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1.  Antibody to Aquaporin 4 in the Diagnosis of Neuromyelitis Optica 
PLoS Medicine  2007;4(4):e133.
Background
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) of putative autoimmune aetiology. Early discrimination between multiple sclerosis (MS) and NMO is important, as optimum treatment for both diseases may differ considerably. Recently, using indirect immunofluorescence analysis, a new serum autoantibody (NMO-IgG) has been detected in NMO patients. The binding sites of this autoantibody were reported to colocalize with aquaporin 4 (AQP4) water channels. Thus we hypothesized that AQP4 antibodies in fact characterize NMO patients.
Methods and Findings
Based on these observations we cloned human water channel AQP4, expressed the protein in a eukaryotic transcription/translation system, and employed the recombinant AQP4 to establish a new radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA). Indeed, application of this RIPA showed that antibodies against AQP4 exist in the majority of patients with NMO (n = 37; 21 positive) as well as in patients with isolated longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (n = 6; six positive), corresponding to a sensitivity of 62.8% and a specificity of 98.3%. By contrast, AQP4 antibodies were virtually absent in 291 other participants, which included patients with MS (n = 144; four positive), patients with other inflammatory and noninflammatory neurological diseases (n = 73; one positive), patients with systemic autoimmune diseases (n = 45; 0 positive), and healthy participants (n = 29; 0 positive).
Conclusions
In the largest series reported so far to our knowledge, we quantified AQP4 antibodies in patients with NMO versus various other diseases, and showed that the aquaporin 4 water channel is a target antigen in a majority of patients with NMO. The newly developed assay represents a highly specific, observer-independent, and easily reproducible detection method facilitating clinically relevant discrimination between NMO, MS, and other inflammatory diseases.
A newly developed method to detect antibodies to the aquaporin 4 water channel can help discriminate between neuromyelitis optica, multiple sclerosis, and other inflammatory diseases.
Editors' Summary
Background.
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO or Devic syndrome) is a rare disease in which the immune system destroys the myelin (fatty material that insulates nerve fibers so that the body and the brain can communicate using electrical messages) in the optic nerve and spinal cord. Myelin destruction (demyelination) in these parts of the central nervous system (CNS) causes pain and swelling (inflammation) of the optic nerve (optic neuritis) and spinal cord (myelitis). The resultant disruption of communication along these nerves means that patients with NMO experience temporary or permanent blindness in one or both eyes that is preceded or followed by limb weakness or paralysis and loss of bladder and bowel control. These two sets of symptoms can occur many months apart and may happen once during a person's lifetime or recur at intervals. There is no cure for NMO, but corticosteroids or plasmapheresis reduce inflammation during acute attacks and, because NMO is an autoimmune disease (one in which the immune system attacks the body's own tissues instead of foreign organisms), long-term immunosuppression may prevent further attacks.
Why Was This Study Done?
There are many inflammatory/demyelinating diseases of the CNS with clinical symptoms similar to those of NMO. It is particularly hard to distinguish between NMO and multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune disease that involves widespread demyelination. Neurologists need to make a correct diagnosis before starting any treatment and usually use clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (to detect sites of inflammation) to help them in this task. Recently, however, a biomarker for NMO was identified. Many patients with NMO make autoantibodies (proteins that recognize a component of a person's own tissues) called NMO-IgGs. These recognize aquaporin 4 (AQP4), a protein that allows water to move through cell membranes. It is not known how often patients with NMO or other demyelinating diseases make antibodies to AQP4, so it is unclear whether testing for these antibodies would help in the diagnosis of NMO. In this study, the researchers have developed a new assay for antibodies to AQP4 and then quantified the antibodies in patients with NMO and other demyelinating diseases.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers made radioactively labeled AQP4 in a test tube, then incubated samples of this with serum (the liquid portion of blood), added small beads coated with protein A (a bacterial protein that binds to antibodies) and allowed the beads to settle. The amount of radioactivity attached to the beads indicates the amount of antibody to AQP4 in the original serum. The researchers used this radioimmunoprecipitation assay to measure antibodies to AQP4 in sera from 37 patients with NMO and from six with another neurological condition, longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM), which is characterized by large demyelinated lesions across the width of the spinal cord but no optic neuritis; these patients often develop NMO. They also measured antibodies to AQP4 in the sera of nearly 300 other people including patients with multiple sclerosis, other neurological conditions, various autoimmune diseases, and healthy individuals. Nearly two-thirds of the patients with NMO and all those with LETM made antibodies against AQP4; very few of the other study participants made these antibodies. In particular, only four of the 144 patients with multiple sclerosis made AQP4 antibodies.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings indicate that testing for antibodies to AQP4 could help neurologists distinguish between NMO and multiple sclerosis and between NMO and other demyelinating diseases of the CNS. In addition, the new radioimmunoprecipitation assay provides a standardized, high-throughput way to quantitatively test for these antibodies, whereas the indirect immune fluorescence assay for measurement of unspecific NMO-IgG is observer-dependent and nonquantitative. Although these findings need to be confirmed in more patients and the assay's reliability demonstrated in different settings, the measurement of antibodies to AQP4 by radioimmunoprecipitation may become a standard part of the differential diagnosis of NMO. Additional research will determine whether AQP4 is the only protein targeted by autoantibodies in NMO and whether this targeting is a critical part of the disease process.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0040133.
US National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke has information for patients who have neuromyelitis optica, transverse myelitis, and multiple sclerosis
The Transverse Myelitis Association offers information and useful links for patients and their carers about transverse myelitis and neuromyelitis optica (in several languages, including English and Spanish)
Mayo Clinic information for patients on Devic's syndrome
Medline Plus encyclopedia pages discuss autoimmune disorders (in English and Spanish)
A brief overview of aquaporins is available from the University of Miami
The American MS Society has information on MS
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040133
PMCID: PMC1852124  PMID: 17439296
2.  Patterns of Antibody Binding to Aquaporin-4 Isoforms in Neuromyelitis Optica 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(5):e10455.
Background
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a severe demyelinating disease, represents itself with optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. Serum NMO-IgG autoantibodies (Abs), a specific finding in NMO patients, target the water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4), which is expressed as a long (M-1) or a short (M-23) isoform.
