Rhinitis and asthma are very common diseases involving genetic and environmental factors. Most patients with asthma also have rhinitis, which suggests the concept of 'one airway, one disease.' A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 33 (ADAM33) is the first asthma-susceptible gene to be discovered by positional cloning. To evaluate the potential influence of ADAM33 gene polymorphisms on allergic rhinitis (AR) and allergic asthma (AS), a case-control study was conducted on the Han population of northeast China.
Six polymorphic sites (V4, T+1, T2, T1, S1, and Q-1) were genotyped in 128 patients with AR, 181 patients with AS, and 151 healthy controls (CTR). Genotypes were determined by the polymerase chain restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test with Haploview software.
The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), V4 G/C, T+1 A/G, and T1 G/A, of the ADAM33 gene may be the causal variants in AR, whereas ADAM33 V4 G/C, T2 A/G, T1 G/A, and Q-1A/G may participate in the susceptibility of AS.
These results suggest that polymorphisms of the ADAM33 gene may modify individual susceptibility to AR and AS in a Chinese Han population.
Elevated IgE levels in individuals with asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis represents a situation in that increased IL4 production seems to occur because of the genetic component of the disease. In this study, one-hundred two matched-pairs of allergic and non-allergic individuals were phenotyped for total serum IgE level using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Atopic status was defined by serum IgE concentration ≥100 IU/mL The -590C/T IL4 (rs2243250) was screened by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. An association between the IL4 -590 TT genotype and levels of IgE was confirmed in the study population (ANOVA p=0.017). Furthermore, the IL4 T allele was significantly increased in allergic (0.299) compared with non-allergic subjects (0.172) (OR=2.060, 95% 01 = 1.285-3.301, χ2 uncorrected p=0.002) at total serum IgE cut-off of 100 IU/mL. A significant relationship between IL4 -590 TT genotype and very high IgE levels (>1000 IU/mL) (OR=3.968, 95% CI = 1.499-10.5, χ2 uncorrected p=0.01624) was also established. The -590C/T IL4 polymorphism is a potential risk factor to and correlates with atopic allergy.
Atopy; allergy; IL-4; single-nucleotide polymorphism; SNP; total IgE
Antigen peptides are actively transported across the endoplasmic reticulum by the transporters associated with antigen presentation (TAP). TAP genes polymorphism could influence the selection process that determines which antigen peptides play a role in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of TAP genes polymorphism with allergic rhinitis. TAP1 and TAP2 genotyping were performed on 110 allergic rhinitis patients and 107 healthy controls. TAP1 polymorphic residues at codons 333 and 637, and TAP2 polymorphic residues at codons 379, 565, 651, and 665 were analyzed by the amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR). Analysis of TAP1 gene polymorphism demonstrated decreased frequencies of Ile/Val genotype at codon 333, Asp/Gly genotype at codon 637, and haplotype A and B in allergic rhinitis patients when compared to controls (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the genotype, phenotype, or allele frequencies at four TAP2 codons between controls and allergic rhinitis patients. In conclusion, TAP1 gene polymorphism may be an important factor contributing to the genetic susceptibility in the development of allergic rhinitis in the Korean population.
Allergic Rhinitis; TAP1; TAP2; Polymorphism
Polymorphism of the interleukin-23 receptor gene corresponds with susceptibility to several immune-related diseases. For the terminal differentiation of IL-17-producing effector T-helper cells in vivo, the interleukin-23 receptor gene is of vital importance. As shown recently, Th17 cells probably have a great influence on the pathogenesis of allergic airway diseases. Our intention was to establish an association between polymorphisms in the IL-23R gene and allergic rhinitis (AR) in the Chinese Han population.
We included 358 AR patients and 407 control Chinese subjects in a case-control comparison. The study involved obtaining blood samples for DNA extraction genotyping and determination of 4 selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms in IL-23R by performing PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP).
A substantially growing prevalence of the homozygous rs7517847 GG genotype and G allele appeared in the AR patients unlike that observed in the control individuals (P<0.001). In addition, substantially high frequencies of the GGCA and GGCG haplotypes were observed in the AR patients, unlike that observed in the control individuals (P<0.05). The results suggest that the AGTG haplotype may provide protection against AR (P<0.001).
