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1.  Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg Isolates from Retail Meats, Including Poultry, from 2002 to 2006 ▿  
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2008;74(21):6656-6662.
Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg frequently causes food-borne illness in humans. There are few data on the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility, and genetic diversity of Salmonella serovar Heidelberg isolates in retail meats. We compared the prevalences of Salmonella serovar Heidelberg in a sampling of 20,295 meats, including chicken breast (n = 5,075), ground turkey (n = 5,044), ground beef (n = 5,100), and pork chops (n = 5,076), collected during 2002 to 2006. Isolates were analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility and compared genetically using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and PCR for the blaCMY gene. A total of 298 Salmonella serovar Heidelberg isolates were recovered, representing 21.6% of all Salmonella serovars from retail meats. One hundred seventy-eight (59.7%) were from ground turkey, 110 (36.9%) were from chicken breast, and 10 (3.4%) were from pork chops; none was found in ground beef. One hundred ninety-eight isolates (66.4%) were resistant to at least one compound, and 49 (16.4%) were resistant to at least five compounds. Six isolates (2.0%), all from ground turkey, were resistant to at least nine antimicrobials. The highest resistance in poultry isolates was to tetracycline (39.9%), followed by streptomycin (37.8%), sulfamethoxazole (27.7%), gentamicin (25.7%), kanamycin (21.5%), ampicillin (19.8%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (10.4%), and ceftiofur (9.0%). All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin. All ceftiofur-resistant strains carried blaCMY. PFGE using XbaI and BlnI showed that certain clones were widely dispersed in different types of meats and meat brands from different store chains in all five sampling years. These data indicate that Salmonella serovar Heidelberg is a common serovar in retail poultry meats and includes widespread clones of multidrug-resistant strains.
doi:10.1128/AEM.01249-08
PMCID: PMC2576681  PMID: 18757574
2.  Prevalence of Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, and Salmonella Serovars in Retail Chicken, Turkey, Pork, and Beef from the Greater Washington, D.C., Area 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2001;67(12):5431-5436.
A total of 825 samples of retail raw meats (chicken, turkey, pork, and beef) were examined for the presence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella serovars, and 719 of these samples were also tested for Campylobacter spp. The samples were randomly obtained from 59 stores of four supermarket chains during 107 sampling visits in the Greater Washington, D.C., area from June 1999 to July 2000. The majority (70.7%) of chicken samples (n = 184) were contaminated with Campylobacter, and a large percentage of the stores visited (91%) had Campylobacter-contaminated chickens. Approximately 14% of the 172 turkey samples yielded Campylobacter, whereas fewer pork (1.7%) and beef (0.5%) samples were positive for this pathogen. A total of 722 Campylobacter isolates were obtained from 159 meat samples; 53.6% of these isolates were Campylobacter jejuni, 41.3% were Campylobacter coli, and 5.1% were other species. Of the 212 chicken samples, 82 (38.7%) yielded E. coli, while 19.0% of the beef samples, 16.3% of the pork samples, and 11.9% of the turkey samples were positive for E. coli. However, only 25 (3.0%) of the retail meat samples tested were positive for Salmonella. Significant differences in the bacterial contamination rates were observed for the four supermarket chains. This study revealed that retail raw meats are often contaminated with food-borne pathogens; however, there are marked differences in the prevalence of such pathogens in different meats. Raw retail meats are potential vehicles for transmitting food-borne diseases, and our findings stress the need for increased implementation of hazard analysis of critical control point (HACCP) and consumer food safety education efforts.
doi:10.1128/AEM.67.12.5431-5436.2001
PMCID: PMC93326  PMID: 11722889
3.  Serovar distribution, antimicrobial resistance profiles, and PFGE typing of Salmonella enterica strains isolated from 2007–2012 in Guangdong, China 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2014;14:338.
Background
Salmonella enterica includes the major serovars associated with human salmonellosis. In this study, 1764 clinical Salmonella enterica isolates from diarrhea outpatients were collected from fifteen cities in Guangdong province, China, between 2007 and 2012. These isolates represent all of the Salmonella isolates collected from the province during that period.
Methods
The isolates were characterized by serovar determination, antimicrobial susceptibility tests and PFGE fingerprint typing.
Results
The serovar distribution results demonstrated that Salmonella Typhimurium (n = 523, 29.65%) and Salmonella 4,5,12:i:- (n = 244, 13.83%) are the most common serovars causing infant salmonellosis, whereas Salmonella Enteritidis (n = 257, 14.57%) mainly causes human salmonellosis in adults. The serovar shift from Salmonella Enteritidis to Salmonella Typhimurium occurred in 2008. Antimicrobial susceptibility data showed a high burden of multidrug resistance (MDR) (n = 1128, 56.58%), and a 20%-30% increase in the number of isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin (n = 142, 8.05%) and third-generation cephalosporins (n = 88, 4.99%) from 2007–2012. Only 9.97% of isolates (n = 176) were fully susceptible to all agents tested. A high burden of MDR was observed in Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella 4,5,12:i:- for all age groups, and a reduced susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins and quinolones occurred particularly in infants (≤6 years). The dominant PFGE patterns were JPXX01.GD0004, JEGX01.GD0006-7 and JNGX01.GD0006-7. ACSSuT was the predominant MDR profile in the Salmonella Typhimurium & 4,5,12:i:- complexes, while ASSuT-Nal and ASSu-Nal were the major MDR profiles in Salmonella Enteritidis. The predominant PFGE patterns of the Salmonella Typhimurium & 4,5,12:i:- complexes and Salmonella Stanley were most prevalent in infants (≤6 years). However, no obvious relationship was observed between these PFGE profiles and geographic location.
