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1.  Combined Lateral Orbitotomy and Endoscopic Transnasal Orbital Decompression in a Case of Orbital Aspergillosis with Impending Intracranial Invasion 
Case Reports in Ophthalmology  2012;3(3):418-423.
A 64-year-old man with a known history of diabetes and hypertension presented to the Accident and Emergency Department with a 2-day history of sudden decreased vision in the right eye. Temporal arteritis was suspected with an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (71 mm/h), and oral prednisolone was started immediately. Four days later, the patient's right eye vision deteriorated from 0.6 to 0.05, with a grade-4 relative afferent pupillary defect and ophthalmoplegia. Computed tomography showed a contrast-enhancing orbital apex mass in the right orbit abutting the medial and lateral portions of the optic nerve with extension to the posterior ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses. A transethmoidal biopsy was performed which yielded septate hyphae suggestive of Aspergillus infection. Ten days later, the patient's right eye vision further deteriorated to hand movement with total ophthalmoplegia. MRI of the orbit showed suspicion of cavernous sinus thrombosis. A combined lateral orbitotomy and transethmoidal orbital apex drainage and decompression were performed to eradicate the orbital apex abscess. Drained pus cultured Aspergillus. The patient was prescribed systemic voriconazole for a total of 22 weeks. The latest MRI scan, performed 8 months after surgery, showed residual inflammatory changes with no signs of recurrence of the disease. To our knowledge, this is the first case report which describes the use of a combined open and endoscopic approach for orbital decompression and drainage in a case of orbital aspergillosis. We believe the combined approach gives good exposure to the orbital apex, and allows the abscess in this region to be adequately drained.
PMCID: PMC3551432  PMID: 23341818
Orbital aspergillosis; Lateral orbitotomy; Transethmoidal orbital apex drainage
2.  Isolated sphenoid sinus disease — a retrospective analysis 
To evaluate the etiology, symptoms, signs, imaging, surgical findings and outcomes of isolated sphenoid sinus disease (ISSD).
Retrospective study.
Tertiary university based referral center.
Materials and methods
All 8 patients aged 17–63, managed surgically in the department of ENT and Head and Neck Surgery at St. John’s Medical College and Hospital, Bangalore from 2006 to 2008 for ISSD. Demographic data, presenting signs and symptoms endoscopic and imaging findings, surgical management, surgical pathology and clinical outcomes were investigated in the above patients.
Of the 8 cases of ISSD, 5 were male; 3 were female, with an age range of 17–63 years. The most common presenting symptom was headache (7 patients [87.5%]), followed by nasal obstruction and recurrent URTI (5 cases [62.5%]). Imaging included CT and/or MRI studies in all cases. Sphenoid sinus pathology was varied and included 5 (62.5%) inflammatory cases, 1 (11.1%) cerebrospinal fluid fistula and 2 (22.2%) cases of sphenoid sinus neop;asms. Of the inflammatory cases 2 (40%) had isolated polyps in the sphenoid sinus [sphenochoanal polyps] and 3 (60%) had fungal sinusitis. Treatment was surgical, endoscopic transnasal sphenoidotomy under general anesthesia in all 5 patients with inflammatory ISSD Two patients with sphenoid sinus tumors underwent endoscopic biopsy.
ISSD is rare. A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis, which should be an active process and not one of exclusion. Both diagnostic nasal endoscopy and CT imaging are essential for diagnosis. The direct approach to the sphenoid sinus, transnasal endoscopic sphenoidotomy without ethmoidectomy is safe and effective. With early and adequate surgery we were able to avoid the morbidity associated with ISSD.
PMCID: PMC3450151  PMID: 23120685
Sphenoid sinus; Sphenochoanal polyp; Sinusitis; Headache; Sphenoidotomy
3.  Adenocarcinoma of the sphenoid sinus 
Adenocarcinomas of the sphenoid sinus are exceptional. In this paper, we report a new case with a review of the literature. Our patient was a 45-year-old man who presented with isolated retro orbital headache. CT and MRI suspected a malignat tumor of the sphenoid sinus. The patient underwent a debulking surgery. The final pathology carried out the diagnosis of primary adenocarcinoma. The patient died several months later from radiotherapy complications. Even if adenocarcinomas of the sphenoid sinus are exceptional, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of sphenoid sinus masses. The prognosis is poor.
