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1.  High IL-35 Pleural Expression in Patients with Tuberculous Pleural Effusion 
Background
IL-35 is a novel anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokine primarily produced by Treg cells, and is involved in inflammatory diseases and autoimmune diseases. However, its roles in tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) remain unknown. We aimed to investigate the potential involvement of IL-35 in TPE.
Material/Methods
Thirty TPE patients and 20 lung cancer patients with malignant pleural effusion (MPE) were recruited. Samples of pleural effusion (100 mL) were collected after traditional pleurocentesis. Blood was sampled from TPE patients. Mononuclear cells were isolated by Ficoll-Hypaque gradient. Proportions of Th1, Th17, and IL-35-producing cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. IL-35 was assessed by real-time RT-PCR, ELISA, and immunofluorescence. An ELISPOT assay was used to assess the effect of IL-35 on pleural effusion mononuclear cells (PEMCs).
Results
Proportions of IL-35-producing cells were higher in TPE compared with MPE (49.4±6.0 vs. 15.8±5.4%, P<0.001) and blood from TPE patients (49.4±6.0% vs. 16.6±3.1, P<0.001). IL-35, IL-17 and IFN-γ were elevated in TPE compared with MPE (all P<0.01). ELISPOT assay showed that IL-35 reduced the proportion of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells in TPE. IL-35 mRNA expression was higher in TPE compared with MPE (P<0.001). Immunofluorescence showed that IL-35-positive cells were present in pleural tissues from TPE patients.
Conclusions
Results suggest that there is an imbalance in IL-35 metabolism in TPE. However, further studies are required to assess the exact relationship with the immune system response to tuberculosis. IL-35 might play a role in TPE and might be targeted as a treatment for TPE.
doi:10.12659/MSM.892562
PMCID: PMC4431365  PMID: 25935866
Interleukin-17; Interleukin-18; Interleukins; Natural Killer T-Cells; Pleural Effusion; Tuberculosis
2.  Different Subsets of Macrophages in Patients with New Onset Tuberculous Pleural Effusion 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e88343.
Objective
Macrophages are the infiltrate components of tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE). This study is aimed at examining the role of different subsets of macrophages in pleural fluid (PF) and peripheral blood (PB) from patients with new onset TPE.
Methods
The numbers of PB and PF CD163+, CD206+ and CD115+ macrophages in 25 patients with new onset TPE and 17 healthy controls (HC) were determined by flow cytometry. The concentrations of serum and PF cytokines were determined by cytometric bead array (CBA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbentassay (ELISA). The potential association between the numbers of different subsets of macrophages and the values of clinical measures in TPE patients were analyzed.
Results
The numbers of PB CD14+CD163− M1-like and CD14+CD163− interleukin (IL)-12+ M1 macrophages were significantly higher than that in the HC, but lower than PF, and the numbers of PF CD14+CD163+, CD14+CD163+CD206+, CD14+CD163+CDll5+ M2-like, and CD14+CD163+IL-10+ M2 macrophages were less than PB in the TPE patients. The levels of serum IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, tumor growth factor (TGF)-β1, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the TPE patients were significantly higher than that in the HC, but lower than that in the PF. The levels of PF IL-10 were significantly higher than that in the PB of patients and HC. In addition, the levels of serum IL-12 and TNF-α were correlated positively with the values of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and the numbers of ESAT-6- and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10)-specific IFN-γ-secreting T cells, and the levels of PF TNF-α were correlated positively with the levels of PF adenosine deaminase (ADA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in those patients.
Conclusion
Our data indicate that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection induces M1 predominant pro-inflammatory responses, contributing to the development of TPE in humans.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088343
PMCID: PMC3919770  PMID: 24520370
3.  IL-33 levels differentiate tuberculous pleurisy from malignant pleural effusions 
Oncology Letters  2014;8(1):449-453.
Tuberculous pleural effusions (TPEs) and malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) are difficult to differentiate between in certain clinical situations. Interleukin (IL)-33 is a cytokine that participates in inflammatory responses and may have a role in pleural effusions. The present study aimed to investigate the concentrations and potential differential significance of IL-33 in patients with TPE and MPE. IL-33 levels in pleural effusion and serum samples were detected using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 23 patients with TPE and 21 patients with MPE. The concentration of IL-33 (mean ± standard deviation) in the TPE patients (22.962±0.976 ng/l) was significantly higher than that in the MPE patients (12.603±5.153 ng/l; P<0.001; z=−4.572); however, there was no significant difference in the serum level of IL-33 in the patients with TPE compared with those with MPE (P>0.05). The concentration of IL-33 in the pleural effusions was positively correlated with that in the serum samples in each group (TPE: r=0.563, P=0.05; MPE: r=0.535, P<0.05). The cut-off value of pleural IL-33 for TPE was 19.86 ng/l, which yielded a sensitivity of 0.869, a specificity of 0.905 and an area under the corresponding receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.903. The present study identified that the level of pleural IL-33 is significantly increased in TPEs and may serve as a novel biomarker to differentiate between patients with TPE and MPE.
doi:10.3892/ol.2014.2109
PMCID: PMC4063658  PMID: 24959294
interleukin-33; pleural effusion; peripheral blood; tuberculous pleurisy; malignant pleural effusion
4.  Association between Elevated Pleural Interleukin-33 Levels and Tuberculous Pleurisy 
Annals of Laboratory Medicine  2012;33(1):45-51.
