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1.  Bachelor studies for nurses organised in rural contexts – a tool for improving the health care services in circumpolar region? 
International Journal of Circumpolar Health  2012;71:10.3402/ijch.v71i0.17902.
This article is based on a pilot study of Finnmark University College's off-campus bachelor programme (BA) for nurses, organised in rural areas. The objectives were to explore whether these courses had contributed to reduced vacancies; whether the learning outcome of the off-campus courses was the same as the on-campus programme, and how the education had influenced the nurses’ professional practice in local health services.
Study design
In the study we used mixed strategies in data collection and analyses.
Data about course completion, average age, average grades and retention effect were collected in 2009/2010 from 3 off-campus classes and their contemporary on-campus classes. Then 7 of the off-campus nurses were interviewed. A content analytical approach to the data was employed.
With retention of 93%, the off-campus BA course for nurses has been one of the most effective measures, particularly in rural areas. The employers’ support for further education after graduating seems to be an important factor for the high retention rate. Teaching methods such as learning activities in small local groups influenced the nurses’ professional development. Local training grants, supervision and a local learning environment were important for where they chose their first job after graduation.
The study confirms that nurses educated through off-campus courses remain in the county over time after graduating. The “home-grown” nurses are familiar with the local culture and specific needs of the population in this remote area. The study confirms findings in other studies, that further education is an important factor for nurses’ retention.
PMCID: PMC3417580  PMID: 22564460
off-campus bachelor for nurses; flexible learning; rural areas; retention; further competence-developing
2.  Using Performance-based Assessments to Evaluate Parity Between a Campus and Distance Education Pathway 
To compare the performance of campus-based students with that of distance students during the first 2 years of a doctor of pharmacy program to evaluate parity between the pathways.
Twelve cases were created for each year of the program along with performance criteria. The cases were converted into computer-based simulations for programmatic assessment at the end of the 2002-2003 and 2003-2004 school years. All first-professional year (P1) and second-professional year (P2) students participated in the assessments. Overall class means were calculated and used to compare student performances between campus and distance education pathways.
Overall scores for the 2003 P1 class were 56.4% for the campus-based students and 62.4% for the distance students, (p = 0.002); overall scores for the 2003 P2 class were 48.8% and 55.5%, respectively (p < 0.0001). The 2004 overall scores for P1 campus and distance students were 59.0% and 65.7%, respectively, (p = 0.001); and for 2004 P2 scores the results were51.8% and 56.5%, respectively (p = 0.049).
Students receiving their pharmacy education via a distance pathway scored higher on performance-based assessments compared with students receiving their pharmacy education via the traditional campus-based pathway. This indicates that distance students are receiving at least an equivalent curricular experience in the P1 and P2 years compared to that received by campus-based students.
PMCID: PMC1636977  PMID: 17136209
performance-based assessment; distance education; abilities-based curriculum
3.  Using the Humanities to Strengthen the Concept of Professionalism Among First-professional Year Pharmacy Students 
To engage pharmacy students at the McWhorter School of Pharmacy in an authentic discussion of professionalism early in their education.
A booklet was prepared that included several classic short stories and essays that dealt with professionalism. This booklet was sent to all entering students in the class of 2008 and 2009 during the summer prior to their first-professional year of the PharmD program. The stories and essays were discussed in small groups with faculty facilitation during orientation when the students first arrived on campus. A survey instrument was created and administered to assess the impact of this innovative approach to enhancing professionalism.
The program was well received and engaged our pharmacy students in a productive discussion on professionalism. Both classes' mean scores on survey items related that the students were engaged in the discussion of professionalism. Survey results pertaining to professional behavior also indicated increased awareness of the importance of professionalism.
Enhancing professionalism requires a culture change that necessitates addressing professionalism at its core, a calling to serve, in a persistent and continual manner. Requiring students to read and think about professionalism in a novel way, before they even begin their first-professional year of pharmacy school, appears to be an effective approach to nurturing/encouraging professionalism.
PMCID: PMC1858611  PMID: 17533437
professionalism; literature; humanities; vocation
4.  The Status of US Multi-campus Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
To assess the current status of multi-campus colleges and schools of pharmacy within the United States.
Data on multi-campus programs, technology, communication, and opinions regarding benefits and challenges were collected from Web sites, e-mail, and phone interviews from all colleges and schools of pharmacy with students in class on more than 1 campus.
