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1.  Central Line–Associated Bloodstream Infection in Hospitalized Children with Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheters: Extending Risk Analyses Outside the Intensive Care Unit 
We studied 1,819 children with 2,592 peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs). Independent predictors of CLABSI included prolonged catheter dwell time, pediatric ICU exposure, and administration of parenteral nutrition as indication for PICC insertion.
Background. Increasingly, peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) are placed for prolonged intravenous access. Few data exist regarding risk factors for central line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) complicating PICCs in hospitalized children, especially children hospitalized outside the intensive care unit (ICU).
Methods. We identified all children with a PICC inserted at The Johns Hopkins Hospital (Baltimore, MD) from 1 January 2003 through 31 December 2009 and used Poisson regression models to identify risk factors for PICC-associated CLABSIs.
Results. A total of 2592 PICCs were placed in 1819 children. One hundred sixteen CLABSIs occurred over 44,972 catheter-days (incidence rate [IR], 2.58 cases per 1000 catheter-days; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.07–3.00 cases per 1000 catheter-days). Independent predictors of CLABSI in the entire cohort included PICC dwell time of ≥21 days (IR ratio [IRR], 1.53; 95% CI, 1.05–2.26), parenteral nutrition as indication for insertion (IRR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.31–3.84), prior PICC-associated CLABSI (IRR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.18–5.25), underlying metabolic condition (IRR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.14–3.74), and pediatric ICU exposure during hospitalization (IRR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.18–2.75). Risk factors for CLABSI in children without PICU exposure included younger age, underlying malignancy and metabolic conditions, PICCs inserted in the lower extremity, and a prior PICC-associated CLABSI.
Conclusions. Prolonged catheter dwell time, pediatric ICU exposure, and administration of parenteral nutrition as the indication for PICC insertion are important predictors of PICC-associated CLABSI in hospitalized children. A careful assessment of these risk factors may be important for future success in preventing CLABSIs in hospitalized children with PICCs.
doi:10.1093/cid/cir145
PMCID: PMC3070870  PMID: 21454298
2.  Peripherally inserted central catheters in non-hospitalized cancer patients: 5-year results of a prospective study 
Supportive Care in Cancer  2014;23:403-409.
Purpose
Few prospective follow-up studies evaluating the use of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) to deliver chemotherapy and/or home parenteral nutrition (HPN) have focused exclusively on oncology outpatients. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the reliability and the safety of PICCs over a 5-year use in non-hospitalized cancer patients requiring long-term intravenous therapies.
Methods
Since June 2008, all adult oncology outpatient candidates for PICC insertion were consecutively enrolled and the incidence of catheter-related complications was investigated. The follow-up continued until the PICC removal.
Results
Two hundred sixty-nine PICCs in 250 patients (98 % with solid malignancies) were studied, for a total of 55,293 catheter days (median dwell time 184 days, range 15–1,384). All patients received HPN and 71 % received chemotherapy during the study period. The incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) was low (0.05 per 1,000 catheter days), PICC-related symptomatic thrombosis was rare (1.1 %; 0.05 per 1,000 catheter days), and mechanical complications were uncommon (13.1 %; 0.63 per 1,000 catheter days). The overall complication rate was 17.5 % (0.85 per 1,000 catheter days) and PICCs were removed because of complications only in 7 % of cases. The main findings of this study were that, if accurately managed, PICCs can be safely used in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and/or HPN, recording a low incidence of CRBSI, thrombosis, and mechanical complications; a long catheter life span; and a low probability of catheter removal because of complications.
Conclusions
Our study suggests that PICCs can be successfully utilized as safe and long-lasting venous access devices in non-hospitalized cancer patients.
doi:10.1007/s00520-014-2387-9
PMCID: PMC4289011  PMID: 25120012
Venous access; Venous access device; Home care; Central venous catheter; Oncology
3.  Focus on peripherally inserted central catheters in critically ill patients 
Venous access devices are of pivotal importance for an increasing number of critically ill patients in a variety of disease states and in a variety of clinical settings (emergency, intensive care, surgery) and for different purposes (fluids or drugs infusions, parenteral nutrition, antibiotic therapy, hemodynamic monitoring, procedures of dialysis/apheresis). However, healthcare professionals are commonly worried about the possible consequences that may result using a central venous access device (CVAD) (mainly, bloodstream infections and thrombosis), both peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) and centrally inserted central catheters (CICCs). This review aims to discuss indications, insertion techniques, and care of PICCs in critically ill patients. PICCs have many advantages over standard CICCs. First of all, their insertion is easy and safe -due to their placement into peripheral veins of the arm- and the advantage of a central location of catheter tip suitable for all osmolarity and pH solutions. Using the ultrasound-guidance for the PICC insertion, the risk of hemothorax and pneumothorax can be avoided, as well as the possibility of primary malposition is very low. PICC placement is also appropriate to avoid post-procedural hemorrhage in patients with an abnormal coagulative state who need a CVAD. Some limits previously ascribed to PICCs (i.e., low flow rates, difficult central venous pressure monitoring, lack of safety for radio-diagnostic procedures, single-lumen) have delayed their start up in the intensive care units as common practice. Though, the recent development of power-injectable PICCs overcomes these technical limitations and PICCs have started to spread in critical care settings. Two important take-home messages may be drawn from this review. First, the incidence of complications varies depending on venous accesses and healthcare professionals should be aware of the different clinical performance as well as of the different risks associated with each type of CVAD (CICCs or PICCs). Second, an inappropriate CVAD choice and, particularly, an inadequate insertion technique are relevant-and often not recognized-potential risk factors for complications in critically ill patients. We strongly believe that all healthcare professionals involved in the choice, insertion or management of CVADs in critically ill patients should know all potential risk factors of complications. This knowledge may minimize complications and guarantee longevity to the CVAD optimizing the risk/benefit ratio of CVAD insertion and use. Proper management of CVADs in critical care saves lines and lives. Much evidence from the medical literature and from the clinical practice supports our belief that, compared to CICCs, the so-called power-injectable peripherally inserted central catheters are a good alternative choice in critical care.
