Although the correlation coefficient between body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (%BF) or waist circumference (WC) has been reported, studies conducted among population-based schoolchildren to date have been limited in Japan, where %BF and WC are not usually measured in annual health examinations at elementary schools or junior high schools. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of BMI to %BF and WC and to examine the influence of gender and obesity on these relationships among Japanese schoolchildren.
Subjects included 3,750 schoolchildren from the fourth and seventh grade in Ina-town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan between 2004 and 2008. Information about subject's age, sex, height, weight, %BF, and WC was collected from annual physical examinations. %BF was measured with a bipedal biometrical impedance analysis device. Obesity was defined by the following two criteria: the obese definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the definition of obesity for Japanese children. Pearson's correlation coefficients between BMI and %BF or WC were calculated separately for sex.
Among fourth graders, the correlation coefficients between BMI and %BF were 0.74 for boys and 0.97 for girls, whereas those between BMI and WC were 0.94 for boys and 0.90 for girls. Similar results were observed in the analysis of seventh graders. The correlation coefficient between BMI and %BF varied by physique (obese or non-obese), with weaker correlations among the obese regardless of the definition of obesity; most correlation coefficients among obese boys were less than 0.5, whereas most correlations among obese girls were more than 0.7. On the other hand, the correlation coefficients between BMI and WC were more than 0.8 among boys and almost all coefficients were more than 0.7 among girls, regardless of physique.
BMI was positively correlated with %BF and WC among Japanese schoolchildren. The correlations could be influenced by obesity as well as by gender. Accordingly, it is essential to consider gender and obesity when using BMI as a surrogate for %BF and WC for epidemiological use.
This study investigated the relationship between eating behavior and childhood overweight among population-based elementary schoolchildren in Japan. Data was collected from fourth graders (9 or 10 years of age) from Ina Town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan from 1999 to 2009. Information about subjects’ sex, age, and lifestyle, including eating behaviors (eating until full and chewing thoroughly), was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire, and height and weight were measured directly. Overweight was determined according to the definition established by the International Obesity Task Force. Data from 4027 subjects (2079 boys and 1948 girls) were analyzed. Chewing thoroughly was associated with a significantly decreased odds ratio (OR) for being overweight, whereas eating until full significantly increased the OR for being overweight (OR: 1.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.16–1.94) among boys. However, eating until full was not associated with a significantly increased OR for being overweight among the group that reported chewing thoroughly, whereas it was associated with a significantly increased OR for being overweight (2.02, 1.38–2.94) among boys who did not chew thoroughly. In conclusion, eating until full or not chewing thoroughly was associated with being overweight among elementary schoolchildren. Results of this study suggest that chewing thoroughly may be an avenue to explore childhood overweight prevention efforts.
eating behavior; overweight; children; eating until full; chewing
Although several studies have investigated the relationship between the number of siblings or birth order and childhood overweight, the results are inconsistent. In addition, little is known about the impact of having older or younger siblings on overweight among elementary schoolchildren. The present population-based study investigated the relationship of the number of siblings and birth order with childhood overweight and evaluated the impact of having younger or older siblings on childhood overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Japan.
Subjects comprised fourth-grade schoolchildren (age, 9–10 years) in Ina Town during 1999–2009. Information about subjects’ sex, age, birth weight, birth order, number of siblings, lifestyle, and parents’ age, height, and weight was collected by a self-administered questionnaire, while measurements of subjects’ height and weight were done at school. Childhood overweight was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. A logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of "number of siblings" or "birth order" for overweight.
Data from 4026 children were analyzed. Only children (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.45-3.14) and youngest children (1.56, 1.13-2.16) significantly increased ORs for overweight compared with middle children. A larger number of siblings decreased the OR for overweight (P for trend < 0.001). Although there was no statistically significant relationship between a larger number of older siblings and overweight, a larger number of younger siblings resulted in a lower OR for overweight (P for trend < 0.001).
Being an only or youngest child was associated with childhood overweight, and having a larger number of younger siblings was negatively associated with overweight. The present study suggests that public health interventions to prevent childhood overweight need to focus on children from these family backgrounds.
Sibling; Birth-order; Childhood overweight; Public health
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
Studies have shown a strong association between excess weight and risk of incident diabetes in Iranian women. Therefore, we investigated anthropometric indices in the prediction of diabetes in Iranian women.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS:
We examined 2801 females aged ≥220 years (mean [SD] age, 45.2 [12.9] years) in an Iranian urban population who were non-diabetic or had abnormal glucose tolerance at baseline. We estimated the predictive value of central obesity parameters (waist circumference [WC], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], waist-to-height ratio [WHtR], body mass index [BMI]) in the prediction of diabetes. We classified each parameter in quartiles and compared the lowest with the highest quartile after adjusting for confounding variables, including age, hypertension, triglyceride levels, HDL-cholesterol, family history of diabetes, and abnormal glucose tolerance in a multivariate model. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine the predictive power of each variable.