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate an important association between polymorphisms in IL-23R and AR in the Chinese Han population. A strong association between rs7517847 in a SNP of IL-23R, and AR was identified.
S100A7 is a calcium-binding protein with chemotactic and antimicrobial properties. S100A7 protein levels are decreased in nasal lavage fluid from individuals with ongoing allergic rhinitis, suggesting a role for S100A7 in allergic airway inflammation. The aims of this study were to describe genetic variation in S100A7 and search for associations between this variation and allergic rhinitis.
Peripheral blood was collected from 184 atopic patients with a history of pollen-induced allergic rhinitis and 378 non-atopic individuals, all of Swedish origin. DNA was extracted and the S100A7 gene was resequenced in a subset of 47 randomly selected atopic individuals. Nine polymorphisms were genotyped in 184 atopic and 378 non-atopic individuals and subsequently investigated for associations with allergic rhinitis as well as skin prick test results. Haplotypes were estimated and compared in the two groups.
Thirteen polymorphisms were identified in S100A7, of which 7 were previously undescribed. rs3014837 (G/C), which gives rise to an Asp → Glu amino acid shift, had significantly increased minor allele frequency in atopic individuals. The major haplotype, containing the major allele at all sites, was more common in non-atopic individuals, while the haplotype containing the minor allele at rs3014837 was equally more common among the atopic individuals. Additionally, heterozygotes at this site had significantly higher scores in skin prick tests for 9 out of 11 tested allergens, compared to homozygotes.
This is the first study describing genetic variation, associated with allergy, in S100A7. The results indicate that rs3014837 is linked to allergic rhinitis in our Swedish population and render S100A7 a strong candidate for further investigations regarding its role in allergic inflammation.
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an atopic disease which affects about 600 million people worldwide and results from a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. However genetic association studies on known candidate genes yielded variable results. The aim of this study is to identify the genetic variants that influence predisposition towards allergic rhinitis in an ethnic Chinese population in Singapore using a genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach. A total of 4461 ethnic Chinese volunteers were recruited in Singapore and classified according to their allergic disease status. The GWAS included a discovery stage comparing 515 atopic cases (including 456 AR cases) and 486 non-allergic non-rhinitis (NANR) controls. The top SNPs were then validated in a replication cohort consisting of a separate 2323 atopic cases (including 676 AR cases) and 511 NANR controls. Two SNPs showed consistent association in both discovery and replication phases; MRPL4 SNP rs8111930 on 19q13.2 (OR = 0.69, Pcombined = 4.46×10−05) and BCAP SNP rs505010 on chromosome 10q24.1 (OR = 0.64, Pcombined = 1.10×10−04). In addition, we also replicated multiple associations within known candidates regions such as HLA-DQ and NPSR1 locus in the discovery phase. Our study suggests that MRPL4 and BCAP, key components of the HIF-1α and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways respectively, are two novel candidate genes for atopy and allergic rhinitis. Further study on these molecules and their signaling pathways would help in understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis and identification of targets for new therapeutic intervention.
The IL4, IL13, and IL4 receptor α chain (IL4RA) genes are candidate genes for atopic diseases. We hypothesized that the polymorphisms in these genes are associated with persistent allergic rhinitis (PER).
To investigate the association of the potential functional polymorphisms in IL4, IL13, and IL4RA with PER induced by house dust mites in a Chinese population.
Using the TaqMan method, we genotyped six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including C-590T in IL4, C-1055T and Arg130Gln in IL13, and Ile50Val, Ser478Pro and Gln551Arg in IL4RA, in a case-control study of 265 patients with PER and 275 healthy controls.
We found that the CT/CC genotypes in IL4 C-590T were associated with a significantly decreased risk of mite-sensitized PER [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45–0.92], compared to the TT genotype. Furthermore, PER patients with CT/CC genotypes had significantly lower serum levels of total IgE than those with TT genotype (P = 0.001). However, there was no significant association of the IL13 and IL4RA polymorphisms with mite-sensitized PER (P>0.05).
