Although the correlation coefficient between body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (%BF) or waist circumference (WC) has been reported, studies conducted among population-based schoolchildren to date have been limited in Japan, where %BF and WC are not usually measured in annual health examinations at elementary schools or junior high schools. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of BMI to %BF and WC and to examine the influence of gender and obesity on these relationships among Japanese schoolchildren.
Subjects included 3,750 schoolchildren from the fourth and seventh grade in Ina-town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan between 2004 and 2008. Information about subject's age, sex, height, weight, %BF, and WC was collected from annual physical examinations. %BF was measured with a bipedal biometrical impedance analysis device. Obesity was defined by the following two criteria: the obese definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the definition of obesity for Japanese children. Pearson's correlation coefficients between BMI and %BF or WC were calculated separately for sex.
Among fourth graders, the correlation coefficients between BMI and %BF were 0.74 for boys and 0.97 for girls, whereas those between BMI and WC were 0.94 for boys and 0.90 for girls. Similar results were observed in the analysis of seventh graders. The correlation coefficient between BMI and %BF varied by physique (obese or non-obese), with weaker correlations among the obese regardless of the definition of obesity; most correlation coefficients among obese boys were less than 0.5, whereas most correlations among obese girls were more than 0.7. On the other hand, the correlation coefficients between BMI and WC were more than 0.8 among boys and almost all coefficients were more than 0.7 among girls, regardless of physique.
BMI was positively correlated with %BF and WC among Japanese schoolchildren. The correlations could be influenced by obesity as well as by gender. Accordingly, it is essential to consider gender and obesity when using BMI as a surrogate for %BF and WC for epidemiological use.
This study investigated the relationship between eating behavior and childhood overweight among population-based elementary schoolchildren in Japan. Data was collected from fourth graders (9 or 10 years of age) from Ina Town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan from 1999 to 2009. Information about subjects’ sex, age, and lifestyle, including eating behaviors (eating until full and chewing thoroughly), was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire, and height and weight were measured directly. Overweight was determined according to the definition established by the International Obesity Task Force. Data from 4027 subjects (2079 boys and 1948 girls) were analyzed. Chewing thoroughly was associated with a significantly decreased odds ratio (OR) for being overweight, whereas eating until full significantly increased the OR for being overweight (OR: 1.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.16–1.94) among boys. However, eating until full was not associated with a significantly increased OR for being overweight among the group that reported chewing thoroughly, whereas it was associated with a significantly increased OR for being overweight (2.02, 1.38–2.94) among boys who did not chew thoroughly. In conclusion, eating until full or not chewing thoroughly was associated with being overweight among elementary schoolchildren. Results of this study suggest that chewing thoroughly may be an avenue to explore childhood overweight prevention efforts.
eating behavior; overweight; children; eating until full; chewing
Although several studies have investigated the relationship between the number of siblings or birth order and childhood overweight, the results are inconsistent. In addition, little is known about the impact of having older or younger siblings on overweight among elementary schoolchildren. The present population-based study investigated the relationship of the number of siblings and birth order with childhood overweight and evaluated the impact of having younger or older siblings on childhood overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Japan.
Subjects comprised fourth-grade schoolchildren (age, 9–10 years) in Ina Town during 1999–2009. Information about subjects’ sex, age, birth weight, birth order, number of siblings, lifestyle, and parents’ age, height, and weight was collected by a self-administered questionnaire, while measurements of subjects’ height and weight were done at school. Childhood overweight was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. A logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of "number of siblings" or "birth order" for overweight.
Data from 4026 children were analyzed. Only children (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.45-3.14) and youngest children (1.56, 1.13-2.16) significantly increased ORs for overweight compared with middle children. A larger number of siblings decreased the OR for overweight (P for trend < 0.001). Although there was no statistically significant relationship between a larger number of older siblings and overweight, a larger number of younger siblings resulted in a lower OR for overweight (P for trend < 0.001).
Being an only or youngest child was associated with childhood overweight, and having a larger number of younger siblings was negatively associated with overweight. The present study suggests that public health interventions to prevent childhood overweight need to focus on children from these family backgrounds.
Sibling; Birth-order; Childhood overweight; Public health
Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is one of the most important risk factors for coronary heart disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between LDL-C and body mass index (BMI) in population-based Japanese schoolchildren.
The subjects comprised all fourth graders and seventh graders in Ina Town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan, during 2002-2009. Information about each subject’s age, sex, and family history of hypercholesterolemia was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The body height, weight, and LDL-C were measured for each child. LDL-C was measured using the direct method. According to the LDL-C criteria of the Japan Atherosclerosis Society, LDL-C level was categorized into three subgroups: acceptable, < 110 mg/dL; borderline, 110-139 mg/dL; and high, ≥ 140 mg/dL. Children with either borderline or high LDL-C level were considered to have high-normal LDL-C (HLDL-C).