Over a median follow up of 3.5 years (11 months-6.3 years), 114 individuals developed diabetes (4.1%). The risk for developing diabetes was significantly higher for the highest quartile of BMI, WC, WHR and WHtR, respectively, compared to the lowest quartile, and the risk decreased but remained statistically significant when abnormal glucose tolerance was included in the multivariate model. WHtR had the highest area under the ROC curve.
In Iranian women, BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR were predictive of development of type 2 diabetes, but WHtR was a better predictor than BMI.
Central obesity has been associated with the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease in children and anthropometric indices predictive of central obesity include waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-height ratio (WHtR). South Asian children have higher body fat distribution in the trunk region but the literature regarding WC and related indices is scarce in this region. The study was aimed to provide age- and gender-specific WC, WHR and WHtR smoothed percentiles, and to explore prevalence and correlates of central obesity, among Pakistani children aged five to twelve years.
A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage random cluster sample of 1860 primary school children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed percentile curves were constructed for WC, WHR and WHtR by the LMS method. Central obesity was defined as having both age- and gender-specific WC percentile ≥90th and WHtR ≥0.5. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Multivariate logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors of central obesity and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% CI were obtained. Linear regression was used to explore the independent determinants of WC and WHtR. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05.
First ever age- and gender-specific smoothed WC, WHR and WHtR reference curves for Pakistani children aged five to twelve years are presented. WC increased with age among both boys and girls. Fiftieth WC percentile curves for Pakistani children were higher as compared to those for Hong Kong and British children, and were lower as compared to those for Iranian, German and Swiss children. WHR showed a plateau pattern among boys while plateau among girls until nine years of age and decreased afterwards. WHtR was age-independent among both boys and girls, and WHtR cut-off of ≥0.5 for defining central obesity corresponded to 85th WHtR percentile irrespective of age and gender. Twelve percent children (95% CI 10.1-13.0) had a WC ≥90th percentile and 16.5% children (95% CI 14.7-18.1) had a WHtR ≥0.5 while 11% children (95% CI 8.9-11.6) had both WC ≥90th percentile and WHtR ≥0.5. Significant predictors of central obesity included higher grade, urban area with high socioeconomic status (SES), high-income neighborhood and higher parental education. Children studying in higher grade (aOR 5.11, 95% CI 1.76-14.85) and those living in urban area with high SES (aOR 82.34, 95% CI 15.76-430.31) showed a significant independent association. Urban area with high SES and higher parental education showed a significant independent association with higher WC and higher WHtR while higher grade showed a significant independent association with higher WC.
Comprehensive worldwide reference values are needed to define central obesity and the present study is the first one to report anthropometric indices predictive of central obesity for Pakistani school-aged children. Eleven percent children were centrally obese and strong predictors included higher grade, urban area with high SES and higher parental education. These findings support the need for developing a National strategy for childhood obesity and implementing targeted interventions, prioritizing the higher social class and involving communities.
Background and Objectives:
Anthropometric variables and their relation to conventional coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors in railway employees have been inadequately studied in India. This cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Solapur division of the Central railway in the year 2004, to assess the anthropometric variables in railway employees and their relation to conventional CAD risk factors.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 995 railway employees, with 872 males and 123 females participated in this cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, fasting lipid profile, and blood sugar level. Various anthropometric indices were calculated for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and abdominal volume index (AVI). Statistical analysis was done by EPI Info 6 statistical software.
Compared to all other obesity indices, WHtR was most prevalent in both genders. High WHtR was present in 699 (80.16%) males and 103 (83.73%) females. Age ≥45 years, high systolic BP, high diastolic BP, low HDL, high triglyceride, and diabetes mellitus were positively correlated with high BMI, high WC, high WHR, high WHtR, and high AVI. High BMI, high WC, high WHR, high WHtR, and high AVI were negatively associated with physical inactivity.
Over all, anthropometric variables in both genders were significantly deranged in subjects with coronary risk factors. Compared to all other anthropometric variables, WHtR was statistically significantly associated with a majority of coronary artery risk factors. Hence we recommend inclusion of WHtR as a parameter of obesity to predict coronary artery disease risk factor along with WC, WHR, and BMI in epidemiologic studies.