doi:10.5492/wjccm.v3.i4.80
PMCID: PMC4220141  PMID: 25374804
Central venous catheters; Venous access devices; Ultrasound guidance; Guidelines; Peripherally inserted central catheters; Blood stream infections; Intensive care unit patients; Critical care medicine; Pediatrics
4.  Impact of Postplacement Adjustment of Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters on the Risk of Bloodstream Infection and Venous Thrombus Formation 
OBJECTIVE
Peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) tip malposition is potentially associated with complications, and postplacement adjustment of PICCs is widely performed. We sought to characterize the association between central line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) or venous thrombus (VT) and PICC adjustment.
DESIGN
Retrospective cohort study.
SETTING
University of Michigan Health System, a large referral hospital.
PATIENTS
Patients who had PICCs placed between February 2007 and August 2007.
METHODS
The primary outcomes were development of CLABSI within 14 days or VT within 60 days of postplacement PICC adjustment, identified by review of patient electronic medical records.
RESULTS
There were 57 CLABSIs (2.69/1,000 PICC-days) and 47 VTs (1.23/1,000 PICC-days); 609 individuals had 1, 134 had 2, and 33 had 3 or more adjustments. One adjustment was protective against CLABSI (P = .04), whereas 2 or 3 or more adjustments had no association with CLABSI (P = .58 and .47, respectively). One, 2, and 3 or more adjustments had no association with VT formation (P = .59, .85, and .78, respectively). Immunosuppression (P < .01), power-injectable PICCs (P = .05), and 3 PICC lumens compared with 1 lumen (P = .02) were associated with CLABSI. Power-injectable PICCs were also associated with increased VT formation (P = .03).
CONCLUSIONS
Immunosuppression and 3 PICC lumens were associated with increased risk of CLABSI. Power-injectable PICCs were associated with increased risk of CLABSI and VT formation. Postplacement adjustment of PICCs was not associated with increased risk of CLABSI or VT.
doi:10.1086/671266
PMCID: PMC3988827  PMID: 23838218
5.  Adverse events related to intravenous antibiotic therapy: a prospective observational study in the treatment of infective endocarditis 
BMJ Open  2012;2(5):e001189.
Objective
The goal of this prospective observational study was to identify adverse events (AEs) related to the use of intravenous access sites used for infective endocarditis (IE) treatment in a tertiary care hospital.
Design
This is an observational, analytical and prospective study on AEs resulting from the use of intravenous access sites in patients under antimicrobial treatment for IE. Patients enrolled in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis (ICE) study had their peripheral, short-term central catheters (CVC) and peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) monitored for AEs.
Setting
Tertiary care hospital for cardiac surgery in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Patients
Patients over 14 years of age, hospitalised in 2009 and 2010 with possible or definite criteria for IE by the modified Duke criteria were included.
Main outcome measures
AEs related to intravenous catheters: erythema and infiltration, fever, obstruction, externalisation and blood stream infection.
Results
Thirty-seven episodes of IE in 35 patients were studied. Mean patient age was 44.32±15.2 years; 22 (63%) were men. The number of vascular catheters studied were 253, 148 of which were peripheral, 85 CVC (21 of which for haemodialysis) and 20 PICC. The most frequent AEs were ‘erythema’ and ‘infiltration’ for peripheral catheters, ‘fever’ for CVCs and ‘obstruction’ and ‘externalisation’ for PICCs. The number of catheter-days was 360 for peripheral catheters, 1.156 for CVC and 420 for PICC. Kaplan-Meier curves for CVC and PICC showed statistical difference for obstruction (p<0.001) in PICCs. More bacteraemia occurred in CVC compared with PICC.
Conclusions
The choice of intravenous access sites is critical in the treatment of IE. Close observation for AEs and stricter implementation of infection control measures and better manipulation of catheters are suggested.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001189
PMCID: PMC3534239  PMID: 23103604
6.  Catheter Dwell Time and CLABSIs in Neonates With PICCs: A Multicenter Cohort Study 
Pediatrics  2013;132(6):e1609-e1615.
OBJECTIVE:
To determine whether the daily risk of central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) increases over the dwell time of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) in high-risk neonates.
METHODS:
Multicenter retrospective cohort including NICU patients with a PICC inserted between January 2005 and June 2010. We calculated incidence rates and used Poisson regression models to assess the risk of developing CLABSI as a function of PICC dwell time.
RESULTS:
A total of 4797 PICCs placed in 3967 neonates were included; 149 CLABSIs occurred over 89 946 catheter-days (incidence rate 1.66 per 1000 catheter-days). In unadjusted analysis, PICCs with a dwell time of 8 to 13 days, 14 to 22 days, and ≥23 days each had an increased risk of infection compared with PICCs in place for ≤7 days (P < .05). In adjusted analysis, the average predicted daily risk of CLABSIs after PICC insertion increased during the first 2 weeks after PICC insertion and remained elevated for the dwell time of the catheter. There was an increased risk of CLABSIs in neonates with concurrent PICCs (adjusted incidence rate ratio 2.04, 1.12–3.71). The incidence of Gram-negative CLABSIs was greater in PICCs with dwell times >50 days (incidence rate ratio 5.26, 2.40–10.66).