Methodology/Principal Findings
The aim of this study was to analyze serum samples from patients with NMO and controls for the presence and epitope specificity of IgG and IgM anti-AQP4 Abs using an immunofluorescence assay with HEK293 cells expressing M-1 or M-23 human AQP4. We included 56 patients with definite NMO (n = 30) and high risk NMO (n = 26), 101 patients with multiple sclerosis, 27 patients with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS), 30 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or Sjögren's syndrome, 29 patients with other neurological diseases and 47 healthy controls. Serum anti-AQP4 M-23 IgG Abs were specifically detected in 29 NMO patients, 17 patients with high risk NMO and two patients with myelitis due to demyelination (CIS) and SLE. In contrast, IgM anti-AQP4 Abs were not only found in some NMO and high risk patients, but also in controls. The sensitivity of the M-23 AQP4 IgG assay was 97% for NMO and 65% for high risk NMO, with a specificity of 100% compared to the controls. Sensitivity with M-1 AQP4 transfected cells was lower for NMO (70%) and high risk NMO (39%). The conformational epitopes of M-23 AQP4 are the primary targets of NMO-IgG Abs, whereas M-1 AQP4 Abs are developed with increasing disease duration and number of relapses.
Conclusions
Our results confirm M-23 AQP4-IgG Abs as reliable biomarkers in patients with NMO and high risk syndromes. M-1 and M-23 AQP4-IgG Abs are significantly associated with a higher number of relapses and longer disease duration.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010455
PMCID: PMC2864757  PMID: 20463974
3.  Complement activating antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in neuromyelitis optica and related disorders 
Background
Serum autoantibodies against the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) are important diagnostic biomarkers and pathogenic factors for neuromyelitis optica (NMO). However, AQP4-IgG are absent in 5-40% of all NMO patients and the target of the autoimmune response in these patients is unknown. Since recent studies indicate that autoimmune responses to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) can induce an NMO-like disease in experimental animal models, we speculate that MOG might be an autoantigen in AQP4-IgG seronegative NMO. Although high-titer autoantibodies to human native MOG were mainly detected in a subgroup of pediatric acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, their role in NMO and High-risk NMO (HR-NMO; recurrent optic neuritis-rON or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis-LETM) remains unresolved.
Results
We analyzed patients with definite NMO (n = 45), HR-NMO (n = 53), ADEM (n = 33), clinically isolated syndromes presenting with myelitis or optic neuritis (CIS, n = 32), MS (n = 71) and controls (n = 101; 24 other neurological diseases-OND, 27 systemic lupus erythematosus-SLE and 50 healthy subjects) for serum IgG to MOG and AQP4. Furthermore, we investigated whether these antibodies can mediate complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). AQP4-IgG was found in patients with NMO (n = 43, 96%), HR-NMO (n = 32, 60%) and in one CIS patient (3%), but was absent in ADEM, MS and controls. High-titer MOG-IgG was found in patients with ADEM (n = 14, 42%), NMO (n = 3, 7%), HR-NMO (n = 7, 13%, 5 rON and 2 LETM), CIS (n = 2, 6%), MS (n = 2, 3%) and controls (n = 3, 3%, two SLE and one OND). Two of the three MOG-IgG positive NMO patients and all seven MOG-IgG positive HR-NMO patients were negative for AQP4-IgG. Thus, MOG-IgG were found in both AQP4-IgG seronegative NMO patients and seven of 21 (33%) AQP4-IgG negative HR-NMO patients. Antibodies to MOG and AQP4 were predominantly of the IgG1 subtype, and were able to mediate CDC at high-titer levels.
Conclusions
We could show for the first time that a subset of AQP4-IgG seronegative patients with NMO and HR-NMO exhibit a MOG-IgG mediated immune response, whereas MOG is not a target antigen in cases with an AQP4-directed humoral immune response.
doi:10.1186/1742-2094-8-184
PMCID: PMC3278385  PMID: 22204662
Neuromyelitis optica; autoantibodies; myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein; aquaporin-4; complement mediated cytotoxicity; biomarker
4.  Aquaporin-4 autoantibodies in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: comparison between tissue-based and cell-based indirect immunofluorescence assays 
Background
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are severe central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating disorders (CNS IDD) characterized by monophasic or relapsing, longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) and/or optic neuritis (ON). A significant proportion of NMOSD patients are seropositive for aquaporin-4 (AQP4) autoantibodies. We compared the AQP4 autoantibody detection rates of tissue-based indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIFA) and cell-based IIFA.
Methods
Serum of Chinese CNS IDD patients were assayed for AQP4 autoantibodies by tissue-based IIFA using monkey cerebellum and cell-based IIFA using transfected HEK293 cells which express human AQP4 on their cell membranes.
Results
In total, 128 CNS IDD patients were studied. We found that 78% of NMO patients were seropositive for AQP4 autoantibodies by cell-based IIFA versus 61% by tissue-based IFA (p = 0.250), 75% of patients having relapsing myelitis (RM) with LETM were seropositive by cell-based IIFA versus 50% by tissue-based IIFA (p = 0.250), and 33% of relapsing ON patients were seropositive by cell-based IIFA versus 22% by tissue-based IIFA (p = 1.000); however the differences were not statistically significant. All patients seropositive by tissue-based IIFA were also seropositive for AQP4 autoantibodies by cell-based IIFA. Among 29 NMOSD patients seropositive for AQP4 autoantibodies by cell-based IIFA, 20 (69%) were seropositive by tissue-based IIFA. The 9 patients seropositive by cell-based IIFA while seronegative by tissue-based IIFA had NMO (3), RM with LETM (3), a single attack of LETM (1), relapsing ON (1) and a single ON attack (1). Among 23 NMO or RM patients seropositive for AQP4 autoantibodies by cell-based IIFA, comparison between those seropositive (n = 17) and seronegative (n = 6) by tissue-based IIFA revealed no differences in clinical and neuroradiological characteristics between the two groups.
Conclusion
Cell-based IIFA is slightly more sensitive than tissue-based IIFA in detection of AQP4 autoantibodies, which are highly specific for NMOSD.