Our results suggest that the C-590T polymorphism in IL4 may contribute to the susceptibility to mite-sensitized PER in a Chinese population.
The prevalence of allergic diseases is high globally, but especially in developed countries, with one in five to one in four individuals affected worldwide. The World Health Organization's "Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma 2008 Update" guidelines stated explicitly that over 600 million patients from all countries, all ethnic groups and all ages suffer from allergic rhinitis (AR). There are clear evidences to support the concept that allergic diseases are influenced by genetic predisposition and environmental factors. The genetic basis of AR has been evaluated more intensively in the recent 10-20 years. Advances in technology and statistical methods, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have enabled millions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to be genotyped at rapid pace and for less cost. However these studies have not yet answered the entire heritability profile of the disease. Additionally, environmental influences on these genetic variants cannot be discounted. Hence these allergic diseases must be evaluated as a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. This review focuses on the genetic basis of AR, with special emphasis on studies performed in Singapore. Candidate gene based studies and GWAS performed in Singapore cohorts have been discussed to suggest how these diseases could be understood better in a Singapore context which is still applicable to research in AR globally.
Allergic rhinitis; Atopy; Genetic predisposition; Singapore Chinese
Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-4 (IRAK-4) encodes a kinase that is essential for NF-kB activation in Toll-like receptor and T-cell receptor signaling pathways, indicating a possible crosstalk between innate and acquired immunities. We attempted to determine whether the polymorphisms in the Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-4 (IRAK-4) gene are associated with allergic rhinitis (AR) in the Han Chinese population.
A population of 379 patients with AR and 333 healthy controls was studied. Blood was drawn for DNA extraction and total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE). A total of 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IRAK-4 were selected and individually genotyped.
Significant allelic differences between cases and controls were obtained for the SNP of rs3794262 in the IRAK-4 gene. In the stratified analysis for gender, two SNPs (rs4251431 and rs6582484) in males appeared as significant associations. Subgroup analysis for the presence of different allergen sensitivities displayed associations only in the house dust mite-allergic cohorts (rs3794262, rs4251481). None of the selected SNPs in IRAK-4 was associated with total IgE level. The haplotype analyisis indicated GCCTGCGA was significantly associated with AR. The SNP-SNP interaction information analysis indicated that the selected sets of polymorphisms had no synergistic effect.
Our findings did not support the potential contribution of the IRAK-4 gene to serum IgE levels. However, the results demonstrated a gender- and allergen-dependant association pattern between polymorphisms in IRAK-4 and AR in Chinese population.
Allergic rhinitis represents a global health issue affecting 10% to 25% of the population worldwide. Over the years, studies have found that allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, are associated with immunological responses to antigens driven by a Th2-mediated immune response. Because Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses to a broad variety of antigens, the association between polymorphisms of TLRs and allergic diseases has been the focus in many animal and human studies. Although the etiology of allergic rhinitis is still unknown, extensive research over the years has confirmed that the underlying causes of allergic diseases are due to many genetic and environmental factors, along with the interactions among them, which include gene–environment, gene–gene, and environment–environment interactions. Currently, there is great inconsistency among studies mainly due to differences in genetic background and unique gene–environment interactions. This paper reviews studies focusing on the association between TLR polymorphisms and allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, which would help researchers better understand the role of TLR polymorphisms in the development of allergic rhinitis, and ultimately lead to more efficient therapeutic interventions being developed.
allergic rhinitis; allergic diseases; Toll-like receptors
Uteroglobin-Related Protein 1 (UGRP1) is a secretoglobulin protein which has been suggested to play a role in lung inflammation and allergic diseases. UGRP1 has also been shown to be an important pneumoprotein, with diagnostic potential as a biomarker of lung damage. Previous genetic studies evaluating the association between variations on UGRP1 and allergic phenotypes have yielded mixed results. The aim of this present study was to identify genetic polymorphisms in UGRP1 and investigate if they were associated with asthma and allergic rhinitis in the Singapore Chinese population.