Background
Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) plays a crucial role in Mycobacterium tuberculosis induced pleural responses. Interleukin (IL)-33 up-regulates the production of IFN-γ. We aimed to identify whether an association between pleural IL-33 levels and tuberculous pleurisy exists and determine its diagnostic value.
Methods
Pleural IL-33, ST2 (a receptor of IL-33), adenosine deaminase (ADA), and IFN-γ, as well as serum IL-33 and ST2 were measured in 220 patients with pleural effusions (PEs). Patients with malignant (MPEs), parapneumonic (PPEs), tuberculous (TPEs), and cardiogenic (CPEs) pleural effusions were included.
Results
Pleural and serum IL-33 levels were highest or tended to be higher in patients with TPEs than in those with other types of PEs. The median pleural fluid-to-serum IL-33 ratio was higher in TPE cases (≥ 0.91) than in other PE cases (≤ 0.56). Pleural IL-33 levels correlated with those of pleural ADA and IFN-γ. However, the diagnostic accuracies of pleural IL-33 (0.74) and pleural fluid-to-serum IL-33 ratio (0.75) were lower than that of ADA (0.95) or IFN-γ (0.97). Pleural ST2 levels in patients with MPEs were higher than in patients with TPEs. Serum ST2 levels did not differ among the groups.
Conclusions
We identified an association between elevated pleural IL-33 levels and tuberculous pleurisy. However, we recommend conventional pleural markers (ADA or IFN-γ) as diagnostic markers of TPE.
doi:10.3343/alm.2013.33.1.45
PMCID: PMC3535196  PMID: 23301222
Interleukin-33; ST2; Tuberculosis; Pleural effusion
5.  Diagnostic accuracy of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, interlukine-10 and adenosine deaminase 2 in differential diagnosis between tuberculous pleural effusion and malignant pleural effusion 
Background
The current study was performed to investigate the potential biomarkers for the differential diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) and malignant pleural effusions (MPE).
Methods
Among ninety patients (n = 90) involved in the study, 47 with tuberculous pleural effusion aged from 18 to 70 and 43 with secondary malignant pleural effusion aged from 34 to 78. We tested the pleural levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-10 as well as the enzyme activity of ADA2, and then we compared the differential diagnostic efficiencies of those biochemical parameters with ADA between the two groups.
Results
Our results show that, the concentrations of pleural TNF-α (45.55 ± 15.85 ng/L), IFN-γ (114.97 ± 27.85 ng/L) as well as activities of ADA2 (35.71 ± 10.00 U/L) and ADA (39.39 ± 10.60 U/L) in tuberculous group were significantly higher compared to malignant group. Furthermore, according to the ROC curve analysis the thresholds of TNF-α, IFN-γ, ADA2 and ADA were found to be 30.3 ng/L, 103.65 ng/L, 29.45 U/L, and 39.00 U/L, respectively. TNF-α, IFN-γ and ADA2 yielded better sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the diagnosis than ADA. Our investigation further revealed that the combinations of TNF-α and ADA2 further increased the specificity and accuracy for the differential diagnosis.
Conclusion
In conclusion, we found that TNF-α, IFN-γ, ADA and ADA2 all increased in TPE. Combinations of the TNF-α and ADA2 yielded the best specificity and accuracy for the differential diagnosis of TPE from MPE. Our investigation suggests that the applications of TNF-α together with ADA2 may contribute to more efficient diagnosis strategies in the management of discrimination between tuberculous and malignant pleural effusions.
doi:10.1186/1749-8090-9-118
PMCID: PMC4227019  PMID: 24984978
Tuberculous pleural effusion; Malignant pleural effusion; Differential diagnostic significance; Tumor necrosis factor-alpha; Interferon-gamma; Interlukine-10; Adenosine deaminase 2
6.  Localized Eosinophil Degranulation Mediates Disease in Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia  
Infection and Immunity  2003;71(3):1337-1342.
To explore the mechanisms underlying the eosinophil-mediated inflammation of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, serum, and supernatants from pulmonary and blood leukocytes (WBC) from patients with acute TPE (n = 6) were compared with those obtained from healthy uninfected individuals (n = 4) and from patients with asthma (n = 4) or elephantiasis (n = 5). Although there were no significant differences in the levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-13, eotaxin, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, RANTES, or eosinophil cationic protein, there was a marked increase in eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) both systemically and in the lungs of individuals with TPE compared to each of the control groups (P < 0.02). Moreover, there was a compartmentalization of this response, with EDN levels being higher in the BAL fluid than in the serum (P < 0.02). Supernatants from WBC from either whole blood or BAL cells were examined for chemokines, cytokines, eosinophil degranulation products, and arachidonic acid metabolites. Of the many mediators examined—particularly those associated with eosinophil trafficking—only EDN (in BAL fluid and WBC) and MIP-1α (in WBC) levels were higher for TPE patients than for the non-TPE control groups (P < 0.02). These data suggest it is the eosinophilic granular protein EDN, an RNase capable of damaging the lung epithelium, that plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of TPE.
doi:10.1128/IAI.71.3.1337-1342.2003
PMCID: PMC148813  PMID: 12595450
7.  Factors affecting pleural fluid adenosine deaminase level and the implication on the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion: a retrospective cohort study 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2013;13:546.