Anthropometric variables; abdominal volume index; body mass index; waist circumference; waist-to-hip ratio; waist-to-height ratio
Body Mass Index (BMI) is widely used to assess the impact of obesity on cardiometabolic risk in children but it does not always relate to central obesity and varies with growth and maturation. Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR) is a relatively constant anthropometric index of abdominal obesity across different age, sex or racial groups. However, information is scant on the utility of WHtR in assessing the status of abdominal obesity and related cardiometabolic risk profile among normal weight and overweight/obese children, categorized according to the accepted BMI threshold values.
Cross-sectional cardiometabolic risk factor variables on 3091 black and white children (56% white, 50% male), 4-18 years of age were used. Based on the age-, race- and sex-specific percentiles of BMI, the children were classified as normal weight (5th - 85th percentiles) and overweight/obese (≥ 85th percentile). The risk profiles of each group based on the WHtR (<0.5, no central obesity versus ≥ 0.5, central obesity) were compared.
9.2% of the children in the normal weight group were centrally obese (WHtR ≥0.5) and 19.8% among the overweight/obese were not (WHtR < 0.5). On multivariate analysis the normal weight centrally obese children were 1.66, 2.01, 1.47 and 2.05 times more likely to have significant adverse levels of LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin, respectively. In addition to having a higher prevalence of parental history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the normal weight central obesity group showed a significantly higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (p < 0.0001). In the overweight/obese group, those without central obesity were 0.53 and 0.27 times less likely to have significant adverse levels of HDL cholesterol and HOMA-IR, respectively (p < 0.05), as compared to those with central obesity. These overweight/obese children without central obesity also showed significantly lower prevalence of parental history of hypertension (p = 0.002), type 2 diabetes mellitus (p = 0.03) and metabolic syndrome (p < 0.0001).
WHtR not only detects central obesity and related adverse cardiometabolic risk among normal weight children, but also identifies those without such conditions among the overweight/obese children, which has implications for pediatric primary care practice.
To delineate the associations of total adiponectin, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, and the HMW-to-total adiponectin ratio with diabetes in older adults.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Total and HMW adiponectin were measured in a population-based study of older adults. The relations of total adiponectin, HMW adiponectin, and their ratio with incident diabetes (n = 309) were assessed in 3,802 individuals.
Total and HMW adiponectin were highly correlated (r = 0.94). Analysis using cubic splines revealed that the associations between total and HMW adiponectin and new-onset diabetes were not linear. Specifically, after adjustment for confounders, there were similar inverse relationships for total (hazard ratio per SD 0.49 [95% CI 0.39–0.63]) and HMW adiponectin (0.42 [0.32–0.56]) with diabetes up to values of 20 and 10 mg/L, respectively, above which the associations plateaued. These associations persisted after adjustment for potential mediators (blood pressure, lipids, C-reactive protein, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]). There was, however, evidence of interaction by HOMA-IR in the lower range of adiponectin, with stronger inverse associations among insulin-sensitive than insulin-resistant participants. HMW-to-total adiponectin ratio showed a linear adjusted association with outcome, but this was abolished by inclusion of mediating variables.
In this older cohort, increasing concentrations of total and HMW adiponectin were associated with comparably lower risks of diabetes, but these associations leveled off with further increases above concentrations of 20 and 10 mg/L, respectively. The more pronounced risk decreases at the lower range among participants without insulin resistance support a role for adiponectin that is independent of baseline hyperinsulinemia, but this will require further investigation.
Recent data indicate increasing rates of adult obesity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Greece. No data, however, are available on prevalence of overweight and obesity in relation to CVD risk factors among young adults in Greece.
A total of 989 third-year medical students (527 men, 462 women), aged 22 ± 2 years, were recruited from the University of Crete during the period 1989–2001. Anthropometric measures and blood chemistries were obtained. The relationships between obesity indices (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], waist-to-hip ratio [WHpR], waist-to-height ratio [WHtR]) and CVD risk factor variables (blood pressure, glucose, serum lipoproteins) were investigated.
Approximately 40% of men and 23% of women had BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2. Central obesity was found in 33.4% (average percentage corresponding to WC ≥ 90 cm, WHpR ≥ 0.9 and WHtR ≥ 50.0) of male and 21.7% (using WC ≥ 80 cm, WHpR ≥ 0.8, WHtR ≥ 50.0) of female students. Subjects above the obesity indices cut-offs had significantly higher values of CVD risk factor variables. BMI was the strongest predictor of hypertension. WHtR in men and WC in women were the most important indicators of dyslipidaemia.
A substantial proportion of Greek medical students were overweight or obese, obesity status being related to the presence of hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Simple anthropometric indices can be used to identify these CVD risk factors. Our results underscore the need to implement health promotion programmes and perform large-scale epidemiological studies within the general Greek young adult population.