CONCLUSIONS:
The risk of CLABSIs increased during the 2 weeks after PICC insertion and then remained elevated until PICC removal. Clinicians should review PICC necessity daily, optimize catheter maintenance practices, and investigate novel CLABSI prevention strategies in PICCs with prolonged dwell times.
doi:10.1542/peds.2013-1645
PMCID: PMC3838533  PMID: 24218474
infection; catheter-related infections; NICU; central venous catheters; peripheral venous catheterization
7.  Improved Antibiotic-Impregnated Catheters with Extended-Spectrum Activity against Resistant Bacteria and Fungi 
Minocycline-rifampin-impregnated central venous catheters (M/R CVCs) have been shown to be efficacious in reducing catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) and inhibiting the biofilm adherence of resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida spp. To expand the spectrum of antimicrobial activity, a novel second-generation M/R catheter was developed by adding chlorhexidine (CHX-M/R). CVCs and peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) were impregnated with CHX-M/R and compared with first-generation M/R catheters, CHX-silver sulfadiazine-treated CVCs (CHX/SS-CVCs), chlorhexidine-treated PICCs, and uncoated catheters. A biofilm catheter colonization model was used to assess the efficacy of catheters against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE), P. aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Candida glabrata. CHX-M/R-impregnated CVCs were the only antimicrobial catheters that completely inhibited the biofilm colonization of all resistant bacterial and fungal organisms tested at all time intervals, and they were significantly superior to uncoated catheters (all P values were ≤0.003). Furthermore, CHX-M/R-coated CVCs had a significantly more effective and prolonged (up to 3 weeks) antimicrobial activity against MRSA and P. aeruginosa than M/R, CHX/SS, and uncoated CVCs (P < 0.0001). Similarly, CHX-M/R-coated PICCs were also superior to M/R-coated and CHX-coated PICCs in preventing biofilms of MRSA, VRE, P. aeruginosa, and Candida species (P value = 0.003 for all). Our study shows that novel CHX-M/R-coated catheters have unique properties in completely inhibiting biofilm colonization of MRSA, VRE, P. aeruginosa, and fungi in a manner superior to that of M/R- and chlorhexidine-treated catheters.
doi:10.1128/AAC.05836-11
PMCID: PMC3264266  PMID: 22123686
8.  Risk Factors for Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheter Complications in Children 
JAMA pediatrics  2013;167(5):429-435.
Objective(s)
To characterize the epidemiology and identify risk factors for complications necessitating removal of peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) in children.
Design
Cohort study
Setting
The Johns Hopkins Children’s Center, Baltimore, Maryland.
Participants
Hospitalized children who had a PICC inserted outside of the neonatal ICU between January 1, 2003 and December 1, 2009.
Main Exposures
Age, PICC dwell time, PICC insertion site, PICC tip location, pediatric ICU exposure, indication for PICC insertion
Outcome Measures
Complications necessitating PICC removal as recorded by the PICC Team.
Results
During the study period, 2574 PICCs were placed in 1807 children. Complications necessitating catheter removal occurred in 20.8% of PICCs during 46,021 catheter days (11.6 complications per 1,000 catheter days). These included accidental dislodgement (4.6%), infection (4.3%), occlusion (3.6%), local infiltration (3.0%), leakage (1.5%), breaks (1.4%), phlebitis (1.2%) and thrombosis (0.5%). From 2003 to 2009 complications decreased by 15% per year (IRR 0.85; 95%CI 0.81-0.89). In adjusted analysis, all non-central PICC tip locations - midline (IRR 4.59, 95% CI 3.69-5.69), mid-clavicular (IRR 2.15, 95% CI 1.54-2.98), and other (IRR 3.26 95% CI 1.72-6.15) - compared to central tip location were associated with an increased risk of complications. Pediatric ICU exposure and age less than one year old were independently associated with complications necessitating PICC removal.
Conclusion(s)
Non-central PICC tip locations, younger age, and pediatric ICU exposure were independent risk factors for complications necessitating PICC removal. Despite reductions in PICC complications, further efforts are needed to prevent PICC-associated complications in children.
doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.775
PMCID: PMC3647026  PMID: 23549677
Catheter-Related infection; Pediatrics; Catheters; Epidemiology
9.  A retrospective study of central venous catheters GCRI experience 
Background:
The use of central venous catheters (CVCs) has greatly improved the quality-of-care in cancer patients, yet these catheters may cause serious infectious and thrombotic complications. The aim of this retrospective study was to study the various types of CVCs and their complications.
Materials and Methods:
We studied retrospectively 213 cases of CVCs in our institute with their indications, type and complications from August 2010 to July 2011.
Results:
A total of 213 CVCs were inserted in patients with hematological (62%) and solid organ malignancies (38%). Ninety-eight patients (46%) had peripheral inserted central catheter (PICC), 90 (42%) patients had Hickman catheters and 25 (12%) had a port. The median duration of retention of Hickman catheters was 104 days (3-365 days), for the peripherally inserted central catheters was 59 days (3-100 days) and for the port it was 280 days (45-365 days). Non-infective complications were more than infective (12% vs. 7%). The most common complication was non-infective occlusion and thrombophlebitis. In one patient with PICC thrombosis occurred in the cephalic, radial and ulnar vein and in one patient with port thrombosis occurred in the superior vena cava. Organisms were isolated in 60% (12 out of 20) of cultures. Common organisms isolated were Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 5 (42%), Staphylococcus aureus in 2 (16%), Escherichia coli in 2 (16%) and Aspergillus in 3 (25%) patients. 7 out of 12 infected patients had negative blood cultures within 7 days of antibiotic treatment, 5 patients remained positive for more than 7 days with antibiotics. In 155 patients (73%), the desired treatment protocol was completed and at present there are still 28 patients (13%) with catheters. 5 patients (2.3%) died of febrile neutropenia and septicemia with multi-organ failure. In 5 patients (2.3%), the catheters (1 Port, 1 Hickman and 3 PICC) were prematurely removed because of thrombosis.