Twenty schools and colleges of pharmacy (18 public and 2 private) had multi-campus programs; 16 ran parallel campuses and 4 ran sequential campuses. Most programs used synchronous delivery of classes. The most frequently reported reasons for establishing the multi-campus program were to have access to a hospital and/or medical campus and clinical resources located away from the main campus and to increase class size. Effectiveness of distance education technology was most often sited as a challenge.
About 20% of colleges and schools of pharmacy have multi-campus programs most often to facilitate access to clinical resources and to increase class size. These programs expand learning opportunities and face challenges related to technology, resources, and communication.
PMCID: PMC2972518  PMID: 21088729
multi-campus; distance education; administration
5.  Interprofessional Education in Six US Colleges of Pharmacy 
To present and describe interprofessional education (IPE) in 6 US colleges of pharmacy including benefits, barriers, and strategies for implementation.
A focus group with campus faculty IPE leaders and administrators was conducted at each of the 6 colleges. External facilitators used a structured script with open-ended questions to guide each session. A qualitative approach was used and content analysis of transcripts was conducted.
On a 10-point scale, mean participant interest in IPE was 8.8 ± 1.7. Incentives included enhanced student education, instructional economies of scale, improved communication among disciplines, and promotion of teamwork to improve quality of care. Curricular logistics, limited resources, lack of conceptual support, and cultural issues were the major barriers to IPE. Institutions were at various stages of IPE implementation. Participants emphasized that full institutional support was critical in maintaining IPE programs.
Interest in IPE was high and opportunities were numerous as described by faculty members at the institutions; however, numerous challenges to implementation were identified.
PMCID: PMC2720357  PMID: 19657494
interprofessional education; focus group; pharmacy
6.  A Model for Interprofessional Health Disparities Education: Student-Led Curriculum on Chronic Hepatitis B Infection 
Journal of General Internal Medicine  2010;25(Suppl 2):140-145.
Although health disparities are commonly addressed in preclinical didactic curricula, direct patient care activities with affected communities are more limited.
To address this problem, health professional students designed a preclinical service-learning curriculum on hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection, a major health disparity affecting the Asian/Pacific Islander (API) population, integrating lectures, skills training, and direct patient care at student-run clinics.
An urban health professions campus.
Medical and other health professional students at University of California, San Francisco, organized a preclinical didactic and experiential elective, and established two monthly clinics offering HBV screening, vaccination, and education to the community.
Between 2004 and 2009, 477 students enrolled in the student-led HBV curriculum. Since the clinics’ inception in 2007, 804 patients have been screened for chronic HBV; 87% were API immigrants, 63% had limited English proficiency, and 46% were uninsured. Serologically, 10% were found to be chronic HBV carriers, 44% were susceptible to HBV, and 46% were immune.
Our student-led didactic and experiential elective can serve as an interprofessional curricular model for learning about specific health disparities while providing important services to the local community.
PMCID: PMC2847097  PMID: 20352509
medical education-undergraduate; underserved populations; medical education-curriculum development/evaluation; disparities; community based interventions; student-run clinic
7.  Does community-based education increase students' motivation to practice community health care? - a cross sectional study 
BMC Medical Education  2011;11:19.
Community-based education has been introduced in many medical schools around the globe, but evaluation of instructional quality has remained a critical issue. Community-based education is an approach that aims to prepare students for future professional work at the community level. Instructional quality should be measured based on a program's outcomes. However, the association between learning activities and students' attitudes is unknown. The purpose of this study was to clarify what learning activities affect students' attitudes toward community health care.
From 2003 to 2009, self-administered pre- and post-questionnaire surveys were given to 693 fifth-year medical students taking a 2-week clinical clerkship. Main items measured were student attitudes, which were: "I think practicing community health care is worthwhile" ("worthwhile") and "I am confident about practicing community health care" ("confidence") using a visual analogue scale (0-100). Other items were gender, training setting, and learning activities. We analyzed the difference in attitudes before and after the clerkships by paired t test and the factors associated with a positive change in attitude by logistic regression analysis.