Background
Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is useful in the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE). This study aims to determine the factors affecting pleural fluid ADA levels and to establish the optimal ADA levels for diagnosis of TPE for different age groups.
Methods
This was a retrospective study from January 2007 to October 2011. One hundred and sixty patients who had pleural fluid ADA performed for investigation of pleural effusion were analyzed. Variables examined included demographics, pleural fluid characteristics and peripheral blood counts. The ADA cut-offs according to age were selected using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.
Results
The mean pleural fluid ADA was significantly higher in the TPE group (100 ± 35 IU/L) compared to non TPE patients (30 ± 37 IU/L). There was significant correlation between pleural fluid ADA and age, pleural fluid protein, LDH, and fluid absolute lymphocyte count. The strongest correlation was seen with age (r = −0.621). For patients ≤ 55 years old the ROC for ADA had area under curve (AUC) of 0.887. A pleural fluid ADA of 72 IU/L had sensitivity of 95.1%, specificity of 87.5%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 95.1% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 87.5% for the diagnosis of TPE. For patients > 55 years old the AUC is 0.959. ADA of 26 IU/L had a sensitivity of 94.7%, specificity of 80.4%, PPV of 62% and NPV of 97.8%.
Conclusions
There is a significant negative correlation between pleural fluid ADA and age. For older patients, a lower ADA cut-off should be used to exclude TPE.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-13-546
PMCID: PMC3835552  PMID: 24238276
Adenosine deaminase; Tuberculosis; Pleural effusion; Biological markers
8.  Diagnostic value of interleukin 22 and carcinoembryonic antigen in tuberculous and malignant pleural effusions 
The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of interleukin 22 (IL-22) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in tuberculous pleural effusions (TPEs) and malignant pleural effusions (MPEs). Pleural effusion samples from 56 patients were classified on the basis of diagnosis as TPE (n=28) and MPE (n=28). The concentration of IL-22 was determined by ELISA. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), adenosine dehydrogenase (ADA) and CEA levels were also determined in all patients. A significant difference was observed in the levels of ADA and CEA (P<0.01), but not in the levels of LDH (P>0.05) between TPE and MPE. The concentration of IL-22 in TPE was significantly higher compared to MPE (P<0.01). With a threshold value of 49 pg/ml, IL-22 had a sensitivity of 82.14% (23/28) and a specificity of 96.43% (27/28) for differential diagnosis. The combined detection of IL-22 and CEA had a sensitivity of 100% (28/28) and a specificity of 96.43% (27/28) to distinguish TPE from MPE. TPEs showed significantly higher levels of IL-22 compared to MPEs. The combined detection of IL-22 and CEA may be more valuable in the differential diagnosis between TPE and MPE.
doi:10.3892/etm.2011.344
PMCID: PMC3440797  PMID: 22977645
interleukin 22; carcinoembryonic antigen; pleural effusion; differential diagnosis
9.  Pulmonary inflammation induced by a recombinant Brugia malayi gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase homolog: involvement of humoral autoimmune responses. 
Molecular Medicine  2001;7(5):344-354.
BACKGROUND: A major allergen from the lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi implicated in the pathogenesis of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE) has recently been cloned and identified as the homolog of the membrane-bound mammalian enzyme gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT). Patients with acute TPE show autoreactive antibodies against endogenous gamma-GT from the pulmonary epithelium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Recombinant B. malayi gamma-GT, alone or adsorbed to aluminium hydroxide (AL), was used in a BALB/c mouse model to analyze its antigenic/allergenic potential, its potential to induce pulmonary inflammation, and its capacity to induce autoreacting antibodies. RESULTS: Mice immunized with B. malayi gamma-GT showed significant levels of gamma-GT-specific IgG1, IgG2a, IgG3, IgA, IgE antibodies, and mild blood eosinophilia, even in the absence of adjuvant. Intranasal challenge with B. malayi gamma-GT induced peribronchial and perivascular inflammation characterized by a mixed infiltrate of lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and macrophages. Both IL-4 and IFN-gamma were detected in the peripheral blood and in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of immunized and intranasally challenged mice. Histological analysis of murine lungs using affinity-purified antibodies from mice immunized with the parasite's gamma-GT revealed the presence of autoimmune antibodies against pulmonary epithelium. Western blot analysis identified the 55 kDa heavy chain subunit of the murine gamma-GT as the target of autoreactive/crossreacting antibodies. CONCLUSION: Our data from the in vivo mouse model demonstrate the potent allergenicity/antigenicity of B. malayi gamma-GT, and its capacity to induce pulmonary inflammation upon intranasal challenge. This leads to breakdown of tolerance against endogenous murine gamma-GT. Thus, humoral autoimmunity against the airways epithelium may contribute to the pathogenesis of TPE.
PMCID: PMC1950044  PMID: 11474580
10.  Reciprocal Immunomodulatory Effects of Gamma Interferon and Interleukin-4 on Filaria-Induced Airway Hyperresponsiveness 
Infection and Immunity  2001;69(3):1463-1468.
Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE) is a severe asthmatic syndrome of lymphatic filariasis, in which an allergic response is induced to microfilariae (Mf) in the lungs. Previously, in a murine model for TPE, we have demonstrated that recombinant interleukin-12 (IL-12) suppresses pulmonary eosinophilia and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) by modulating the T helper (Th) response in the lungs from Th2- to Th1-like, with elevated gamma-interferon (IFN-γ) production and decreased IL-4 and IL-5 production. The present study examined the immunomodulatory roles of IL-4 and IFN-γ in filaria-induced AHR and pulmonary inflammation using mice genetically deficient in these cytokines. C57BL/6, IL-4 gene knockout (IL-4−/−), and IFN-γ−/− mice were first immunized with soluble Brugia malayi antigens and then inoculated intravenously with 200,000 live Mf. Compared with C57BL/6 mice, IL-4−/− mice exhibited significantly reduced AHR, whereas IFN-γ−/− mice had increased AHR. Histopathologically, each mouse strain showed increased cellular infiltration into the lung parenchyma and bronchoalveolar space compared with naïve animals. However, consistent with changes in AHR, IL-4−/− mice had less inflammation than C57BL/6 mice, whereas IFN-γ−/− mice had exacerbated pulmonary inflammation with the loss of pulmonary architecture. Systemically, IL-4−/− mice produced significantly higher IFN-γ levels compared with C57BL/6 mice, whereas IFN-γ−/− mice produced significantly higher IL-4 levels. These data indicate that IL-4 is required for the induction of filaria-induced AHR, whereas IFN-γ suppresses AHR.
doi:10.1128/IAI.69.3.1463-1468.2001
PMCID: PMC98042  PMID: 11179313
11.  Diagnostic Accuracy of Adenosine Deaminase and Lymphocyte Proportion in Pleural Fluid for Tuberculous Pleurisy in Different Prevalence Scenarios 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(6):e38729.
Background
Tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) is a paucibacillary manifestation of tuberculosis, so isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is difficult, biomarkers being an alternative for diagnosis. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is the most cost-effective pleural fluid marker and is routinely used in high prevalence settings, whereas its value is questioned in areas with low prevalence. The lymphocyte proportion (LP) is known to increase the specificity of ADA for this diagnosis. We analyse the diagnostic usefulness of ADA alone and the combination of ADA ≥40 U/l (ADA40) and LP≥50% (LP50) in three different prevalence scenarios over 11 years in our area.
Materials and Methods
Biochemistry, cytology and microbiology studies from 472 consecutive pleural fluid samples were retrospectively analyzed. ADA and differential cell count were determined in all samples. We established three different prevalence periods, based on percentage of pleural effusion cases diagnosed as tuberculosis: 1998–2000 (31.3%), 2001–2004 (11.8%), and 2005–2008 (7.4%). ROC curves, dispersion diagrams and pre/post-test probability graphs were produced. TPE accounted for 73 episodes (mean prevalence: 15.5%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for ADA40 were 89%, 92.7%, 69.2% and 97.9%, respectively. For ADA40+LP50 the specificity and PPV increased (98.3% and 90%) with hardly any decrease in the sensitivity or NPV (86.3% and 97.5%). No relevant differences were observed between the three study periods.
Conclusions/Significance
ADA remains useful for the diagnosis of TPE even in low-to-intermediate prevalence scenarios when combined with the lymphocyte proportion.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038729
PMCID: PMC3377686  PMID: 22723878
12.  Acute tropical pulmonary eosinophilia. Characterization of the lower respiratory tract inflammation and its response to therapy. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1987;80(1):216-225.
Although acute tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE) is well recognized as a manifestation of filarial infection, the processes that mediate the abnormalities of the lung in TPE are unknown. To evaluate the hypothesis that the derangements of the lower respiratory tract in this disorder are mediated by inflammatory cells in the local milieu, we utilized bronchoalveolar lavage to evaluate affected individuals before and after therapy. Inflammatory cells recovered from the lower respiratory tract of individuals with acute, untreated TPE (n = 8) revealed a striking eosinophilic alveolitis, with marked elevations in both the proportion of eosinophils (TPE 54 +/- 5%; normal 2 +/- 5%; P less than 0.001) and the concentration of eosinophils in the recovered epithelial lining fluid (ELF) (TPE 63 +/- 20 X 10(3)/microliter; normal 0.3 +/- 0.1 X 10(3)/microliter; P less than 0.01). Importantly, when individuals (n = 5) with acute TPE were treated with diethylcarbamazine (DEC), there was a marked decrease of the lung eosinophils and concomitant increase in lung function. These observations are consistent with the concept that at least some of the abnormalities found in the lung in acute TPE are mediated by an eosinophil-dominated inflammatory process in the lower respiratory tract.
Images
PMCID: PMC442221  PMID: 3298321
13.  Coordinate Cytokine Gene Expression In Vivo following Induction of Tuberculous Pleurisy in Guinea Pigs  
Infection and Immunity  2003;71(8):4271-4277.