Conclusion:
CVCs are better options to facilitate the long-term vascular access provided infection is prevented with meticulous care and treated promptly with proper antibiotics. Most CVCs is acceptable to patients.
doi:10.4103/0971-5851.125234
PMCID: PMC3932588  PMID: 24604950
Central venous catheter; chemo port; Hickman central venous catheter; peripheral inserted central catheter
10.  Peripherally inserted central catheter thrombosis incidence and risk factors in cancer patients: a double-center prospective investigation 
Background
Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are widely used in chemotherapy, but the reported PICC thrombosis incidence varies greatly, and risks of PICC thrombosis are not well defined. This study was to investigate the incidence and risk factors of PICC-related upper extremity vein thrombosis in cancer patients.
Methods
This was a prospective study conducted in two tertiary referral hospitals from May 2010 to February 2013. Cancer patients who were subject to PICC placement were enrolled and checked by Doppler ultrasound weekly for at least 1 month. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied for identification of risk factors.
Results
Three hundred and eleven cancer patients were enrolled in the study. One hundred and sixty (51.4%) developed PICC thrombosis, of which 87 (54.4%) cases were symptomatic. The mean time interval from PICC insertion to thrombosis onset was 11.04±5.538 days. The univariable logistic regression analysis showed that complications (odds ratio [OR] 1.686, P=0.032), less activity (OR 1.476, P=0.006), obesity (OR 3.148, P=0.000), and chemotherapy history (OR 3.405, P=0.030) were associated with PICC thrombosis. Multivariate analysis showed that less activity (OR 9.583, P=0.000) and obesity (OR 3.466, P=0.014) were significantly associated with PICC thrombosis.
Conclusions
The incidence of PICC thrombosis is relatively high, and nearly half are asymptomatic. Less activity and obesity are risk factors of PICC-related thrombosis.
doi:10.2147/TCRM.S73379
PMCID: PMC4321638
PICC; complication; clinical study; catheter-related thrombosis; upper extremity vein thrombosis
11.  Safety and Effectiveness of Central Venous Catheterization in Patients with Cancer: Prospective Observational Study 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(12):1748-1753.
This study investigated the safety and effectiveness of each type of central venous catheters (CVC) in patients with cancer. We prospectively enrolled patients with cancer who underwent catherization involving a subclavian venous catheter (SVC), peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC), or chemo-port (CP) in our department. From March 2007 to March 2009, 116 patients underwent 179 episodes of catherization. A SVC was inserted most frequently (46.4%). Fifty-four complications occurred (30.1%): infection in 23 cases, malpositioning or migration of the tip in 18 cases, thrombosis in eight cases, and bleeding in five cases. Malpositioning or migration of the tip occurred more frequently with a PICC (P<0.001); infection occurred more often with a tunneled catheter (P=0.028) and was observed more often in young patients (P=0.023). The catheter life span was longer for patients with solid cancer (P=0.002) than for those with hematologic cancer, with a CP (P<0.001) than a PICC or SVC, and for an indwelling catheter with image guidance (P=0.014) than a blind procedure. In conclusion, CP is an effective tool for long term use and the fixation of tip is important for the management of PICC.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.12.1748
PMCID: PMC2995228  PMID: 21165289
Catheterization, Central Venous; Complications; Neoplasms
12.  Catheter-related right atrial thrombus and pulmonary embolism: A case report and systematic review of the literature 
Central venous catheters (CVCs) are commonly used in clinical practice. One of the foremost complications associated with their use is the potential for symptomatic or asymptomatic thrombosis. CVC thrombosis, in turn, may not only result in vascular and catheter occlusion but also infection, pulmonary embolism, and formation of right heart thromboemboli. Thrombi within cardiac chambers are associated with an increased risk of mortality due to their potential for embolization to the pulmonary vasculature. We describe the case of a 77-year-old man, who was successfully thrombolyzed following detection of a right atrial thrombus and hemodynamically significant pulmonary embolism resulting from thrombus formation on the tip of a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC). The present article is the first report of a PICC-related right atrial thrombus in an adult treated with thrombolysis. A systematic review of the literature suggests that the true incidence of this complication may be underestimated because the diagnosis may not be considered in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients, or may be missed by transthoracic echocardiography. The present case highlights the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for thromboembolic complications and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in patients with CVCs or a PICC. It also underscores the important role of transesophageal echocardiography and thrombolysis in the diagnosis and management, respectively, of right heart thromboemboli with associated pulmonary embolism.
PMCID: PMC2779172  PMID: 19851535
Catheter; Echocardiography; Embolism; Heart; Thrombolysis
13.  Clinical experience with power-injectable PICCs in intensive care patients 
Critical Care  2012;16(1):R21.
Introduction
In the ICU, peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) may be an alternative option to standard central venous catheters, particularly in patients with coagulation disorders or at high risk for infection. Some limits of PICCs (such as low flow rates) may be overcome with the use of power-injectable catheters.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed all of the power-injectable PICCs inserted in adult and pediatric patients in the ICU during a 12-month period, focusing on the rate of complications at insertion and during maintenance.
Results
We collected 89 power-injectable PICCs (in adults and in children), both multiple and single lumen. All insertions were successful. There were no major complications at insertion and no episodes of catheter-related bloodstream infection. Non-infective complications during management were not clinically significant. There was one episode of symptomatic thrombosis during the stay in the ICU and one episode after transfer of a patient to a non-intensive ward.