Six hundred forty-five students (93.1%), 494 (76.6%) male and 151(23.4%) female, completed the pre- and post-questionnaires. The VAS scores of the students' attitudes for "worthwhile" and "confidence" after the clerkship were 80.2 ± 17.4 and 57.3 ± 20.1, respectively. Both of the scores increased after the clerkship. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, "health education" was associated with a positive change for both attitudes of "worthwhile" (adjusted RR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.10-2.66) and "confidence" (1.56, 1.08-2.25).
Community-based education motivates students to practice community health care. In addition, their motivation is increased by the health education activity. Participating in this activity probably produces a positive effect and improves the instructional quality of the program based on its outcomes.
PMCID: PMC3114788  PMID: 21569332
8.  Assuring public health professionals are prepared for the future: the UAB public health integrated core curriculum. 
Public Health Reports  2005;120(5):496-503.
In response to calls to improve public health education and our own desire to provide a more relevant educational experience to our Master of Public Health students, the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) School of Public Health designed, developed, and instituted a fully integrated public health core curriculum in the fall of 2001. This curriculum combines content from discipline-specific courses in biostatistics, environmental health, epidemiology, health administration, and the social and behavioral sciences, and delivers it in a 15 credit hour, team-taught course designed in modules covering such topics as tobacco, infectious diseases, and emergency preparedness. Weekly skills-building sessions increase student competence in data analysis and interpretation, communication, ethical decision-making, community-based interventions, and policy and program planning. Evaluations affirm that the integrated core is functioning as intended: as a means to provide critical content in the core disciplines in their applied context. As public health education continues to be debated, the UAB public health integrated core curriculum can serve as one model for providing quality instruction that is highly relevant to professional practice.
PMCID: PMC1497761  PMID: 16224982
9.  Interprofessional Initiatives at the University of Washington 
Pharmacists must collaborate with other health professionals to promote the optimal use of medications, relying on coordinated, interprofessional communication and care to do so. In 2003, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommended “all health professionals should be educated to deliver patient-centered care as members of an interdisciplinary team, emphasizing evidence-based practice, quality improvement approaches, and informatics.”2 At the University of Washington, the Center for Health Sciences Interprofessional Education (CHSIE) was established in 1997 to promote interprofessional curricular and clinical innovation in education, faculty development, and student activities, and to conduct evaluative research regarding the impact of interprofessional innovations. In this manuscript, we will describe the Center for Health Sciences Interprofessional Education, and highlight key projects that serve as examples of pharmacy involvement in interprofessional education, research, and service.
PMCID: PMC2720359  PMID: 19657496
10.  Faculty and Student Expectations and Perceptions of E-mail Communication in a Campus and Distance Doctor of Pharmacy Program 
To examine faculty members' and students' expectations and perceptions of e-mail communication in a dual pathway pharmacy program.
Three parallel survey instruments were administered to campus students, distance students, and faculty members, respectively. Focus groups with students and faculty were conducted.
Faculty members perceived themselves as more accessible and approachable by e-mail than either group of students did. Campus students expected a shorter faculty response time to e-mail and for faculty members to be more available than did distance students.
E-mail is an effective means of computer-mediated communication between faculty members and students and can be used to promote a sense of community and inclusiveness (ie, immediacy), especially with distant students.
PMCID: PMC3058465  PMID: 21436932
communication; e-mail; teaching effectiveness
11.  An interdisciplinary approach to a day-long palliative care course for undergraduate students 
Although it is desirable that students in the health sciences be educated together to prepare them for interdisciplinary practice, many educational programs remain discipline specific. An undergraduate course in palliative care, originally designed for medical students at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont., was expanded in 1993 to include students from various health sciences programs in the region. The course introduces students to the components of palliative care and its interdisciplinary nature in a problem-based way and directs students to additional educational resources. The authors describe the planning, content and evaluation of the course material. The observed decline in attendance by medical students, which coincided with the introduction of the interdisciplinary format, warrants further investigation. Future directions of the course are discussed.