Increased visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) are associated with increased metabolic risk. Clinical and DXA body composition measures that are associated with VAT are generally even more strongly associated with subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) reflecting general adiposity, and thus are not specific for VAT. Measures more strongly associated with VAT than SAT (thus more specific for VAT), and predictors of IMCL have not been reported.
We studied 30 girls 12-18 years; 15 obese, 15 normal-weight. The following were assessed: (1) anthropometric measures: waist circumference at the umbilicus and iliac crest (WC-UC and WC-IC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), (2) DXA measures: total fat, percent body fat (PBF), percent trunk fat (PTF), trunk-to-extremity fat ratio (TEFR), (3) MRI and 1H-MRS: VAT and SAT (L4-L5), soleus-IMCL.
Group as a whole: WC, trunk fat and PBF were more strongly associated with SAT than VAT; none were specific for VAT. In contrast, PTF and TEFR were more significantly associated with VAT (r = 0.83 and 0.81 respectively, p <0.0001 for both) than SAT (r = 0.77 and 0.75, p < 0.0001 for both). Strongest associations of S-IMCL were with WHR (r = 0.66, p = 0.0004). Subgroup analysis: In obese girls, WHR and WHtR were more strongly correlated with VAT (r = 0.62 and 0.82, p = 0.04 and 0.001) than SAT (r = 0.41 and 0.73, p not significant and 0.007), and for DXA measures, PTF and TEFR were more significantly associated with VAT (r = 0.70 and 0.72, p = 0.007 and 0.006) than SAT (r = 0.52 and 0.53, p = 0.07 and 0.06). In controls, PTF and TEFR were more strongly correlated with VAT (r = 0.79, p = 0.0004 for both) than SAT (r = 0.71 and 0.72, p = 0.003 for both). WHR was associated with IMCL in obese girls (r = 0.78, p = 0.008), but not controls.
Overall, WHR (anthropometry), and PTF and TEFR (DXA) are good surrogates for IMCL and for visceral fat respectively in adolescent girls.
Obesity is an independent and modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and known as a core of the metabolic syndrome. Obesity has been largely diagnosed based upon anthrompometric measurements like waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI). We sought to determine associations between anthropometric measurements and dyslipidemia in a community adult sample composed of 1,032 community residents (356 men, 676 women) aged 50 yr and over in Namwon, Korea. Blood tests for lipid profiles, including total cholesterol (TC) and HDL cholesterol (HDL) were performed, and dyslipidemia was defined as TC/HDL greater than 4. Anthropometric measurements included WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-hip ratio, and BMI. All anthropometric measures were categorized into quartiles and evaluated for associations with dyslipidemia. TC/HDL showed the significant associations with the anthropometric measures, independently of potential confounders. In women, increases of obesity indexes by quartile analyses showed linear increases of odds ratios for dyslipidemia (p values <0.01 by trend test). In men, except BMI, same patterns of association were noted. WC and WHtR were significantly associated with dyslipidemia in Korean adult population. As a simple and non-invasive method for a detection of obesity and dyslipidemia, anthropometric measurements could be efficiently used in clinical and epidemiologic fields.
Anthropometry; Waist Circumference; Body Mass Index; Hyperlipidemia; Population
Objective. To investigate the anthropometric indicators that can effectively predict the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods. The height, body weight, waist and hip circumference were measured, and body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height (WHtR) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. M-H chi square test, logistic regression analysis, and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve were employed for the analysis of risk factors. Patients or Materials. 490 patients were recruited, of whom 250 were diagnosed as NAFLD and 240 as non-NAFLD (control group). Results. Compared with the control group, the BMI, WHR, and WHtR were significantly higher in patients with NAFLD. Logistic regression analysis showed that BMI and WHR were effective prognostic factors of NAFLD. In addition, WHR plays a more important role in prediction of NAFLD by the area under curve. Conclusion. WHR is closely related to the occurrence of NAFLD. We assume that WHR is beneficial for the diagnosis NAFLD.
Background and Purpose
Although both general and abdominal adiposity are well-established risk factors for coronary heart disease, their associations with stroke are less well characterized, particularly in generally lean Asian populations.
We evaluated associations of body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference (WC), and waist-height ratio (WHtR) with stroke risk in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study, a population-based, prospective cohort study of 74 942 Chinese women aged 40–70 years with anthropometric measurement taken at recruitment in 1996–2000. For this analysis, we included 67 083 women with no prior history of stroke, coronary heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiac surgery, or cancer at recruitment. Incident stroke was ascertained by biennial home visits and linkage with vital statistics registries.