doi:10.1186/1742-2094-7-50
PMCID: PMC2941752  PMID: 20822515
5.  The Frequency of Anti-Aquaporin-4 Ig G Antibody in Neuromyelitis Optica and Its Spectrum Disorders at a Single Tertiary Referral Center in Malaysia 
Background. In the past the occurrence of neuromyelitis optica in Malaysia was thought to be uncommon and the frequency of anti-aquaporin-4 Ig G antibody was unknown. Objective. To evaluate the frequency of anti-aquaporin-4 Ig G antibody (Anti-AQP4 antibody) amongst patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and its spectrum disorders (NMOSD) and the differences between the seropositive and seronegative groups. Methods. Retrospectively, 96 patients with NMO/high risk syndromes for NMOSD (HRS-NMOSD) were identified out of 266 patients with idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease from a single center hospital based registry. Anti-AQP4 seropositivity was found in 38/48 (79.2%) with NMO, 12/21 (57.1%) with brain involvement at high risk for NMOSD, 12/15 (80%) with transverse myelitis (i.e., 11/15 with relapsing transverse myelitis and one with monophasic transverse myelitis), and 3/7 (42.8%) with relapsing optic neuritis. Sixty-five out of 96 patients, that is, 67.7%, with NMO/HRS for NMOSD were seropositive. Seropositivity was significantly associated with female gender, a higher number of mean relapses, that is, 5.15 ± 4.42 versus 2.10 ± 1.68, longer length of spinal cord lesions, that is, 6.6 ± 4.9 versus 2.9 ± 2.5, vertebral bodies, higher EDSS, 4.5 ± 2.4 versus 2.4 ± 2.6, presence of paroxysmal tonic spasms, and blindness (unilateral/bilateral); P < 0.001. Longitudinally extensive cord lesions (contiguous or linear), presence of lesions in the cervical and thoracic regions, and involvement of the central gray matter or holocord regions on axial scans, were also significantly associated with seropositivity; P < 0.001. Conclusion. NMO and HRS for NMOSD are present in larger numbers than previously thought in Malaysia. More than 2/3rds are seropositive. Seropositive and seronegative NMO/NMOSD have differences that are useful in clinical practice.
doi:10.1155/2014/568254
PMCID: PMC4274866  PMID: 25548676
6.  Cerebrospinal fluid antibodies to aquaporin-4 in neuromyelitis optica and related disorders: frequency, origin, and diagnostic relevance 
Background
In 70-80% of cases, neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is associated with highly specific serum auto-antibodies to aquaporin-4 (termed AQP4-Ab or NMO-IgG). Recent evidence strongly suggests that AQP4-Ab are directly involved in the immunopathogenesis of NMO.
Objective
To assess the frequency, syndrome specificity, diagnostic relevance, and origin of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AQP4-Ab in patients with NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD).
Methods
87 CSF samples from 37 patients with NMOSD and 42 controls with other neurological diseases were tested for AQP4-Ab in a cell based assay using recombinant human AQP4. Twenty-three paired CSF and serum samples from AQP4-Ab seropositive NMOSD patients were further analysed for intrathecal IgG synthesis to AQP4.
Results
AQP4-Ab were detectable in 68% of CSF samples from AQP4-Ab seropositive patients with NMOSD, but in none of the CSF samples from AQP4-Ab seronegative patients with NMOSD and in none of the control samples. Acute disease relapse within 30 days prior to lumbar puncture, AQP4-Ab serum titres >1:250, and blood-CSF barrier dysfunction, but not treatment status, predicted CSF AQP4-Ab positivity. A positive AQP4-specific antibody index was present in 1/23 samples analysed.
Conclusions
AQP4-Ab are detectable in the CSF of most patients with NMOSD, mainly during relapse, and are highly specific for this condition. In the cohort analysed in this study, testing for CSF AQP4-Ab did not improve the sensitivity and specificity of the current diagnostic criteria for NMO. The substantial lack of intrathecal AQP4-Ab synthesis in patients with NMOSD may reflect the unique localisation of the target antigen at the blood brain barrier, and is important for our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of the disease.
doi:10.1186/1742-2094-7-52
PMCID: PMC2945323  PMID: 20825655
7.  Anti-Aquaporin-1 Autoantibodies in Patients with Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e74773.
Autoantibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a water channel in CNS astrocytes, are detected in ∼50–80% of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOsd), characterized by longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) and/or optic neuritis. Although these autoantibodies present an invaluable biomarker for NMOsd and for the differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS), diagnosis of anti-AQP4-seronegative NMOsd remains challenging. We hypothesized that seronegative NMOsd patients might have autoantibodies against aquaporin-1 (AQP1), another water channel in CNS astrocytes. We initially developed a radioimmunoprecipitation assay to search for anti-AQP1 antibodies in sera from 632 individuals. Anti-AQP1 or anti-AQP4 autoantibodies were detected in 16.7% and 12%, respectively, of 348 patients with suspected NMOsd. Anti-AQP1 specificity was confirmed by competition, protein immunoblotting and ELISA assays, whereas epitope localization was studied by immunoadsorption on intact cells expressing AQP1 and peptide mapping experiments. Most anti-AQP1 autoantibodies were of the complement-activating IgG1 subclass and the majority bound to the extracellular domain of AQP1, suggesting a possible pathogenic role. Five out of 42 MS patients had anti-AQP1 antibodies, but 2 of them also had spinal cord lesions, while the anti-AQP1 antibodies in the other 3 bound to the cytoplasmic domain of AQP1. Anti-AQP1 antibodies were not detected in 100 healthy individuals or 142 patients with non-demyelinating neuroimmune diseases. Analysis of 17 anti-AQP1+/anti-AQP4- patients with suspected NMOsd showed that 5 had NMO and 11 had LETM. 12/17 of these sera bound predominantly to the extracellular AQP1 loop-Α. Overall, we found that anti-AQP1 autoantibodies are present in a subgroup of patients with chronic demyelination in the CNS and similarities with anti-AQP4-seronegative NMOsd, offering a novel potential biomarker for CNS demyelination disorders.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0074773
PMCID: PMC3781161  PMID: 24086369
8.  NMO-IgG Status in Fulminant Inflammatory CNS Demyelinating Disorders 
Archives of neurology  2009;66(8):964-966.
Background
The aquaporin-4-specific serum autoantibody, NMO-IgG, is a validated biomarker distinguishing neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) from multiple sclerosis (MS). Because fulminant attacks are more common in NMOSD than MS, some suggest that NMO-IgG may be a marker of destructive demyelination rather than a disease-specific biomarker. This study is the first to compare NMO-IgG serostatus among patients with fulminant CNS-inflammatory demyelinating disease (CNS-IDD).
Objective
To determine if NMO-IgG distinguishes NMOSD from other fulminant, steroid-refractory CNS-IDDs.
Design
Descriptive historical cohort
Setting
Neuroimmunology Laboratory and Neurology Practice, Mayo Clinic.
Patients and Methods
Sera from 74 patients plasmapheresed between 1993 and 2007 for a steroid-refractory CNS-IDD were tested for NMO-IgG (by indirect immunofluorescence assay). Two blinded observers scored sera (tested at 1:120 dilution). Clinical data were obtained by medical record review.
Results
Pre-plasmapheresis sera were available from 74 patients (F:M =2.5 ); mean time from blood draw to plasmapheresis was 13 days. At plasmapheresis, mean age was 46 years (range, 7 to 8 0); mean EDSS was 7 (range, 3.5 to 9.5) and diagnoses were NMO (14), longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM; ≥ 3 vertebral segments; 20), transverse myelitis (TM; < 3 vertebral segments; 8), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM; 1), MS (definite, 18; probable, 11), and optic neuritis (ON; 2). NMO-IgG was detected in 20 patients (27%): 9 NMO, 10 LETM and one recurrent ON, and in no patient with fulminant ADEM, MS, TM or monophasic ON.