Data from a total of 5869 subjects were analyzed. A higher BMI category was associated with a higher prevalence of HLDL-C regardless of sex or grade level (P < 0.05). When compared with the <50th percentile BMI category, the odds ratio (OR) for HLDL-C was statistically significant in the 75th to 84th percentile category of fourth-grade boys (OR: 1.95, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.28-2.97), the 85th to 94th percentile of fourth-grade girls (2.52, 1.74-3.64), and the 85th to 94th percentile of seventh-grade boys (2.04, 1.31-3.20) and girls (1.90, 1.24-2.91).
A statistically significant association between LDL-C levels and BMI was observed in Japanese school children.
Serum low-density lipoprotein; Body mass index; Schoolchildren
Monitoring secular trends in blood pressure (BP) among children is important in predicting subsequent hypertension and cardiovascular disease. We investigated secular trends in BP using data from population-based annual screenings of Japanese schoolchildren.
The participants were 10 894 children (all fourth graders between 1994 and 2010 and all seventh graders between 1997 and 2010) living in the town of Ina in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. Body height, weight, and BP were measured, after which children were classified as non-overweight, overweight, or obese. Trends in variables relative to calendar year were analyzed using regression models.
Systolic BP was significantly associated with calendar year among fourth- and seventh-grade boys (−0.350 and −0.434 mm Hg/year, respectively) and fourth- and seventh-grade girls (−0.513 and −0.473 mm Hg/year, respectively) (all P < 0.001), respectively, over time. Systolic BP and calendar year were significantly negatively correlated regardless of physique or sex among all fourth graders, but not among obese seventh-grade girls. In addition, diastolic BP and calendar year did not significantly correlate among seventh-grade overweight or obese boys or obese seventh-grade girls.
BP decreased among fourth-grade schoolchildren in Ina during the past 17 years, regardless of sex or physique. However, BP and calendar year did not significantly correlate among obese seventh graders.
blood pressure; body mass index; schoolchildren; secular trends
Objectives. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between eating behaviors and overweight among population-based adolescents in Japan. Methods. Study subjects comprised adolescents in the seventh grade (age range, 12–13 years) from Ina, a town in Saitama Prefecture, Japan, between 1999 and 2008. The height and weight of the subjects were measured, and information concerning eating behaviors (eating speed and eating until full) was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. Results. Among boys (n = 1586), fast eating speed significantly increased the odds ratio (OR) for overweight when compared with medium eating speed, regardless of eating until full or not; moreover, a more marked increase in the OR was observed among boys eating until full (OR: 2.78, 95% confidence interval: 1.76–4.38) than among those not eating until full (2.43, 1.41–4.20). Among girls (n = 1542), fast eating speed led to a significant increase in the OR in those eating until full; however, no significant increases were observed in the OR in those eating quickly and not until full. Conclusions. Among adolescents, fast eating speed was associated with overweight; furthermore, the combination of both fast eating speed and eating until full may have a significant effect on overweight.
To delineate the associations of total adiponectin, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, and the HMW-to-total adiponectin ratio with diabetes in older adults.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Total and HMW adiponectin were measured in a population-based study of older adults. The relations of total adiponectin, HMW adiponectin, and their ratio with incident diabetes (n = 309) were assessed in 3,802 individuals.
Total and HMW adiponectin were highly correlated (r = 0.94). Analysis using cubic splines revealed that the associations between total and HMW adiponectin and new-onset diabetes were not linear. Specifically, after adjustment for confounders, there were similar inverse relationships for total (hazard ratio per SD 0.49 [95% CI 0.39–0.63]) and HMW adiponectin (0.42 [0.32–0.56]) with diabetes up to values of 20 and 10 mg/L, respectively, above which the associations plateaued. These associations persisted after adjustment for potential mediators (blood pressure, lipids, C-reactive protein, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]). There was, however, evidence of interaction by HOMA-IR in the lower range of adiponectin, with stronger inverse associations among insulin-sensitive than insulin-resistant participants. HMW-to-total adiponectin ratio showed a linear adjusted association with outcome, but this was abolished by inclusion of mediating variables.
In this older cohort, increasing concentrations of total and HMW adiponectin were associated with comparably lower risks of diabetes, but these associations leveled off with further increases above concentrations of 20 and 10 mg/L, respectively. The more pronounced risk decreases at the lower range among participants without insulin resistance support a role for adiponectin that is independent of baseline hyperinsulinemia, but this will require further investigation.