Cutpoints for the highest quintiles of BMI, WHR, WC, and WHtR among this cohort were 26.6 (kg/m2), 0.85 (cm/cm), 84.1 (cm), and 0.54 (cm/cm), respectively. During a mean follow-up of 7.3 years, 2403 incident stroke cases were identified. All selected anthropometric measurements were positively and significantly associated with risk of total, ischemic, and hemorrhagic stroke in a dose-response manner (all P values for trend <0.01). The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for total stroke comparing the highest vs. lowest quintiles of these measurements were 1.71 (1.49–1.97), 1.59 (1.37–1.85), 1.77 (1.53–2.05), and 1.91 (1.61–2.27) for BMI, WHR, WC, and WHtR, respectively.
Increasing levels of general or abdominal adiposity consistently predict increased risk of stroke in predominantly non-obese Chinese women.
adiposity; stroke; women
The high blood lipid levels and obesity are one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and the atherosclerotic process begins in childhood. Some environmental factors are supposed to be involved in this relationship, such as dietary factors. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between dietary intake and blood lipids levels in overweight and obese schoolchildren.
This is a cross-sectional study with 147 overweight and obese schoolchildren in Botucatu city, Brazil. The anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference and skinfolds), pubertal staging evaluation and biochemical tests were taken in all children. Three 24h-recall were applied in order to estimate the dietary intake and its relationship with blood lipid levels. The Student t test and multiple linear regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was assessed at the level of 0.05. The data were processed in SAS software (version 9.1.3; SAS Institute).
At this study, 63% of children were obese (body mass index higher than 95th percentile) and 80% showed high body fat percentage. The percentage of children with abnormal total cholesterol and triglycerides was 12% and 10%, respectively, and 28% presented at least one abnormal lipid levels. The average values of anthropometric measurements were higher in children with elevated lipid levels. Total cholesterol levels were positively related to full-fat dairy products and triglycerides levels to saturated fat percentage.
Saturated fat was positively associated with elevated lipid levels in overweight and obese schoolchildren. These results reinforce the importance of healthy dietary habits since childhood in order to reduce the risks of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood.
Body mass index; Schoolchildren; Food consumption; Blood lipid
To determine cutoff values for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) as indicators of metabolic abnormalities in the adult Jordanian population.
A structured questionnaire was administered to collect relevant information. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical measurements were carried out. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses were used to examine the overall discriminatory power of the four anthropometric indices.
WC cutoff values varied from 88.5 to 91.8 cm in men and from 84.5 to 88.5 cm in women. The BMI cutoff values varied from 26.2 to 27.2 kg/m2 in men and from 27.2 to 30.0 kg/m2 in women. The WHR cutoff values varied from 0.88 to 0.90 in men and from 80.0 to 0.83 in women. The WHtR cutoff values varied from 0.50 to 0.51 in men and women. Of all anthropometric indices, WHtR had the strongest association with each metabolic abnormality in men and women.
BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR were found to be associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors, with WHtR being the better predictor. We recommend that health care professionals use WHtR, with a cutoff value of 0.5 for screening and counseling Jordanian people.
anthropometric indices; metabolic abnormalities; receiver-operating characteristic curve; cutoff values; Jordan
The study examined changes in and relationship between body mass index (BMI), leptin and adiponectin levels over a 3-year period in a pediatric population-based cohort.
A 3-year prospective cohort study of 268 boys and 251 girls aged 9–10 in Ina, Saitama, Japan.
Median body mass index (BMI) significantly increased from baseline (age 9–10) to follow up (age 12–13) in boys from 17.1 to 18.3 kg/m2 (P < 0.001) and in girls from 16.5 to 18.5 kg/m2 (P < 0.001), respectively. Adiponectin values significantly decreased from baseline to follow up in boys (13.5 to 8.9 μg/ml, respectively) (P < 0.001) and in girls (12.4 to 9.5 μg/ml, respectively) (P < 0.001). Leptin values at follow up significantly decreased from baseline in boys (4.9 to 2.3 ng/dl, respectively) (P < 0.001) and also in girls (5.3 to 5.1 ng/dl, respectively) (P = 0.049).
A relatively strong correlation was seen in BMI (Spearman's correlation coefficient, r = 0.864, P < 0.001 in boys; r = 0.873, P < 0.001 in girls), adiponectin (r = 0.705, P < 0.001 in boys; r = 0.695, P < 0.001 in girls), and leptin (r = 0.449, P < 0.001 in boys; r = 0.610, P < 0.001 in girls) before and after the three-year period.
