Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg frequently causes food-borne illness in humans. There are few data on the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility, and genetic diversity of Salmonella serovar Heidelberg isolates in retail meats. We compared the prevalences of Salmonella serovar Heidelberg in a sampling of 20,295 meats, including chicken breast (n = 5,075), ground turkey (n = 5,044), ground beef (n = 5,100), and pork chops (n = 5,076), collected during 2002 to 2006. Isolates were analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility and compared genetically using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and PCR for the blaCMY gene. A total of 298 Salmonella serovar Heidelberg isolates were recovered, representing 21.6% of all Salmonella serovars from retail meats. One hundred seventy-eight (59.7%) were from ground turkey, 110 (36.9%) were from chicken breast, and 10 (3.4%) were from pork chops; none was found in ground beef. One hundred ninety-eight isolates (66.4%) were resistant to at least one compound, and 49 (16.4%) were resistant to at least five compounds. Six isolates (2.0%), all from ground turkey, were resistant to at least nine antimicrobials. The highest resistance in poultry isolates was to tetracycline (39.9%), followed by streptomycin (37.8%), sulfamethoxazole (27.7%), gentamicin (25.7%), kanamycin (21.5%), ampicillin (19.8%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (10.4%), and ceftiofur (9.0%). All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin. All ceftiofur-resistant strains carried blaCMY. PFGE using XbaI and BlnI showed that certain clones were widely dispersed in different types of meats and meat brands from different store chains in all five sampling years. These data indicate that Salmonella serovar Heidelberg is a common serovar in retail poultry meats and includes widespread clones of multidrug-resistant strains.
We monitored antimicrobial susceptibility data for Salmonella strains isolated from humans, cattle, pigs, and chickens in The Netherlands from 1984 to 2001 in order to provide insight into the dynamics of resistance over time. The strains were tested for their susceptibilities to seven antimicrobial agents by the agar diffusion method. Resistance was most common in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Among the strains from humans, pigs, and chickens, it was found that the level of resistance of serovar Typhimurium strains to tetracycline, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole increased from 1984 to 2001. This increase could be attributed to the emergence of multidrug-resistant serovar Typhimurium DT 104. Among the strains from cattle, it was found that the level of resistance of serovar Typhimurium strains, which was already very high in the 1980s, declined during the study period to the same levels as those for the strains from the other species from 1996 to 2001. Serovar Enteritidis isolates remained susceptible during the entire survey period. Among serovar Paratyphi B variation Java strains isolated from chickens, resistance to furazolidone, flumequine, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and ampicillin emerged, although furazolidone was not used after 1990. Together, the data indicate that the levels and patterns of resistance differed considerably between Salmonella serovars isolated from one host species.
We characterized 208 human Salmonella isolates from 2006 to 2007 and 27 human Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates from 1987 to 1993 from Henan Province, China, by serotyping, by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and, for the most common serovars, by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The most common serovars among the 2006-2007 isolates were S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (27%), S. enterica serovar Enteritidis (17%), S. enterica serovar Derby (10%), S. enterica serovar Indiana (6%), and S. enterica serovar Litchfield (6%). A high percentage of the isolates were multiple-drug resistant, and 54% were resistant to both nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Of these, 42% were resistant to a high level of ciprofloxacin (MIC > 4 μg/ml), whereas for the remaining isolates, the MICs ranged from 0.125 to 2 μg/ml. Five isolates (2%) were ceftiofur resistant and harbored blaCTX-M14 or blaCTX-M15. With the possible exception of the quinolones and cephalosporins, the 1987-1993 S. enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates were almost as resistant as the recent isolates. PFGE typing of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium showed that the most common cluster predominated over time. Two other clusters have emerged, and another cluster has disappeared.