PMCID: PMC1230624  PMID: 10513281
12.  A Formalized Teaching, Practice, and Research Partnership with the Veterans Affairs North Texas Health Care System: A Model for Advancing Academic Partnerships 
In 1999, the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Pharmacy expanded its Dallas/Fort Worth presence by creating a regional campus for pharmacy students in their third and fourth years (P3 and P4 years) of the program. This expansion was driven by the need for additional practice sites. The VANTHCS was an obvious choice for the school due to the similarity of missions for clinical practice, education, and research. The VANTHCS and pharmacy school renovated a 4,000 square foot building, which includes classrooms, conference rooms, a student lounge, and faculty offices (expanded to 8,000 square feet in 2003). To date, the school has invested $1 million in the building. From a practice perspective, VANTHCS purchases faculty professional services from the school to augment its clinical specialist staff. These professional practice contracts provide VANTHCS with 12 additional clinical pharmacy specialists serving 50% of their time in multiple specialty areas. The collaboration has also allowed for expansion of clinical teaching, benefitting both institutions. In addition to the pharmacy student interns on P3 and P4 practice experiences, the collaboration allows for 8 to 10 postgraduate pharmacy residents to train with VANTHCS clinical specialists and school faculty members each year. The VANTHCS/pharmacy school collaboration has clearly enhanced the ability of both institutions to exceed their teaching, research, and practice goals in a cost-effective manner.
PMCID: PMC2828302  PMID: 20221334
veterans affairs health system; partnership; practice experiences
13.  Teaching Health Professionals to Compute: Options for the Transition Years 
Students in pharmacy, nursing, dentistry, medicine, and public health frequently are required to take a computer course. Unfortunately, crowded professional degree curricula can limit their exposure to computers to this single course. In the 1980's, health science students tend to have minimal prior experience with computing. Therefore, the instructor must balance the coursework to teach both about computers and about computer applications in health. A key question is, “What fundamentals do students need to appreciate the innovation in state-of-the-art systems?”
The authors have confronted this question and report on an approach which is flexible enough to fit a variety of curricular constraints. It uses integrated educational software and a locally-produced DOS essentials booklet augmented by modules of programming, systems analysis, and/or applications. Evaluations from classes totalling over 200 students demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach.
PMCID: PMC2245065
14.  The health sciences librarian in medical education: a vital pathways project task force 
The Medical Education Task Force of the Task Force on Vital Pathways for Hospital Librarians reviewed current and future roles of health sciences librarians in medical education at the graduate and undergraduate levels and worked with national organizations to integrate library services, education, and staff into the requirements for training medical students and residents.
Standards for medical education accreditation programs were studied, and a literature search was conducted on the topic of the role of the health sciences librarian in medical education.
Expectations for library and information services in current standards were documented, and a draft standard prepared. A comprehensive bibliography on the role of the health sciences librarian in medical education was completed, and an analysis of the services provided by health sciences librarians was created.
An essential role and responsibility of the health sciences librarian will be to provide the health care professional with the skills needed to access, manage, and use library and information resources effectively. Validation and recognition of the health sciences librarian's contributions to medical education by accrediting agencies will be critical. The opportunity lies in health sciences librarians embracing the diverse roles that can be served in this vital activity, regardless of accrediting agency mandates.
PMCID: PMC2759163  PMID: 19851492
15.  Medicinal Chemistry and Therapeutic Relevance of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors 
Chemical Basis of Drug Action (PHA337 and PHA447) is a required 2-semester course sequence taught to second-professional year pharmacy students at Creighton University in both the campus and distance-education pathways. The course emphasizes integration of previous content, critical thinking, and therapeutic relevance. The content and learning experiences are organized to transition the students' thinking through a constructive process that provides ample opportunities to recall and integrate previous knowledge, learn and apply new knowledge, establish a logical connection between the science and its therapeutic relevance, and finally to apply the science knowledge to predict clinical activity and clinical outcomes as can be expected in a patient. This manuscript is based on the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors as an illustration of how our course objectives are accomplished.
PMCID: PMC2690933  PMID: 19503707
medicinal chemistry; angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs); therapeutics, critical thinking
16.  The Health Sciences and Technology Academy: An Educational Pipeline to Address Health Care Disparities in West Virginia 
Health and educational disparities are national issues in the United States. Research has shown that health care professionals from underserved backgrounds are more likely than others to work in underserved areas. The Association of American Medical Colleges’ Project 3000 by 2000, to increase the number of underrepresented minorities in medical schools, spurred the West Virginia School of Medicine to start the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) in 1994 with the goal of supporting interested underrepresented high school students in pursuing college and health professions careers. The program was based on three beliefs: (1) if underrepresented high school students have potential and the desire to pursue a health professions career and are given the support, they can reach their goals, including obtaining a health professions degree; (2) underserved high school students are able to predict their own success if given the right resources; and (3) community engagement would be key to the program’s success.