Resequencing of the UGRP1 gene was conducted on 40 randomly selected individuals from Singapore of ethnic Chinese origin. The polymorphisms identified were then tagged and genotyped in a population of 1893 Singapore Chinese individuals. Genetic associations were evaluated in this population comparing 795 individuals with allergic rhinitis, 718 with asthma (of which 337 had both asthma and allergic rhinitis) and 717 healthy controls with no history of allergy or allergic diseases.
By resequencing the UGRP1 gene within our population, we identified 11 novel and 16 known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). TagSNPs were then genotyped, revealing a significant association between rs7726552 and allergic rhinitis (Odds Ratio: 0.81, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.66-0.98, P = 0.039). This association remained statistically significant when it was analyzed genotypically or when stratified according to haplotypes. When variations on UGRP1 were evaluated against asthma, no association was observed.
This study documents the association between polymorphisms in UGRP1 and allergic rhinitis, suggesting a potential role in its pathogenesis.
The present study was designed to test whether common polymorphism G-50T within the promoter of human CYP2J2 gene is associated with increased risk of essential hypertension in a Russian population. We studied 576 unrelated subjects, including 295 patients with hypertension and 281 healthy subjects. Genotyping for polymorphism G-50T of the CYP2J2 gene was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques. The frequency of a −50T variant allele of CYP2J2 gene was significantly higher in patients with hypertension versus healthy controls (OR 4.03 95%CI 1.80–9.04 p=0.0004). The association of a −50GT genotype with hypertension remained significant after adjustment for age, gender and family history of hypertension by multivariate logistic regression (OR 4.78 95%CI 1.87–12.27 p=0.001). It has been found that OR for −50GT genotype × gender interaction (OR 4.48 95%CI 1.93–10.39 p=0.00048) was slightly higher than OR for −50GT genotype (OR 4.43 95%CI 1.91–10.29 p=0.00052), suggesting a weak effect of gender on the risk of hypertension in the heterozygous carriers of −50GT genotype. A family history of hypertension has no effect on the association between a −50GT genotype and hypertension. In present study we demonstrate for the first time that a CYP2J2*7 allele of the CYP2J2 gene is clearly associated with an increased risk of essential hypertension. Furthermore, this study highlights the importance of P-450 epoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism in the pathogenesis of hypertensive disease.
Essential hypertension; arachidonic acid metabolism; cytochrome P450 CYP2J2; single nucleotide polymorphism; disease susceptibility; case-control studies
Allergic rhinitis is one of the commonest atopic diseases which contribute to significant morbidity world wide while its epidemiology in Tanzania remains sparse. There was paucity of information regarding allergic rhinitis in our setting; therefore it was important to conduct this study to describe our experience on allergic rhinitis, associated co-morbidities and treatment outcome in patients attending Bugando Medical Centre.
This was descriptive cross-sectional study involving all patients with a clinical diagnosis of allergic rhinitis at Bugando Medical Centre over a three-month period between June 2011 and August 2011. Data was collected using a pre-tested coded questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS statistical computer software version 17.0.
A total of 190 patients were studied giving the prevalence of allergic rhinitis 14.7%. The median age of the patients was 8.5 years. The male to female ratio was 1:1. Adenoid hypertrophy, tonsillitis, hypertrophy of inferior turbinate, nasal polyps, otitis media and sinusitis were the most common co-morbidities affecting 92.6% of cases and were the major reason for attending hospital services. Sleep disturbance was common in children with adenoids hypertrophy (χ2 = 28.691, P = 0.000). Allergic conjunctivitis was found in 51.9%. The most common identified triggers were dust, strong perfume odors and cold weather (P < 0.05). Strong perfume odors affect female than males (χ2 = 4.583, P = 0.032). In this study family history of allergic rhinitis was not a significant risk factor (P =0.423). The majority of patients (68.8%) were treated surgically for allergic rhinitis co morbidities. Post operative complication and mortality rates were 2.9% and 1.6% respectively. The overall median duration of hospital stay of in-patients was 3 days (2 – 28 days). Most patients (98.4%) had satisfactory results at discharge.