Conclusions
These data reveal the serovar distribution of isolates recovered from diarrhea patients, the characteristics of resistant strains and fingerprint typing in Guangdong from 2007 to 2012. These results highlight a serovar shift and a worrying percentage of MDR strains with increasing resistance to quinolones and third-generation cephalosporins. Thus, continued surveillance of Salmonella and their MDR profiles using combined molecular tools and efforts to control the rapid increase in antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella in Guangdong are needed.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-338
PMCID: PMC4071211  PMID: 24939394
Salmonella enterica; Non-typhoidal Salmonella; Antimicrobial susceptibility; Ciprofloxacin; Cephalosporins; MDR; PFGE
4.  Characterization of 13 multi-drug resistant Salmonella serovars from different broiler chickens associated with those of human isolates 
BMC Microbiology  2010;10:86.
Background
Salmonella are frequently isolated from chickens and their products. Prevalent serogroups and serovars of Salmonella as well as their genotypes and antibiograms were determined for cloacal samples from 1595 chickens. To understand the possible serovar and H antigens for transmission between chicken and human, serovars and their H antigens of 164 chicken and 5314 human isolates were compared.
Results
Prevalence of Salmonella differed among chicken lines and ages. Chicken and human isolates belonged mainly to serogroup B, C1, C2-C3, D, and E. 13 serovars and 66 serovars were identified for chicken and human isolates respectively. The common serovars for chicken and human isolates were S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Albany, S. Derby, and S. Anatum and shared common H1 antigens "g complex; i; e,h; and z4,z24" and H2 antigens "1 complex and -". In human isolates, H1 antigen "i" and H2 antigen "-" were common in all serogroups. In chicken, antimicrobial susceptibility differed among serogroups, serovars and three counties. All isolates were susceptible to cefazolin and ceftriaxone, but highly resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, flumequine, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and tetracycline. Except those isolates of serogroup C1 of Chick group and serogroup G, all isolates were multi-drug resistance. Only S. Kubacha, S. Typhimurium, S. Grampian, and S. Mons were resistant to ciprofloxacin and/or enrofloxacin.
Conclusion
In chicken, prevalent serogroups and serovars were associated with chicken ages, lines and regions; and flouroquinolone-resistant and MDR isolates emerged. H1 antigens "g complex and i" and H2 antigens "1 complex and -" might be important for transmission of Salmonella between chicken and human.
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-10-86
PMCID: PMC2859872  PMID: 20307324
5.  Characterization of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovars Indiana and Enteritidis from Chickens in Eastern China 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e96050.
A total of 310 Salmonella isolates were isolated from 6 broiler farms in Eastern China, serotyped according to the Kauffmann-White classification. All isolates were examined for susceptibility to 17 commonly used antimicrobial agents, representative isolates were examined for resistance genes and class I integrons using PCR technology. Clonality was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). There were two serotypes detected in the 310 Salmonella strains, which included 133 Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana isolates and 177 Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates. Antimicrobial sensitivity results showed that the isolates were generally resistant to sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, tetracycline, doxycycline and trimethoprim, and 95% of the isolates sensitive to amikacin and polymyxin. Among all Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana isolates, 108 (81.2%) possessed the blaTEM, floR, tetA, strA and aac (6')-Ib-cr resistance genes. The detected carriage rate of class 1 integrons was 66.5% (206/310), with 6 strains carrying gene integron cassette dfr17-aadA5. The increasing frequency of multidrug resistance rate in Salmonella was associated with increasing prevalence of int1 genes (rs = 0.938, P = 0.00039). The int1, blaTEM, floR, tetA, strA and aac (6')-Ib-cr positive Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana isolates showed five major patterns as determined by PFGE. Most isolates exhibited the common PFGE patterns found from the chicken farms, suggesting that many multidrug-resistant isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana prevailed in these sources. Some isolates with similar antimicrobial resistance patterns represented a variety of Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana genotypes, and were derived from a different clone.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0096050
PMCID: PMC4008530  PMID: 24788434
6.  Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter Isolates from Retail Meat in the United States between 2002 and 2007▿  
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2010;76(24):7949-7956.
The emergence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp. has been a growing public health concern globally. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility, and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter spp. recovered by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) retail meat program. Retail meat samples (n = 24,566) from 10 U.S. states collected between 2002 and 2007, consisting of 6,138 chicken breast, 6,109 ground turkey, 6,171 ground beef, and 6,148 pork chop samples, were analyzed. A total of 2,258 Campylobacter jejuni, 925 Campylobacter coli, and 7 Campylobacter lari isolates were identified. Chicken breast samples showed the highest contamination rate (49.9%), followed by ground turkey (1.6%), whereas both pork chops and ground beef had <0.5% contamination. The most common resistance was to doxycycline/tetracycline (46.6%), followed by nalidixic acid (18.5%), ciprofloxacin (17.4%), azithromycin and erythromycin (2.8%), telithromycin (2.4%), clindamycin (2.2%), and gentamicin (<0.1%). In a subset of isolates tested, no resistance to meropenem and florfenicol was seen. C. coli isolates showed higher resistance rates to antimicrobials, with the exception of doxycycline/tetracycline, than those seen for C. jejuni. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) fingerprinting resulted in 1,226 PFGE profiles among the 2,318 isolates, with many clones being widely dispersed throughout the 6-year sampling period.
doi:10.1128/AEM.01297-10
PMCID: PMC3008252  PMID: 20971875
7.  Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Salmonella Strains Isolated from Humans, Cattle, Pigs, and Chickens in The Netherlands from 1984 to 2001 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2003;41(8):3574-3578.