In this perspective, the authors describe the HSTA and its framework and philosophy, including the underlying theories and pedagogy from research in the fields of education and the behavioral/social sciences. They then offer evidence of the program’s success, specifically for African American students, including graduates’ high college-going rate and overwhelming intention to choose a health professions major. Finally, the authors describe the benefits of the HSTA’s community partnerships, including providing mentors to students, adding legislative language providing tuition waivers and a budgetary line item devoted to the program, and securing program funding from outside sources.
PMCID: PMC3939059  PMID: 24280836
17.  Development and evaluation of a community immersion program during preclinical medical studies: a 15-year experience at the University of Geneva Medical School 
Significant changes in medical education have occurred in recent decades because of new challenges in the health sector and new learning theories and practices. This might have contributed to the decision of medical schools throughout the world to adopt community-based learning activities. The community-based learning approach has been promoted and supported by the World Health Organization and has emerged as an efficient learning strategy. The aim of the present paper is to describe the characteristics of a community immersion clerkship for third-year undergraduate medical students, its evolution over 15 years, and an evaluation of its outcomes.
A review of the literature and consensus meetings with a multidisciplinary group of health professionals were used to define learning objectives and an educational approach when developing the program. Evaluation of the program addressed students’ perception, achievement of learning objectives, interactions between students and the community, and educational innovations over the years.
The program and the main learning objectives were defined by consensus meetings among teaching staff and community health workers, which strengthened the community immersion clerkship. Satisfaction, as monitored by a self-administered questionnaire in successive cohorts of students, showed a mean of 4.4 on a five-point scale. Students also mentioned community immersion clerkship as a unique community experience. The learning objectives were reached by a vast majority of students. Behavior evaluation was not assessed per se, but specific testimonies show that students have been marked by their community experience. The evaluation also assessed outcomes such as educational innovations (eg, students teaching other students), new developments in the curriculum (eg, partnership with the University of Applied Health Sciences), and interaction between students and the community (eg, student development of a website for a community health institution).
The community immersion clerkship trains future doctors to respond to the health problems of individuals in their complexity, and strengthens their ability to work with the community.
PMCID: PMC3726643  PMID: 23900611
community immersion; community-based learning; community health; medical curriculum
18.  Creation of Medicinal Chemistry Learning Communities Through Enhanced Technology and Interdisciplinary Collaboration 
Objectives. To build an integrated medicinal chemistry learning community of campus and distance pharmacy students though the use of innovative technology and interdisciplinary teaching.
Design. Mechanisms were implemented to bring distance students into campus-based medicinal chemistry classrooms in real time, stimulate interaction between instructors and various student cohorts, and promote group work during class. Also, pharmacy clinician colleagues were recruited to contribute to the teaching of the 3 medicinal chemistry courses.
Assessment. Student perceptions on the value of technology to build community and advance learning were gleaned from course evaluations, in class feedback, and conversations with class officers and student groups. Responses on a survey of second-year students confirmed the benefits of interdisciplinary content integration on engagement and awareness of the connection between drug chemistry and pharmacy practice. A survey of clinician colleagues who contributed to teaching the 3 medicinal chemistry courses found their views were similar to those of students.
Conclusions. The purposeful use of technology united learners, fostered communication, and advanced content comprehension in 3 medicinal chemistry courses taught to campus and distance students. Teaching collaboration with pharmacy clinicians enhanced learner interest in course content and provided insight into the integrated nature of the profession of pharmacy.
PMCID: PMC3475787  PMID: 23129857
interdisciplinary; technology; medicinal chemistry; learning communities
19.  The AHEC contribution to social work education. 
Public Health Reports  1986;101(2):187-191.