The emergence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp. has been a growing public health concern globally. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility, and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter spp. recovered by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) retail meat program. Retail meat samples (n = 24,566) from 10 U.S. states collected between 2002 and 2007, consisting of 6,138 chicken breast, 6,109 ground turkey, 6,171 ground beef, and 6,148 pork chop samples, were analyzed. A total of 2,258 Campylobacter jejuni, 925 Campylobacter coli, and 7 Campylobacter lari isolates were identified. Chicken breast samples showed the highest contamination rate (49.9%), followed by ground turkey (1.6%), whereas both pork chops and ground beef had <0.5% contamination. The most common resistance was to doxycycline/tetracycline (46.6%), followed by nalidixic acid (18.5%), ciprofloxacin (17.4%), azithromycin and erythromycin (2.8%), telithromycin (2.4%), clindamycin (2.2%), and gentamicin (<0.1%). In a subset of isolates tested, no resistance to meropenem and florfenicol was seen. C. coli isolates showed higher resistance rates to antimicrobials, with the exception of doxycycline/tetracycline, than those seen for C. jejuni. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) fingerprinting resulted in 1,226 PFGE profiles among the 2,318 isolates, with many clones being widely dispersed throughout the 6-year sampling period.
A total of 825 samples of retail raw meats (chicken, turkey, pork, and beef) were examined for the presence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella serovars, and 719 of these samples were also tested for Campylobacter spp. The samples were randomly obtained from 59 stores of four supermarket chains during 107 sampling visits in the Greater Washington, D.C., area from June 1999 to July 2000. The majority (70.7%) of chicken samples (n = 184) were contaminated with Campylobacter, and a large percentage of the stores visited (91%) had Campylobacter-contaminated chickens. Approximately 14% of the 172 turkey samples yielded Campylobacter, whereas fewer pork (1.7%) and beef (0.5%) samples were positive for this pathogen. A total of 722 Campylobacter isolates were obtained from 159 meat samples; 53.6% of these isolates were Campylobacter jejuni, 41.3% were Campylobacter coli, and 5.1% were other species. Of the 212 chicken samples, 82 (38.7%) yielded E. coli, while 19.0% of the beef samples, 16.3% of the pork samples, and 11.9% of the turkey samples were positive for E. coli. However, only 25 (3.0%) of the retail meat samples tested were positive for Salmonella. Significant differences in the bacterial contamination rates were observed for the four supermarket chains. This study revealed that retail raw meats are often contaminated with food-borne pathogens; however, there are marked differences in the prevalence of such pathogens in different meats. Raw retail meats are potential vehicles for transmitting food-borne diseases, and our findings stress the need for increased implementation of hazard analysis of critical control point (HACCP) and consumer food safety education efforts.
We studied serotypes and phage types of Salmonella strains isolated from humans and animals in The Netherlands over the period 1984 to 2001. All human strains (n = 59,168) were clinical isolates. The animal strains (n = 65,567) were from clinical and nonclinical infections. All isolates were serotyped, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and serovar Enteritidis strains were further phage typed. The most prevalent serotypes were as follows: in humans, serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis; in cattle, serovars Typhimurium and Dublin; in pigs, serovar Typhimurium; and in chickens, serovars Enteritidis, Infantis, and Typhimurium. Serovar Enteritidis phage type 4 (pt 4) was the most common phage type in humans and chickens. Serovar Typhimurium pt 510 was the most prevalent serovar Typhimurium phage type in humans and pigs, pt 200 was the most prevalent serovar Typhimurium phage type in cattle, and pt 150 was the most prevalent serovar Typhimurium phage type in chickens. Analysis of the distribution of sero- and phage types during the study period indicated that types shifted over time in humans and animals. Serovar Typhimurium DT 104 emerged in 1991 in humans, cattle, pigs, and chickens and became the most common serovar Typhimurium phage type in 2001. In general, similar sero- and phage types were found in humans and animals, although distinct types were more common in animals. Between the animal species, the sero- and phage type distributions varied considerably.
To detect Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium), one of the most frequently isolated serovars from food borne outbreaks throughout the world, in retail raw chicken meat and giblets.
One hundred samples of retail raw chicken meat and giblets (Liver, heart and gizzard) which were collected from Assiut city markets for detection of the organism and by using Duplex PCR ampliﬁcation of DNA using rfbJ and fliC genes.
S. typhimurium was detected at rate of 44%, 40% and 48% in chicken meat, liver and heart, respectively, but not detected in gizzard.
The results showed high incidence of S. typhimurium in the examined samples and greater emphasis should be applied on prevention and control of contamination during processing for reducing food-borne risks to consumers.