Aim. Adiponectin has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and insulin sensitising properties, and low circulating levels may be an important risk factor for diabetes. We examined levels of adiponectin and its insulin-sensitising HMW isoform and their relationship with metabolic parameters in Tongans, a population prone to type II diabetes. Methods. Adiponectin and its HMW isoform were quantitated by Elisa in specimens from a randomly recruited, multistage cluster population survey of Tongans and from a group of Caucasians. Anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical data were collected on each subject. Results. Both male and female Tongans had lower levels of total and HMW adiponectin than their Caucasian counterparts. Levels of total and HMW adiponectin were higher in females than males in each group. Adiponectin levels were inversely related to BMI, weight, and HOMA in Tongan males and females, as well as to dyslipidemia in both sexes. Conclusion. Tongans had lower levels of both total and HMW adiponectin than Caucasians population, even after matching Tongans to their Caucasian counterparts based on BMI, age, and sex. These findings may reflect differences in body composition between the populations not adequately assessed by BMI, lifestyle factors, or a genetic variant likely in a genetically homogenous population.
AIM: To establish percentile curves and to explore prevalence and correlates of central obesity among Yemeni children in a population based cross-sectional study.
METHODS: A representative sample of 3114 Yemeni children (1564 boys, 1550 girls) aged 6-19 years participating in the HYpertension and Diabetes in Yemen study was studied. Data collection was conducted at home by survey teams composed of two investigators of both genders. Study questionnaire included questions about demographics, lifestyle, and medical history. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and hip circumferences. Waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were then calculated. Age and gender specific smoothed percentiles of WC, WHR, and WHtR were obtained using lambda-mu-sigma parameters (LMS method). The independent predictors of central obesity defined as (1) WC percentile ≥ 90th; (2) WHtR ≥ 0.5; or (3) WC percentile ≥ 90th and WHtR ≥ 0.5, were identified at multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, urban/rural location, years of school education, sedentary/active life-style.
RESULTS: Percentile curves for WC, WHR and WHtR are presented. Average WC increased with age for both genders. Boys had a higher WC than girls until early adolescence and thereafter girls had higher values than boys. WHR decreased both in boys and girls until early adolescence. Thereafter while in boys it plateaued in girls it continued to decrease. Mean WHtR decreased until early adolescence with no gender related differences and thereafter increased more in girls than in boys towards adult age. Prevalence of central obesity largely varied according to the definition used which was 10.9% for WC ≥ 90th percentile, 18.3% for WHtR ≥ 0.5, and 8.6% when fulfilling both criteria. At adjusted logistic regression WC ≥ 90th percentiles and WHtR ≥ 0.5 were less prevalent in rural than in urban areas (OR = 0.52, 95%CI: 0.41-0.67 and 0.66, 0.54-0.79 respectively), being more prevalent in children with sedentary lifestyle rather than an active one (1.52, 95%CI: 1.17-1.98 and 1.42, 95%CI: 1.14-1.75, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Yemeni children central obesity indices percentile curves are presented. Central obesity prevalence varied according to the definition used and was more prevalent in urban sedentary subjects.
Central obesity; Waist circumference; Waist-to-height ratio; Waist to hip ratio; Developing countries
To examine the association of anthropometry indices with gout and to compare the performance of indices to predict gout in Taiwanese men.
There were 1443 male subjects aged more than 20 years who participated in the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT, 1993–1996). Anthropometric evaluation consisted of weight, height, hip and waist circumference (WC) with later body mass index (BMI), waist to height (WHtR) and waist to hip (WHR) estimations. We conducted 4 logistic models to determine the relationships between anthropometric indices and gout. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used to compare the predictive performance and to identify the optimal cut-off points, sensitivity and specificity of these indices for gout in men.
After controlling for other covariables, the adjusted odds ratios for the mid and top tertiles of WHtR were 2.55 (95% CI: 1.16, 5.59) and 3.01 (95% CI: 1.13, 7.99), respectively, but no linear association was found for BMI, WHR and WC. In ROC curve, the greatest area under curve was 0.684 for WHtR and the cut-off point of WHtR was 0.57.
WHtR had a significant linear association with gout in Taiwanese men and was superior to BMI, WHR and WC.
Gout; Anthropometry; Waist to height ratio
Body Mass Index (BMI) is widely used to assess the impact of obesity on cardiometabolic risk in children but it does not always relate to central obesity and varies with growth and maturation. Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR) is a relatively constant anthropometric index of abdominal obesity across different age, sex or racial groups. However, information is scant on the utility of WHtR in assessing the status of abdominal obesity and related cardiometabolic risk profile among normal weight and overweight/obese children, categorized according to the accepted BMI threshold values.