The Area Health Education Center (AHEC) Program is a Federal initiative funded by the Public Health Service. The goal of the program is to improve the distribution and quality of training for health professionals. Funds are awarded to schools of medicine or osteopathy which in turn subcontract with at least two other health professional schools. Each project recipient must establish an AHEC center to plan and coordinate community-based educational experiences for health professions students in designated health shortage areas. The AHEC program fosters interdisciplinary training among health professionals. As part of the basic program thrust, some AHECs have included the social work profession in their program design. The Massachusetts AHEC, through Boston University's School of Social Work, established a health care concentration and interdisciplinary rotation that included students from social work, psychology, nursing, and medicine. Other examples of AHEC-sponsored training are presented from Baltimore, the eastern shore of Virginia, and several centers in Massachusetts. Through the AHEC training mechanism, social work students as well as practitioners in the field have the opportunity to encounter the most current and urgent issues in health care practice.
PMCID: PMC1477786  PMID: 3083474
20.  Physical and mental health perspectives of first year undergraduate rural university students 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:848.
University students are often perceived to have a privileged position in society and considered immune to ill-health and disability. There is growing evidence that a sizeable proportion experience poor physical health, and that the prevalence of psychological disorders is higher in university students than their community peers. This study examined the physical and mental health issues for first year Australian rural university students and their perception of access to available health and support services.
Cross-sectional study design using an online survey form based on the Adolescent Screening Questionnaire modeled on the internationally recognised HEADSS survey tool. The target audience was all first-year undergraduate students enrolled in an on-campus degree program. The response rate was 41% comprising 355 students (244 females, 111 males). Data was analysed using standard statistical techniques including descriptive and inferential statistics; and thematic analysis of the open-ended responses.
The mean age of the respondents was 20.2 years (SD 4.8). The majority of the students lived in on-campus residential college style accommodation, and a third combined part-time paid work with full-time study. Most students reported being in good physical health. However, on average two health conditions were reported over the past six months, with the most common being fatigue (56%), frequent headaches (26%) and allergies (24%). Mental health problems included anxiety (25%), coping difficulties (19.7%) and diagnosed depression (8%). Most respondents reported adequate access to medical doctors and support services for themselves (82%) and friends (78%). However the qualitative comments highlighted concerns about stigma, privacy and anonymity in seeking counselling.
The present study adds to the limited literature of physical and mental health issues as well as barriers to service utilization by rural university students. It provides useful baseline data for the development of customised support programs at rural campuses. Future research using a longitudinal research design and multi-site studies are recommended to facilitate a deeper understanding of health issues affecting rural university students.
PMCID: PMC3847612  PMID: 24034822
Physical health; Mental health; Well-being; University students; Adolescents; Young adults
21.  Importance of Building Confidence in Patient Communication and Clinical Skills Among Chiropractic Students 
One important objective of chiropractic education is to foster student professional confidence and competence in patient communication and clinical skills. Therefore, the aim of this article is to review the extant literature on this topic, stressing the significance of building students' confidence for effective practice and the need for more research in this area.
The authors reviewed MEDLINE and ERIC from 1980 through 2008 using several key words pertinent to confidence and health care. Three distinct, but interrelated, bodies of literature were assessed, including professional confidence in health care research, the nature and development of confidence in educational psychology research, and fostering professional confidence in chiropractic education.
It was apparent through the review that chiropractic education has developed educational methods and opportunities that may help develop and build student confidence in patient communication and clinical skills. However, there has not been sufficient research to provide empirical evidence of the impact.
Fostering chiropractic students' development of confidence in what they say and do is of paramount importance not only to them as new practitioners but more importantly to the patient. There is no doubt that a better understanding of how confidence can be developed and consolidated during tertiary study should be a major goal of chiropractic education
PMCID: PMC2759993  PMID: 19826543
chiropractic; education; self-efficacy; students; trust
22.  Evaluating the AMIA-OHSU 10x10 Program to Train Healthcare Professionals in Medical Informatics 
The promise of health information technology (HIT) has led to calls for a larger and better trained work-force in medical informatics. University programs in applied health and biomedical informatics have been evolving in an effort to address the need for health-care professionals to be trained in informatics. One such evolution is the American Medical Informatics Association’s (AMIA) 10x10 program. To assess current delivery and content models, participant satisfaction, and how graduates have benefited from the program in career or education advancement, all students who completed the Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) offering of the AMIA 10x10 course through the end of 2006 were surveyed. We found that the 10x10 program is approaching AMIA’s goals, and that there are potential areas for content and delivery modifications. Further research in defining the optimal competencies of the medical informatics workforce and its optimal education is needed.