Tuberculous pleurisy is a severe inflammatory response induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis organisms that have escaped from lung granulomata into the pleural space during pulmonary infection. We have used the guinea pig model of tuberculous pleurisy to examine several aspects of the immune response to this antigen-specific inflammatory event. Pleurisy was induced by injection of heat-killed M. tuberculosis H37Rv directly into the pleural space of guinea pigs previously vaccinated with M. bovis BCG. Four animals were euthanized each day over a period of 9 days. Fluid in the pleural cavity was analyzed for transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and total interferon (IFN) protein levels. In addition, RNA was obtained from pleural cells and examined for TGF-β1, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IFN-γ, and interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression by real-time PCR. Finally, pleural cells were examined for the ability to proliferate in response to concanavalin A and purified protein derivative (PPD) in vitro. In the pleural fluid, TGF-β1 protein concentrations increased over the course of the inflammatory response while IFN protein levels were not significantly altered. Expression of TGF-β1 mRNA peaked on days 3 and 4, and IFN-γ mRNA expression peaked on day 3 and then returned to background levels. TNF-α mRNA expression was highest on days 2 to 4, and IL-8 mRNA levels remained elevated between days 2 and 5, peaking on day 3 before returning to background levels. PPD-induced proliferative responses were evident by day 3 and remained present throughout the study. Analysis of cytokine expression during tuberculous pleurisy may lead to a better understanding of the self-healing nature of this manifestation of tuberculosis.
doi:10.1128/IAI.71.8.4271-4277.2003
PMCID: PMC166002  PMID: 12874302
14.  Pleural tuberculosis: is radiological evidence of pulmonary-associated disease related to the exacerbation of the inflammatory response? 
Clinics  2012;67(11):1259-1263.
OBJECTIVE:
Pleural tuberculosis is the most frequently occurring form of extra pulmonary disease in adults. In up to 40% of cases, the lung parenchyma is concomitantly involved, which can have an epidemiological impact. This study aims to evaluate the pleural and systemic inflammatory response of patients with pleural or pleuropulmonary tuberculosis.
METHODS:
A prospective study of 39 patients with confirmed pleural tuberculosis. After thoracentesis, a high resolution chest tomography was performed to evaluate the pulmonary involvement. Of the 39 patients, 20 exhibited only pleural effusion, and high resolution chest tomography revealed active associated-pulmonary disease in 19 patients. The total protein, lactic dehydrogenase, adenosine deaminase, vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, and transforming growth factor-β1 levels were quantified in the patient serum and pleural fluid.
RESULTS:
All of the effusions were exudates with high levels of adenosine deaminase. The levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor-β1 were increased in the blood and pleural fluid of all of the patients with pleural tuberculosis, with no differences between the two forms of tuberculosis. The tumor necrosis factor-α levels were significantly higher in the pleural fluid of the patients with the pleuropulmonary form of tuberculosis. The interleukin-8 levels were high in the pleural fluid of all of the patients, without any differences between the forms of tuberculosis.
CONCLUSION:
Tumor necrosis factor-α was the single cytokine that significantly increased in the pleural fluid of the patients with pulmonary involvement. However, an overlap in the results does not permit us to suggest that cytokine is a biological marker of concomitant parenchymal involvement. Although high resolution chest tomography can be useful in identifying these patients, the investigation of fast acid bacilli and cultures for M. tuberculosis in the sputum is recommended for all patients who are diagnosed with pleural tuberculosis.
doi:10.6061/clinics/2012(11)06
PMCID: PMC3488982  PMID: 23184200
Cytokines; Inflammation; Pleural Diseases; Tuberculosis
15.  Factors Influencing Residual Pleural Opacity in Tuberculous Pleural Effusion 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2008;23(4):616-620.
Tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) leads to residual pleural opacity (RPO) in a significant proportion of cases. The aim of this study was to investigate which TPE patients would have RPO following the treatment. This study was performed prospectively for a total of 60 TPE patients, who underwent pleural fluid analysis on the initial visit and chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans before and after the administration of antituberculous medication. At the end of antituberculous medication, the incidence of RPO was 68.3% (41/60) on CT with a range of 2-50 mm. Compared with the non-RPO group, the RPO group had a longer symptom duration and lower pleural fluid glucose level. On initial CT, loculation, extrapleural fat proliferation, increased attenuation of extrapleural fat, and pleura-adjacent atelectasis were more frequent, and parietal pleura was thicker in the RPO group compared with the non-RPO group. By multivariate analysis, extrapleural fat proliferation, loculated effusion, and symptom duration were found to be predictors of RPO in TPE. In conclusion, RPO in TPE may be predicted by the clinico-radiologic parameters related to the chronicity of the effusion, such as symptom duration and extrapleural fat proliferation and loculated effusion on CT.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2008.23.4.616
PMCID: PMC2526418  PMID: 18756047
Computed Tomography; Pleural Effusion; Residual Thickening; Tuberculosis
16.  Combined detections of interleukin-33 and adenosine deaminase for diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion 
Objective: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of the combination of interleukin-33 (IL-33) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) for differentiating TPE from pleural effusions with the other etiologies. Methods: Pleural effusion samples were collected from 32 TPE patients and 55 non-TPE patients. Pleural levels of IL-33 and ADA were measured by ELISA. The corresponding biochemical indexes were also simultaneously determined. Results: The pleural levels of IL-33 and ADA in the TPE group were significantly higher than those in the non-TPE group. With a cut-off value of 68.3 pg/ml, the sensitivity and specificity for IL-33 were 83.9% and 70.9%, respectively. While for ADA, the sensitivity and specificity were 87.5% and 87.3%, respectively at a cut-off value of 10.25 U/L. Combined use of IL-33 and ADA measurements further increased the sensitivity or specificity. Conclusion: Our study suggests that the applications of new biomarker IL-33, along with ADA, may serve as efficient diagnosis strategies in the management of pleural TB. Further studies at a large scale should be performed to validate our findings.