PMCID: PMC4247863  PMID: 25469178
Sphenoid sinus; adenocarcinoma; endonasal surgery; radiotherapy
4.  Invasive Fungal Sinusitis of the Sphenoid Sinus 
This study was conducted to present the clinical outcome of invasive fungal sinusitis of the sphenoid sinus and to analyze clinical factors influencing patient survival.
A retrospective review of 12 cases of invasive fungal sphenoiditis was conducted.
Cases were divided into acute fulminant invasive fungal spheonoidits (n=4) and chronic invasive fungal sphenoiditis (n=8). The most common underlying disease was diabetes mellitus (n=9). The most common presenting symptoms and signs included visual disturbance (100%). Intracranial extension was observed in 8 patients. Endoscopic debridement and intravenous antifungals were given to all patients. Fatal aneurysmal rupture of the internal carotid artery occurred suddenly in two patients. The mortality rate was 100% for patients with acute fulminant invasive fungal sphenoiditis and 25% for patients with chronic invasive fungal sphenoiditis. In survival analysis, intracranial extension was evaluated as a statistically significant factor (P=0.027).
The survival rate of chronic invasive fungal sphenoiditis was 75%. However, the prognosis of acute fulminant invasive fungal sphenoiditis was extremely poor despite the application of aggressive treatment, thus, a high index of suspicion should be required and new diagnostic markers need to be developed for early diagnosis of invasive fungal sinusitis of the sphenoid sinus.
PMCID: PMC4135153  PMID: 25177433
Invasive; Fungus; Sinusitis; Sphenoid sinus
5.  Sphenoid Sinus and Sphenoid Bone Fractures in Patients with Craniomaxillofacial Trauma 
Background and Purpose Sphenoid bone fractures and sphenoid sinus fractures have a high morbidity due to its association with high-energy trauma. The purpose of this study is to describe individuals with traumatic injuries from different mechanisms and attempt to determine if there is any relationship between various isolated or combined fractures of facial skeleton and sphenoid bone and sphenoid sinus fractures.
Methods We retrospectively studied hospital charts of all patients who reported to the trauma center at Hospital de San José with facial fractures from December 2009 to August 2011. All patients were evaluated by computed tomography scan and classified into low-, medium-, and high-energy trauma fractures, according to the classification described by Manson.
Design This is a retrospective descriptive study.
Results The study data were collected as part of retrospective analysis. A total of 250 patients reported to the trauma center of the study hospital with facial trauma. Thirty-eight patients were excluded. A total of 212 patients had facial fractures; 33 had a combination of sphenoid sinus and sphenoid bone fractures, and facial fractures were identified within this group (15.5%). Gender predilection was seen to favor males (77.3%) more than females (22.7%). The mean age of the patients was 37 years. Orbital fractures (78.8%) and maxillary fractures (57.5%) were found more commonly associated with sphenoid sinus and sphenoid bone fractures.
Conclusions High-energy trauma is more frequently associated with sphenoid fractures when compared with medium- and low-energy trauma. There is a correlation between facial fractures and sphenoid sinus and sphenoid bone fractures. A more exhaustive multicentric case-control study with a larger sample and additional parameters will be essential to reach definite conclusions regarding the spectrum of fractures of the sphenoid bone associated with facial fractures.
PMCID: PMC3773063  PMID: 24436756
craniofacial trauma; sphenoid sinus; fracture; sphenoid bone; facial trauma; CT
6.  Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the sphenoid sinus presenting as isolated oculomotor nerve palsy 
Solitary involvement of the sphenoid sinus has rarely been reported in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Isolated oculomotor nerve palsy is uncommon as an initial presentation of malignant tumors of the sphenoid sinus.
Case presentation
A 53-year-old woman presented with a three-month history of headache and diplopia. Neurological examination revealed complete left oculomotor nerve palsy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) demonstrated a homogenous soft-tissue lesion occupying the left sphenoid sinus and invading the left cavernous sinus. The patient underwent transsphenoidal biopsy and the lesion was histologically diagnosed as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell type. Tumor cells were positive for CD20 and negative for CD3. Following six cycles of chemotherapy, the left oculomotor nerve palsy that had been previously observed was completely resolved. There was no enhancing lesion noted on follow-up MRI.