Cross-sectional cardiometabolic risk factor variables on 3091 black and white children (56% white, 50% male), 4-18 years of age were used. Based on the age-, race- and sex-specific percentiles of BMI, the children were classified as normal weight (5th - 85th percentiles) and overweight/obese (≥ 85th percentile). The risk profiles of each group based on the WHtR (<0.5, no central obesity versus ≥ 0.5, central obesity) were compared.
9.2% of the children in the normal weight group were centrally obese (WHtR ≥0.5) and 19.8% among the overweight/obese were not (WHtR < 0.5). On multivariate analysis the normal weight centrally obese children were 1.66, 2.01, 1.47 and 2.05 times more likely to have significant adverse levels of LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin, respectively. In addition to having a higher prevalence of parental history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the normal weight central obesity group showed a significantly higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (p < 0.0001). In the overweight/obese group, those without central obesity were 0.53 and 0.27 times less likely to have significant adverse levels of HDL cholesterol and HOMA-IR, respectively (p < 0.05), as compared to those with central obesity. These overweight/obese children without central obesity also showed significantly lower prevalence of parental history of hypertension (p = 0.002), type 2 diabetes mellitus (p = 0.03) and metabolic syndrome (p < 0.0001).
WHtR not only detects central obesity and related adverse cardiometabolic risk among normal weight children, but also identifies those without such conditions among the overweight/obese children, which has implications for pediatric primary care practice.
School-based screening and prevention programs for adiposity generally target school children in grades 4 and 6 (age 9–11 years). The aims of this study were to evaluate the validity of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in identifying abdominal adiposity in fifth-grade Japanese school children and to determine optimal cut-off values for anthropometric measures.
The target population was fifth-grade school children enrolled in 2 schools in Shizuoka, Japan between 2008 and 2010; 422 of the 466 children participated in the present study. Abdominal adiposity was defined as percent trunk fat in the 95th percentile or higher, as determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We analyzed the validity of BMI, WC, and WHtR using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The Youden index was used to determine cut-off values of BMI, WC, and WHtR that identify excess abdominal fat.
Optimal cut-off values to identify abdominal adiposity were 20.8 kg/m2 (BMI), 76.5 cm (WC), and 0.519 (WHtR) for boys, and 19.6 kg/m2 (BMI), 73.0 cm (WC), and 0.499 (WHtR) for girls. Areas under the ROC curve were 0.983 (BMI), 0.987 (WC), and 0.981 (WHtR) for boys, and 0.981 (BMI), 0986 (WC), and 0.992 (WHtR) for girls.
BMI, WC, and WHtR successfully identified a high proportion of children with excess abdominal fat as measured by DXA, demonstrating that these measures are useful indices for school screening.
child; screening; obesity; statistics as topic; reference values
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
Studies have shown a strong association between excess weight and risk of incident diabetes in Iranian women. Therefore, we investigated anthropometric indices in the prediction of diabetes in Iranian women.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS:
We examined 2801 females aged ≥220 years (mean [SD] age, 45.2 [12.9] years) in an Iranian urban population who were non-diabetic or had abnormal glucose tolerance at baseline. We estimated the predictive value of central obesity parameters (waist circumference [WC], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], waist-to-height ratio [WHtR], body mass index [BMI]) in the prediction of diabetes. We classified each parameter in quartiles and compared the lowest with the highest quartile after adjusting for confounding variables, including age, hypertension, triglyceride levels, HDL-cholesterol, family history of diabetes, and abnormal glucose tolerance in a multivariate model. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine the predictive power of each variable.
Over a median follow up of 3.5 years (11 months-6.3 years), 114 individuals developed diabetes (4.1%). The risk for developing diabetes was significantly higher for the highest quartile of BMI, WC, WHR and WHtR, respectively, compared to the lowest quartile, and the risk decreased but remained statistically significant when abnormal glucose tolerance was included in the multivariate model. WHtR had the highest area under the ROC curve.
In Iranian women, BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR were predictive of development of type 2 diabetes, but WHtR was a better predictor than BMI.
Growing evidence suggests that abdominal obesity is a more important risk factor for the prognosis of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases than BMI. Somatic-affective symptoms of depression have also been linked to cardiovascular risk. The relationship between obesity and depression, however, has remained contradictory. Our aim was therefore to relate body mass index (BMI) and different measures for abdominal obesity (waist circumference, WC, waist-to-hip ratio, WHR, waist-to-height ratio, WHtR) to somatic vs. cognitive-affective symptoms of depression.