Conclusion
Power-injectable PICCs have many advantages in the ICU: they can be used as multipurpose central lines for any type of infusion including high-flow infusion, for hemodynamic monitoring, and for high-pressure injection of contrast media during radiological procedures. Their insertion is successful in 100% of cases and is not associated with significant risks, even in patients with coagulation disorders. Their maintenance is associated with an extremely low rate of infective and non-infective complications.
doi:10.1186/cc11181
PMCID: PMC3396261  PMID: 22305301
14.  Bridging the Gap: A Collaborative to Reduce Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter Infections in the Home Care Environment 
The Ochsner Journal  2013;13(3):352-358.
Background
Ochsner Health System agreed to participate in a nationwide collaboration to reduce central line infections in our intensive care units. Our outpatient peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) infection rate was unacceptably high, so as an adjunct to the nationwide study we attempted to reduce PICC infections in the home care environment. Typically, home health nurses or outpatient infusion centers care for PICCs per protocol. However, no standardized protocol exists, and each facility may have a different way to care for PICCs, leading to varied and inconsistent maintenance.
Methods
Key members from our hospital, home health agencies, and an infusion company formulated a plan to reduce outpatient PICC infections. We hypothesized that the only way to reduce infections was to standardize line care and maintenance and to empower the patient to be an advocate for his or her care. The best avenue for achieving standardized care across multiple infusion companies and multiple home health agencies was to develop an order set for PICC care and dressing changes. We also developed a checklist for the nurse and the patient to complete together during dressing changes. The checklist and order set were linked to the hospital's home health discharge orders so that they would print automatically when the provider discharged the patient to home health care.
Results
Baseline data were collected from July 1, 2010, to June 30, 2011. During that time, the infusion company identified 20 PICC infections. In 20,773 line days, the infection rate was 0.963 per 1,000 line days. The new order sets and checklists were instituted on July 1, 2011. From July 1, 2011 through June 30, 2012, 11 PICC infections were identified with 21,021 line days. The calculated infection rate was 0.52 per 1,000 line days. PICC infections so far have been reduced by 46%.
Conclusion
By bridging the gap between inpatient and outpatient care, we reduced PICC infections by 46% in our home infusion patients. We accomplished this result through a collaborative partnership among hospital staff, an infusion company, and home health agencies and a standardized process for line care and maintenance using a PICC home care order set and a patient/nursing PICC care checklist.
PMCID: PMC3776510  PMID: 24052764
Home care services; infection control; PICC-peripherally inserted central catheter
15.  Central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit 
Context:
Central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients.
Aims:
This study was conducted to determine the incidence of central venous catheter-related infections (CRIs) and to identify the factors influencing it. So far, there are very few studies that have been conducted on CRBSI in the intensive care unit in India.
Settings and Design:
This was a prospective, observational study carried out in the medical intensive care unit (MICU) over a period of 1 year from January to December 2004.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 54 patients with indwelling central venous catheters of age group between 20 and 75 years were included. The catheters were cultured using the standard semiquantitative culture (SQC) method. Statistical analysis used SPSS-10 version statistical software.
Results:
A total of 54 CVC catheters with 319 catheter days were included in this study. Of 54 patients with CVCs studied for bacteriology, 39 (72.22%) catheters showed negative SQCs and also negative blood cultures. A total of 15 (27.77%) catheters were positive on SQC, of which 10 (18.52%) were with catheter-associated infection and four (7.41%) were with catheter-associated bacteremia; the remaining one was a probable catheter-associated bacteremia. CRIs were high among catheters that were kept in situ for more than 3 days and emergency procedures where two or more attempts were required for catheterization (P < 0.05). In multivariate analysis of covariance duration of catheter in situ for >3 days, inexperienced venupucturist, more number of attempts and emergency CVC were associated with more incidence of CVCBSIs, with P <0.02. The duration of catheter in situ was negatively correlated (-0.53) and number of attempts required to put CVC was positively correlated (+0.39) with incidence of CVCBSIs. Sixty-five percent of the isolates belonged to the CONS group (13/20). Staphylococcus epidermidis showed maximum susceptibility to amikacin, doxycycline and amoxycillin with clavulanic acid and was susceptible to vancomycin (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae was 100% susceptible to amikacin and ciprofloxacin. Escherichia coli was susceptible to amikacin and cefotaxime.
Conclusions:
The overall incidence of CRI was 27.77% (15/54). Catheter-associated BSIs were 47.31 per 1000 catheter-days. CRI was low in the catheters inserted by the experienced venipuncturists, elective procedure and CVC kept in situ for ≤3 days. S. epidermidis was the most common isolate.
doi:10.4103/0972-5229.92074
PMCID: PMC3271557  PMID: 22346032
Catheter-related infection; catheter-associated infection; semiquantitative culture
16.  Central venous catheter-related infection in a prospective and observational study of 2,595 catheters 
Critical Care  2005;9(6):R631-R635.
Introduction
Central venous catheterization is commonly used in critically ill patients and may cause different complications, including infection. Although there are many studies about CVC-related infection, very few have analyzed it in detail. The objective of this study was to analyze the incidence of catheter-related local infection (CRLI) and catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) with central venous catheters (CVCs) according to different access sites.
Methods
This is a prospective and observational study, conducted in a 24-bed medical surgical intensive care unit of a 650-bed university hospital. All consecutive patients admitted to the ICU during 3 years (1 May 2000 and 30 April 2003) were included.