We monitored antimicrobial susceptibility data for Salmonella strains isolated from humans, cattle, pigs, and chickens in The Netherlands from 1984 to 2001 in order to provide insight into the dynamics of resistance over time. The strains were tested for their susceptibilities to seven antimicrobial agents by the agar diffusion method. Resistance was most common in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Among the strains from humans, pigs, and chickens, it was found that the level of resistance of serovar Typhimurium strains to tetracycline, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole increased from 1984 to 2001. This increase could be attributed to the emergence of multidrug-resistant serovar Typhimurium DT 104. Among the strains from cattle, it was found that the level of resistance of serovar Typhimurium strains, which was already very high in the 1980s, declined during the study period to the same levels as those for the strains from the other species from 1996 to 2001. Serovar Enteritidis isolates remained susceptible during the entire survey period. Among serovar Paratyphi B variation Java strains isolated from chickens, resistance to furazolidone, flumequine, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and ampicillin emerged, although furazolidone was not used after 1990. Together, the data indicate that the levels and patterns of resistance differed considerably between Salmonella serovars isolated from one host species.
doi:10.1128/JCM.41.8.3574-3578.2003
PMCID: PMC179820  PMID: 12904357
8.  Molecular Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Salmonella Isolates from Infections in Humans in Henan Province, China▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2008;47(2):401-409.
We characterized 208 human Salmonella isolates from 2006 to 2007 and 27 human Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates from 1987 to 1993 from Henan Province, China, by serotyping, by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and, for the most common serovars, by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The most common serovars among the 2006-2007 isolates were S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (27%), S. enterica serovar Enteritidis (17%), S. enterica serovar Derby (10%), S. enterica serovar Indiana (6%), and S. enterica serovar Litchfield (6%). A high percentage of the isolates were multiple-drug resistant, and 54% were resistant to both nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Of these, 42% were resistant to a high level of ciprofloxacin (MIC > 4 μg/ml), whereas for the remaining isolates, the MICs ranged from 0.125 to 2 μg/ml. Five isolates (2%) were ceftiofur resistant and harbored blaCTX-M14 or blaCTX-M15. With the possible exception of the quinolones and cephalosporins, the 1987-1993 S. enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates were almost as resistant as the recent isolates. PFGE typing of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium showed that the most common cluster predominated over time. Two other clusters have emerged, and another cluster has disappeared.
doi:10.1128/JCM.01099-08
PMCID: PMC2643658  PMID: 19073874
9.  Longitudinal Study of Distributions of Similar Antimicrobial-Resistant Salmonella Serovars in Pigs and Their Environment in Two Distinct Swine Production Systems 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2013;79(17):5167-5178.
The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine and compare the prevalences and genotypic profiles of antimicrobial-resistant (AR) Salmonella isolates from pigs reared in antimicrobial-free (ABF) and conventional production systems at farm, at slaughter, and in their environment. We collected 2,889 pig fecal and 2,122 environmental (feed, water, soil, lagoon, truck, and floor swabs) samples from 10 conventional and eight ABF longitudinal cohorts at different stages of production (farrowing, nursery, finishing) and slaughter (postevisceration, postchill, and mesenteric lymph nodes [MLN]). In addition, we collected 1,363 carcass swabs and 205 lairage and truck samples at slaughter. A total of 1,090 Salmonella isolates were recovered from the samples; these were isolated with a significantly higher prevalence in conventionally reared pigs (4.0%; n = 66) and their environment (11.7%; n = 156) than in ABF pigs (0.2%; n = 2) and their environment (0.6%; n = 5) (P < 0.001). Salmonella was isolated from all stages at slaughter, including the postchill step, in the two production systems. Salmonella prevalence was significantly higher in MLN extracted from conventional carcasses than those extracted from ABF carcasses (P < 0.001). We identified a total of 24 different serotypes, with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Salmonella enterica serovar Anatum, Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis, and Salmonella enterica serovar Derby being predominant. The highest frequencies of antimicrobial resistance (AR) were exhibited to tetracycline (71%), sulfisoxazole (42%), and streptomycin (17%). Multidrug resistance (resistance to ≥3 antimicrobials; MDR) was detected in 27% (n = 254) of the Salmonella isolates from the conventional system. Our study reports a low prevalence of Salmonella in both production systems in pigs on farms, while a higher prevalence was detected among the carcasses at slaughter. The dynamics of Salmonella prevalence in pigs and carcasses were reciprocated in the farm and slaughter environment, clearly indicating an exchange of this pathogen between the pigs and their surroundings. Furthermore, the phenotypic and genotypic fingerprint profile results underscore the potential role played by environmental factors in dissemination of AR Salmonella to pigs.