The study shows that allergic rhinitis is common in our settings representing 14.7% of all otorhinolaryngology and commonly affecting children and adolescent. Sufferers seek medical services due to co-morbidities of which combination of surgical and medical treatment was needed. High index of suspicions in diagnosing allergic rhinitis and early treatment is recommended.
Allergic rhinitis; Co-morbidities; Treatment outcome; Tanzania
GATA3 activates transcription of the TH2 cytokines, including IL13, an important step in the allergic inflammatory pathway.
We sought to identify associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the genes GATA3 and IL13 and their interactions with rhinitis and allergic sensitization during childhood.
We performed genetic association studies in a cohort of children (n = 923) who have been evaluated for the development of rhinitis and allergic sensitization by means of skin prick tests (SPTs) at age 10 years. Pyrosequencing was used to genotype 7 polymorphisms from GATA3 and 5 from IL13. A novel model-selection procedure combining logistic regression models and classification was used to study the contributions of the polymorphisms and their interactions.
Combinations of polymorphisms and their interactions increase the risk for rhinitis and allergic sensitization at age 10 years. A model with rs1058240, rs379568, and rs4143094 (GATA3) and rs1800925 (IL13) and their interactions was selected to predict rhinitis and positive SPT responses. rs1058240 was associated with rhinitis and allergic rhinitis (P < .05), and the gene-gene interaction rs1058240:rs1800925 was associated with rhinitis (P = .043). The odds ratios for 4 genotype combinations were significant for rhinitis or SPTs (P < .044).
Gene-gene interaction between GATA3 and IL13 polymorphisms can influence the risk of childhood rhinitis. Our study suggests that set associations of polymorphisms are important in studying genetic associations for complex phenotypes, such as rhinitis and atopy.
Rhinitis; allergic rhinitis; atopy; GATA3; IL13; genetic association; gene-gene interactions
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the nasal mucosa, involving a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Evidence suggests that polymorphisms in the gene coding for mitochondrial ribosomal protein L4 (MRPL4), located in close proximity to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) gene on chromosome location 19p13.2, may influence the risk factor for the development of AR.
The aim of our study was to investigate any association between AR susceptibility and polymorphisms in ICAM-1 gene, as well as associations between AR risk and polymorphisms in MRPL4, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and tumor necrosis factor alpha(TNF-α) genes, associated with ICAM-1 expression.
A cohort of 414 patients with AR and 293 healthy controls was enrolled from the Han Chinese population in Beijing, China. Blood was drawn for DNA extraction and total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE). A total of 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ICAM-1, NF-κB, TNF-α, and MRPL4 genes were selected using the CHB genotyping data from the International Haplotype Mapping (HapMap) and assessed for differences in frequencies of the alleles and genotypes between the AR patients and control subjects.
TNF-α SNP rs1799964 and MRPL4 SNP rs11668618 were found to occur in significantly greater frequencies in the AR group compared to control group. There were no significant associations between SNPs in NF-κB, ICAM-1 and AR. The SNP-SNP interaction information analysis further indicated that there were no synergistic effects among the selected sets of polymorphisms.
Our results suggest a strong association between AR risk and polymorphisms of MRPL4 and TNF-α genes in Han Chinese population.
The purpose of the study was to determine the skin sensitization to environmental fungi and its relation with the presence of asthma and allergic rhinitis in children aged 6 to 7 years.
A cross-sectional and analytical study was conducted in 100 school children aged 6 to 7 years in a primary school of San Antonio de los Baños, La Habana, Cuba, in February-March, 2007. The ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) questionnaire was applied to determine the presence of asthma and allergic rhinitis. The sensitization to environmental fungi Penicillium, Cladosporium and Alternaria was explored by skin prick tests. The statistical association between sensitization to each environmental fungi and the presence of asthma and allergic rhinitis was determine by chi-square tests.
The 27% of the selected sample suffered from asthma, 40% from allergic rhinitis and 56% showed asthma, rhinitis or both, which was grouped in a term called allergic respiratory disease. From these 56 children, 18 had positive prick tests to one or more environmental fungi (32%); 9 showed cutaneous reactivity to Cladosporium (16%), 9 to Penicillium (16%) and 5 to Alternaria (9%). There was a significant statistically association between the cutaneous reactivity to Penicillium and the presence of allergic rhinitis (X2 = 5.46 P = 0.05). There were no associations between any other fungal sensitization and the presence of asthma or allergic rhinitis.