Results
The study included 2,018 patients. The number of CVCs and days of catheterization duration were: global, 2,595 and 18,999; subclavian, 917 and 8,239; jugular, 1,390 and 8,361; femoral, 288 and 2,399. CRLI incidence density was statistically higher for femoral than for jugular (15.83 versus 7.65, p < 0.001) and subclavian (15.83 versus 1.57, p < 0.001) accesses, and higher for jugular than for subclavian access (7.65 versus 1.57, p < 0.001). CRBSI incidence density was statistically higher for femoral than for jugular (8.34 versus 2.99, p = 0.002) and subclavian (8.34 versus 0.97, p < 0.001) accesses, and higher for jugular than for subclavian access (2.99 versus 0.97, p = 0.005).
Conclusion
Our results suggest that the order for punction, to minimize the CVC-related infection risk, should be subclavian (first order), jugular (second order) and femoral vein (third order).
doi:10.1186/cc3824
PMCID: PMC1414031  PMID: 16280064
17.  Incidence of catheter-related complications in patients with central venous or hemodialysis catheters: a health care claims database analysis 
Background
Central venous catheter (CVC) and hemodialysis (HD) catheter usage are associated with complications that occur during catheter insertion, dwell period, and removal. This study aims to identify and describe the incidence rates of catheter-related complications in a large patient population in a United States-based health care claims database after CVC or HD catheter placement.
Methods
Patients in the i3 InVision DataMart® health care claims database with at least 1 CVC or HD catheter insertion claim were categorized into CVC or HD cohorts using diagnostic and procedural codes from the US Renal Data System, American College of Surgeons, and American Medical Association’s Physician Performance Measures. Catheter-related complications were identified using published diagnostic and procedural codes. Incidence rates (IRs)/1000 catheter-days were calculated for complications including catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs), thrombosis, embolism, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), major bleeding (MB), and mechanical catheter–related complications (MCRCs).
Results
Thirty percent of the CVC cohort and 54% of the HD cohort had catheter placements lasting <90 days. Catheter-related complications occurred most often during the first 90 days of catheter placement. IRs were highest for CRBSIs in both cohorts (4.0 [95% CI, 3.7-4.3] and 5.1 [95% CI, 4.7-5.6], respectively). Other IRs in CVC and HD cohorts, respectively, were thrombosis, 1.3 and 0.8; MCRCs, 0.6 and 0.7; embolism, 0.4 and 0.5; MB, 0.1 and 0.3; and ICH, 0.1 in both cohorts. Patients with cancer at baseline had significantly higher IRs for CRBSIs and thrombosis than non-cancer patients. CVC or HD catheter–related complications were most frequently seen in patients 16 years or younger.
Conclusions
The risk of catheter-related complications is highest during the first 90 days of catheter placement in patients with CVCs and HD catheters and in younger patients (≤16 years of age) with HD catheters. Data provided in this study can be applied toward improving patient care.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-13-86
PMCID: PMC4015481  PMID: 24131509
Adverse events; Bloodstream infections; Catheters; Catheter-related complication; Catheter-related thrombosis
18.  Characterization of Post-Hospital Infections in Adults Requiring Home Parenteral Nutrition 
Background
Limited data are available on the incidence and risk factors for infection among patients requiring home parenteral nutrition (HPN).
Methods
Retrospective study of 101 consecutive adults (63 female, 38 male) discharged on HPN from Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, GA. New bloodstream infections (BSI) requiring re-hospitalization and other infections were evaluated.
Results
Most infections (75%) developed during the initial 6 months after hospital discharge; rates of BSI were particularly high during the first four months. A total of 56 patients (55.4%) developed a total of 102 BSIs (11.5 BSI/1000 catheter-days). Most BSIs were attributed to Gram positive organisms (46%) including coagulase-negative staphylococcus, staphylococcus aureus, enterococcus species, and others, followed by Candida species (20%) and Gram negative organisms (13%). Twenty-one percent of BSIs were polymicrobial. The BSI incidence rate ratio (IRR) was significantly increased for patients with mean pre-hospital discharge blood glucose (BG) concentrations in the highest quartile versus the lowest quartile; IRR 2.4; P = 0.017). Patients with a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) versus non-PICC central venous catheters had significantly higher rates of BSI (p = 0.018). Thirty-nine (38.6%) patients developed 81 non-BSI infections, including pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and surgical site infections. Post-discharge PN dextrose, lipid, and total calorie doses were unrelated to BSI but variably related to the rate of non-BSI.
Conclusions
Adult HPN patients exhibit a very high incidence of post-hospital infections. Higher mean BG levels during pre-discharge hospitalization and use of PICCs at discharge are associated with an increased risk of BSI in the post-discharge home setting.
doi:10.1016/j.nut.2012.03.010
PMCID: PMC3505808  PMID: 22858199
Bloodstream infection; post-hospital infection; parenteral nutrition; risk factors
19.  Incidence and Acute Complications of Asymptomatic Central Venous Catheter–Related Deep Venous Thrombosis in Critically Ill Children 
The Journal of pediatrics  2012;162(2):387-391.
Objective
To determined the current incidence and acute complications of asymptomatic central venous catheter (CVC)-related deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in critically ill children.
Study design
We performed a prospective cohort study in 3 pediatric intensive care units. A total of 101 children with newly inserted untunneled CVC were included. CVC-related DVT was diagnosed using compression ultrasonography with color Doppler.
Results
Asymptomatic CVC-related DVT was diagnosed in 16 (15.8%) children, which equated to 24.7 cases per 1000 CVC-days. Age was independently associated with DVT. Compared with children aged <1 year, children aged >13 years had significantly higher odds of DVT (aOR, 14.1, 95% CI, 1.9–105.8; P = .01). Other patient demographics, interventions (including anticoagulant use), and CVC characteristics did not differ between children with and without DVT. Mortality-adjusted duration of mechanical ventilation, a surrogate for pulmonary embolism, was statistically similar in the 2 groups (22 ± 9 days in children with DVT vs 23 ± 7 days in children without DVT; P = .34). Mortality-adjusted intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay also were similar in the 2 groups.