In a cross-sectional population based study, data on the first N = 5000 participants enrolled in the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) are reported. To analyze the relationship between depression and obesity, we computed linear regression models with the anthropometric measure (BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR) as the dependent variable and life style factors, cardiovascular risk factors and psychotropic medications as potential confounders of obesity/depression.
We found that only the somatic, but not the cognitive-affective symptoms of depression are consistently positively associated with anthropometric measures of obesity.
We could demonstrate that the somatic-affective symptoms of depression rather than the cognitive-affective symptoms are strongly related to anthropometric measures. This is also true for younger obese starting at the age of 35 years. Our results are in line with previous studies indicating that visceral adipose tissue plays a key role in the relationship between obesity, depression and cardiovascular disease.
Obesity; Abdominal obesity; Anthropometric measures; Depression; Somatic-affective symptoms
Central obesity has been associated with the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease in children and anthropometric indices predictive of central obesity include waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-height ratio (WHtR). South Asian children have higher body fat distribution in the trunk region but the literature regarding WC and related indices is scarce in this region. The study was aimed to provide age- and gender-specific WC, WHR and WHtR smoothed percentiles, and to explore prevalence and correlates of central obesity, among Pakistani children aged five to twelve years.
A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage random cluster sample of 1860 primary school children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed percentile curves were constructed for WC, WHR and WHtR by the LMS method. Central obesity was defined as having both age- and gender-specific WC percentile ≥90th and WHtR ≥0.5. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Multivariate logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors of central obesity and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% CI were obtained. Linear regression was used to explore the independent determinants of WC and WHtR. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05.
First ever age- and gender-specific smoothed WC, WHR and WHtR reference curves for Pakistani children aged five to twelve years are presented. WC increased with age among both boys and girls. Fiftieth WC percentile curves for Pakistani children were higher as compared to those for Hong Kong and British children, and were lower as compared to those for Iranian, German and Swiss children. WHR showed a plateau pattern among boys while plateau among girls until nine years of age and decreased afterwards. WHtR was age-independent among both boys and girls, and WHtR cut-off of ≥0.5 for defining central obesity corresponded to 85th WHtR percentile irrespective of age and gender. Twelve percent children (95% CI 10.1-13.0) had a WC ≥90th percentile and 16.5% children (95% CI 14.7-18.1) had a WHtR ≥0.5 while 11% children (95% CI 8.9-11.6) had both WC ≥90th percentile and WHtR ≥0.5. Significant predictors of central obesity included higher grade, urban area with high socioeconomic status (SES), high-income neighborhood and higher parental education. Children studying in higher grade (aOR 5.11, 95% CI 1.76-14.85) and those living in urban area with high SES (aOR 82.34, 95% CI 15.76-430.31) showed a significant independent association. Urban area with high SES and higher parental education showed a significant independent association with higher WC and higher WHtR while higher grade showed a significant independent association with higher WC.
Comprehensive worldwide reference values are needed to define central obesity and the present study is the first one to report anthropometric indices predictive of central obesity for Pakistani school-aged children. Eleven percent children were centrally obese and strong predictors included higher grade, urban area with high SES and higher parental education. These findings support the need for developing a National strategy for childhood obesity and implementing targeted interventions, prioritizing the higher social class and involving communities.
Background and Objectives:
Anthropometric variables and their relation to conventional coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors in railway employees have been inadequately studied in India. This cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Solapur division of the Central railway in the year 2004, to assess the anthropometric variables in railway employees and their relation to conventional CAD risk factors.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 995 railway employees, with 872 males and 123 females participated in this cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, fasting lipid profile, and blood sugar level. Various anthropometric indices were calculated for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and abdominal volume index (AVI). Statistical analysis was done by EPI Info 6 statistical software.
Compared to all other obesity indices, WHtR was most prevalent in both genders. High WHtR was present in 699 (80.16%) males and 103 (83.73%) females. Age ≥45 years, high systolic BP, high diastolic BP, low HDL, high triglyceride, and diabetes mellitus were positively correlated with high BMI, high WC, high WHR, high WHtR, and high AVI. High BMI, high WC, high WHR, high WHtR, and high AVI were negatively associated with physical inactivity.
Over all, anthropometric variables in both genders were significantly deranged in subjects with coronary risk factors. Compared to all other anthropometric variables, WHtR was statistically significantly associated with a majority of coronary artery risk factors. Hence we recommend inclusion of WHtR as a parameter of obesity to predict coronary artery disease risk factor along with WC, WHR, and BMI in epidemiologic studies.
Anthropometric variables; abdominal volume index; body mass index; waist circumference; waist-to-hip ratio; waist-to-height ratio
Anthropometric measures of body composition and arterial stiffness are commonly used as indicators of cardiovascular risk. Little is known, however, about the association of the anthropometric measures with arterial stiffness, especially in a healthy, generally non-obese population.