It is important to recognize that non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the sphenoid sinus can present with isolated oculomotor nerve palsy, although it is extremely rare. The cranial nerve deficits can resolve dramatically after chemotherapy.
PMCID: PMC1950883  PMID: 17683562
7.  Endoscopic Craniofacial Approach for Intracranial Polyposis: The “Blue–Sky Technique” 
Skull Base  2003;13(4):235-239.
Massive sinonasal polyposis associated with skull base dehiscence and intracranial extension is a difficult disease to treat. Conventional transnasal or transfacial techniques can result in dural injury, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak and infection. We describe our experience with a combined neurosurgical–endoscopic technique that protects the meninges. Five patients with massive sinonasal polyposis extending intracranially through skull base dehiscence were reviewed retrospectively. The minimum follow–up was 2 years. A frontal craniotomy was performed through a bicoronal approach. The dura was carefully separated from all infectious material at the floor of the anterior cranial fossa. The frontal lobe with the intact meninges was elevated off the anterior cranial floor. A sheet of blue plastic material was inserted under the frontal lobe from the craniotomy site to the planum sphenoidale. Next, a transnasal endoscopic ethmoidectomy, sphenoidectomy, and frontal sinusotomy were performed to remove the inflammatory processes. The blue plastic material was visible through any existing or potential skull base dehiscence, thus providing visual protection for the dura and brain. All gross disease was removed from the frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid skull base regions in the 5 patients without dural injury. None of the patients developed a CSF leak or meningitis. Two patients developed recurrent polyposis limited to the sinuses without intracranial extension. The endoscopic craniofacial approach with the “Blue–Sky” protective technique offers a safe method for completely removing massive sinonasal polyposis associated with an intracranial extension.
PMCID: PMC1131857  PMID: 15912183
Sinonasal polyposis; craniofacial resection
8.  Sphenoid Sinus Mucocele Caused by a Completely Thrombosed Intracavernous Carotid Artery Aneurysm: An Unusual Association 
Background Mucocele is an inflammatory disease caused by the retention of mucoid secretions within a paranasal sinus. Although rare, the presence of a vascular lesion inside the sphenoid sinus could determine ostium obstruction, thus causing mucocele development.
Clinical Presentation An 84-year-old woman was referred to our institution due to a lesion abutting into the sphenoid sinus; she was complaining of constrictive frontal headache, progressive worsening of visual acuity in the left eye; later, sudden homolateral ptosis and diplopia occurred. The radiologic evidence was consistent with the diagnosis of thrombosed aneurysm of the right intracavernous carotid artery, surrounded by sphenoidal mucocele. The patient underwent an endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach exclusively for sphenoid mucocele drainage.
Conclusion Although rare, the presence of a vascular lesion inside the sphenoid sinus has to be considered among the possible diagnostic hypotheses of masses abutting in this cavity; the association with mucocele is even more rare and, to date, has not been described.
PMCID: PMC4110156  PMID: 25083367
sphenoidal mucocele; aneurysm; endoscopic endonasal surgery; skull base surgery; sinus surgery
9.  Isolated Sphenoid Sinus Mucocele Presenting as Third Nerve Palsy 
A sphenoid mucocele often presents late due to its deep seated anatomical site. And it has varied presentation due to its loose relationship to the cavernous sinus and the base of the skull. We describe a case of large sphenoid sinus mucocele. A middle aged old man suddenly developed third cranial nerve palsy. Brain imaging study revealed an isolated sphenoid sinus mucocele, compressing right cavernous sinus. Endoscopic marsupialization of the mucocele via transnasal approach led to complete resolution of the third cranial nerve palsy. Involvement of the third cranial nerve in isolated mucocele is rare but important neurosurgical implications which must be excluded. In addition, proper and timely treatment must be performed to avoid permanent neurologic deficit.
PMCID: PMC2982917  PMID: 21113366
Sphenoid sinus mucocele; Third nerve palsy; Transnasal approach
10.  Isolated sphenoid sinus pathologies – the problem of delayed diagnosis 
Isolated sphenoid sinus pathologies are relatively rare. In the majority of cases, symptoms do not arise in the early stages of the disease or are non-specific, therefore making diagnosis difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic process and the reasons for development of complications in patients with isolated sphenoid sinus pathology.