PMCID: PMC4348906  PMID: 25755791
Interleukin-33; adenosine deaminase; tuberculosis; pleural effusion; diagnosis
17.  Evaluation of polymerase chain reaction for rapid diagnosis of clinically suspected tuberculous pleurisy 
Pleural effusion is one of the commonest presentations of tuberculosis, the clinical manifestations being typically abrupt resembling bacterial pneumonia. Since delayed hypersensitivity is the underlying immune response, bacterial load is very low. Owing to these facts, tuberculous pleurisy as an extra-pulmonary disease poses a diagnostic dilemma. The conventional bacteriological methods rarely detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pleural fluid and are of limited use in diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy. We evaluated the efficacy of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy by targeting the gene segment coding for MPB64 protein specific forMycobacterium tuberculosis. Based on the clinical criteria, 82 patients with lymphocytic exudative pleural effusion were included in the study. Patients were analyzed in two groups; one group consisting of 48 patients of tubercular pleural effusion confimed by various diagnostic procedures and another group of 34 patients comprising of non-tubercular pleural effusion. There were no false positive results by PCR and the specificity worked out to be 100%. Twenty two patients tested positive for Mantoux with a sensitivity of 45%. ZN-staining for AFB was found in samples from 15 patients (20% sensitivity). ADA was positive for 28 patients with a sensitivity of 53%. PCR was positive for 32/48 patients (67% sensitivity). Thus, PCR was found to be more sensitive than any other conventional method in diagnosis of clinically suspected tubercular pleurisy.
doi:10.1007/BF02912917
PMCID: PMC3454004  PMID: 23105619
Polymerase chain reaction; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; MPB64; tubercular pleurisy
18.  Interferon gamma for diagnosing tuberculous pleural effusions 
Thorax  1999;54(10):921-924.
BACKGROUND—A study was undertaken to evaluate the diagnostic value of pleural fluid concentrations of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) as a marker of tuberculosis.
METHODS—Patients admitted to King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital between April 1997 and January 1998 with a lymphocytic exudative pleural effusion were enrolled into the study. The pleural fluids were examined for cytology, staining for acid fast bacilli, and mycobacterial culture. Pathological examination and mycobacterial culture were performed on each pleural biopsy specimen. The diagnosis of tuberculosis was made when one of the following criteria was met: (1) Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from either the pleural fluid or pleural tissue; (2) granulomas were demonstrated in the pleural tissue which stained positive for acid fast bacilli (AFB); or (3) in the presence of granulomas negative on staining for AFB in pleural tissue there was a response to antituberculous treatment on follow up. All pleural fluid samples were stored at -70°C and the IFN-γ level was measured by immunoassay. Analysis was made using sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio for a positive test result. The best cut off point was determined by the highest likelihood ratio and receiver operating characteristic curve.
RESULTS—A total of 66 patients were enrolled and tuberculosis was confirmed in 39 of them. The diagnoses in the non-tuberculous group included malignancy (15), paramalignancy (11), and chronic pleuritis secondary to infective endocarditis (1). The mean (SE) IFN-γ level in the pleural fluid was significantly higher in the tuberculous group than in the non-tuberculous group (1493.3 (131.3) pg/ml versus 80.1 (50.4) pg/ml, p<0.001). The overlap between the two groups was minimal. At the cut off value of 240 pg/ml the sensitivity was 94.9% (95% CI 86.6 to 100), the specificity was 96.3% (95% CI 89.2 to 100), and the likelihood ratio for a positive test result was 25.6.
CONCLUSIONS—The pleural fluid concentration of IFN-γ is a good and useful diagnostic marker of tuberculosis presenting as a lymphocytic exudative pleural effusion.


PMCID: PMC1745364  PMID: 10491456
19.  Abnormal Immune Responses in Persons with Previous Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in an In Vitro Model That Simulates In Vivo Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis 
Persons with previous extrapulmonary tuberculosis have reduced peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytokine production and CD4+ lymphocytes compared to persons with previous pulmonary tuberculosis or latent tuberculosis infection, but specific defects related to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of macrophages have not been characterized. The objective of this study was to further characterize the in vitro immune responses to M. tuberculosis infection in HIV-seronegative persons with previous extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from HIV-seronegative persons with previous extrapulmonary tuberculosis (n = 11), previous pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 21), latent M. tuberculosis infection (n = 19), and uninfected tuberculosis contacts (n = 20). Experimental conditions included M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages cultured with and without monocyte-depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Concentrations of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-4, IL-6, CXCL8 (IL-8), IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-17, CCL2 (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) were measured by multiplex cytokine array. When M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages were cocultured with monocyte-depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells, IFN-γ (P = 0.01), TNF-α (P = 0.04), IL-10 (P < 0.001), and IL-6 (P = 0.03) exhibited similar continua of responses, with uninfected persons producing the lowest levels, followed by extrapulmonary tuberculosis cases, pulmonary tuberculosis controls, and persons with latent M. tuberculosis infection. A similar pattern was observed with CXCL8 (P = 0.04), IL-10 (P = 0.02), and CCL2 (P = 0.03) when monocyte-depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the four groups were cultured alone. Persons with previous extrapulmonary tuberculosis had decreased production of several cytokines, both at rest and after stimulation with M. tuberculosis. Our results suggest that persons who develop extrapulmonary tuberculosis have a subtle global immune defect that affects their response to M. tuberculosis infection.