Conclusions
NMO-IgG is a specific biomarker for NMOSD and is not simply a marker of destructive CNS-IDD.
doi:10.1001/archneurol.2009.152
PMCID: PMC2742779  PMID: 19667216
9.  Neuromyelitis Optica in Austria in 2011: To Bridge the Gap between Neuroepidemiological Research and Practice in a Study Population of 8.4 Million People 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e79649.
Background
In 2008 the Austrian Task Force for Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) started a nation-wide network for information exchange and multi-centre collaboration. Their aim was to detect all patients with NMO or NMO spectrum disorders (NMO-SD) in Austria and to analyse their disease courses and response to treatment.
Methods
(1) As of March 2008, 1957 serum samples (of 1557 patients) have been tested with an established cell based immunofluorescence aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-ab) assay with a high sensitivity and specificity (both >95%). All tests were performed in a single reference laboratory (Clinical Dept. of Neurology of the Innsbruck Medical University). (2) A nation-wide survey with several calls for participation (via email newsletters, articles in the official journal of the Austrian Society of Neurology, and workshops) was initiated in 2008. All collected data will be presented in a way that allows that every individual patient can be traced back in order to ensure transparency and to avoid any data distortion in future meta-analyses. The careful and detailed presentation allows the visualization and comparison of the different disease courses in real time span. Failure and response to treatment are made visible at one glance. Database closure was 31 December 2011. All co-operators were offered co-authorship.
Results
All 71 NMO- or NMO-SD patients with AQP4-ab positivity (age range 12.3 to 79.6 years) were analysed in detail. Sex ratio (m:f = 1:7) and the proportion of patients without oligoclonal bands in cerebrospinal fluid (86.6%) were in line with previously published results. All identified patients were Caucasians.
Conclusions
A nationwide collaboration amongst Austrian neurologists with good network communications made it possible to establish a database of 71 AQP4-ab positive patients with NMO/NMO-SD. This database is presented in detail and provides the basis for further studies and international cooperation in order to investigate this rare disease.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079649
PMCID: PMC3818238  PMID: 24223985
10.  Aquaporin-4 antibody testing: direct comparison of M1-AQP4-DNA-transfected cells with leaky scanning versus M23-AQP4-DNA-transfected cells as antigenic substrate 
Background
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO, Devic syndrome) is associated with antibodies to aquaporin-4 (NMO-IgG/AQP4-Ab) in the majority of cases. NMO-IgG/AQP4-Ab seropositivity in patients with NMO and its spectrum disorders has important differential diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic implications. So-called cell-based assays (CBA) are thought to provide the best AQP4-Ab detection rates.
Objective
To compare directly the AQP4-IgG detection rates of the currently most widely used commercial CBA, which employs cells transfected with a full-length (M1)-human AQP4 DNA in a fashion that allows leaky scanning (LS) and thus expression of M23-AQP4 in addition to M1-AQP, to that of a newly developed CBA from the same manufacturer employing cells transfected with human M23-AQP4-DNA.
Methods
Results from 368 serum samples that had been referred for routine AQP4-IgG determination and had been tested in parallel in the two assays were compared.
Results
Seventy-seven out of 368 samples (20.9%) were positive for NMO-IgG/AQP4-Ab in at least one assay. Of these, 73 (94.8%) were positive in both assays. A single sample (1.3%) was exclusively positive in the novel assay; three samples (3.9%) were unequivocally positive only in the ‘classic’ assay due to high background intensity in the novel assay. Both median fluorescence intensity and background intensity were higher in the new assay.
Conclusions
This large study did not reveal significant differences in AQP4-IgG detection rates between the ‘classic’ CBA and a new M23-DNA-based CBA. Importantly, our results largely re-affirm the validity of previous studies that had used the ‘classic’ AQP4-CBA to establish NMO-IgG/AQP4-Ab seropositivity rates in NMO and in a variety of NMO spectrum disorders.
doi:10.1186/1742-2094-11-129
PMCID: PMC4128531  PMID: 25074611
neuromyelitis optica; neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders; Devic syndrome; Devic’s syndrome; NMO-IgG; antibodies to aquaporin-4; cell-based assay; M1 aquaporin-4; M23 aquaporin-4; antibody testing; longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis; optica neuritis
11.  Does MOG Ig-positive AQP4-seronegative opticospinal inflammatory disease justify a diagnosis of NMO spectrum disorder? 
While neuromyelitis optica (NMO) immunoglobulin (Ig) G is considered the hallmark serologic marker of NMO, its association is not absolute, as NMO IgG is not detected in approximately one-fourth of the patients diagnosed with NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD). Thus, the recent discovery that antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) are detected in some NMO IgG-seronegative patients manifesting clinical and neuroimaging signs of NMO or NMOSD has created tremendous excitement. However, it may be premature to classify this subgroup as NMOSD. NMO is considered an autoimmune astrocytopathy, and aquaporin-4 (AQP4), expressed on astrocytes, is recognized as the target autoantigen of NMO IgG. As its name denotes, MOG is produced by oligodendrocytes, CNS myelin-producing cells, and MOG is well-recognized as one of the candidate autoantigens in multiple sclerosis (MS) and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). Thus, is it possible that the clinical NMOSD-like phenotype associated with MOG-specific antibodies represents a variant of opticospinal MS or ADEM but not AQP4 autoimmunity or NMOSD? Whether this MOG-Ig positive AQP4-seronegative phenotype should be classified as NMOSD, opticospinal MS, or a unique entity is not simply a theoretical question but rather has practical implications for patients, their physicians, insurance carriers, and clinical investigators conducting NMO treatment trials.