The clinical data and observation charts of 32 patients were investigated to determine how long the main symptoms of sphenoid pathology had been present before the patients were referred for medical treatment, and the time that elapsed from the first ambulatory medical assessment to the initial diagnosis.
Complaints and symptoms of sphenoid sinus pathology had been present for 10.2 months before the diagnosis was established. Although the duration of complaints in “ORL” (diagnosed by otorhinolaryngologist) and “non-ORL” (diagnosed by other specialists) group of patients was similar (10.8 and 9.5 months on average, respectively), unexpectedly, in the “non-ORL” group of patients, the time necessary for making the initial diagnosis was actually shorter than in the “ORL” group (1.8 vs 4.1 months). At the time of hospital admission, endoscopic examination revealed no abnormalities in 31.2% of patients. In 28.1% of patients the pathological process in the sphenoid sinus was diagnosed only after the onset of complications.
The occult character of the disease and the lack of severe and specific symptoms, rather than the delay in getting extensive diagnostic tests, are responsible for the delayed diagnosis and treatment.
PMCID: PMC3524726
sphenoiditis; isolated lesion; complications
11.  Isolated sphenoid sinus lesion: A diagnostic dilemma 
Qatar Medical Journal  2014;2014(1):57-60.
Isolated sphenoid sinus lesions are an uncommon entity and present with non-specific symptoms. In this case report, the patient presented with a history of headaches for a duration of one month without sinonasal symptoms. A computed tomography scan showed a soft tissue mass occupying the sphenoid sinus. An endoscopic biopsy revealed fungal infection. Endoscopic wide sphenoidotomy with excision of the sphenoid sinus lesion was then performed however, the microbiological examination post-surgery did not show any fungal elements. Instead, Citrobacter species was implicated to be the cause of infection.
PMCID: PMC4197375  PMID: 25320694
sphenoid sinusitis; Citrobacter; sphenoid lesion; sinuses
12.  Brain abscess and generalized seizure caused by halo pin intracranial penetration: case report and review of the literature 
European Spine Journal  2008;18(Suppl 2):172-175.
The objective of our study is to report a rare complication of halo pin insertion associated with an epileptic seizure and brain abscess, and to discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to its management. The treatment of unstable cervical spine injuries with a halo vest is an established procedure. Complications of pin penetration such as brain abscess and seizure are rare, and need to be urgently treated. Intracranial abscess and seizure associated with the use of the halo device is an unusual complication, and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. A 21-year-old male had a halo vest placed for the management of an odontoid type II fracture, which he sustained from a motor vehicle accident. Ten weeks after halo ring placement he complained of headaches which relieved by analgesics. After 2 weeks he was admitted at the emergency unit in an unconscious condition after a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. The halo pins were displaced during the seizure and were removed at his admission. No drainage was noted from the pin sites, and a Philadelphia cervical collar was applied. A brain CT and MRI revealed intracranial penetration of both posterior pins and a brain abscess in the right parietal lobe. Computed tomography of the cervical spine revealed stable fusion of the odontoid fracture. Cultures from the pin sites were negative; however, intravenous wide spectrum antibiotic treatment was administered to the patient immediately for 4 weeks followed by oral antibiotics for additional 2 weeks. Anti-epileptic medication was also started at his admission. The patient was discharged from the hospital in 6 weeks without symptoms, continuing anti-epileptic medication. On the follow-up visits he had fully recovered without any neurologic sequelae. In conclusion, complications of halo pin penetration are rare which need immediate intervention. Any neurologic or infectious, local or generalized, symptom need to be investigated urgently with available imaging techniques and treated promptly. Pin over-tightening may cause bone penetration and possible deep cranial infection with serious complications.