The ratio of follow up to baseline BMI was negatively correlated with that for adiponectin (r = -0.224, P < 0.001 in boys; r = -0.165, P = 0.001 in girls) and positively correlated with that for leptin (r = 0.518, P < 0.001 in boys; r = 0.609, P < 0.001 in girls).
This study demonstrated that baseline adiponectin, leptin and BMI values measured at ages 9–10 correlated with those measured three years later. However, adiponectin values decreased and leptin values increased in those subjects whose BMI increased during over this period.
Distribution of body fat is more important than the amount of fat as a prognostic factor for life expectancy. Despite that, body mass index (BMI) still holds its status as the most used indicator of obesity in clinical work.
We assessed the association of five different anthropometric measures with mortality in general and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in particular using Cox proportional hazards models. Predictive properties were compared by computing integrated discrimination improvement and net reclassification improvement for two different prediction models. The measures studied were BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). The study population was a prospective cohort of 62,223 Norwegians, age 20–79, followed up for mortality from 1995–1997 to the end of 2008 (mean follow-up 12.0 years) in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 2).
After adjusting for age, smoking and physical activity WHR and WHtR were found to be the strongest predictors of death. Hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD mortality per increase in WHR of one standard deviation were 1.23 for men and 1.27 for women. For WHtR, these HRs were 1.24 for men and 1.23 for women. WHR offered the greatest integrated discrimination improvement to the prediction models studied, followed by WHtR and waist circumference. Hip circumference was in strong inverse association with mortality when adjusting for waist circumference. In all analyses, BMI had weaker association with mortality than three of the other four measures studied.
Our study adds further knowledge to the evidence that BMI is not the most appropriate measure of obesity in everyday clinical practice. WHR can reliably be measured and is as easy to calculate as BMI and is currently better documented than WHtR. It appears reasonable to recommend WHR as the primary measure of body composition and obesity.
To study the relationship of ethnicity with overweight/obesity, variation in adiposity levels, regional distribution of fat and its impact on cardio-respiratory health among selected ethnic groups.
Materials and methods:
A cross-sectional study was carried out among 300 young adults of three ethnic groups from different geographical regions of India ranging in age from 20 to 30 years. Stature, weight, circumferences, body fat percentage, and skinfold thicknesses were measured. Obesity indices like body mass index (BMI), grand mean thickness (GMT), waist hip ratio (WHR), waist height ratio (WHtR), and conicity index (CI) were computed. Cardio-respiratory health indicators such as lung functions including forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory ratio (FER), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), breath holding time (BHT), and systolic and diastolic BP (blood pressure) were taken and associated with obesity indices.
General body fat deposition, assessed by BMI, GMT, and fat percentage, was found to be the highest among Delhi females and males. However, central adiposity as assessed from WHR, WHtR, and CI was found to be significantly higher among the Manipur subjects signifying a relatively more androidal pattern of fat deposition. Most of the inter-group differences for adiposity indices were significant; however, it was not so in the case of blood pressure among different ethnic groups. On the other hand, the respiratory efficiency varied significantly between different ethnic groups. Ethnicity, adiposity, and cardio-respiratory health were found to be interrelated.
Subjects belonging to three ethnic groups showed marked differences in different body dimension, adiposity indices, and cardio-respiratory health. Central obesity has been found to be a better pointer for cardiovascular health risk. There were ethnic and gender differences with respect to adiposity measures and cardio-respiratory health indicators
Cardio-respiratory health; ethnicity; obesity
Increasing childhood obesity has become a major health threat. This cross-sectional study reports associations between schoolchildren's waist circumference (WC) and risk of elevated blood pressure.
We measured height, weight, neck and waist circumference, and blood pressure in regular health examinations among children in grade 1 (ages 6-7 years) at six elementary schools in Taipei County, Taiwan. Elevated blood pressure was defined in children found to have mean systolic or diastolic blood pressure greater than or equal to the gender-, age-, and height-percentile-specific 95th-percentile blood pressure value.
All 2,334 schoolchildren were examined (response rate was 100% in the six schools). The mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased as WC quartiles increased (p < 0.0001). The prevalence of elevated blood pressure for boys and girls within the fourth quartile of waist circumference was 38.9% and 26.8%, respectively. In the multivariate logistic regression analyses, the adjusted odds ratios of elevated blood pressure were 1.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13-2.80), 2.45 (95% CI = 1.56-3.85), and 6.03 (95% CI = 3.59-10.1) for children in the second, third, and fourth waist circumference quartiles compared with the first quartile. The odds ratios for per-unit increase and per increase of standard deviation associated with elevated blood pressure were 1.14 (95% CI = 1.10-1.18) and 2.22 (95% CI = 1.76-2.78), respectively.
