs, and last examined the role of trophoblasts-derived CCL24 on the proliferation, cell numbers and apoptosis of DSCs in vitro. We found that trophoblasts secrete chemokine CCL24, whereas DSCs express receptor CCR3. DSCs and trophoblasts co-culture had an raised level of CCL24 in culture supernatants, and the expression of CCR3 on DSCs was also obviously improved. Estrogen, progesterone and hCG up-regulated the expression of CCR3 on DSCs at appropriate concentration. CCL24 increased the proliferation and apoptosis of DSCs, whereas on the whole it promoted the number of DSCs. Thus, we conclude that by secreting CCL24 trophoblasts could promote the growth of DSCs; pregnancy associated environments such as DSCs-trophoblasts contact and hormones increased local CCL24/CCR3, which means a beneficial factor for the process of decidualization in human early pregnancy.
CCL24; CCR3; DSCs; maternal-fetal interface; trophoblasts
The effect of infection history is ignored in most animal models of infectious disease. The attachment protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) induces T helper cell type 2–driven pulmonary eosinophilia in mice similar to that seen in the failed infant vaccinations in the 1960s. We show that previous influenza virus infection of mice: (a) protects against weight loss, illness, and lung eosinophilia; (b) attenuates recruitment of inflammatory cells; and (c) reduces cytokine secretion caused by RSV attachment protein without affecting RSV clearance. This protective effect can be transferred via influenza-immune splenocytes to naive mice and is long lived. Previous immunity to lung infection clearly plays an important and underestimated role in subsequent vaccination and infection. The data have important implications for the timing of vaccinations in certain patient groups, and may contribute to variability in disease susceptibility observed in humans.
viral immunology; murine model; eosinophils; major histocompatibility complex tetramers; mucosal immunology
Clinical studies have demonstrated a link between the eosinophil-selective chemokines, eotaxins (eotaxin-1/CCL11 and eotaxin-2/CCL24), eosinophils, and the inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the cellular source and individual contribution of the eotaxins to colonic eosinophilic accumulation in inflammatory bowel diseases remain unclear. In this study we demonstrate, by gene array and quantitative PCR, elevated levels of eotaxin-1 mRNA in the rectosigmoid colon of pediatric UC patients. We show that elevated levels of eotaxin-1 mRNA positively correlated with rectosigmoid eosinophil numbers. Further, colonic eosinophils appeared to be degranulating, and the levels positively correlated with disease severity. Using the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced intestinal epithelial injury model, we show that DSS treatment of mice strongly induced colonic eotaxin-1 and eotaxin-2 expression and eosinophil levels. Analysis of eosinophil-deficient mice defined an effector role for eosinophils in disease pathology. DSS treatment of eotaxin-2−/− and eotaxin-1/2−/− mice demonstrated that eosinophil recruitment was dependent on eotaxin-1. In situ and immunofluorescence analysis-identified eotaxin-1 expression was restricted to intestinal F4/80+CD11b+ macrophages in DSS-induced epithelial injury and to CD68+ intestinal macrophages and the basolateral compartment of intestinal epithelial cells in pediatric UC. These data demonstrate that intestinal macrophage and epithelial cell-derived eotaxin-1 plays a critical role in the regulation of eosinophil recruitment in colonic eosinophilic disease such as pediatric UC and provides a basis for targeting the eosinophil/eotaxin-1 axis in UC.
A role for interleukin-21 (IL-21) has recently been found in several diseases, but contribution to mucosal defences has not been described. In BALB/c mice infected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), IL-21 depletion had little effect in primary infection. However, depletion of mice during priming with recombinant vaccinia expressing RSV G protein (which primes RSV-specific T helper type 2 cells and causes lung eosinophilia during RSV infection) further exacerbated pathology during RSV challenge, with reduced viral clearance and impaired virus-specific serum antibody responses. This enhancement was accompanied by lymphocyte, neutrophil, and antigen-presenting cell recruitment to the lungs, with increased bronchoalveolar lavage interferon-γ and IL-17 levels. Adoptive transfer of splenic CD4 T cells from depleted mice into naive recipients replicated these effects, indicating that IL-21 mediates its effects via CD4 T cells. Endogenous IL-21, therefore, has potent and specific effects on mucosal antiviral responses, assisting viral clearance, regulating pulmonary T- and B-cell responses, and inhibiting IL-17 production.
Each year, approximately 20% of asthmatics in the United States experience acute symptom exacerbations, which commonly result from pulmonary viral infections. The majority of asthma exacerbations in very young children follow infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). However, pathogenic mechanisms underlying induction of asthma exacerbations by RSV are not well understood. We therefore investigated the effect of post-sensitization RSV infection on lung function in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized BALB/c mice as a model of RSV asthma exacerbations. OVA sensitization of uninfected female BALB/c mice increased bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) eosinophil levels and induced airway hyperresponsiveness to the muscarinic agonist methacholine, as measured by the forced-oscillation technique. In contrast, intranasal infection with replication-competent RSV strain A2 for 2–8 days reduced BALF eosinophil counts and reversed airway hyperresponsiveness in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner. BALF levels of the chemokine keratinocyte cytokine (KC; a murine homolog of interleukin-8) were elevated in OVA-sensitized, RSV-infected mice and reversal of methacholine hyperresponsiveness in these animals was rapidly inhibited by KC neutralization. Hyporesponsiveness could be induced in OVA-sensitized, uninfected mice by recombinant KC or the Gαi agonist melittin. These data suggest that respiratory syncytial virus induces KC-mediated activation of Gαi, resulting in cross-inhibition of Gαq-mediated M3-muscarinic receptor signaling and reversal of airway hyperresponsiveness. As in unsensitized mice, KC therefore appears to play a significant role in induction of airway dysfunction by respiratory syncytial virus. Hence, interleukin-8 may be a promising therapeutic target to normalize lung function in both asthmatics and non-asthmatics with bronchiolitis. However, the OVA-sensitized, RSV-infected mouse may not be an appropriate model for investigating the pathogenesis of viral asthma exacerbations.
Eosinophil accumulation is a distinctive feature of lung allergic inflammation. Here, we have used a mouse model of OVA (ovalbumin)-induced pulmonary eosinophilia to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms for this selective recruitment of eosinophils to the airways. In this model there was an early accumulation of infiltrating monocytes/macrophages in the lung during the OVA treatment, whereas the increase in infiltrating T-lymphocytes paralleled the accumulation of eosinophils. The kinetics of accumulation of these three leukocyte subtypes correlated with the levels of mRNA expression of the chemokines monocyte chemotactic peptide-1/JE, eotaxin, and RANTES (regulated upon activation in normal T cells expressed and secreted), suggesting their involvement in the recruitment of these leukocytes. Furthermore, blockade of eotaxin with specific antibodies in vivo reduced the accumulation of eosinophils in the lung in response to OVA by half. Mature CD4+ T-lymphocytes were absolutely required for OVA-induced eosinophil accumulation since lung eosinophilia was prevented in CD4+-deficient mice. However, these cells were neither the main producers of the major eosinophilic chemokines eotaxin, RANTES, or MIP-1alpha, nor did they regulate the expression of these chemokines. Rather, the presence of CD4+ T cells was necessary for enhancement of VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) expression in the lung during allergic inflammation induced by the OVA treatment. In support of this, mice genetically deficient for VCAM-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 failed to develop pulmonary eosinophilia. Selective eosinophilic recruitment during lung allergic inflammation results from a sequential accumulation of certain leukocyte types, particularly T cells, and relies on the presence of both eosinophilic chemoattractants and adhesion receptors.