PMCID: PMC2899570  PMID: 18751739
Odontoid fractures; Halo pin penetration; Brain abscess; Seizure
13.  An Unusual Case of Cerebral Penetrating Injury by a Driven Bone Fragment Secondary to Blunt Head Trauma 
Temple trauma that appears initially localized to the skin might possess intracranial complications. Early diagnosis and management of such complications are important, to avoid neurologic sequelae. Non-penetrating head injuries with intracranial hemorrhage caused by a driven bone fragment are extremely rare. A 53-year-old male was referred to our hospital because of intracerebral hemorrhage. He was a mechanic and one day before admission to a local clinic, tip of metallic rod hit his right temple while cutting the rod. Initial brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated scanty subdural hematoma at right temporal lobe and left falx and intracerebral hematoma at both frontal lobes. Facial CT with 3-D reconstruction images showed a small bony defect at the right sphenoid bone's greater wing and a small bone fragment at the left frontal lobe, crossing the falx. We present the unusual case of a temple trauma patient in whom a sphenoid bone fragment migrated from its origin upward, to the contralateral frontal lobe, producing hematoma along its trajectory.
PMCID: PMC3272517  PMID: 22323943
Head injury; Penetrating; Bone fragment
14.  Transnasal Transsphenoidal Endoscopic Repair of CSF Leakage Using Multilayer Acellular Dermis 
Skull Base  2007;17(2):125-132.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks result from a communication between the subarachnoid space and the upper aerodigestive tract. Because of the risk of complications such as meningitis, brain abscess, and pneumocephalus, all persistent CSF leaks should be repaired. Surgical repair may be achieved transcranially or extracranially using a wide variety of autogenous, allogenic, and synthetic patching materials. We report our results with a transnasal transsphenoidal endoscopic approach for the repair of CSF leaks coupled with a multilayer closure using acellular dermis (Alloderm™). We conducted a retrospective review of all patients presenting to our institution over the past 5 years with isolated sphenoid sinus CSF fistulas. Results: Twenty-one patients were included in the study. Nineteen patients (90.5%) had their sphenoid sinus CSF fistula repaired during the first attempt; 2 patients (9.5%) needed a second attempt. The multilayer repair of the CSF leak using acellular dermis via a transsphenoidal endoscopic approach is an effective and successful method of surgical repair of the fistula site. Neither the number, size, nor cause of the CSF fistula affected surgical outcomes. However, the presence of hydrocephalus was a significant negative variable, altering the surgical outcomes of our patients. The acellular dermis offers the advantage of not requiring autogenous tissue for the effective repair of CSF leaks in the sphenoid sinus.
PMCID: PMC1876155  PMID: 17768442
Transnasal approach; multilayer repair; sphenoid sinus; CSF leak
15.  Retained transorbital foreign body with intracranial extension after pipe bomb explosion 
Penetrating brain injuries caused by explosions are survived in extremely rare cases only. However, potential casualties of such cases may be encountered by regular physicians even outside a war zone, e.g., due to an assault or terror blast. There is very limited literature to this end; therefore, we report the successful neurosurgical management of a penetrating head injury due to a pipe bomb explosion.
Case Description
A 19-year-old man was brought to the ER with a swollen, bleeding right orbit, and a severely injured left hand after having sustained an unwitnessed explosion from a self-made pipe bomb. He presented with a GCS (Glasgow Coma Scale) of 15 at time of admission, work-up revealed an intracranial retained metal fragment measuring 5 × 1 × 0.2 cm lodged retro-orbitally and in the skull base. The patient underwent emergent right temporal craniotomy and temporal lobectomy and simultaneous right enucleation before the petrous bone and sphenoid wing lodged metal fragment was successfully removed.
This case underscores the importance of having a high suspicion for the presence of an intracranial injury and a retained foreign body in the setting of a penetrating head injury. Aggressive and timely workup as well as expeditious surgical management are crucial in these settings and can generate exceptionally good outcomes despite a major trauma.
PMCID: PMC3019363  PMID: 21246061
Brain injury; explosion; intracranial foreign body; pipe bomb; transorbital
16.  Sphenoid Sinus Expansion: A Radiographic Sign of Intracranial Hypotension and The Sunken Eyes, Sagging Brain Syndrome (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis) 
To test the hypothesis that in patient with sunken eyes, sagging brain syndrome, bone remodeling is not limited to the orbits. Volumetric analysis of the sphenoid sinus is performed in this study.