doi:10.1128/AEM.01419-13
PMCID: PMC3753971  PMID: 23793629
10.  Salmonella enterica Burden in Harvest-Ready Cattle Populations from the Southern High Plains of the United States▿  
Our objectives were to quantify the Salmonella enterica burdens in harvest-ready cattle and to identify specific at-risk populations of cattle most likely to harbor multiply resistant S. enterica. Hide swabs were collected in abattoirs from three cohorts of cattle (feedlot origin cattle that had achieved desirable harvest characteristics and dairy- and beef-type cows harvested because of poor productivity). Feces were collected from two cohorts housed in feedlots (cattle that had achieved desirable harvest characteristics and animals identified for salvage recovery because of poor productivity). Facilities were visited on four occasions over a 12-month period. Salmonella enterica isolates were recovered, and organisms were quantified using standard microbiological methodologies. Susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs and serotype were determined for one S. enterica isolate per sample. Salmonella enterica was recovered from 55.6% of 1,681 samples. The prevalences on hides and in feces were 69.6% and 30.3%, respectively. The concentrations of S. enterica organisms averaged (as determined by the most probable number technique) 1.82 log10/100 cm2 of hides and 0.75 log10/g of feces. None of the isolates recovered from cattle that had achieved desirable harvest characteristics were resistant to four or more drugs. For isolates recovered from animals with poor productivity characteristics, 6.5% were resistant to four or more drugs. Twenty-two serovars were identified, with the most common being Salmonella enterica serovar Anatum (25.5%), Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo (22.2%), and Salmonella enterica serovar Cerro (12.5%). High-level resistance, i.e., resistance to four or more drugs, was clustered within a few relatively uncommon serovars. These results demonstrate that even though S. enterica isolates are readily recoverable from harvest-ready cattle, multiply resistant variants are rare and are associated with specific serovars in cattle harvested because of poor productivity characteristics.
doi:10.1128/AEM.02076-07
PMCID: PMC2223257  PMID: 18024678
11.  Azithromycin and Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Salmonella Bloodstream Infections in Cambodian Adults 
Background
Salmonella enterica is a frequent cause of bloodstream infection (BSI) in Asia but few data are available from Cambodia. We describe Salmonella BSI isolates recovered from patients presenting at Sihanouk Hospital Centre of Hope, Phnom Penh, Cambodia (July 2007–December 2010).
Methodology
Blood was cultured as part of a microbiological prospective surveillance study. Identification of Salmonella isolates was performed by conventional methods and serotyping. Antibiotic susceptibilities were assessed using disk diffusion, MicroScan and E-test macromethod. Clonal relationships were assessed by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis; PCR and sequencing for detection of mutations in Gyrase and Topoisomerase IV and presence of qnr genes.
Principal Findings
Seventy-two Salmonella isolates grew from 58 patients (mean age 34.2 years, range 8–71). Twenty isolates were identified as Salmonella Typhi, 2 as Salmonella Paratyphi A, 37 as Salmonella Choleraesuis and 13 as other non-typhoid Salmonella spp. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was present in 21 of 24 (87.5%) patients with S. Choleraesuis BSI. Five patients (8.7%) had at least one recurrent infection, all with S. Choleraesuis; five patients died. Overall, multi drug resistance (i.e., co-resistance to ampicillin, sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim and chloramphenicol) was high (42/59 isolates, 71.2%). S. Typhi displayed high rates of decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility (18/20 isolates, 90.0%), while azithromycin resistance was very common in S. Choleraesuis (17/24 isolates, 70.8%). Two S. Choleraesuis isolates were extended spectrum beta-lactamase producer.
Conclusions and Significance
Resistance rates in Salmonella spp. in Cambodia are alarming, in particular for azithromycin and ciprofloxacin. This warrants nationwide surveillance and revision of treatment guidelines.
Author Summary
Salmonella enterica is a bacterium that causes important morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in tropical low-resource settings. Over the past two decades, increasing rates of resistance for the commonly available oral antibiotics have been reported in Salmonella spp., especially from South(east) Asia. As microbiology laboratories are extremely scarce in Cambodia, data on the presence and resistance of Salmonella spp. in this country are limited. The authors describe the different types and antibiotic resistance of 72 Salmonella isolates from blood cultures sampled in 58 adult Cambodian patients with fever. The most common serovars were Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Choleraesuis. The latter serovar causes illness in pigs, and may occasionally infect humans through contact with contaminated animals or environments, especially those with decreased immunity. The authors noted resistance for the first line oral antibiotics in nearly three quarters of all Salmonella isolates. In addition, 90% of all S. Typhi had decreased susceptibility for ciprofloxacin, while around 70% of S. Choleraesuis showed resistance to azithromycin. These results seriously limit the treatment options for typhoid fever and other invasive Salmonella infections and warrant nationwide surveillance of antibiotic resistance. This is the first report to describe such high rates of azithromycin resistance in Salmonella enterica.
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001933
PMCID: PMC3521708  PMID: 23272255
12.  A Comparison of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella from Humans and Food Animals Using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e77836.
Salmonellosis is one of the most important foodborne diseases affecting humans. To characterize the relationship between Salmonella causing human infections and their food animal reservoirs, we compared pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of non-typhoidal Salmonella isolated from ill humans in Pennsylvania and from food animals before retail. Human clinical isolates were received from 2005 through 2011 during routine public health operations in Pennsylvania. Isolates from cattle, chickens, swine and turkeys were recovered during the same period from federally inspected slaughter and processing facilities in the northeastern United States. We found that subtyping Salmonella isolates by PFGE revealed differences in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and, for human Salmonella, differences in sources and invasiveness that were not evident from serotyping alone. Sixteen of the 20 most common human Salmonella PFGE patterns were identified in Salmonella recovered from food animals. The most common human Salmonella PFGE pattern, Enteritidis pattern JEGX01.0004 (JEGX01.0003ARS), was associated with more cases of invasive salmonellosis than all other patterns. In food animals, this pattern was almost exclusively (99%) found in Salmonella recovered from chickens and was present in poultry meat in every year of the study. Enteritidis pattern JEGX01.0004 (JEGX01.0003ARS) was associated with susceptibility to all antimicrobial agents tested in 94.7% of human and 97.2% of food animal Salmonella isolates. In contrast, multidrug resistance (resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobial agents) was observed in five PFGE patterns. Typhimurium patterns JPXX01.0003 (JPXX01.0003 ARS) and JPXX01.0018 (JPXX01.0002 ARS), considered together, were associated with resistance to five or more classes of antimicrobial agents: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides and tetracycline (ACSSuT), in 92% of human and 80% of food animal Salmonella isolates. The information from our study can assist in source attribution, outbreak investigations, and tailoring of interventions to maximize their impact on prevention.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077836
PMCID: PMC3813714  PMID: 24204990
13.  Serotype and Phage Type Distribution of Salmonella Strains Isolated from Humans, Cattle, Pigs, and Chickens in The Netherlands from 1984 to 2001 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2002;40(11):3980-3985.