In a sample of 352 healthy subjects (200 premenopausal women), 3 arterial stiffness indices were analyzed (pulse wave velocity, augmentation index and central systolic blood pressure) in relation to 5 anthropometric measures of body composition (body mass index – BMI, body fat percentage by skinfold measurements –%BF, waist circumference – WC, waist-hip ratio – WHpR, and waist-height ratio – WHtR). Data were analyzed using correlation and regression analyses, with adjustment for the following confounders: age, blood pressures, height, heart rate, blood lipids and smoking.
Most correlations between anthropometric measures and arterial stiffness indices were significant and positive in both sex groups (r=0.14–0.40, P<0.05). After adjustment for confounding effects, BMI, WC and WHtR remained significant (but inverse) predictors of arterial stiffness (β from −0.06 to −0.16; P<0.05) in the females, while in the males BMI was the only measure inversely predicting arterial stiffness (β from −0.09 to −0.13; P<0.05).
Measures of body composition are weak and inverse predictors of arterial stiffness and their influence is sex-dependent. BMI, WC and WHtR were key predictors of arterial stiffness in the females, while BMI was the principal predictor in the males. The associations of anthropometric measures with arterial stiffness are strongly and differently confounded by various factors that have to be taken into account when explaining results of similar studies.
anthropometric measurements; BMI; arterial stiffness; pulse wave velocity; augmentation index
Although the prevalences of obesity and hypertension (HT) are increasing in children, there have been few epidemiological studies of HT in Japanese children. We evaluated the prevalences of HT and high-normal blood pressure (HNBP), and examined the relationship between blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI), in Japanese children.
The subjects of this study were 2420 children living in the town of Ina, Saitama Prefecture, Japan during the period from 2006 through 2008. Body height, weight, and BP were measured. HT and HNBP were defined according to the HT criteria for Japanese children. Children with HNBP or HT were defined as having high blood pressure (HBP).
The prevalences of HBP were 15.9% and 15.8% in fourth-grade boys and girls, respectively, and 11.1% and 10.8% in seventh-grade boys and girls, respectively. Irrespective of sex or grade level, a higher BMI was associated with a higher prevalence of HBP (P < 0.001). When compared with the <50th percentile BMI category, the crude odds ratios (ORs) were statistically significant for the 75th to 84th percentile category in fourth-grade boys (OR: 4.54, 95% CI: 2.36–8.76), the ≥95th percentile in fourth-grade girls (13.29, 5.93–29.77), the 85th to 94th percentile (3.16, 1.46–6.84) in seventh-grade boys, and the ≥95th percentile (7.96, 3.18–19.93) in seventh-grade girls.
BMI was associated with HBP in Japanese school children. In addition, some children in the lower BMI categories also had HBP.
high blood pressure; children; BMI; hypertensive family history
Recent data indicate increasing rates of adult obesity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Greece. No data, however, are available on prevalence of overweight and obesity in relation to CVD risk factors among young adults in Greece.
A total of 989 third-year medical students (527 men, 462 women), aged 22 ± 2 years, were recruited from the University of Crete during the period 1989–2001. Anthropometric measures and blood chemistries were obtained. The relationships between obesity indices (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], waist-to-hip ratio [WHpR], waist-to-height ratio [WHtR]) and CVD risk factor variables (blood pressure, glucose, serum lipoproteins) were investigated.
Approximately 40% of men and 23% of women had BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2. Central obesity was found in 33.4% (average percentage corresponding to WC ≥ 90 cm, WHpR ≥ 0.9 and WHtR ≥ 50.0) of male and 21.7% (using WC ≥ 80 cm, WHpR ≥ 0.8, WHtR ≥ 50.0) of female students. Subjects above the obesity indices cut-offs had significantly higher values of CVD risk factor variables. BMI was the strongest predictor of hypertension. WHtR in men and WC in women were the most important indicators of dyslipidaemia.
A substantial proportion of Greek medical students were overweight or obese, obesity status being related to the presence of hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Simple anthropometric indices can be used to identify these CVD risk factors. Our results underscore the need to implement health promotion programmes and perform large-scale epidemiological studies within the general Greek young adult population.
The study examined changes in and relationship between body mass index (BMI), leptin and adiponectin levels over a 3-year period in a pediatric population-based cohort.
A 3-year prospective cohort study of 268 boys and 251 girls aged 9–10 in Ina, Saitama, Japan.