Salmonella typhimurium; Chicken meat; Duplex PCR
Molecular characterization (e.g., DNA-based typing methods) of Salmonella isolates is frequently employed to compare and distinguish clinical isolates recovered from animals and from patients with food-borne disease and nosocomial infections. In this study, we compared the abilities of different phenotyping and genotyping methods to distinguish isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium from different food animal sources. One hundred twenty-eight S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strains isolated from cattle, pigs, chickens, and turkeys or derived food products were characterized using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), repetitive element PCR (Rep-PCR), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), plasmid profiling, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Among the 128 Salmonella isolates tested, we observed 84 Rep-PCR profiles, 86 PFGE patterns, 89 MLST patterns, 36 plasmid profiles, and 38 susceptibility profiles. The molecular typing methods, i.e., PFGE, MLST, and Rep-PCR, demonstrated the best discriminatory power among Salmonella isolates. However, no apparent correlation was evident between the results of one molecular typing method and those of the others, suggesting that a combination of multiple methods is needed to differentiate S. enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates that genetically cluster according to one particular typing method.
Use of this drug in chickens may limit effectiveness of cephalosporins in treating human infections.
The Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance describes a strong correlation (r = 0.9, p<0.0001) between ceftiofur-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg isolated from retail chicken and incidence of ceftiofur-resistant Salmonella serovar Heidelberg infections in humans across Canada. In Québec, changes of ceftiofur resistance in chicken Salmonella Heidelberg and Escherichia coli isolates appear related to changing levels of ceftiofur use in hatcheries during the study period, from highest to lowest levels before and after a voluntary withdrawal, to increasing levels after reintroduction of use (62% to 7% to 20%, and 34% to 6% to 19%, respectively). These events provide evidence that ceftiofur use in chickens results in extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance in bacteria from chicken and humans. To ensure the continued effectiveness of extended-spectrum cephalosporins for treating serious infections in humans, multidisciplinary efforts are needed to scrutinize and, where appropriate, limit use of ceftiofur in chicken production in Canada.
Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg; Escherichia coli; antimicrobial resistance; humans; chickens; Canada; bacteria; expedited; research
Strain NRRL B-30745, isolated from chicken ceca and identified as Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus faecium, or Enterococcus hirae, was initially identified as antagonistic to Campylobacter jejuni. The isolate produced a 5,362-Da bacteriocin (enterocin) that inhibits the growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, S. enterica serovar Choleraesuis, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, S. enterica serovar Gallinarum, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella dysenteriae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, and 20 other Campylobacter species isolates. The enterocin, E-760, was isolated and purified by cation-exchange and hydrophobic-interaction chromatographies. The proteinaceous nature of purified enterocin E-760 was demonstrated upon treatment with various proteolytic enzymes. Specifically, the antimicrobial peptide was found to be sensitive to beta-chymotrypsin, proteinase K, and papain, while it was resistant to lysozyme and lipase. The enterocin demonstrated thermostability by retaining activity after 5 min at 100°C and was stable at pH values between 5.0 and 8.7. However, activity was lost below pH 3.0 and above pH 9.5. Administration of enterocin E-760-treated feed significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the colonization of young broiler chicks experimentally challenged and colonized with two strains of C. jejuni by more than 8 log10 CFU. Enterocin E-760 also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the colonization of naturally acquired Campylobacter species in market age broiler chickens when administered in treated feed 4 days prior to analysis.
Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg ranks amongst the most prevalent causes of human salmonellosis in Canada and an increase in resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) has been observed by the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance. This study examined the genetic relationship between S. Heidelberg isolates from livestock, abattoir, retail meat, and clinical human specimens to determine whether there was a link between the emergence of MDR S. Heidelberg in chicken agri-food sources and the simultaneous increase of MDR S. Heidelberg in human clinical samples.
Chromosomal genetic homogeneity was observed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), DNA sequence-based typing (SBT) and DNA microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Sixty one percent of isolates were indistinguishable by PFGE conducted using XbaI and BlnI restriction enzymes. An additional 15% of isolates had PFGE patterns that were closely related to the main cluster. SBT did not identify DNA polymorphisms and CGH revealed only genetic differences between the reference S. Typhimurium strain and S. Heidelberg isolates. Genetic variation observed by CGH between S. Heidelberg isolates could be attributed to experimental variation. Alternatively, plasmid content was responsible for differences in antimicrobial susceptibility, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses followed by replicon typing identified two divergent plasmid types responsible for ESC resistance.