Allergic sensitizations to environmental fungi were relevant in children with asthma, rhinitis or both; there was a significant statistically association between sensitization to Penicillium and the presence of allergic rhinitis.
Evidence has been provided of enhanced epithelial transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) immunoreactivity in allergic rhinitis, including correlation with intra-epithelial mast cell numbers, and the co-localisation of TGF-β receptors to mast cells, suggesting that the epithelial expression of TGF-β may represent an important biological process involved in either the recruitment or retention of mast cells within the epithelium in naturally occurring allergic rhinitis.
Patients and Methods
In order to extend the above findings, evaluation was undertaken in whole nasal biopsies from subjects with naturally occurring allergic rhinitis, of levels of TGF-β isotypes and receptors gene expression using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (TaqMan RT-PCR), and the results compared to those for tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), as a positive control. The study was also extended to evaluate gene expression for connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and Smad proteins, as downstream markers of TGF-β bioactivity, in the same populations.
There were no significant differences between the rhinitic and non-rhinitic groups in the expression of TGF-β isoforms or Smad-3, Smad-6 and Smad-7 proteins; however, there was increased gene expression for TGF-βRI and TGF-βRII along with CTGF in seasonal allergic rhinitis. TNF-α gene expression was also increased in seasonal allergic rhinitis, consistent with a more acute inflammatory response in this form of rhinitis.
This study advances our understanding of the role of TGF-β in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory response in allergic rhinitis.
Transforming growth factor beta; Allergic rhinitis; Gene expression; Tumour necrosis factor-alpha; Smad; Connective tissue growth factor
The human multi-drug resistance gene (MDR1), which encodes the major trans-membrane transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), was found to be associated with susceptibility to cancer and response to chemotherapy. The C3435T Polymorphism of MDR1 gene was correlated with expression levels and functions of P-gp. Here, we studied the association between MDR1 C3435T polymorphism and susceptibility to Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and patient's response to ABVD chemotherapy regimen.
a total of 130 paraffin embedded tissue samples collected from HL patients were analyzed to identify the C3435T polymorphism. As a control group, 120 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. The C3435T Polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Data analysis was carried out using the statistical package SPSS version 17 to compute all descriptive statistics. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to evaluate the genotype distribution and allele frequencies of the studied polymorphism.
these studies revealed that the frequency of T allele was significantly higher in HL patients compared to the controls (P < 0.05). In addition, the frequency of CT and TT genotypes were also significantly higher in HL patients compared to the controls (P < 0.05). No association between C3435T polymorphism and response to ABVD was detected among HL patients (P > 0.05).
these results suggest that MDR1 C3435T polymorphism might play a role in HL occurrence; however this polymorphism is not correlated with the clinical response to ABVD.
Lymphoma; C3435T SNP; MDR-1
In normal tension glaucoma (NTG), factors other than elevated intraocular pressure are likely to have a role in the pathogenesis of optic neuropathy. The potential similarities in cellular apoptosis leading to neurodegeneration between Alzheimer's disease and NTG were shown in recent studies. The interleukin-1β (IL-1β; -511) and IL-1β (+3953) polymorphisms were found to increase risk with Alzheimer's disease. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the IL-1β polymorphism is associated with NTG in the Chinese population.
This is a cohort study in a Chinese population that involved 231 people with NTG and 245 healthy controls. Genomic DNA was amplified by a polymerase chain reaction, followed by the enzymatic restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Patients and controls were genotyped for the C/T polymorphism at position -511 and +3953 of the IL-1β gene. Genotypes for NTG and control groups were compared for statistically significant differences.
There was no significant difference in genotype frequency or allele frequency distribution of the IL-1β gene polymorphisms (position -511 and +3953) between NTG patients and the control group (p >0.3).