Elevated blood pressure in children was associated with waist circumference. Not only is waist circumference easier to measure than blood pressure, but it also provides important information on metabolic risk. Further research is needed on effective interventions to identify and monitor children with increased waist circumference to reduce metabolic and blood pressure risks.
Children; obesity; elevated blood pressure; waist circumference
We examined associations between anthropometric measures (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], waist-to-height ratio [WHtR]) and risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD, including nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal ischemic stroke, cardiovascular death).
Controversy exists regarding the optimal approach to measure adiposity, and the utility of BMI has been questioned.
Participants included 16,332 men in the Physicians’ Health Study (mean age 61, 1991) and 32,700 women in the Women’s Health Study (mean age 61, 1999). We used Cox proportional hazards models to determine relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for developing CVD according to self-reported anthropometric indices.
A total of 1505 CVD cases occurred in men, and 414 occurred in women (median follow-up, 14.2 and 5.5 years, respectively). While WHtR demonstrated statistically the strongest associations with CVD and best model fit, CVD risk increased linearly and significantly with higher levels of all indices. Adjusting for confounders, the RR (CI) for CVD was 0.58 (0.32–1.05) for men with the lowest WHtR (<0.45) and 2.36 (1.61–3.47) for the highest WHtR (≥0.69; versus WHtR 0.49-<0.53). Among women, the RR (95% CI) was 0.65 (0.33– 1.31) for those with the lowest WHtR (<0.42) and 2.33 (1.66–3.28) for the highest WHtR (≥0.68; versus WHtR 0.47- <0.52).
WHtR demonstrated statistically the best model fit and strongest associations with CVD. However, as compared to BMI, differences in cardiovascular risk assessment using other indices were small and likely not clinically consequential. Our findings emphasize that higher levels of adiposity, however measured, confer increased risk of CVD.
obesity; cardiovascular disease; epidemiology
The relationship between anthropometric indices and risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is largely unknown. We aimed to examine the association between anthropometric measures and development of BCC and to demonstrate whether adherence to World Health Organisation guidelines for body mass index, waist circumference, and waist/hip ratio was associated with risk of BCC, independent of sun exposure.
Study participants were participants in a community-based skin cancer prevention trial in Nambour, a town in southeast Queensland (latitude 26°S). In 1992, height, weight, and waist and hip circumferences were measured for all 1621 participants and weight was remeasured at the end of the trial in 1996. Prevalence proportion ratios were calculated using a log-binomial model to estimate the risk of BCC prior to or prevalent in 1992, while Poisson regression with robust error variances was used to estimate the relative risk of BCC during the follow-up period.
At baseline, 94 participants had a current BCC, and 202 had a history of BCC. During the 5-year follow-up period, 179 participants developed one or more new BCCs. We found no significant association between any of the anthropometric measures or indices and risk of BCC after controlling for potential confounding factors including sun exposure. There was a suggestion that short-term weight gain may increase the risk of developing BCC for women only.
Adherence to World Health Organisation guidelines for body mass index, waist circumference and waist/hip ratio is not significantly associated with occurrence of basal cell carcinomas of the skin.
Increase in the prevalence of hypertension, obesity and obesity related diseases has become significant cause of disability and premature death in both developing and newly developed countries, with over bearing demand on national health budgets.
To evaluate the impact of various levels of education on obesity and blood pressure.
Materials and Method:
325 male and 254 female Nigerians of ages 20-80 years of the Ibo ethnicity through random sampling, were selected for this study. The participants were broken into three major groups based on their educational levels; primary, secondary and tertiary levels. systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP & DBP) levels, body mass index (BMI), waist hip ratio (WHR), waist height ratio (WHtR), waist circumference (WC),various skin fold thicknesses, and other anthropometric parameters were measured.
For all the indicators of subcutaneous fat, general obesity, and central obesity, largest mean deposition was noted to be highest in the lowest education group and least in the highest education group. Mean blood pressure parameters were also highest in the least education group. While fat deposition was noted to be highest in all the females of all the groups, the males showed larger mean BP values. Education was noted to have a significant inverse relationship with most of the fat indicators and blood pressure parameters and cardiovascular disease risk highest in the least education groups.
Education showed a significant impact on obesity and blood pressure and could be one of the major tools to reduce the high prevalence of obesity, hypertension and other obesity associated diseases.
Anthropometry; obesity; adiposity; blood pressure; BMI; obesity prevalence; obesity related disorder; hypertension; cardiovascular disease risk; waist hip ratio
A better understanding of the relationships between obesity and lifestyle factors is necessary for effective prevention and management of obesity in youth. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between obesity measures and several lifestyle factors, including physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents aged 14–19 years.