doi:10.1212/NXI.0000000000000062
PMCID: PMC4309526  PMID: 25635259
12.  New Insights into Neuromyelitis Optica 
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an idiopathic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) that preferentially affects the optic nerves and spinal cord. In Asia, NMO has long been considered a subtype of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, recent clinical, pathological, immunological, and imaging studies have suggested that NMO is distinct from MS. This reconsideration of NMO was initially prompted by the discovery of a specific antibody for NMO (NMO-IgG) in 2004. NMO-IgG is an autoantibody that targets aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the most abundant water channel in the CNS; hence, it was named anti-AQP4 antibody. Since it demonstrated reasonable sensitivity and high specificity, anti-AQP4 antibody was incorporated into new diagnostic criteria for NMO.The spectrum of NMO is now known to be wider than was previously recognized and includes a proportion of patients with recurrent, isolated, longitudinally extensive myelitis or optic neuritis, and longitudinally extensive myelitis or optic neuritis associated with systemic autoimmune disease or with brain lesions typical of NMO. In this context, a new concept of "NMO spectrum disorders" was recently introduced. Furthermore, seropositivity for NMO-IgG predicts future relapses and is recognized as a prognostic marker for NMO spectrum disorders. Humoral immune mechanisms, including the activation of B-cells and the complement pathway, are considered to play important roles in NMO pathogenesis. This notion is supported by recent studies showing the potential pathogenic role of NMO-IgG as an initiator of NMO lesions. However, a demonstration of the involvement of NMO-IgG by the development of active immunization and passive transfer in animal models is still needed. This review focuses on the new concepts of NMO based on its pathophysiology and clinical characteristics. Potential management strategies for NMO in light of its pathomechanism are also discussed.
doi:10.3988/jcn.2011.7.3.115
PMCID: PMC3212597  PMID: 22087205
neuromyelitis optica; Devic's disease; neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder; pathogenesis; diagnosis; management
13.  Astrocytic autoantibody of neuromyelitis optica (NMO-IgG) binds to aquaporin-4 extracellular loops, monomers, tetramers and high order arrays 
Journal of autoimmunity  2012;40:21-27.
The principal central nervous system (CNS) water channel, aquaporin-4 (AQP4), is confined to astrocytic and ependymal membranes and is the target of a pathogenic autoantibody, neuromyelitis optica (NMO)-IgG. This disease-specific autoantibody unifies a spectrum of relapsing CNS autoimmune inflammatory disorders of which NMO exemplifies the classic phenotype. Multiple sclerosis and other immune-mediated demyelinating disorders of the CNS lack a distinctive biomarker. Two AQP4 isoforms, M1 and M23, exist as homotetrameric and heterotetrameric intramembranous particles (IMPs). Orthogonal arrays of predominantly M23 particles (OAPs) are an ultrastructural characteristic of astrocytic membranes. We used high-titered serum from 32 AQP4-IgG-seropositive patients and 85 controls to investigate the nature and molecular location of AQP4 epitopes that bind NMO-IgG, and the influence of supramolecular structure. NMO-IgG bound to denatured AQP4 monomers (68% of cases), to native tetramers and high order arrays (90% of cases), and to AQP4 in live cell membranes (100% of cases). Disease-specific epitopes reside in extracellular loop C more than in loops A or E. IgG binding to intracellular epitopes lacks disease specificity. These observations predict greater disease specificity and sensitivity for tissue-based and cell-based serological assays employing “native” AQP4 than assays employing denatured AQP4 and fragments. NMO-IgG binds most avidly to plasma membrane surface AQP4 epitopes formed by loop interactions within tetramers and by intermolecular interactions within high order structures. The relative abundance and localization of AQP4 high order arrays in distinct CNS regions may explain the variability in clinical phenotype of NMO spectrum disorders.
doi:10.1016/j.jaut.2012.07.008
PMCID: PMC3509259  PMID: 22906356
autoimmunity; epitopes; freeze fracture electron microscopy
14.  Connexin 43 Astrocytopathy Linked to Rapidly Progressive Multiple Sclerosis and Neuromyelitis Optica 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e72919.
Background
Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) occasionally have an extremely aggressive and debilitating disease course; however, its molecular basis is unknown. This study aimed to determine a relationship between connexin (Cx) pathology and disease aggressiveness in Asian patients with MS and NMO.
Methods/Principal Findings
Samples included 11 autopsied cases with NMO and NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD), six with MS, and 20 with other neurological diseases (OND). Methods of analysis included immunohistochemical expression of astrocytic Cx43/Cx30, oligodendrocytic Cx47/Cx32 relative to AQP4 and other astrocytic and oligodendrocytic proteins, extent of demyelination, the vasculocentric deposition of complement and immunoglobulin, and lesion staging by CD68 staining for macrophages. Lesions were classified as actively demyelinating (n=59), chronic active (n=58) and chronic inactive (n=23). Sera from 120 subjects including 30 MS, 30 NMO, 40 OND and 20 healthy controls were examined for anti-Cx43 antibody by cell-based assay. Six NMO/NMOSD and three MS cases showed preferential loss of astrocytic Cx43 beyond the demyelinated areas in actively demyelinating and chronic active lesions, where heterotypic Cx43/Cx47 astrocyte oligodendrocyte gap junctions were extensively lost. Cx43 loss was significantly associated with a rapidly progressive disease course as six of nine cases with Cx43 loss, but none of eight cases without Cx43 loss regardless of disease phenotype, died within two years after disease onset (66.7% vs. 0%, P=0.0090). Overall, five of nine cases with Cx43 loss and none of eight cases without Cx43 loss had distal oligodendrogliopathy characterized by selective myelin associated glycoprotein loss (55.6% vs. 0.0%, P=0.0296). Loss of oligodendrocytic Cx32 and Cx47 expression was observed in most active and chronic lesions from all MS and NMO/NMOSD cases. Cx43-specific antibodies were absent in NMO/NMOSD and MS patients.
Conclusions
These findings suggest that autoantibody-independent astrocytic Cx43 loss may relate to disease aggressiveness and distal oligodendrogliopathy in both MS and NMO.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072919
PMCID: PMC3749992  PMID: 23991165
15.  Update on the diagnosis and treatment of neuromyelitis optica: Recommendations of the Neuromyelitis Optica Study Group (NEMOS) 
Journal of Neurology  2013;261(1):1-16.
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO, Devic’s syndrome), long considered a clinical variant of multiple sclerosis, is now regarded as a distinct disease entity. Major progress has been made in the diagnosis and treatment of NMO since aquaporin-4 antibodies (AQP4-Ab; also termed NMO-IgG) were first described in 2004. In this review, the Neuromyelitis Optica Study Group (NEMOS) summarizes recently obtained knowledge on NMO and highlights new developments in its diagnosis and treatment, based on current guidelines, the published literature and expert discussion at regular NEMOS meetings. Testing of AQP4-Ab is essential and is the most important test in the diagnostic work-up of suspected NMO, and helps to distinguish NMO from other autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, AQP4-Ab testing has expanded our knowledge of the clinical presentation of NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD). In addition, imaging techniques, particularly magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spinal cord, are obligatory in the diagnostic workup. It is important to note that brain lesions in NMO and NMOSD are not uncommon, do not rule out the diagnosis, and show characteristic patterns. Other imaging modalities such as optical coherence tomography are proposed as useful tools in the assessment of retinal damage. Therapy of NMO should be initiated early. Azathioprine and rituximab are suggested as first-line treatments, the latter being increasingly regarded as an established therapy with long-term efficacy and an acceptable safety profile in NMO patients. Other immunosuppressive drugs, such as methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil and mitoxantrone, are recommended as second-line treatments. Promising new therapies are emerging in the form of anti-IL6 receptor, anti-complement or anti-AQP4-Ab biologicals.
doi:10.1007/s00415-013-7169-7
PMCID: PMC3895189  PMID: 24272588
Neuromyelitis optica; Differential diagnosis; Diagnostic tests; Therapy
16.  AQP4 antibody–positive Thai cases 
Neurology  2011;77(9):827-834.