Our study showed no evidence for an association between the IL-1β (-511) and IL-1β (+3953) polymorphisms and NTG. The IL-1β gene polymorphisms (position -511 and +3953) may not play a key role in NTG pathogenesis in Chinese population.
Interleukin 31 (IL-31) is a T helper type 2 effector cytokine that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atopic and allergic diseases. IL-31 may be involved in promoting allergic inflammation and in inducing airway epithelial responses such as allergic asthma.
Single-base extension analysis was used to detect the genotypes of IL-31 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and we compared the genotype and allele frequencies of the IL-31 SNPs between patients with asthma and healthy controls.
There were no significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies of the IL-31 SNPs between patients with asthma and healthy controls. Furthermore we compared the genotype and allele frequencies of IL-31 SNPs between patients with atopic asthma, those with non-atopic asthma and healthy controls. This showed that the SNPs were not associated with the susceptibility to atopic asthma. There were no significant differences in the haplotype frequencies of IL-31 SNPs between patients with asthma and healthy controls. In patients with asthma, the IL-31 SNPs were significantly correlated with total serum levels of IgE (p=0.035).
Our results indicate that, the IL-31 SNPs may be associated with IgE production in patients with asthma.
IL-31; Haplotypes; Polymorphism; Asthma; Immunoglobulin E
Background and Aim
The prevalence of allergic disorders, including asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis has been increasing, and the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has been decreasing. Chronic bacterial infection during childhood is reported to protect the development of allergic diseases. The aim of the present study was to identify whether H. pylori infection influences the prevalence of allergic rhinitis, which has become a serious social problem, especially in the developed countries.
We initially investigated the association between the prevalence of H. pylori and pollinosis symptoms in 97 healthy volunteers.We had investigated the association between the serum H. pylori–immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies and specific IgE antibodies for pollen, mites, and house dust in 211 consecutive patients.
There were 52.2% (36/69) of H. pylori-negative volunteers with allergic symptoms, which was significantly higher than H. pylori-positive volunteers (14.3%, 4/28, P <0.05). The risk of pollinosis symptoms by H. pylori infection was 0.148 (95% confidence interval): 0.046–0.475, P <0.05). The prevalence of H. pylori infection increased according to age, whereas that of specific IgE-positive patients gradually decreased. Among the IgE-positive patients, the prevalence of H. pylori-negative patients was significantly higher than H. pylori-positive patients who were younger in age (P <0.05).
H. pylori infection decreased the pollinosis effects, especially among the younger volunteers. However, the prevalence of pollinosis in patients who were 50 years or older were almost same between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative patients; therefore, the recent increase of pollinosis might relate to not only H. pylori infection, but also change in social environment.
allergic rhinitis; Helicobacter pylori; pollinosis
The interleukin-23 receptor (IL-23R) has been shown to be associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in many different populations. This study examined whether IL-23R polymorphisms were associated with susceptibility to this disease in a Chinese Han population.
Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), rs7517847, rs11209032, and rs17375018, were genotyped in 291 AS patients and 312 age-, sex-, and ethnically matched healthy controls using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay.
The genotype and allele frequencies of rs17375018, rs7517847, and rs11209032 were not different between the patients with AS and the healthy controls. On the one hand, stratification analysis indicated that the rs17375018 GG genotype and the G allele were increased in AS patients who were HLA-B27 positive (corrected p = 0.024, odds ratio [OR] 2.35, 95% CI 1.30–4.24; pc = 0.006, OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.28–3.07, respectively). On the other hand, the analysis according to clinical characteristics showed a significantly increased prevalence of the homozygous rs17375018 GG genotype and the G allele in patients with AS and uveitis compared with the controls (pc = 0.024 and pc = 0.024, respectively). In addition, haplotype analysis performed with the SHEsis platform revealed no significant difference concerning the haplotypes between AS patients and healthy controls.
In this study, the results suggested that the rs17375018 of IL23R was positively associated with HLA-B27-positive AS and that the rs17375018 GG of IL-23R was associated with AS concomitant with uveitis. We found no evidence for an association between the other two SNPs of IL-23R and AS.