In this university-based retrospective case-control study, the dimensions of the sphenoid sinus were measured in four patients (2 males, 2 females; mean age 26.3 years, range 16–38 years) out of five individuals identified with sunken eyes, sagging brain syndrome. Three measurements were taken: the distance between the orbital apices, the posterior extension of the sphenoid sinus posterior to the orbital apices, and the maximal horizontal width. The mean of each was determined and compared to that of the control group (5 males, 5 females; mean age 35.6 years, range 23–45 years).
Posterior extension and width of the sphenoid sinus were markedly larger in the enophthalmic patients than in the control group: posterior extension (26.3±4.1 mm vs 13.4±6.3 mm, P=.0015, Student’s t test), width (39.2±8.7 mm vs 25.1±6.9 mm, P=.0035, Student’s t test). Mean distance between the orbital apices was slightly greater (36.3±1.7 mm vs 34.1±2.1 mm, P=.047, Student’s t test).
Skull remodeling occurring in association with intracranial hypotension after ventriculoperitoneal shunting is not limited to the orbits. In this study we have demonstrated expansion of the sphenoid sinus. This finding adds to our knowledge and understanding of the scope of the sunken eyes, sagging brain syndrome and elucidates a clinically useful radiographic sign.
PMCID: PMC3797832  PMID: 24167328
17.  A Modified Surgical Procedure for Endoscopic Optic Nerve Decompression for the Treatment of Traumatic Optic Neuropathy 
Although the endoscopic anterior-to-posterior technique offers many advantages, the long-term effects of the iatrogenic trauma (removal of the uncinate process and anterior ethmoidal sinus) resulting from the complete ethmoidectomy procedure used to gain full access to the optic nerve canal is unknown, and sequelae such as nasal synechia and sinusitis should not be ignored.
The aim of our study is to develop a less invasive procedure for endoscopic optic nerve decompression.
Materials and Methods:
We proposed a modified trans-sphenoidal surgical procedure for endoscopic optic nerve decompression in five patients with traumatic optic neuropathy (TON), all with high sphenoidal pneumatisation and without Onodi cellulae.
After performing a direct sphenoidotomy through the natural ostium of the sphenoid sinus rather than a complete ethmo-sphnoidectomy, we found that the modified approach provided adequate access to the optic nerve canal and the apex using a 45° angled endoscope. Successful decompression of the canal optic nerve was performed trans-sphenoidally in all five TON patients using an angled endoscope. No surgical complications occurred, and none of the patients suffered from anterior ethmoidal sinus or skull base damage.
The modified trans-sphenoidal approach is a feasible, safe, effective, and minimally invasive approach for TON patients with high sphenoidal pneumatisation and without supersphenoid-ethmoid cellulae.
PMCID: PMC4083528  PMID: 25006562
Endoscopic technique; Optic nerve decompression; Traumatic optic neuropathy
18.  Monophasic Epithelial Synovial Sarcoma Accompanied by an Inverted Papilloma in the Sphenoid Sinus 
Case Reports in Medicine  2012;2012:379720.
A 58-year-old man presented with a six-month history of intermittent blood-stained posterior nasal discharge. Five years ago, he had a three-week episode of fitful light headaches. Nasal ventilation, olfactory sensation, and facial sensation were normal; there were no ophthalmological complaints. Coronal computed tomography (CT) scans revealed soft masses in the bilateral sphenoid sinuses with bone absorption. The patient underwent bilateral functional endoscopic sinus surgery and resection of right nasal papillary masses. Papillary masses and mucosa in both sphenoid sinuses were also removed. The mass in the left sphenoid sinus was diagnosed as two separate entities, one being a primary monophasic epithelial synovial sarcoma and the other an inverted papilloma, while the mass in the right sphenoid sinus was an inverted papilloma. After surgery, the patient underwent radiotherapy and chemotherapy. At the 50-month follow-up visit, there were no signs of recurrence.
PMCID: PMC3522498  PMID: 23251173
19.  Inflammatory Pseudotumor of the Head Presenting with Hemiparesis and Aphasia 
Inflammatory pseudotumor most commonly occurs in the orbit and produces orbital pseudotumor, but extension into brain parenchyma is uncommon. We report a case of inflammatory pseudotumor involving sphenoid sinus, cavernous sinus, superior orbital fissure, orbital muscle, and intracranial extension into left temporal lobe producing right hemiparesis and wernicke's aphasia. The patient improved clinically and radiologically with steroid administration. This paper provides an insight into the spectrum of involvement of inflammatory pseudotumor and the importance of early diagnosis of the benign condition.