This was a school-based cross-sectional study that was conducted in three cities in Saudi Arabia (Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh). The participants were 2906 secondary school males (1400) and females (1506) aged 14–19 years, who were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist/height ratio (WHtR), screen time (television viewing, video games and computer use), physical activity (determined using a validated questionnaire), and dietary habits (intake frequency per week). Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between obesity and lifestyle factors.
Compared with non-obese, obese males and females were significantly less active, especially in terms of vigorous activity, had less favorable dietary habits (e.g., lower intake of breakfast, fruits and milk), but had lower intake of sugar-sweetened drinks and sweets/chocolates. Logistic regression analysis showed that overweight/obesity (based on BMI categories) or abdominal obesity (based on WHtR categories) were significantly and inversely associated with vigorous physical activity levels (aOR for high level = 0.69, 95% CI 0.41–0.92 for BMI and 0.63, 95% CI 0.45–0.89 for WHtR) and frequency of breakfast (aOR for < 3 days/week = 1.44; 95% CI 1.20–1.71 for BMI and 1.47; 95% CI 1.22–1.76 for WHtR) and vegetable (aOR for < 3 days/week = 1.29; 95% CI 1.03–1.59 for WHtR) intakes, and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (aOR for < 3 days/week = 1.32; 95% CI 1.08–1.62 for BMI and 1.42; 95% CI 1.16–1.75 for WHtR).
The present study identified several lifestyle factors associated with obesity that may represent valid targets for the prevention and management of obesity among Saudi adolescents. Primary prevention of obesity by promoting active lifestyles and healthy diets should be a national public health priority.
Adolescents; Dietary habits; Lifestyle; Overweight; Obesity; Physical activity; Saudi Arabia; Sedentary behaviors
Overweight/obesity is a growing global public health concern. The variations in the prevalence of overweight/obesity, defined by Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC), Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR), Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHpR) and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA), were studied and a prediction equation for % body fat (%BF) developed.
A total of 1584 subjects (56.4% males) were recruited for the study. Data on age, gender, height, weight, hip circumference and WC were collected from the subjects using standard protocols. BMI, WHtR and WHpR were derived using standard equations. %BF was measured using a BIA device (Omron BF-400). Appropriate statistical tools were used for the data analysis.
The prevalence of overweight/obesity in the population was 28.4% (36.3% for males; 22.6% for females) (BIA); 20.7% (17.5% for males; 24.8% for females) (BMI); 7.5% (1.3% for males; 16.1% for females) (WC); 2.9% (4.3% for males; 1.2% for females) (WHpR); and 15.4% (14.8% for males; 16.2% females) (WHtR). Taking BIA as the reference point, WC misclassified overweight/obesity the most for males (35%), while for the females, WHpR misclassified both disorders the most (21.4%). Correlation studies showed that only BMI correlated significantly, albeit weakly, with %BF among the males, whereas all the anthropometric measures, but WHpR correlated significantly with % body fat in females. Two prediction equations for %BF were generated, and %BF predicted with the two equations correlated significantly (P < 0.001) with that measured by BIA.
The prevalence of overweight/obesity in this population vary widely depending on the definition used. The developed prediction equations could be useful in resource-poor settings, but require validation.
Anthropometry; Bioelectrical impedance analysis; Overweight/obesity; Young adults
One of the most serious, yet common co-morbidities of obesity is insulin resistance, which if untreated may progress to type 2 diabetes. This paper describes the insulin and glucose concentration distributions, the prevalence of elevated insulin, the associations between insulin and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and fat mass index in a representative sample of Australian adolescents.
Cross-sectional population-based study of adolescent boys and girls (N = 496, mean age 15.3 years) attending schools in metropolitan Sydney, Australia. Fasting venous blood collected and analysed for insulin and glucose concentrations. Height, weight, waist circumference measured, BMI and waist-to-height ratio calculated. Pubertal status self-reported.
Glucose concentrations were normally distributed and were not associated with adiposity. Insulin concentrations were distributed logarithmically, were higher among girls than boys overall and within the same ranges of BMI and waist circumference, but were lower among girls than boys within the same ranges of fat mass adjusted for height. The prevalence of elevated insulin concentration (defined as > 100 pmol/L) was 15.9% and 17.1% among boys and girls, respectively. Correlations between insulin concentration and BMI, waist circumference, WHtR and fat mass adjusted for height were 0.53, 0.49, 0.51 and 0.55, among boys, respectively, and 0.35, 0.40, 0.42 and 0.34, among girls, respectively.
Elevated insulin is highly correlated with adiposity in adolescents. BMI and WHtR are simple measures that can be used to identify young people who should be screened for insulin resistance and other co-morbidities.