Conclusion
Asymptomatic CVC-related DVT is common in critically ill children. However, the acute complications do not seem to differ between children with and without DVT. Larger studies are needed to confirm these results. Future studies should also investigate the chronic complications of asymptomatic CVC-related DVT.
doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.06.059
PMCID: PMC3575007  PMID: 22883418
20.  The microbiological and clinical outcome of guide wire exchanged versus newly inserted antimicrobial surface treated central venous catheters 
Critical Care  2013;17(5):R184.
Introduction
The management of suspected central venous catheter (CVC)-related sepsis by guide wire exchange (GWX) is not recommended. However, GWX for new antimicrobial surface treated (AST) triple lumen CVCs has never been studied. We aimed to compare the microbiological outcome of triple lumen AST CVCs inserted by GWX (GWX-CVCs) with newly inserted triple lumen AST CVCs (NI-CVCs).
Methods
We studied a cohort of 145 consecutive patients with GWX-CVCs and contemporaneous site-matched control cohort of 163 patients with NI-CVCs in a tertiary intensive care unit (ICU).
Results
GWX-CVC and NI-CVC patients were similar for mean age (58.7 vs. 62.2 years), gender (88 (60.7%) vs. 98 (60.5%) male) and illness severity on admission (mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III: 71.3 vs. 72.2). However, GWX patients had longer median ICU lengths of stay (12.2 vs. 4.4 days; P < 0.001) and median hospital lengths of stay (30.7 vs. 18.0 days; P < 0.001). There was no significant difference with regard to the number of CVC tips with bacterial or fungal pathogen colonization among GWX-CVCs vs. NI-CVCs (5 (2.5%) vs. 6 (7.4%); P = 0.90). Catheter-associated blood stream infection (CA-BSI) occurred in 2 (1.4%) GWX patients compared with 3 (1.8%) NI-CVC patients (P = 0.75). There was no significant difference in hospital mortality (35 (24.1%) vs. 48 (29.4%); P = 0.29).
Conclusions
GWX-CVCs and NI-CVCs had similar rates of tip colonization at removal, CA-BSI and mortality. If the CVC removed by GWX is colonized, a new CVC must then be inserted at another site. In selected ICU patients at higher central vein puncture risk receiving AST CVCs GWX may be an acceptable initial approach to line insertion.
doi:10.1186/cc12867
PMCID: PMC4057507  PMID: 24004883
central venous catheters; catheter related blood stream infection; sepsis; bacteraemia; intensive care; Gram negative bacteria
21.  The use of minocycline-rifampin coated central venous catheters for exchange of catheters in the setting of staphylococcus aureus central line associated bloodstream infections 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2014;14(1):518.
Background
Central venous catheters (CVC) removal and reinsertion of a new CVC in the setting of central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) is not always possible in septic patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of patients with Staphylococcus aureus-CLABSI (SA-CLABSI) who had their CVCs exchanged over guidewire for minocycline/rifampin-coated (M/R)-CVC within seven days of bacteremia.
Methods
Each case was matched with two control patients who had SA-CLABSI and had their CVC removed within seven days and two control patients who had their CVC retained beyond seven days. In addition, an in vitro model was developed for exchange of catheters.
Results
We identified 40 patients with SA-CLABSI. Eight patients had their CVC exchanged over guidewire with M/R-CVC and were compared to 16 patients who had their CVC removed and 16 other patients who had their CVC retained. Patients who had their CVC exchanged over guidewire had a similar clinical response and relapse rates compared to patients whose CVC was removed or retained. However the rate of overall mortality was higher in patients who retained their CVC compared to those whose CVC was exchanged or removed (p = 0.034). The in vitro catheter exchange model showed that catheter exchange over guidewire using M/R-CVC completely prevented biofilm colonization compared to exchange using uncoated CVC (p < 0.0001).
Conclusions
In the setting of SA-CLABSI, exchanging the CVC over guidewire with M/R-CVC could be an alternative to removing the CVC and reinserting another CVC at a different site and may be associated with a lower rate of overall mortality. Further large prospective randomized clinical trials are warranted.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-518
PMCID: PMC4261544  PMID: 25253042
Central venous catheters; Staphylococcus aureus; Central line associated bloodstream infections
22.  Mechanical and infectious complications of central venous catheterizations in a tertiary-level intensive care unit in northern India 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2012;56(4):376-381.
Background:
Central venous catheters (CVC) are associated with mechanical, infectious and thrombotic complications.
Aims:
To study (a) the incidence of mechanical and infectious complications of CVC insertions and to compare, (b) the rates of these complications between the internal jugular venous (IJV) and the subclavian venous (SCV) accesses.
Settings and Design:
An adult intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital. Prospective, observational study.
Methods:
All landmark-based CVC insertions performed between 1st October 2008 and 30th September 2009 were prospectively studied for mechanical and infectious complications.
Statistical Analysis:
SPSS software for Windows, Version SPSS 16.0, and Epi Info (3.5.1) software.
Results:
Four hundred and eighty central venous catheterizations were studied (IJV route, 241 and SCV route, 239). Mechanical complications occurred in 86 patients (17.9%, bleeding complications-48, catheter-related complications-27 and pneumothorax-11). The IJV route was associated with a significantly higher incidence of bleeding complications (P=0.009). Forty-seven patients had infectious complications (9.79%), like exit site infections (n=17), catheter tip infections (n=22) and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) (n=8). The risks of infectious complications increased significantly if the CVC was in situ for longer than 7 days (P=0.009), especially with IJV cannulae. The incidence density of CVC tip infections was 7.67 per 1000 catheter days and of CRBSIs was 2.79 per 1000 catheter days.