PMCID: PMC3420747  PMID: 22937331
20.  Endoscope-Assisted Trans-Sphenoidal Approach for Treatment of Sternberg's Canal 
We report an uncommon case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with spontaneous rhinorrhea. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the head revealed an abnormally large sphenoid sinus associated with a parasellar bony defect (Sternberg's canal) through which magnetic resonance imaging could detect an encephalocele of the right temporal lobe. An endoscope-assisted trans-sphenoidal approach was performed and, with the aid of image guided surgery, reduction of the encephalocele was obtained and followed by surgical repair of the dural and bony defects. The postoperative course was uneventful and the cerebrospinal fluid fistula was closed as confirmed by the postoperative CT scan and by the absence of rhinorrhea. After three years of monitoring the patient remained asymptomatic.
PMCID: PMC3550425  PMID: 23346329
Cerebrospinal fluid; Endoscope-assisted procedures; Sternberg's canal
21.  Minimal invasive trans-eyelid approach to anterior and middle skull base meningioma: a preliminary study of Shanghai Huashan hospital 
Transpalpebral or trans-eyelid approach is a modified trans-orbital access to lesions of anterior cranial fossa and sellar region. But whether this approach is also suitable for tumors extending laterally to the temporal lobe or middle cranial fossa is not clarified. We would like to share our experiences from the cadaveric anatomy study to clinical operations. We used 5 cadavers to study trans-eyelid approaches in a step-by-step fashion. And then assisted by an experienced ophthalmologist for incisions, we treated 3 female patients via this approach: One with spheno-orbital meningioma, one with sellar tuberculum meningioma, and the other with medial sphenoidal wing meningioma. After studying the cadavers, we made several revisions to the previously reported approach: 1) move the incision close to the edge of the eyelid, which resembled the double-eyelid incision. 2) A vascularized periosteum flap was dissected for repairing the opened frontal sinus and reconstruction of the skull base. 3) The dura was sutured up with a slice of temporalis muscle. Then we treated 3 patients by this approach. All tumors were totally resected as Simpson Grade I. Complications included orbital apex syndrome and transient oculomotor paralysis because of tumor invasion into orbit and cavernous sinus. No cerebrospinal fluid leakage. We find that trans-eyelid approach is suitable for lesions not only at anterior cranial base or sellar region, but also extending to middle cranial base, especially around sphenoidal wings within 2 cm range or spheno-orbital region. Thus, we propose whether it appropriate to nominate this approach as ‘trans-eyelid pterional approach’, since it may treat some anterior and middle cranial fossa lesions with a mini-craniotomy around pterion.
PMCID: PMC4276163  PMID: 25550905
Transeyelid; skull base; meningioma; minimal invasive neurosurgery
22.  An unusual case of a pituitary fossa aspergilloma in an immunocompetent patient mimicking infiltrative tumour 
Journal of Surgical Case Reports  2013;2013(4):rjt018.
Sellar aspergillosis is a rare infection commonly mistaken for a pituitary tumour. We present a rare case of pituitary fossa Aspergillus fumigatus mycetoma in an immunocompetent 90-year-old female, who presented with headaches. Magnetic resonance imaging scans demonstrated an enhancing pituitary fossa mass that appeared to infiltrate the sphenoid sinus, suggestive of an invasive tumour. Stereotactic trans-sphenoidal resection confirmed localized A. fumigatus infection. The abscess was debrided and the dura was left intact. Her headaches resolved post-operatively and she was treated with voriconazole. This indicates that aspergilloma should be considered as a differential for an unexplained pituitary lesion even in elderly immunocompetent patients.
PMCID: PMC3635217  PMID: 24964429
23.  Locally destructive skull base lesion: IgG4-related sclerosing disease 
Allergy & Rhinology  2012;3(1):e41-e45.