We studied serotypes and phage types of Salmonella strains isolated from humans and animals in The Netherlands over the period 1984 to 2001. All human strains (n = 59,168) were clinical isolates. The animal strains (n = 65,567) were from clinical and nonclinical infections. All isolates were serotyped, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and serovar Enteritidis strains were further phage typed. The most prevalent serotypes were as follows: in humans, serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis; in cattle, serovars Typhimurium and Dublin; in pigs, serovar Typhimurium; and in chickens, serovars Enteritidis, Infantis, and Typhimurium. Serovar Enteritidis phage type 4 (pt 4) was the most common phage type in humans and chickens. Serovar Typhimurium pt 510 was the most prevalent serovar Typhimurium phage type in humans and pigs, pt 200 was the most prevalent serovar Typhimurium phage type in cattle, and pt 150 was the most prevalent serovar Typhimurium phage type in chickens. Analysis of the distribution of sero- and phage types during the study period indicated that types shifted over time in humans and animals. Serovar Typhimurium DT 104 emerged in 1991 in humans, cattle, pigs, and chickens and became the most common serovar Typhimurium phage type in 2001. In general, similar sero- and phage types were found in humans and animals, although distinct types were more common in animals. Between the animal species, the sero- and phage type distributions varied considerably.
doi:10.1128/JCM.40.11.3980-3985.2002
PMCID: PMC139702  PMID: 12409362
14.  A Strong Antigen-Specific T-Cell Response Is Associated with Age and Genetically Dependent Resistance to Avian Enteric Salmonellosis  
Infection and Immunity  2005;73(11):7509-7516.
Chicken genetics and age affect resistance to enteric infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and were used to identify the immune responses that may contribute to rapid clearance. When birds were infected at 40 days of age, line 61 chickens cleared the infection more effectively than line N chickens, whereas when birds were infected at 10 days of age, both chicken lines were highly susceptible to infection. Antibody levels, T-cell responsiveness, and cytokine mRNA levels were all elevated during infection. A negative correlation between resistance and antigen-specific antibody production was observed in older chickens. However, this finding was not replicated for age-related resistance; we found that older chickens exhibited a stronger and more rapid antibody response than younger chickens. The levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) mRNA were similar in the spleens and cecal tonsils of both line 61 and line N chickens, except for higher levels of IL-1β in the spleens of line 61 chickens at 6 days postinfection. Differences in the levels of IFN-γ and IL-1β 1β mRNA between the lines were more apparent in younger chickens, but while the increases were greater than those observed in the older chickens, the clearance of enteric S. enterica serovar Typhimurium was much slower. The level of antigen-specific proliferation of splenocytes was associated with increased resistance in both experimental systems, and the strongest responses were observed in older and genetically resistant chickens. The data presented here implicate T-cell responses in the clearance of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium from the intestine of infected chickens.
doi:10.1128/IAI.73.11.7509-7516.2005
PMCID: PMC1273861  PMID: 16239553
15.  Colonization and Internalization of Salmonella enterica in Tomato Plants 
The consumption of fresh tomatoes has been linked to numerous food-borne outbreaks involving various serovars of Salmonella enterica. Recent advances in our understanding of plant-microbe interactions have shown that human enteric pathogenic bacteria, including S. enterica, are adapted to survive in the plant environment. In this study, tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom) grown in sandy loam soil from Virginia's eastern shore (VES) were inoculated with S. enterica serovars to evaluate plausible internalization routes and to determine if there is any niche fitness for certain serovars. Both infested soil and contaminated blossoms can lead to low internal levels of fruit contamination with Salmonella. Salmonella serovars demonstrated a great ability to survive in environments under tomato cultivation, not only in soil but also on different parts of the tomato plant. Of the five serovars investigated, Salmonella enterica serovars Newport and Javiana were dominant in sandy loam soil, while Salmonella enterica serovars Montevideo and Newport were more prevalent on leaves and blossoms. It was also observed that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium had a poor rate of survival in all the plant parts examined here, suggesting that postharvest contamination routes are more likely in S. Typhimurium contamination of tomato fruit. Conversely, S. Newport was the most prevalent serovar recovered in both the tomato rhizosphere and phyllosphere. Plants that were recently transplanted (within 3 days) had an increase in observable internalized bacteria, suggesting that plants were more susceptible to internalization right after transplant. These findings suggest that the particular Salmonella serovar and the growth stage of the plant were important factors for internalization through the root system.
doi:10.1128/AEM.03704-12
PMCID: PMC3623171  PMID: 23377940
16.  Genetic characterization of clinical and agri-food isolates of multi drug resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg from Canada 
BMC Microbiology  2008;8:89.