doi:10.1128/CVI.00221-12
PMCID: PMC3416084  PMID: 22675156
20.  Autoantibody-Targeted Treatments for Acute Exacerbations of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(6):e0127771.
Background
Severe acute exacerbations (AE) of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are medically untreatable and often fatal within days. Recent evidence suggests autoantibodies may be involved in IPF progression. Autoantibody-mediated lung diseases are typically refractory to glucocorticoids and nonspecific medications, but frequently respond to focused autoantibody reduction treatments. We conducted a pilot trial to test the hypothesis that autoantibody-targeted therapies may also benefit AE-IPF patients.
Methods
Eleven (11) critically-ill AE-IPF patients with no evidence of conventional autoimmune diseases were treated with therapeutic plasma exchanges (TPE) and rituximab, supplemented in later cases with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Plasma anti-epithelial (HEp-2) autoantibodies and matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7) were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA, respectively. Outcomes among the trial subjects were compared to those of 20 historical control AE-IPF patients treated with conventional glucocorticoid therapy prior to this experimental trial.
Results
Nine (9) trial subjects (82%) had improvements of pulmonary gas exchange after treatment, compared to one (5%) historical control. Two of the three trial subjects who relapsed after only five TPE responded again with additional TPE. The three latest subjects who responded to an augmented regimen of nine TPE plus rituximab plus IVIG have had sustained responses without relapses after 96-to-237 days. Anti-HEp-2 autoantibodies were present in trial subjects prior to therapy, and were reduced by TPE among those who responded to treatment. Conversely, plasma MMP7 levels were not systematically affected by therapy nor correlated with clinical responses. One-year survival of trial subjects was 46+15% vs. 0% among historical controls. No serious adverse events were attributable to the experimental medications.
Conclusion
This pilot trial indicates specific treatments that reduce autoantibodies might benefit some severely-ill AE-IPF patients. These findings have potential implications regarding mechanisms of IPF progression, and justify considerations for incremental trials of autoantibody-targeted therapies in AE-IPF patients.
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01266317
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0127771
PMCID: PMC4470587  PMID: 26083430
21.  Acquired alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency in tropical pulmonary eosinophilia 
Background & objectives:
Observation of an increased frequency of an intermediate deficiency of serum alpha1-antitrypsin (α1-AT) in patients with Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia (TPE) was earlier reported. Though the possibility of existence of an acquired deficiency was suggested, without phenotyping a hereditary α1-AT deficiency in TPE could not totally be ruled out. In this study, we have done Pi (Protease inhibitor) phenotyping to investigate the possibility of association of any heterozygous (or homozygous) α1-AT deficiency in patients with TPE.
Methods:
Serum a1antitrypsin (α1-AT) was measured in 103 patients (Group A) with TPE, 99 patients with pulmonary eosinophilia who had associated intestinal worm infestation (Group B) and 43 healthy volunteers who served as controls. In 19 α1-AT deficient patients (9 of Group A and 10 of Group B), α1-AT level was measured before and after treatment. In 58 patients with TPE and in 5 controls, phenotyping was done.
Results:
Fifteen patients of Group A and 16 from Group B showed intermediate α1-AT deficiency (150 mg % or less. None of the control subjects had α1-AT deficiency (<200 mg%). After treatment with DEC and/or deworming, in 19 patients there was a significant (P < 0.001) rise in α1-AT levels. Results of phenotyping showed that all had M1 or M2 allele and none had S or Z variant (either homozygous or heterozygous) thus ruling out any underlying genetic cause for the observed α1-AT deficiency.
Interpretation & conclusions:
The observed α1-AT deficiency may be due to the chronic inflammation in TPE and associated oxidative stress. However, in such α1-AT deficient patients with TPE and those with worm infested pulmonary eosinophilia, faecal α1-AT concentration and faecal α1-AT clearance should be routinely estimated to rule out the possibility of any intestinal protein loss.
PMCID: PMC3171921  PMID: 21808138
α1-antitrypsin; acquired deficiency; tropical pulmonary eosinophilia; phenotyping
22.  Regulation of CD4+ T Cells by Pleural Mesothelial Cells via Adhesion Molecule-Dependent Mechanisms in Tuberculous Pleurisy 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e74624.
Background
Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) have been demonstrated to be expressed on pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs), and to mediate leukocyte adhesion and migration; however, little is known about whether adhesion molecule-dependent mechanisms are involved in the regulation of CD4+ T cells by PMCs in tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE).