A unique case of IgG4+ sclerosing disease was diagnosed in the sphenoid sinus, a previously unreported location, and was treated in a novel manner. This study describes the clinical presentation and management of IgG4 sclerosing disease in the paranasal sinuses. A retrospective case review and review of the medical literature were performed. A 38-year-old woman with a 2-year history of constant frontal headaches presented to our clinic. Imaging showed bony destruction of the sphenoid sinus and sellar floor. The patient underwent a right-sided sphenoidotomy with debridement and biopsy. Pathological evaluation showed a dense plasmacytic infiltrate with >150 IgG4+ cells/high-power field. She was subsequently started on a nasal corticosteroid with improved patency of the sphenoid antrostomy. We report an unusual case of a middle-aged woman who presented with IgG4-sclerosing disease (IGSD) isolated to the sphenoid sinus. Although our knowledge concerning treatment in extrapancreatic organs is lacking, there is evidence that glucocorticoid treatment improves nasal sinus opacification on CT findings (Sato Y, Ohshima K, Ichimura K, et al., Ocular adnexal IgG4-related disease has uniform clinicopathology, Pathol Int 58:465–470, 2008). This case study and literature review adds to the growing literature describing IGSD in the head and neck and more specifically isolated to the sphenoid sinus with preliminary data concerning local control with topical steroids.
PMCID: PMC3404477  PMID: 22852129
Corticosteroid; IgG4; IGSD; sclerosing disease; skull base; sphenoid; sphenoidectomy
24.  Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Resection of Solitary Extramedullary Plasmacytoma in the Sphenoid Sinus with Destruction of Skull Base 
Solitary extramedullary plasmacytomas are isolated plasma cell tumors of soft tissue that typically do not metastasize. They are rare and account for 4% of all plasma cell tumors. To our knowledge, only 14 cases of solitary extramedullary plasmacytomas in the sphenoid sinus have been reported. A 32-year-old man presented to our department with complaint of ocular pain in the right eyeball and diplopia. Physical and neurological examinations revealed intact and prompt direct and indirect light reflexes in both pupils and limitation of extraocular muscle movement seen with the lateral gaze of the right eyeball. Magnetic resonance imaging suggested the presence of mucocele or mycetoma, therefore surgical resection was performed with endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach. Histopathology was consistent with plasmacytoma. Systemic work-up did not show any evidence of metastasis and the sphenoid sinus was the sole tumor site, and therefore the diagnosis of solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma was confirmed. We report a rare case of solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma in the sphenoid sinus with successful treatment using the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal resection and adjuvant radiotherapy.
PMCID: PMC2744026  PMID: 19763219
Plasmacytoma; Sphenoid sinus; Endoscopic surgical resection
25.  Brain abscess in the computed tomography era: A 10-year experience from Auckland, New Zealand 
Notes were reviewed for 68 patients with brain abscess diagnosed at Auckland Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand between 1978 and 1988. Mean age was 30 years (range one week to 74 years). There were 48 men and 40% were Maori or Pacific Island Polynesians. Seventy-two per cent of patients had headache, 54% had fever and 72% had lateralizing neurological signs. Thirty-one per cent of abscesses were associated with contiguous infection (otic, sinus, dental). Forty-four per cent were in the frontal lobe. Two abscesses were sterile; 197 bacterial isolates were cultured from the remainder. Fifty-four per cent contained obligate anaerobes, which were the only isolates in 22%. Streptococcus anginosus was the single most common isolate present in 22% of the abscesses. Amoxycillin plus metronidazole provided cover for approximately 95% of the total isolates on the basis of sensitivity testing. Treatment was with surgery and antibiotics in all but three patients, who were cured with antibiotics alone. Sixty per cent had a definitive regimen of penicillin (or ampicillin/amoxycillin) and/or metronidazole, always intravenous initially but subsequently often orally. Median duration of antibiotic treatment was 57 days (range 28 to 206). Seventy-five per cent had initial aspiration, 9% open drainage and 7% were excised initially. Seventy-one per cent had a good functional outcome. Mortality was 8.8%. Factors associated with a poor outcome were trauma as a cause, and delays after admission of more than seven days to diagnosis and/or operation.
PMCID: PMC3250801  PMID: 22346451
Antibiotics; Brain abscess; Outcome; Surgical management

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