Due to the overall limited genetic diversity among the isolates, it was not possible to identify variable traits that would be suitable for source tracking between human and agri-food isolates of S. Heidelberg in Canada.
Recently, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Saintpaul has increasingly been observed in several countries, including Germany. However, the pathogenic potential and epidemiology of this serovar are not very well known. This study describes biological attributes of S. Saintpaul isolates obtained from turkeys in Germany based on characterization of their pheno- and genotypic properties. Fifty-five S. Saintpaul isolates from German turkeys and turkey-derived food products isolated from 2000 to 2007 were analyzed by using antimicrobial agent, organic solvent, and disinfectant susceptibility tests, isoelectric focusing, detection of resistance determinants, plasmid profiling, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and hybridization experiments. These isolates were compared to an outgroup consisting of 24 S. Saintpaul isolates obtained from humans and chickens in Germany and from poultry and poultry products (including turkeys) in Netherlands. A common core resistance pattern was detected for 27 German turkey and turkey product isolates. This pattern included resistance (full or intermediate) to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, spectinomycin, and sulfamethoxazole and intermediate resistance or decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MIC, 2 or 1 μg/ml, respectively) and several third-generation cephalosporins (including ceftiofur and cefoxitin [MIC, 4 to 2 and 16 to 2 μg/ml, respectively]). These isolates had the same core resistance genotype, with blaTEM-1, aadB, aadA2, sul1, a Ser83→Glu83 mutation in the gyrA gene, and a chromosomal class 1 integron carrying the aadB-aadA2 gene cassette. Their XbaI, BlnI, and combined XbaI-BlnI PFGE patterns revealed levels of genetic similarity of 93, 75, and 90%, respectively. This study revealed that a multiresistant S. Saintpaul clonal line is widespread in turkeys and turkey products in Germany and was also detected among German human fecal and Dutch poultry isolates.
Salmonella are frequently isolated from chickens and their products. Prevalent serogroups and serovars of Salmonella as well as their genotypes and antibiograms were determined for cloacal samples from 1595 chickens. To understand the possible serovar and H antigens for transmission between chicken and human, serovars and their H antigens of 164 chicken and 5314 human isolates were compared.
Prevalence of Salmonella differed among chicken lines and ages. Chicken and human isolates belonged mainly to serogroup B, C1, C2-C3, D, and E. 13 serovars and 66 serovars were identified for chicken and human isolates respectively. The common serovars for chicken and human isolates were S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Albany, S. Derby, and S. Anatum and shared common H1 antigens "g complex; i; e,h; and z4,z24" and H2 antigens "1 complex and -". In human isolates, H1 antigen "i" and H2 antigen "-" were common in all serogroups. In chicken, antimicrobial susceptibility differed among serogroups, serovars and three counties. All isolates were susceptible to cefazolin and ceftriaxone, but highly resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, flumequine, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and tetracycline. Except those isolates of serogroup C1 of Chick group and serogroup G, all isolates were multi-drug resistance. Only S. Kubacha, S. Typhimurium, S. Grampian, and S. Mons were resistant to ciprofloxacin and/or enrofloxacin.
In chicken, prevalent serogroups and serovars were associated with chicken ages, lines and regions; and flouroquinolone-resistant and MDR isolates emerged. H1 antigens "g complex and i" and H2 antigens "1 complex and -" might be important for transmission of Salmonella between chicken and human.