Methods
Expressions of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on PMCs, as well as expressions of CD11a and CD29, the counter-receptors for ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, respectively, expressed on CD4+ T cells in TPE were determined using flow cytometry. The immune regulations on adhesion, proliferation, activation, selective expansion of CD4+ helper T cell subgroups exerted by PMCs via adhesion molecule-dependent mechanisms were explored.
Results
Percentages of ICAM-1-positive and VCAM-1‒positive PMCs in TPE were increased compared with PMC line. Interferon-γ enhanced fluorescence intensity of ICAM-1, while IL-4 promoted VCAM-1 expression on PMCs. Percentages of CD11ahighCD4+ and CD29highCD4+ T cells in TPE significantly increased as compared with peripheral blood. Prestimulation of PMCs with anti‒ICAM-1 or ‒VCAM-1 mAb significantly inhibited adhesion, activation, as well as effector regulatory T cell expansion induced by PMCs.
Conclusions
Our current data showed that adhesion molecule pathways on PMCs regulated adhesion and activation of CD4+ T cells, and selectively promoted the expansion of effector regulatory T cells.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0074624
PMCID: PMC3777994  PMID: 24069325
23.  Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia - A review  
Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE) is a syndrome of wheezing, fever and eosiniphilia seen predominantly in the Indian subcontinent and other tropical areas. Its etiological link with Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi has been well established. The pathogenesis is due to an exaggerated immune response to the filarial antigens which includes type I, type III and type IV reactions with eosinophils playing a pivotal role. Peripheral blood eosinophilia is usually striking with levels over 3000/μl being common. High serum levels of IgE and filarial-specific IgE and IgG are also found. The pathology may vary from an acute eosinophilic alveolitis to histiocytic infiltration depending on the stage of the disease. While earlier studies had suggested that the disease runs a benign course, more recent work has shown that untreated TPE could result in a fair degree of respiratory morbidity. Pulmonary function tests may show a mixed restrictive and obstructive abnormality with a reduction in diffusion capacity. The bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophil count has a negative correlation with the diffusion capacity. Treatment consists of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) for at least three weeks. Despite treatment with DEC, about 20 per cent of patients may relapse. Steroids have shown to have a beneficial effect but the exact dose and duration is yet to be confirmed by randomized controlled trials. A specific and easily available marker is required for TPE in order to distinguish it from other parasitic and non-parasitic causes of pulmonary eosinophilia.
PMCID: PMC3818591  PMID: 24135173
Cough; DEC; fibrosis; filarial antigen; microfilariae; tropical pulmonary eosinophilia; wheezing
24.  Imbalance of Th17 Cells and Regulatory T Cells in Tuberculous Pleural Effusion ▿ 
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology : CVI  2011;18(10):1608-1615.
Both T helper interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing cells (Th17 cells) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been found to be increased in human tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE); however, the possible interaction between Th17 cells and Tregs in TPE remains to be elucidated. The objective of the present study was to investigate the distribution of Th17 cells in relation to Tregs, as well as the mechanism of Tregs in regulating generation and differentiation of Th17 cells in TPE. In the present study, the numbers of Th17 cells and Tregs in TPE and blood were determined by flow cytometry. The regulation and mechanism of CD39+ Tregs on generation and differentiation of Th17 cells were explored. Our data demonstrated that the numbers of Th17 cells and CD39+ Tregs were both increased in TPE compared with blood. Th17 cell numbers were correlated negatively with Tregs in TPE but not in blood. When naïve CD4+ T cells were cultured with CD39+ Tregs, Th17 cell numbers decreased as CD39+ Treg numbers increased, and the addition of the anti-latency-associated peptide monoclonal antibody to the coculture reversed the inhibitory effect exerted by CD39+ Tregs. This study shows that Th17/Treg imbalance exists in TPE and that pleural CD39+ Tregs inhibit generation and differentiation of Th17 cells via a latency-associated peptide-dependent mechanism.
doi:10.1128/CVI.05214-11
PMCID: PMC3187020  PMID: 21813663
25.  Role of Oxidants in Interstitial Lung Diseases: Pneumoconioses, Constrictive Bronchiolitis, and Chronic Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia 
Mediators of Inflammation  2011;2011:407657.
Oxidants such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and myeloperoxidase from activated inflammatory cells in the lower respiratory tract contribute to inflammation and injury. Etiologic agents include inorganic particulates such as asbestos, silica, or coal mine dust or mixtures of inorganic dust and combustion materials found in World Trade Center dust and smoke. These etiologic agents are phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages or bronchial epithelial cells and release chemotactic factors that recruit inflammatory cells to the lung. Chemotactic factors attract and activate neutrophils, eosinophils, mast cells, and lymphocytes and further activate macrophages to release more oxidants. Inorganic dusts target alveolar macrophages, World Trade Center dust targets bronchial epithelial cells, and eosinophils characterize tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE) caused by filarial organisms. The technique of bronchoalveolar lavage in humans has recovered alveolar macrophages (AMs) in dust diseases and eosinophils in TPE that release increased amounts of oxidants in vitro. Interestingly, TPE has massively increased eosinophils in the acute form and after treatment can still have ongoing eosinophilic inflammation. A course of prednisone for one week can reduce the oxidant burden and attendant inflammation and may be a strategy to prevent chronic TPE and interstitial lung disease.
doi:10.1155/2011/407657
PMCID: PMC3205778  PMID: 22131646

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