Conclusions:
Bleeding complications occurred more frequently with IJV insertions and infectious complications occurred more commonly in cannulae that were left in situ for longer than 7 days.
doi:10.4103/0019-5049.100823
PMCID: PMC3469917  PMID: 23087461
Central venous catheterization; infectious complications; intensive care unit; mechanical complications
23.  Upper Extremity Venous Thrombosis in Patients With Cancer With Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheters: A Retrospective Analysis of Risk Factors 
Journal of Oncology Practice  2012;9(1):e8-e12.
Specific factors significantly increase the risk of upper extremity venous thrombosis in patients with cancer with PICCs, whereas use of anti-platelet agents seems to have a protective effect against it.
Purpose:
Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are often used in place of mediport catheters because of cost and lack of operating room time and to prevent delays in therapy. One common complication associated with their use is upper extremity venous thrombosis (UEVT). The purpose of this study was to ascertain risk factors associated with an increased risk of PICC-associated UEVT in patients with cancer.
Methods:
Retrospective analysis identified 237 patients with cancer who received PICCs at the Dallas Veterans Affairs Medical Center from 2006 to 2009. We analyzed many risk factors, including PICC infection (PI), use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), antiplatelet agents (APAs), treatment dose anticoagulation (TDA), and bevacizumab.
Results:
Of 237 patients, 36 (15%) were found to have UEVT. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed risk factors positively associated with UEVT were use of ESAs (odds ratio [OR], 10.66; 95% CI, 2.25 to 50.49), hospitalization (OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.05 to 5.39), PI (OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.03 to 5.86), and TDA (OR, 8.34; 95% CI, 2.98 to 23.33), whereas patients receiving APAs had a lower risk of UEVT (OR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.92).
Conclusion:
Specific factors significantly increase the risk of UEVT in patients with cancer with PICCs, whereas use of APAs seems to have a protective effect against UEVT. These results may aid in the development of a predictive model for identifying patients at high risk of UEVT who may benefit from APAs, as well as in determining preventive strategies for reducing the risk of PICC-associated UEVT.
doi:10.1200/JOP.2012.000595
PMCID: PMC3545673  PMID: 23633980
24.  Central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections occurring in Canadian intensive care units: A six-month cohort study 
Objective
To determine the rate and risk factors associated with central venous catheter (CVC)-associated bloodstream infections (BSIs) in Canadian intensive care units (ICUs).
Design
A prospective, active six-month cohort with a nested case-control study.
Setting
Forty-one ICUs located in 19 Canadian hospitals.
Methods
Data were collected using a standardized format on all CVCs and patients when a CVC was inserted for more than 48 h. Results of microbiological studies and therapeutic interventions were recorded when a BSI occurred.
Results
There were 182 BSIs from 3696 CVC insertions in 2531 patients. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were responsible for 73% of the BSIs. Mean rates of CVC-associated BSIs per 1000 CVC days were 6.9, 6.8 and 5.0 in adult, neonatal and pediatric ICUs, respectively. Significant factors associated with BSI included duration of CVC insertion (OR=1.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.3), receiving total parenteral nutrition (OR=4.1, 95% CI 1.2 to 14.3) and having one or more CVCs (OR=3.1, 95% CI 1.5 to 6.5). In the case-control study, 80% of the variance in a backward elimination logistic regression analysis was explained by duration of CVC insertion (OR=1.2 per day), receiving chemotherapy (OR=6.1), more than one CVC insertion during the study (OR=3.5), insertion of a CVC with two or more lumens (OR=2.3), using the CVC to administer total parenteral nutrition (OR=1.6) and having a surgical wound other than a clean wound (OR=1.6).
Conclusion
The present study identified risk factors explaining 80% of the variance associated with BSIs and is one of the largest reports on the rate of CVC-associated BSIs occurring in the ICU setting.
PMCID: PMC2095065  PMID: 18418495
Bacteremia; Central venous catheter; Intensive care unit; Risk factor
25.  An in vitro study comparing a peripherally inserted central catheter to a conventional central venous catheter: no difference in static and dynamic pressure transmission 
BMC Anesthesiology  2010;10:18.
Background
Early goal directed therapy improves survival in patients with septic shock. Central venous pressure (CVP) monitoring is essential to guide adequate resuscitation. Use of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) is increasing, but little data exists comparing a PICC to a conventional CVP catheter. We studied the accuracy of a novel PICC to transmit static and dynamic pressures in vitro.
Methods
We designed a device to generate controlled pressures via a column of water allowing simultaneous measurements from a PICC and a standard triple lumen catheter. Digital transducers were used to obtain all pressure readings. Measurements of static pressures over a physiologic range were recorded using 5Fr and 6Fr dual lumen PICCs. Additionally, random repetitive pressure pulses were applied to the column of water to simulate physiologic intravascular pressure variations. The resultant PICC and control waveforms were recorded simultaneously.
Results
Six-hundred thirty measurements were made using the 5 Fr and 6 Fr PICCs. The average bias determined by Bland-Altman plot was 0.043 mmHg for 5 Fr PICC and 0.023 mmHg for 6 Fr PICC with a difference range of 1.0 to -1.0. The correlation coefficient for both catheters was 1.0 (p-value < 0.001). Dynamic pressure waveforms plotted simultaneously between PICC and control revealed equal peaks and troughs.
Conclusion
In vitro, no static or dynamic pressure differences were found between the PICC and a conventional CVP catheter. Clinical studies are required to assess whether the novel PICC has bedside equivalence to conventional catheters when measuring central venous pressures.
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-10-18
PMCID: PMC2964716  PMID: 20939919

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