Median body mass index (BMI) significantly increased from baseline (age 9–10) to follow up (age 12–13) in boys from 17.1 to 18.3 kg/m2 (P < 0.001) and in girls from 16.5 to 18.5 kg/m2 (P < 0.001), respectively. Adiponectin values significantly decreased from baseline to follow up in boys (13.5 to 8.9 μg/ml, respectively) (P < 0.001) and in girls (12.4 to 9.5 μg/ml, respectively) (P < 0.001). Leptin values at follow up significantly decreased from baseline in boys (4.9 to 2.3 ng/dl, respectively) (P < 0.001) and also in girls (5.3 to 5.1 ng/dl, respectively) (P = 0.049).
A relatively strong correlation was seen in BMI (Spearman's correlation coefficient, r = 0.864, P < 0.001 in boys; r = 0.873, P < 0.001 in girls), adiponectin (r = 0.705, P < 0.001 in boys; r = 0.695, P < 0.001 in girls), and leptin (r = 0.449, P < 0.001 in boys; r = 0.610, P < 0.001 in girls) before and after the three-year period.
The ratio of follow up to baseline BMI was negatively correlated with that for adiponectin (r = -0.224, P < 0.001 in boys; r = -0.165, P = 0.001 in girls) and positively correlated with that for leptin (r = 0.518, P < 0.001 in boys; r = 0.609, P < 0.001 in girls).
This study demonstrated that baseline adiponectin, leptin and BMI values measured at ages 9–10 correlated with those measured three years later. However, adiponectin values decreased and leptin values increased in those subjects whose BMI increased during over this period.
Adiponectin is linked to reduced diabetes risk and may be anti-atherogenic, yet clinical data show no consistent relationship with incident cardiovascular events, especially among women. To our knowledge, no prior prospective studies have evaluated adiponectin, including high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, and incident peripheral artery disease (PAD).
Methods & Results
We evaluated the relationship of total, HMW and the HMW-to-total adiponectin ratio with incident symptomatic PAD in a prospective, nested case-control study conducted within the Women’s Health Study (n=110 cases, n=230 controls, frequency matched in strata defined by five-year age categories, smoking, fasting status and follow-up time; median cohort follow-up=13.2 yrs). Baseline median levels of HMW and total adiponectin were significantly lower in women developing PAD than those remaining event-free(HMW: 3.3 vs. 3.8 μg/mL, P=0.0005; total: 5.6 vs. 7.4 μg/mL, P<0.0001). The ratio did not differ significantly between groups. Age-adjusted PAD odds ratios (95% CI) across tertiles were 1.0, 0.66 (0.39–1.13) and 0.40 (0.22–0.74)for HMW and 1.0, 0.74 (0.43–1.25) and 0.35 (0.18–0.65) for total adiponectin (P-trend=0.004 and 0.001, respectively). Results were similar after adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, use of post-menopausal hormone therapy, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, leptin, hemoglobin A1c and fasting insulin [adjusted OR and 95% CI for HMW: 1.0, 0.62 (0.29–1.34), 0.30 (0.12–0.74); total: 1.0, 0.46 (0.22–1.00), 0.30 (0.12–0.76 );Ptrend=0.01 for both].
Total and HMW adiponectin are inversely associated with incident PAD among initially healthy women. These prospective data support a protective role for this adipokine in peripheral atherosclerosis development.
adiponectin; biomarker; epidemiology; peripheral artery disease; women
Background and objective
The effect of exercise on the plasma concentration of high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin (i.e., the biologically active form of circulating adiponectin) and the possible role of HMW adiponectin in mediating the exercise-induced enhancement of insulin action are not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the post-exercise increase in insulin sensitivity and plasma HMW adiponectin concentration.
Design and methods
We measured total and HMW adiponectin concentrations in plasma by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and insulin sensitivity by using the updated homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA2-IS) score in the basal, overnight fasted state, once ~12 hours after a single bout of moderate-intensity endurance exercise and once after an equivalent period of rest, in 27 healthy men and women (age: 29 ± 1 years, body mass index: 24.7 ± 0.8 kg/m2).
The HOMA2-IS score was 18 ± 7% greater after exercise than rest (229 ± 20 and 196 ± 17, respectively; P = 0.006), whereas the concentrations of total adiponectin (7.8 ± 0.5 and 7.7 ± 0.5 mg/l, respectively; P = 0.597) and HMW adiponectin (3.0 ± 0.3 and 3.0 ± 0.3 mg/l, respectively; P = 0.625) were not different. The exercise-induced change in HOMA2-IS was not related to changes in total and HMW adiponectin concentrations (P > 0.3).