Escherichia coli isolates were recovered from the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System retail meat program and examined for antimicrobial susceptibility. Retail meat samples (n = 11,921) from four U.S. states collected during 2002 to 2008, consisting of 2,988 chicken breast, 2,942 ground turkey, 2,991 ground beef, and 3,000 pork chop samples, were analyzed. A total of 8,286 E. coli isolates were recovered. The greatest numbers of samples contaminated with the organism were chicken (83.5%) and turkey (82.0%), followed by beef (68.9%) and pork (44.0%). Resistance was most common to tetracycline (50.3%), followed by streptomycin (34.6%), sulfamethoxazole-sulfisoxazole (31.6%), ampicillin (22.5%), gentamicin (18.6%), kanamycin (8.4%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (6.4%), and cefoxitin (5.2%). Less than 5% of the isolates had resistance to trimethoprim, ceftriaxone, ceftiofur, nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin. All isolates were susceptible to amikacin. Compared to beef and pork isolates, the poultry meat isolates had a greater percentage of resistance to all tested drugs, with the exception of chloramphenicol, to which pork isolates had the most resistance. More than half of the turkey isolates (56%) were resistant to multidrugs (≥3 classes) compared to 38.9% of chicken, 17.3% of pork, and 9.3% of beef isolates. The blaCMY gene was present in all ceftriaxone- and ceftiofur-resistant isolates. The cmlA, flo, and catI genes were present in 45%, 43%, and 40% of chloramphenicol-resistant isolates, respectively. Most nalidixic acid-resistant isolates (98.5%) had a gyrA mutation in S83 or D87 or both, whereas only 6.7% had a parC mutation in either S80 or E84. The results showed that E. coli was commonly present in the retail meats, and antimicrobial resistance profiles differed according to the animal origin of the isolates.
Eighty-two chickens purchased at 11 retailers (supplied by 12 wholesalers) in the south of England were cultured for Campylobacter jejuni by a method involving total immersion. The organism was isolated from 22 (48%) of 46 fresh birds, 12 of 12 uneviscerated (New York dressed) birds, but only 1 of 24 frozen birds. Viable counts of up to 1.5 x 10(6)/chicken were obtained from fresh birds and 2.4 x 10(7)/chicken from uneviscerated birds. Surface swabbing of breasts, thighs, wings and vents of fresh chickens showed that contamination was generally distributed over the carcasses. Salmonellas were found in only 2 of 69 of the fresh chickens. The prevalence of several Lior and Penner C. jejuni serogroups was similar in chickens and sporadic human cases of enteritis. Penner serogroup 4 (mostly of Lior serogroup 1) was found in 26% of human isolates and 14% of chicken isolates. The rising incidence of campylobacter enteritis during the last 6 years could well be a reflection of the increasing proportion of fresh chickens consumed over that period (32% higher in 1986 than in 1981).
Passive laboratory-based surveillance data from Alberta Agriculture Food and Rural Development were analyzed for common Salmonella serovars, prevalences, trends, and for the presence of temporal clusters. There were 1767 isolates between October 1990 and December 2001 comprising 63 different serovars, including 961 isolates from chickens, 418 from cattle, 108 from pigs, 102 from turkeys, and 178 from all other species combined. Salmonella Typhimurium, Heidelberg, Hadar, Kentucky, and Thompson were the 5 most frequently isolated serovars. Approximately 60% of the S. Typhimurium were isolated from cattle, whereas over 90% of the S. Heidelberg, Hadar, Kentucky, and Thompson were isolated from chickens. Salmonella Enteritidis was rarely isolated. There was an increasing trend in isolates from chickens, cattle, and pigs, and a decreasing trend in isolates from turkeys. Temporal clusters were observed in 11 of 15 serovars examined in chickens (S. Anatum, Heidelberg, Infantis, Kentucky, Mbandaka, Montevideo, Nienstedten, Oranienburg, Thompson, Typhimurium, and Typhimurium var. Copenhagen), 5 of 5 serovars in cattle (S. Dublin, Montevideo, Muenster, Typhimurium, and Typhimurium var. Copenhagen), and 1 of 3 serovars in pigs (S. Typhimurium). Short-duration clusters may imply point source infections, whereas long-duration clusters may indicate an increase in the prevalence of the serovar, farm-to-farm transmission, or a wide-spread common source. A higher concentration of clusters in the winter months may reflect greater confinement, reduced ventilation, stressors, or increased exposure to wildlife vectors that are sharing housing during the winter. Detection of large clusters of Salmonella may have public health implications in addition to animal health concerns.