Objective:
To evaluate the prevalence of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody in Thai patients with idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating CNS diseases (IIDCDs) and to analyze the significance of the autoantibody to distinguish neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and other NMO spectrum disorders (ONMOSDs) from other IIDCDs, especially multiple sclerosis (MS).
Methods:
We retrospectively evaluated 135 consecutive patients with IIDCDs seen at the MS clinic at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, and classified them into NMO, ONMOSDs, optic-spinal MS (OSMS), classic MS (CMS), and clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) groups in this order with accepted diagnostic criteria. The patients' coded sera were tested separately for AQP4 antibody. Then the relations between the clinical diagnosis and the AQP4 antibody serologic status were analyzed.
Results:
Among the 135 patients, 53 (39.3%) were AQP4 antibody–positive. Although the AQP4 antibody–positive group had features of NMO, such as female predominance, long cord lesions (>3 vertebral bodies), and CSF pleocytosis, only 18 patients (33% of 54) fully met Wingerchuk 2006 criteria except for AQP4 antibody–seropositive status. We also detected some AQP4 antibody–positive patients in the OSMS (4 of 7), CMS (11 of 46), and CIS (1 of 16) groups. These patients had been misdiagnosed with MS because they often had brain lesions and never underwent spinal cord MRI examination or lacked long cord lesions.
Conclusions:
AQP4 antibody was highly prevalent (almost 40%) in Thai patients with IIDCDs. Moreover, only one-third of AQP4 antibody–positive patients fully met Wingerchuk 2006 criteria, and many were misdiagnosed with MS. A sensitive AQP4 antibody assay is required in this region because the therapy for NMO is different from that for MS.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e31822c61b1
PMCID: PMC3463102  PMID: 21813785
17.  Antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in bilateral and recurrent optic neuritis 
Objective:
We examined a cohort of adults with aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody–negative neuromyelitis optica/neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMO/NMOSD) for antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG).
Methods:
We performed a flow cytometry cell-based assay using live human lentivirus–transduced cells expressing full-length surface MOG. Serum was tested in 23 AQP4 antibody–negative NMO/NMOSD patients with bilateral and/or recurrent optic neuritis (BON, n = 11), longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM, n = 10), and sequential BON and LETM (n = 2), as well as in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS, n = 76) and controls (n = 52).
Results:
MOG antibodies were detected in 9/23 AQP4 antibody–negative patients with NMO/NMOSD, compared to 1/76 patients with MS and 0/52 controls (p < 0.001). MOG antibodies were detected in 8/11 patients with BON, 0/10 patients with LETM, and 1/2 patients with sequential BON and LETM. Six of 9 MOG antibody–positive patients had a relapsing course. MOG antibody–positive patients had prominent optic disc swelling and were more likely to have a rapid response to steroid therapy and relapse on steroid cessation than MOG antibody–negative patients (p = 0.034 and p = 0.029, respectively). While 8/9 MOG antibody–positive patients had good follow-up visual acuity, one experienced sustained visual impairment, 3 had retinal nerve fiber layer thinning, and one had residual spinal disability.
Conclusions:
MOG antibodies have a strong association with BON and may be a useful clinical biomarker. MOG antibody–associated BON is a relapsing disorder that is frequently steroid responsive and often steroid dependent. Failure to recognize the disorder early and institute immunotherapy promptly may be associated with sustained impairment.
Classification of evidence:
This study provides Class II evidence that MOG antibodies are associated with AQP4 antibody–negative BON (sensitivity 69%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 42%–87%; specificity 99%, 95% CI 93.7%–99.8%).
doi:10.1212/NXI.0000000000000040
PMCID: PMC4215392  PMID: 25364774
18.  Evaluation of a Multiparametric Immunofluorescence Assay for Standardization of Neuromyelitis Optica Serology 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(6):e38896.
Background
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severely disabling autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system, which predominantly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord. In a majority of cases, NMO is associated with antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4) (termed NMO-IgG).
Aims
In this study, we evaluated a new multiparametric indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) assay for NMO serology.
Methods
Sera from 20 patients with NMO, 41 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), 30 healthy subjects, and a commercial anti-AQP4 IgG antibody were tested in a commercial composite immunofluorescence assay (“Neurology Mosaic 17”; Euroimmun, Germany), consisting of five different diagnostic substrates (HEK cells transfected with AQP4, non-transfected HEK cells, primate cerebellum, cerebrum, and optic nerve tissue sections).
Results
We identified AQP4 specific and non-specific fluorescence staining patterns and established positivity criteria. Based on these criteria, this kit yielded a high sensitivity (95%) and specificity (100%) for NMO and had a significant positive and negative likelihood ratio (LR+ = ∞, LR− = 0.05). Moreover, a 100% inter- and intra-laboratory reproducibility was found.
Conclusions
The biochip mosaic assay tested in this study is a powerful tool for NMO serology, fast to perform, highly sensitive and specific for NMO, reproducible, and suitable for inter-laboratory standardization as required for multi-centre clinical trials.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038896
PMCID: PMC3373605  PMID: 22719979
19.  Serologic diagnosis of NMO 
Neurology  2012;78(9):665-671.
Objectives:
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) immunoglobulin G (IgG) (aquaporin-4 [AQP4] IgG) is highly specific for NMO and related disorders, and autoantibody detection has become an essential investigation in patients with demyelinating disease. However, although different techniques are now used, no multicenter comparisons have been performed. This study compares the sensitivity and specificity of different assays, including an in-house flow cytometric assay and 2 commercial assays (ELISA and transfected cell-based assay [CBA]).
Methods:
Six assay methods (in-house or commercial) were performed in 2 international centers using coded serum from patients with NMO (35 patients), NMO spectrum disorders (25 patients), relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (39 patients), miscellaneous autoimmune diseases (25 patients), and healthy subjects (22 subjects).