Background
Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg ranks amongst the most prevalent causes of human salmonellosis in Canada and an increase in resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) has been observed by the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance. This study examined the genetic relationship between S. Heidelberg isolates from livestock, abattoir, retail meat, and clinical human specimens to determine whether there was a link between the emergence of MDR S. Heidelberg in chicken agri-food sources and the simultaneous increase of MDR S. Heidelberg in human clinical samples.
Results
Chromosomal genetic homogeneity was observed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), DNA sequence-based typing (SBT) and DNA microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Sixty one percent of isolates were indistinguishable by PFGE conducted using XbaI and BlnI restriction enzymes. An additional 15% of isolates had PFGE patterns that were closely related to the main cluster. SBT did not identify DNA polymorphisms and CGH revealed only genetic differences between the reference S. Typhimurium strain and S. Heidelberg isolates. Genetic variation observed by CGH between S. Heidelberg isolates could be attributed to experimental variation. Alternatively, plasmid content was responsible for differences in antimicrobial susceptibility, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses followed by replicon typing identified two divergent plasmid types responsible for ESC resistance.
Conclusion
Due to the overall limited genetic diversity among the isolates, it was not possible to identify variable traits that would be suitable for source tracking between human and agri-food isolates of S. Heidelberg in Canada.
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-8-89
PMCID: PMC2438365  PMID: 18538029
17.  Increasing Prevalence of Quinolone Resistance in Human Nontyphoid Salmonella enterica Isolates Obtained in Spain from 1981 to 2003 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2004;48(10):3789-3793.
From January 1981 to December 2003, susceptibility to nalidixic acid was tested in 10,504 nontyphoid Salmonella enterica isolates from patients with acute enteric disease in Gipuzkoa, Spain. The prevalence of nalidixic acid resistance steadily increased from less than 0.5% before 1991 to 38.5% in 2003, mainly due to the increase in resistance among isolates of the most prevalent serovar, S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. For nalidixic acid-resistant isolates, the ciprofloxacin MIC was eightfold higher than that for susceptible isolates, and the nalidixic acid-resistant isolates contained a single point mutation in the gyrA gene (at codons for Ser83 or Asp87). The same mutations were found in a sample of nalidixic acid-resistant nontyphoid Salmonella strains isolated between 1999 and 2003 from retail food for human consumption. In 2003, we identified five S. enterica serovar Typhimurium clinical isolates with high-level fluoroquinolone resistance (ciprofloxacin MIC, 16 μg/ml) with two point mutations in the gyrA gene (coding for Ser83→Phe and Asp87→Asn) and one point mutation in the parC gene (coding for Ser80→Arg). Strict sanitary controls are needed to avoid the spread of ciprofloxacin-resistant serovar Typhimurium isolates, and a more efficient veterinary policy must be adopted to decrease the large burden of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis infections in humans in our region.
doi:10.1128/AAC.48.10.3789-3793.2004
PMCID: PMC521902  PMID: 15388435
18.  Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Determinants in European Salmonella Genomic Island 1-Positive Salmonella enterica Isolates from Different Origins ▿ †  
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2011;77(16):5655-5664.
Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) contains a multidrug resistance region conferring the ampicillin-chloramphenicol-streptomycin-sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline resistance phenotype encoded by blaPSE-1, floR, aadA2, sul1, and tet(G). Its increasing spread via interbacterial transfer and the emergence of new variants are important public health concerns. We investigated the molecular properties of SGI1-carrying Salmonella enterica serovars selected from a European strain collection. A total of 38 strains belonging to S. enterica serovar Agona, S. enterica serovar Albany, S. enterica serovar Derby, S. enterica serovar Kentucky, S. enterica serovar Newport, S. enterica serovar Paratyphi B dT+, and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, isolated between 2002 and 2006 in eight European countries from humans, animals, and food, were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, molecular typing methods (XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE], plasmid analysis, and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis [MLVA]), as well as detection of resistance and virulence determinants (PCR/sequencing and DNA microarray analysis). Typing experiments revealed wide heterogeneity inside the strain collection and even within serovars. PFGE analysis distinguished a total of 26 different patterns. In contrast, the characterization of the phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance revealed serovar-specific features. Apart from the classical SGI1 organization found in 61% of the strains, seven different variants were identified with antimicrobial resistance properties associated with SGI1-A (S. Derby), SGI1-C (S. Derby), SGI1-F (S. Albany), SGI1-L (S. Newport), SGI1-K (S. Kentucky), SGI1-M (S. Typhimurium), and, eventually, a novel variant similar to SGI1-C with additional gentamicin resistance encoded by aadB. Only minor serovar-specific differences among virulence patterns were detected. In conclusion, the SGI1 carriers exhibited pathogenetic backgrounds comparable to the ones published for susceptible isolates. However, because of their multidrug resistance, they may be more relevant in clinical settings.