Contamination of retail poultry by Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella enterica is a significant source of human diarrheal disease. Isolation and identification of these microorganisms require a series of biochemical and serological tests. In this study, Campylobacter ceuE and Salmonella invA genes were used to design probes in PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), as an alternative to conventional bacteriological methodology, for the rapid detection of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and S. enterica from poultry samples. With PCR-ELISA (40 cycles), the detection limits for Salmonella and Campylobacter were 2 × 102 and 4 × 101 CFU/ml, respectively. ELISA increased the sensitivity of the conventional PCR method by 100- to 1,000-fold. DNA was extracted from carcass rinses and tetrathionate enrichments and used in PCR-ELISA for the detection of Campylobacter and S. enterica, respectively. With PCR-ELISA, Salmonella was detected in 20 of 120 (17%) chicken carcass rinses examined, without the inclusion of an enrichment step. Significant correlation was observed between PCR-ELISA and cultural methods (kappa = 0.83; chi-square test, P < 0.001) with only one false negative (1.67%) and four false positives (6.67%) when PCR-ELISA was used to screen 60 tetrathionate enrichment cultures for Salmonella. With PCR-ELISA, we observed a positive correlation between the ELISA absorbance (optical density at 405 nm) and the campylobacter cell number in carcass rinse, as determined by standard culture methods. Overall, PCR-ELISA is a rapid and cost-effective approach for the detection and enumeration of Salmonella and Campylobacter bacteria on poultry.
Salmonella enterica continues to be a significant cause of foodborne gastrointestinal illness in humans. A wide variety of Salmonella serovars have been isolated from production birds and from retail poultry meat. Recently, though, S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky has emerged as one of the prominent Salmonella serovars isolated from broiler chickens. Recent work suggests that its emergence apparently coincides with its acquisition of a ColV virulence plasmid. In the present study, we examined 902 Salmonella isolates belonging to 59 different serovars for the presence of this plasmid. Of the serovars examined, the ColV plasmid was found only among isolates belonging to the serovars Kentucky (72.9%), Typhimurium (15.0%) and Heidelberg (1.7%). We demonstrated that a single PFGE clonal type of S. Kentucky harbors this plasmid, and acquisition of this plasmid by S. Kentucky significantly increased its ability to colonize the chicken cecum and cause extraintestinal disease. Comparison of the completed sequences of three ColV plasmids from S. Kentucky isolated from different geographical locales, timepoints and sources revealed a nearly identical genetic structure with few single nucleotide changes or insertions/deletions. Overall, it appears that the ColV plasmid was recently acquired by a single clonal type S. Kentucky and confers to its host enhanced colonization and fitness capabilities. Thus, the potential for horizontal gene transfer of virulence and fitness factors to Salmonella from other enteric bacteria exists in poultry, representing a potential human health hazard.
Although there have been several reports on the efficacy assessment of a Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis vaccine against intestinal and parenchymatous organ diseases of laying hens, no public health risk characterization of its long-term effect on eggs has been reported. In this study, we attempted to assess the public health effect of an inactivated S. enterica serovar Enteritidis vaccine against serovar Enteritidis contamination of chicken eggs. We analyzed serovar Enteritidis isolation test results from four windowless farms in which inactivated-vaccine administration was initiated based on the sanitary monitoring program of a farm. When flocks with and without S. enterica serovar Enteritidis vaccine treatments were mixed, the application of an inactivated serovar Enteritidis vaccine decreased the most probable number (MPN) of bacteria by at least 100-fold in broken (liquid) egg samples positive for serovar Enteritidis, although a statistical difference between those MPNs could not be obtained. The isolation frequency after the vaccine application was less than 1/10 (P < 0.01). No S. enterica serovar Enteritidis bacteria were isolated approximately 1 year after all of the chickens had received the inactivated serovar Enteritidis vaccine. It was suggested that an adequate administration of an inactivated serovar Enteritidis vaccine reduced the contamination risk of eggs (the number of isolated serovar Enteritidis cells and detection frequency) compared to the contamination risk of eggs laid by nonvaccinated hens.