Mutation in SPINK5 causes Netherton syndrome, a rare recessive skin disease that is accompanied by severe atopic manifestations including atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, asthma, high serum IgE and hypereosinophilia. Recently, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the SPINK5 was shown to be significantly associated with atopy, atopic dermatitis, asthma, and total serum IgE. In order to determine the role of the SPINK5 in the development of asthma, a case-control study including 669 asthma patients and 711 healthy controls in Han Chinese was conducted.
Using PCR-RFLP assay, we genotyped one promoter SNP, -206G>A, and four nonsynonymous SNPs, 1103A>G (Asn368Ser), 1156G>A (Asp386Asn), 1258G>A (Glu420Lys), and 2475G>T (Glu825Asp). Also, we analyzed the functional significance of -206G>A using the luciferase reporter assay and electrophoresis mobility shift assay.
we found that the G allele at SNP -206G>A was associated with increased asthma susceptibility in our study population (p = 0.002, odds ratio 1.34, 95% confidence interval 1.11–1.60). There was no significant association between any of four nonsynonymous SNPs and asthma. The A allele at -206G>A has a significantly higher transcriptional activity than the G allele. Electrophoresis mobility shift assay also showed a significantly higher binding efficiency of nuclear protein to the A allele compared with the G allele.
Our findings indicate that the -206G>A polymorphism in the SPINK5 is associated with asthma susceptibility in a Chinese Han population.
Six previous studies have examined the relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL13 gene and allergic rhinitis, but the results have been inconsistent. However, a recent meta-analysis using data from these 6 studies has shown that the A allele of IL13 SNP rs20541 was associated with an increased risk of allergic rhinitis, whereas no such relationship existed between IL13 SNP rs1800925 and allergic rhinitis. We investigated the associations between IL13 SNPs rs1800925 and rs20541 and the risk of rhinoconjunctivitis in Japanese women.
Included were 393 cases who met the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) for rhinoconjunctivitis. Control subjects were 767 women without rhinoconjunctivitis according to the ISAAC criteria, who had also not been diagnosed with allergic rhinitis by a doctor. Adjustment was made for age, region of residence, presence of older siblings, smoking, family history of allergic rhinitis, and education.
Compared with the GG genotype of IL13 SNP rs20541, the AA genotype, occurring in 7.1% of control subjects, was significantly positively related to the risk of rhinoconjunctivitis: the adjusted odds ratio was 1.65 (95% confidence interval: 1.05 - 2.60). SNP rs1800925 was not associated with rhinoconjunctivitis. The haplotype comprising the rs1800925 C allele and the rs20541 A allele was significantly positively related to rhinoconjunctivitis. The multiplicative interactions between the two SNPs under study and smoking on the risk of rhinoconjunctivitis were not statistically significant. Based on the recessive model, however, the additive interaction between SNP rs1800925, but not rs20541, and smoking was significant.
This study suggests that the minor genotype of IL13 SNP rs20541 and the CA haplotype are significantly positively associated with the risk of rhinoconjunctivitis. In addition, a new pattern of biological interaction that affects the risk of rhinoconjunctivitis is described between SNP rs1800925 and smoking.
Allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis represent a global health problem, affecting 10%–25% of the world population. There is clear evidence to support the concept that allergic diseases are influenced by genetic predisposition and environmental exposure. Polymorphisms of candidate genes have been associated with clinical expression of these diseases. However, characterization of these susceptibility markers in discriminating an “allergic individual” from the general population has not yet been achieved, and the value of how this genetic insight leading to recognition of specific subtypes of these disorders still needs to be confirmed. Environmental factors (eg, air pollution and bacterial/viral infection) also play an important role in the development of the diseases. A number of epidemiologic studies have supported the “hygiene hypothesis”, which is based on the observations that Th1 responses induced by microbial stimulation can counterbalance allergen-induced Th2 responses. Future studies are needed to identify the key genes or their haplotypes for atopic phenotypes and to investigate the interactions between genetic and environmental factors that influence the complex trait of allergic diseases. This will help us to further understand the etiology of the diseases and develop new avenues for genetically oriented diagnosis and more effective measures of prevention and intervention.
allergic rhinitis; genetic predisposition; environmental factors