doi:10.1128/AEM.00425-11
PMCID: PMC3165277  PMID: 21705546
19.  Rapid Detection of Campylobacter coli, C. jejuni, and Salmonella enterica on Poultry Carcasses by Using PCR-Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay 
Contamination of retail poultry by Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella enterica is a significant source of human diarrheal disease. Isolation and identification of these microorganisms require a series of biochemical and serological tests. In this study, Campylobacter ceuE and Salmonella invA genes were used to design probes in PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), as an alternative to conventional bacteriological methodology, for the rapid detection of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and S. enterica from poultry samples. With PCR-ELISA (40 cycles), the detection limits for Salmonella and Campylobacter were 2 × 102 and 4 × 101 CFU/ml, respectively. ELISA increased the sensitivity of the conventional PCR method by 100- to 1,000-fold. DNA was extracted from carcass rinses and tetrathionate enrichments and used in PCR-ELISA for the detection of Campylobacter and S. enterica, respectively. With PCR-ELISA, Salmonella was detected in 20 of 120 (17%) chicken carcass rinses examined, without the inclusion of an enrichment step. Significant correlation was observed between PCR-ELISA and cultural methods (kappa = 0.83; chi-square test, P < 0.001) with only one false negative (1.67%) and four false positives (6.67%) when PCR-ELISA was used to screen 60 tetrathionate enrichment cultures for Salmonella. With PCR-ELISA, we observed a positive correlation between the ELISA absorbance (optical density at 405 nm) and the campylobacter cell number in carcass rinse, as determined by standard culture methods. Overall, PCR-ELISA is a rapid and cost-effective approach for the detection and enumeration of Salmonella and Campylobacter bacteria on poultry.
doi:10.1128/AEM.69.6.3492-3499.2003
PMCID: PMC161512  PMID: 12788755
20.  Antimicrobial Resistance-Conferring Plasmids with Similarity to Virulence Plasmids from Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains in Salmonella enterica Serovar Kentucky Isolates from Poultry▿ †  
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2009;75(18):5963-5971.
Salmonella enterica, a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide, may be found in any raw food of animal, vegetable, or fruit origin. Salmonella serovars differ in distribution, virulence, and host specificity. Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky, though often found in the food supply, is less commonly isolated from ill humans. The multidrug-resistant isolate S. Kentucky CVM29188, isolated from a chicken breast sample in 2003, contains three plasmids (146,811 bp, 101,461 bp, and 46,121 bp), two of which carry resistance determinants (pCVM29188_146 [strAB and tetRA] and pCVM29188_101 [blaCMY-2 and sugE]). Both resistance plasmids were transferable by conjugation, alone or in combination, to S. Kentucky, Salmonella enterica serovar Newport, and Escherichia coli recipients. pCVM29188_146 shares a highly conserved plasmid backbone of 106 kb (>90% nucleotide identity) with two virulence plasmids from avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains (pAPEC-O1-ColBM and pAPEC-O2-ColV). Shared avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) virulence factors include iutA iucABCD, sitABCD, etsABC, iss, and iroBCDEN. PCR analyses of recent (1997 to 2005) S. Kentucky isolates from food animal, retail meat, and human sources revealed that 172 (60%) contained similar APEC-like plasmid backbones. Notably, though rare in human- and cattle-derived isolates, this plasmid backbone was found at a high frequency (50 to 100%) among S. Kentucky isolates from chickens within the same time span. Ninety-four percent of the APEC-positive isolates showed resistance to tetracycline and streptomycin. Together, our findings of a resistance-conferring APEC virulence plasmid in a poultry-derived S. Kentucky isolate and of similar resistance/virulence plasmids in most recent S. Kentucky isolates from chickens and, to lesser degree, from humans and cattle highlight the need for additional research in order to examine the prevalence and spread of combined virulence and resistance plasmids in bacteria in agricultural, environmental, and clinical settings.
doi:10.1128/AEM.00786-09
PMCID: PMC2747853  PMID: 19648374
21.  Identification of Genes Associated with Survival of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis in Chicken Egg Albumen 
Salmonella enterica consists of over 2,000 serovars that are major causes of morbidity and mortality associated with contaminated food. Despite similarities among serovars of Salmonella enterica, many demonstrate unique host specificities, epidemiological characteristics, and clinical manifestations. One of the unique epidemiological characteristics of the serovar Enteritidis is that it is the only bacterium routinely transmitted to humans through intact chicken eggs. Therefore, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis must be able to persist inside chicken eggs to be transmitted to humans, and its survival in egg is important for its transmission to the human population. The ability of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis to survive in and transmit through eggs may have contributed to its drastically increased prevalence in the 1980s and 1990s. In the present study, using transposon-mediated mutagenesis, we have identified genes important for the association of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis with chicken eggs. Our results indicate that genes involved in cell wall structural and functional integrity, and nucleic acid and amino acid metabolism are important for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis to persist in egg albumen. Two regions unique to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis were also identified, one of which enhanced the survival of a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolate in egg albumen. The implication of our results to the serovar specificity of Salmonella enterica is also explored in the present study.
doi:10.1128/AEM.72.2.1055-1064.2006
PMCID: PMC1392908  PMID: 16461649
22.  Identification and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter Species Isolated from Animal Sources 
Background: Campylobacter spp. are together with Salmonella spp. the leading causes of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The most commonly isolated species in humans are Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. The isolation, identification, and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. from poultry and raw meat from slaughterhouses, has been investigated for the first time in Greece. During the period from August 2005 to November 2008 a total of 1080 samples were collected: (a) 830 fecal samples from five poultry farms, (b) 150 cecal samples from chicken carcasses in a slaughterhouse, and (c) 100 fecal samples from one pig farm near the region of Attica. The identification of the isolates was performed with conventional (sodium hippurate hydrolysis and commercial identification system (Api CAMPY system, bioMerieux, France), as well as with and molecular methods based on 16S rRNA species specific gene amplification by PCR and subsequent sequence analysis of the PCR products. Results: Sixteen Campylobacter strains were isolated, all collected from the poultry farms. None of the strains was identified as C. jejuni. Antimicrobial susceptibility to six antimicrobials was performed and all the strains were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin–clavulanic acid, and gentamicin. Thirteen out of 14 C. coli were resistant to erythromycin and all C. coli strains were resistant to ampicillin. Conclusion: Our results emphasize the need for a surveillance and monitoring system with respect to the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in poultry, as well as for the use of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine in Greece.