PMCID: PMC2656028  PMID: 18999199
23.  A study on Korean nursing students' educational outcomes 
The purpose of this study was to describe outcome indicators of nursing education including critical thinking, professionalism, leadership, and communication and to evaluate differences among nursing programs and academic years. A descriptive research design was employed. A total of 454 students from four year baccalaureate (BS) nursing programs and two three-year associate degree (AD) programs consented to complete self-administered questionnaires. The variables were critical thinking, professionalism, leadership and communication. Descriptive statistics, χ2-test, t-tests, ANOVA, and the Tukey test were utilized for the data analysis. All the mean scores of the variables were above average for the test instruments utilized. Among the BS students, those in the upper classes tended to attain higher scores, but this tendency was not identified in AD students. There were significant differences between BS students and AD students for the mean scores of leadership and communication. These findings suggested the need for further research to define properties of nursing educational outcomes, and to develop standardized instruments for research replication and verification.
PMCID: PMC3092378  PMID: 21602914
Education; Outcomes; Korea; Nursing students
24.  Medical student disaster medicine education: the development of an educational resource 
Disaster medicine education is an enormous challenge, but indispensable for disaster preparedness.
We aimed to develop and implement a disaster medicine curriculum for medical student education that can serve as a peer-reviewed, structured educational guide and resource. Additionally, the process of designing, approving and implementing such a curriculum is presented.
The six-step approach to curriculum development for medical education was used as a formal process instrument. Recognized experts from professional and governmental bodies involved in disaster health care provided input using disaster-related physician training programs, scientific evidence if available, proposals for education by international disaster medicine organizations and their expertise as the basis for content development.
The final course consisted of 14 modules composed of 2-h units. The concepts of disaster medicine, including response, medical assistance, law, command, coordination, communication, and mass casualty management, are introduced. Hospital preparedness plans and experiences from worldwide disaster assistance are reviewed. Life-saving emergency and limited individual treatment under disaster conditions are discussed. Specifics of initial management of explosive, war-related, radiological/nuclear, chemical, and biological incidents emphasizing infectious diseases and terrorist attacks are presented. An evacuation exercise is completed, and a mass casualty triage is simulated in collaboration with local disaster response agencies. Decontamination procedures are demonstrated at a nuclear power plant or the local fire department, and personal decontamination practices are exercised. Mannequin resuscitation is practiced while personal protective equipment is utilized. An interactive review of professional ethics, stress disorders, psychosocial interventions, and quality improvement efforts complete the training.
The curriculum offers medical disaster education in a reasonable time frame, interdisciplinary format, and multi-experiential course. It can serve as a template for basic medical student disaster education. Because of its comprehensive but flexible structure, it should also be helpful for other health-care professional student disaster education programs.
PMCID: PMC2850977  PMID: 20414376
Disasters; Medical education; Curriculum; Medical students
25.  The process of community health nursing clinical clerkship: A grounded theory 
The performance of the community health nurse depends on a combination of scientific and practical competencies acquired by educational experiences during the nursing course. Curriculum planners of nursing education need to understand nursing education to train professional and community-oriented nurses. The aim of this article is to explore the experiences of nursing students during their community health nursing clinical clerkship courses.
Materials and Methods:
A grounded theory approach was used to conduct this study. Twelve nursing students, 13 health-care staff members, and 10 nursing instructors were interviewed individually in 2011-2012. The interviews were tape-recorded and later transcribed verbatim. The transcriptions were analyzed using the method of Strauss and Corbin.
Ambivalence of motivation was the main category and included five subcategories: Professional identity, educational atmosphere, educational management, motivation-based approaches, and inadequate productivity. This paper presents the aspects of the community health nursing clerkship course from the viewpoint of students in areas such as the role of the community health nurse, attitude toward the course, medical orientation, prerequisite skills/knowledge, poor administrative planning, rotation of students, insufficient activity for students, passiveness, providing service to clients, responsibility, and inproductivity. These categories could explain the nature of the community health nursing clerkship of the Mashhad Faculty of Nursing and probably others in Iran.
The findings revealed inadequate productivity of the community health nursing education; so, it is suggested to define a position for nurses in this setting and remove barriers and provide conditions for them to play more important roles in the promotion of community health.
PMCID: PMC3917128  PMID: 24554943
Clinical clerkship; community health; grounded theory; Iran; nursing students

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