Results:
The highest sensitivities were yielded by assays detecting IgG binding to cells expressing recombinant AQP4 with quantitative flow cytometry (77; 46 of 60) or visual observation (CBA, 73%; 44 of 60). The fluorescence immunoprecipitation assay and tissue-based immunofluorescence assay were least sensitive (48%–53%). The CBA and ELISA commercial assays (100% specific) yielded sensitivities of 68% (41 of 60) and 60% (36 of 60), respectively, and sensitivity of 72% (43 of 60) when used in combination.
Conclusions:
The greater sensitivity and excellent specificity of second-generation recombinant antigen-based assays for detection of NMO-IgG in a clinical setting should enable earlier diagnosis of NMO spectrum disorders and prompt initiation of disease-appropriate therapies.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e318248dec1
PMCID: PMC3286228  PMID: 22302543
20.  Aquaporin-4 Autoantibodies in Neuromyelitis Optica: AQP4 Isoform-Dependent Sensitivity and Specificity 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e79185.
Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease, characterized by the presence of autoantibody (NMO-IgG) to Aquaporin-4 (AQP4). NMO-IgG identification supports NMO diagnosis and several diagnostic tests have been developed, but their sensitivity is too variable, and some assay show low sensitivity. This impairs correct diagnosis of NMO. By cell based assay (CBA) we here evaluate the efficacy of different strategies to express AQP4 in mammalian cells in terms of: a) AQP4 translation initiation signals; b) AQP4 isoforms (M1 and M23) and fluorescent tag position; c) NMO serum concentration and AQP4 degradation. Our results demonstrate that when using AQP4-M1, the nucleotide in position −3 of the AUG greatly affects the AQP4-M1/M23 protein ratio, NMO-IgG binding, and consequently test sensitivity. Test sensitivity was highest with M23 expressing cells (97.5%) and only 27.5% with AQP4-M1. The fluorescent tag added to the N-terminus of AQP4-M23 considerably affected the NMO-IgG binding, and test sensitivity, due to disruption of AQP4 suprastructures. Furthermore, sera used at high concentration resulted in AQP4 degradation which affected test sensitivity. To further evaluate the reliability of the M23 based CBA test, samples of one NMO patient collected during about 2 years clinical follow-up were tested. The results of serum titer correlated with disease activity and treatment response. In conclusion, we provide a molecular explanation for the contrasting CBA test data reported and suggest the use of M23 with a C-terminus fluorescent tag as the proper test for NMO diagnosis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079185
PMCID: PMC3829826  PMID: 24260168
21.  Aquaporin 4 IgG Serostatus and Outcome in Recurrent Longitudinally Extensive Transverse Myelitis 
JAMA neurology  2014;71(1):48-54.
IMPORTANCE
Studies focused on recurrent longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (rLETM) are lacking.
OBJECTIVES
To determine the aquaporin 4 (AQP4) IgG detection rate using recombinant human APQ4-based assays in sequential serum specimens collected from patients with rLETM categorized as negative by first-generation tissue-based indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) assay and to define the clinical characteristics and motor disability outcomes in AQP4-IgG–positive rLETM.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS
A search of the Mayo Clinic computerized central diagnostic index (October 1, 2005, through November 30, 2011), cross-linked with the Neuroimmunology Laboratory database, identified 48 patients with rLETM, of whom 36 (75%) were positive and 12 (25%) negative for neuromyelitis optica (NMO) IgG (per IIF of serial serum specimens). Stored serum specimens from “seronegative” patients were retested with recombinant human AQP4-based assays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent, transfected cell-based, and fluorescence-activated cell-sorting assays. Control patients included 140 AQP4-IgG–positive patients with NMO, of whom a subgroup of 20 initially presented with 2 attacks of transverse myelitis (rLETM-onset NMO).
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES
AQP4-IgG serostatus, clinical characteristics, and Expanded Disability Status Scale score.
RESULTS
Six patients with negative IIF results were reclassified as AQP4-IgG positive, yielding an overall AQP4-IgG seropositivity rate of 89%. Fluorescence-activated cell-sorting, cell-based, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays improved the detection rate to 89%, 85%, and 81%, respectively. The female to male ratio was 2:3 for AQP4-IgG–negative rLETM and 5:1 for AQP4-IgG–positive patients. The AQP4-IgG–positive patients with rLETM or rLETM-onset NMO were similar in age at onset, sex ratio, attack severity, relapse rate, and motor disability. From Kaplan-Meier analyses, 36% of AQP4-IgG–positive patients with rLETM are anticipated to need a cane to walk within 5 years after onset. For patients with rLETM-onset NMO, the median time from onset to first optic neuritis attack (54 months) was similar to the median disease duration for AQP4-IgG–positive patients with rLETM (59 months). The median number of attacks was 3 for AQP4-IgG–positive patients with rLETM (range, 2-22), and the first optic neuritis attack for those with rLETM-onset NMO followed a median of 3 myelitis attacks (range, 2-19). Immunosuppressant therapy reduced the relapse rate in both AQP4-IgG–positive and AQP4-IgG–negative patients with rLETM.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE
Recombinant antigen–based assays significantly increase AQP4-IgG detection in patients with rLETM, and AQP4-IgG–negative adults with rLETM are rare. Evolution to NMO can be anticipated in AQP4-IgG–positive patients. Early initiation of immunotherapy may result in a more favorable motor outcome.
doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2013.5055
PMCID: PMC3934000  PMID: 24248262
22.  Neuromyelitis Optica IgG Does Not Alter Aquaporin-4 Water Permeability, Plasma Membrane M1/M23 Isoform Content, or Supramolecular Assembly 
Glia  2012;60(12):2027-2039.