Changes in HMW adiponectin concentration are not involved in the acute exercise-induced enhancement of insulin action.
adipokines; insulin resistance; physical activity
The metabolic consequences of obesity are associated with an imbalance of adipocytokines, e.g. adiponectin. However, some obese subjects remain metabolically healthy and have adiponectin levels similar to normal body weight subjects. Current estimates of the prevalence of obesity in Estonia have relied only on self-report data.
To estimate the prevalence of obesity in Estonia, to test for associations between HMW adiponectin and metabolic risk factors and to test if HMW adiponectin levels differentiate metabolically healthy and metabolically unhealthy subjects.
We conducted a population-based cross-sectional multicentre study to gather history, examination and blood test results for 495 subjects aged 20–74. Metabolically healthy subjects were free from hypertension, dyslipidaemia, impaired glucose regulation and insulin resistance. Metabolically unhealthy subjects had at least one of these four metabolic abnormalities.
The prevalence of obesity was 29% in men and 34% in women. HMW adiponectin was positively correlated with HDL cholesterol and negatively correlated with triglycerides, obesity, insulin resistance and blood glucose. This effect was driven by metabolically unhealthy subjects in men, but by both metabolically healthy and metabolically unhealthy subjects in women. Metabolically healthy women had higher HMW adiponectin levels than metabolically unhealthy women. 12% of all obese subjects were metabolically healthy, and their HMW adiponectin levels were similar to normal weight subjects.
Obesity is more prevalent in Estonian adults than previously thought. HMW adiponectin levels were associated with various metabolic risk factors in metabolically healthy women but not in metabolically healthy men. For both genders, HMW adiponectin differentiates metabolically healthy obese subjects from metabolically unhealthy obese subjects.
Little is known regarding the associations between high-molecular-weight (HMW-) adiponectin, leptin and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Chinese. Also few studies elucidate the effects of inflammation and body fat mass on the relations.
Plasma HMW-adiponectin, leptin and sOB-R were measured among 1055 Chinese men and women (35∼54 yrs). Whole body and trunk fat mass were determined by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. MetS was defined by the updated NCEP/ATPIII criterion for Asian-Americans.
HMW-adiponectin was inversely associated with MetS in multivariate model including fat mass index (FMI), inflammatory markers, leptin and sOB-R (OR in the highest quartile = 0.30, 95%CI 0.18∼0.50, P<.0001). Plasma sOB-R was also inversely associated with MetS independent of body fatness and inflammatory markers, whereas the association was somewhat attenuated after adjusting HMW-adiponectin (OR for the highest quartile = 0.78, 95%CI 0.47∼1.32, P = 0.15). In contrast, leptin was associated with increased odds of MetS independent of inflammatory markers, HMW-adiponectin, and sOB-R (OR for the highest quartile = 2.64, 95%CI 1.35∼5.18, P = 0.006), although further adjustment for FMI abolished this association.
HMW-adiponectin exhibited strong inverse associations with MetS independent of body composition, inflammation, leptin and sOB-R; while the associations of leptin and sOB-R were largely explained by fat mass or HMW-adiponectin, respectively.
Cesarean section (CS) has been associated with obesity, measured by body mass index (BMI), in some studies. It has been hypothesized that this association, if causal, might be explained by changes in gut microbiota. However, little is known about whether CS is also associated with increased adiposity as measured by indicators other than BMI.
Objective: To assess the association between CS and indicators of peripheral and central adiposity in young adults.
The study was conducted on 2,063 young adults aged 23 to 25 years from the 1978/79Ribeirão Preto birth cohort, São Paulo, Brazil. CS was the independent variable. The anthropometric indicators of adiposity were: waist circumference (WC), waist-height ratio (WHtR), waist-hip ratio (WHR), tricipital skinfold (TSF), and subscapular skinfold (SSF). The association between CS and indicators of adiposity was investigated using a Poisson model, with robust adjustment of variance and calculation of incidence rate ratio (IRR) with 95% confidence interval (95%CI), and adjustment for birth variables.
Follow-up rate was 31.8%. The CS rate was 32%. Prevalences of increased WC, WHtR, WHR were 32.1%, 33.0% and 15.2%, respectively. After adjustment for birth variables, CS was associated with increased risk of adiposity when compared to vaginal delivery: 1.22 (95%CI 1.07; 1.39) for WC, 1.25 (95%CI 1.10;1.42) for WHtR, 1.45 (95%CI 1.18;1.79) for WHR, 1.36 (95%CI 1.04;1.78) for TSF, and 1.43 (95%CI 1.08;1.91) for SSF.
Subjects born by CS had a higher risk for increased peripheral and central adiposity during young adult age compared to those born by vaginal delivery. The association of CS with adiposity was consistently observed for all indicators and was robust after adjustment for a variety of early life confounders.