doi:10.3389/fmicb.2012.00058
PMCID: PMC3285770  PMID: 22375138
Campylobacter; animals; sequencing identification; antimicrobial resistance
23.  Comparison of the Prevalences and Antimicrobial Resistances of Escherichia coli Isolates from Different Retail Meats in the United States, 2002 to 2008 
Escherichia coli isolates were recovered from the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System retail meat program and examined for antimicrobial susceptibility. Retail meat samples (n = 11,921) from four U.S. states collected during 2002 to 2008, consisting of 2,988 chicken breast, 2,942 ground turkey, 2,991 ground beef, and 3,000 pork chop samples, were analyzed. A total of 8,286 E. coli isolates were recovered. The greatest numbers of samples contaminated with the organism were chicken (83.5%) and turkey (82.0%), followed by beef (68.9%) and pork (44.0%). Resistance was most common to tetracycline (50.3%), followed by streptomycin (34.6%), sulfamethoxazole-sulfisoxazole (31.6%), ampicillin (22.5%), gentamicin (18.6%), kanamycin (8.4%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (6.4%), and cefoxitin (5.2%). Less than 5% of the isolates had resistance to trimethoprim, ceftriaxone, ceftiofur, nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin. All isolates were susceptible to amikacin. Compared to beef and pork isolates, the poultry meat isolates had a greater percentage of resistance to all tested drugs, with the exception of chloramphenicol, to which pork isolates had the most resistance. More than half of the turkey isolates (56%) were resistant to multidrugs (≥3 classes) compared to 38.9% of chicken, 17.3% of pork, and 9.3% of beef isolates. The blaCMY gene was present in all ceftriaxone- and ceftiofur-resistant isolates. The cmlA, flo, and catI genes were present in 45%, 43%, and 40% of chloramphenicol-resistant isolates, respectively. Most nalidixic acid-resistant isolates (98.5%) had a gyrA mutation in S83 or D87 or both, whereas only 6.7% had a parC mutation in either S80 or E84. The results showed that E. coli was commonly present in the retail meats, and antimicrobial resistance profiles differed according to the animal origin of the isolates.
doi:10.1128/AEM.07522-11
PMCID: PMC3298142  PMID: 22247155
24.  Salmonella in Liquid Eggs and Other Foods in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan 
The study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of Salmonella in retail and wholesale foods in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. A total of 2,021 samples collected between 1999 and 2010 were tested using a culture method. Samples consisted of liquid eggs (n = 30), meat (beef and pork) (n = 781), offal (n = 69), processed meats (n = 2), seafood (n = 232), processed seafood (dried fish) (n = 76), vegetables (n = 481), processed vegetables (n = 87), fruits (n = 167), and herbs (n = 96) from 574 outlets and wholesale agents in 15 areas (five samples were undocumented regarding outlets). Overall, liquid egg showed significantly (P < 0.001) higher frequencies of Salmonella contamination (13.3%) than beef (1/423, 0.2%) and pork (3/235, 1.3%). Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis, the most common serovar as a human pathogen, were isolated from two liquid egg samples. No Salmonella were isolated from seafood and vegetable-related samples including seed sprouts (n = 261). In conclusion, liquid egg is a significant Salmonella vehicle, showing a need to continue the vaccination of chickens to prevent S. Enteritidis contamination in Japanese eggs. Moreover, further study is needed to evaluate Salmonella contamination in seed sprouts with more sampling from retailers there.
doi:10.1155/2013/463095
PMCID: PMC3830870  PMID: 24288539
25.  Prevalence and Fimbrial Genotype Distribution of Poultry Salmonella Isolates in China (2006 to 2012) 
In this study, a total of 323 Salmonella enterica strains were isolated from 3,566 rectal swab samples of 51 poultry farms in seven regions of 12 provinces of China between 2006 and 2012. The prevalences of Salmonella sp. carriage were 12.4% in geese (66 positive/533 samples), 10.4% in turkeys (32/309), 9.8% in chickens (167/1,706), 6.8% in ducks (41/601), and 4.1% in pigeons (17/417), respectively. These isolates belonged to 20 serovars, in which the most frequent serovars were S. enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Pullorum (herein, S. Pullorum) (55 isolates, 17.0%), S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (50 isolates, 15.5%), and S. enterica serovar Enteritidis (39 isolates, 12.1%). Overall, S. Typhimurium was the most commonly detected serovar; among the individual species, S. Pullorum was most commonly isolated from chickens, S. Enteritidis was most common in ducks, S. Typhimurium was most common in geese and pigeons, and S. enterica serovar Saintpaul was most common in turkeys. PCR determination of 20 fimbrial genes demonstrated the presence of bcfD, csgA, fimA, stdB, and sthE genes and the absence of staA and stgA genes in these isolates, and other loci were variably distributed, with frequency values ranging from 11.8 to 99.1%. These 323 Salmonella isolates were subdivided into 41 different fimbrial genotypes, and of these isolate, 285 strains (88.2%) had 12 to 14 fimbrial genes. Our findings indicated that the Salmonella isolates from different poultry species were phenotypically and genetically diverse and that some fimbrial genes are more frequently associated with serovars or serogroups.
doi:10.1128/AEM.03223-13
PMCID: PMC3911082  PMID: 24242234

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