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is thought to be caused by immunoglobulin G autoantibodies (NMO-IgG) against astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). A recent study (Hinson et al. (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:1245- 1250) reported that NMO-IgG inhibits AQP4 water permeability directly and causes rapid cellular internalization of the M1 but not M23 isoform of AQP4, resulting in AQP4 clustering, enhanced complement-dependent cytotoxicity, and tissue swelling. Here, we report evidence challenging this proposed mechanism of NMO-IgG-mediated pathology. We measured osmotic water permeability by stopped-flow light scattering on plasma membrane vesicles isolated from AQP4-expressing CHO cells, an approach that can detect changes in water permeability as small as 5% and is not confounded by internalization effects. We found similar single- molecule water permeability for M1-AQP4 tetramers and M23-AQP4 clusters (orthogonal arrays of particles, OAPs). Exposure of AQP4 to high concentrations of NMOIgG from six seropositive NMO patients, and to high-affinity recombinant monoclonal NMO antibodies, did not reduce AQP4 water permeability. Also, NMO-IgG did not reduce water permeability in AQP4-reconstituted proteoliposomes. In transfected cells expressing M1- or M23-AQP4 individually, NMO-IgG caused more rapid internalization of M23- than M1-AQP4. In cells coexpressing both isoforms, M1- and M23-AQP4 comingled in OAPs that were internalized together in response to NMO-IgG. Super-resolution imaging and native gel electrophoresis showed that the size of AQP4 OAPs was not altered by NMO sera or recombinant NMO antibodies. We conclude that NMO-IgG does not: (i) inhibit AQP4 water permeability, (ii) cause preferential internalization of M1-AQP4, or (iii) cause intramembrane AQP4 clustering.
doi:10.1002/glia.22417
PMCID: PMC3586219  PMID: 22987455
AQP4; aquaporin; OAP; NMO; astrocyte
23.  Neuromyelitis optica pathogenesis and aquaporin 4 
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe, debilitating human disease that predominantly features immunopathology in the optic nerves and the spinal cord. An IgG1 autoantibody (NMO-IgG) that binds aquaporin 4 (AQP4) has been identified in the sera of a significant number of NMO patients, as well as in patients with two related neurologic conditions, bilateral optic neuritis (ON), and longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis (LETM), that are generally considered to lie within the NMO spectrum of diseases. NMO-IgG is not the only autoantibody found in NMO patient sera, but the correlation of pathology in central nervous system (CNS) with tissues that normally express high levels of AQP4 suggests NMO-IgG might be pathogenic. If this is the case, it is important to identify and understand the mechanism(s) whereby an immune response is induced against AQP4. This review focuses on open questions about the "events" that need to be understood to determine if AQP4 and NMO-IgG are involved in the pathogenesis of NMO. These questions include: 1) How might AQP4-specific T and B cells be primed by either CNS AQP4 or peripheral pools of AQP4? 2) Do the different AQP4-expressing tissues and perhaps the membrane structural organization of AQP4 influence NMO-IgG binding efficacy and thus pathogenesis? 3) Does prior infection, genetic predisposition, or underlying immune dysregulation contribute to a confluence of events which lead to NMO in select individuals? A small animal model of NMO is essential to demonstrate whether AQP4 is indeed the incipient autoantigen capable of inducing NMO-IgG formation and NMO. If the NMO model is consistent with the human disease, it can be used to examine how changes in AQP4 expression and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity, both of which can be regulated by CNS inflammation, contribute to inductive events for anti-AQP4-specific immune response. In this review, we identify reagents and experimental questions that need to be developed and addressed to enhance our understanding of the pathogenesis of NMO. Finally, dysregulation of tolerance associated with autoimmune disease appears to have a role in NMO. Animal models would allow manipulation of hormone levels, B cell growth factors, and other elements known to increase the penetrance of autoimmune disease. Thus an AQP4 animal model would provide a means to manipulate events which are now associated with NMO and thus demonstrate what set of events or multiplicity of events can push the anti-AQP4 response to be pathogenic.
doi:10.1186/1742-2094-5-22
PMCID: PMC2427020  PMID: 18510734
24.  Clinical Efficacy of Plasmapheresis in Patients with Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder and Effects on Circulating Anti-Aquaporin-4 Antibody Levels 
Background and Purpose
Although plasmapheresis is becoming standard practice as a rescue therapy for neuromyelitis optica (NMO), evidence for the therapeutic efficacy of plasmapheresis is limited, and the effect of plasmapheresis on anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) levels in patients with NMO has not been reported. Here, our objective was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of therapeutic plasmapheresis and its effect on anti-AQP4 antibody levels in patients with NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD).
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 15 patients with NMOSD who had 18 acute attacks and received plasmapheresis because they did not respond to high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMP) therapy. Anti-AQP4 antibodies were measured before and after plasmapheresis. The primary outcomes were functional improvements immediately and 6 months after plasmapheresis, and the secondary outcome was the change in anti-AQP4 antibody serum levels following plasmapheresis.
Results
Plasmapheresis following IVMP therapy led to significant improvement in 50% of the 18 attacks in 15 patients immediately after the procedure was completed, and in 78% (14 attacks) after 6 months. Plasmapheresis was generally well tolerated in all patients. Anti-AQP4 antibody serum levels declined significantly following plasmapheresis, to a mean of 15% of the preplasmapheresis levels. Lower scores on the visual outcome scale recorded before an attack were associated with significant immediate improvement upon the completion of plasmapheresis (p=0.03).
Conclusions
Plasmapheresis following IVMP therapy effectively removed anti-AQP4 antibodies and was accompanied by a substantial improvement in the neurological disability of patients with NMOSD. Lower levels of pre-existing neurological damage may be associated with an improved acute response to plasmapheresis.
doi:10.3988/jcn.2013.9.1.36
PMCID: PMC3543908  PMID: 23346159
plasmapheresis; neuromyelitis optica; anti-aquaporin-4 antibody
25.  An immunoassay that distinguishes real neuromyelitis optica signals from a labeling detected in patients receiving natalizumab 
BMC Neurology  2014;14:139.
Background
Cell-based assays for neuromyelitis optica (NMO) diagnosis are the most sensitive and specific methods to detect anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibodies in serum, but some improvements in their quantitative and specificity capacities would be desirable. Thus the aim of the present work was to develop a sensitive quantitative method for detection of anti-AQP4 antibodies that allows clear diagnosis of NMO and distinction of false labeling produced by natalizumab treatment.
Methods
Sera from 167 individuals, patients diagnosed with NMO (16), multiple sclerosis (85), optic neuritis (24), idiopathic myelitis (21), or other neurological disorders (13) and healthy controls (8), were used as the primary antibody in an immunofluorescence assay on HEK cells transfected with the M23 isoform of human AQP4 fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein. Cells used were freshly transfected or stored frozen and then thawed just before adding the serum.
Results
Microscopic observation and fluorescence quantification produced similar results in fresh and frozen samples. Serum samples from patients diagnosed with NMO were 100% positive for anti-AQP4 antibodies, while all the other sera were negative. Using serum from patients treated with natalizumab, a small and unspecific fluorescent signal was produced from all HEK cells, regardless of AQP4 expression.
Conclusions
Our cell-based double-label fluorescence immunoassay protocol significantly increases the signal specificity and reduces false diagnosis of NMO patients, especially in those receiving natalizumab treatment. Frozen pretreated cells allow faster detection of anti-AQP4 antibodies.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-14-139
PMCID: PMC4096525  PMID: 24980919
AQP4-EGFP; NMO-IgG; HEK cells; Natalizumab; Immunohistochemistry

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