Poultry meat and eggs contaminated with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis or Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium are common sources of acute gastroenteritis in humans. However, the exact nature of the immune mechanisms protective against Salmonella infection in chickens has not been characterized at the molecular level. In the present study, bacterial colonization, development of pathological lesions, and proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine gene expression were investigated in the liver, spleen, jejunum, ileum, and cecal tonsils in newly hatched chickens 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after oral infection with Salmonella serovar Typhimurium. Very high bacterial counts were found in the ileum and cecal contents throughout the experiment, whereas Salmonella started to appear in the liver only from 24 h postinfection. Large numbers of heterophils, equivalent to neutrophils in mammals, and inflammatory edema could be seen in the lamina propria of the intestinal villi and in the liver. Interleukin 8 (IL-8), K60 (a CXC chemokine), macrophage inflammatory protein 1 β, and IL-1β levels were significantly upregulated in the intestinal tissues and in the livers of the infected birds. However, the spleens of the infected birds show little or no change in the expression levels of these cytokines and chemokines. Increased expression of the proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (up to several hundred-fold) correlated with the presence of inflammatory signs in those tissues. This is the first description of in vivo expression of chemokines and proinflammatory cytokines in response to oral infection with Salmonella in newly hatched chickens.
Chicken genetics and age affect resistance to enteric infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and were used to identify the immune responses that may contribute to rapid clearance. When birds were infected at 40 days of age, line 61 chickens cleared the infection more effectively than line N chickens, whereas when birds were infected at 10 days of age, both chicken lines were highly susceptible to infection. Antibody levels, T-cell responsiveness, and cytokine mRNA levels were all elevated during infection. A negative correlation between resistance and antigen-specific antibody production was observed in older chickens. However, this finding was not replicated for age-related resistance; we found that older chickens exhibited a stronger and more rapid antibody response than younger chickens. The levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) mRNA were similar in the spleens and cecal tonsils of both line 61 and line N chickens, except for higher levels of IL-1β in the spleens of line 61 chickens at 6 days postinfection. Differences in the levels of IFN-γ and IL-1β 1β mRNA between the lines were more apparent in younger chickens, but while the increases were greater than those observed in the older chickens, the clearance of enteric S. enterica serovar Typhimurium was much slower. The level of antigen-specific proliferation of splenocytes was associated with increased resistance in both experimental systems, and the strongest responses were observed in older and genetically resistant chickens. The data presented here implicate T-cell responses in the clearance of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium from the intestine of infected chickens.
enterica serovar Enteritidis is a major cause of food-borne
diseases in industrialized countries. The incidence of S.
enterica serovar Enteritidis infections has increased
substantially in recent decades, and S. enterica serovar
Enteritidis is now one of the leading serovars of Salmonella
in the United States. A unique epidemiological characteristic of S.
enterica serovar Enteritidis is its association with chicken shell
eggs, since approximately 80% of all human gastrointestinal
diseases can be traced to contaminated egg products. Eggs are
contaminated when bacteria from reproductive tissues of infected hens
are packaged into the eggs and persist inside the hostile egg albumen
environment. Therefore, resistance to egg albumen is an important
aspect in the transmission of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis.
We identified a gene, yafD from S. enterica serovar
Enteritidis, whose overexpression conferred upon S. enterica
serovar Typhimurium enhanced resistance to egg albumen, while
disruption of this gene in S. enterica serovar Enteritidis
rendered the organism more susceptible to egg albumen. YafD is
homologous to members of an exonuclease-endonuclease-phosphatase
family, including some enzymes involved in DNA repair. Furthermore, we
discovered that egg albumen has nuclease activities and uses both
circular and linear DNA as substrates. We propose that YafD provides a
survival advantage to S. enterica serovar Enteritidis in eggs
by repairing DNA damage caused by egg albumen and that it may be one of
the biologic determinants that contribute to the epidemiological
association of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis with egg
Campylobacter spp. are together with Salmonella spp. the leading causes of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The most commonly isolated species in humans are Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. The isolation, identification, and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. from poultry and raw meat from slaughterhouses, has been investigated for the first time in Greece. During the period from August 2005 to November 2008 a total of 1080 samples were collected: (a) 830 fecal samples from five poultry farms, (b) 150 cecal samples from chicken carcasses in a slaughterhouse, and (c) 100 fecal samples from one pig farm near the region of Attica. The identification of the isolates was performed with conventional (sodium hippurate hydrolysis and commercial identification system (Api CAMPY system, bioMerieux, France), as well as with and molecular methods based on 16S rRNA species specific gene amplification by PCR and subsequent sequence analysis of the PCR products. Results: Sixteen Campylobacter strains were isolated, all collected from the poultry farms. None of the strains was identified as C. jejuni. Antimicrobial susceptibility to six antimicrobials was performed and all the strains were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin–clavulanic acid, and gentamicin. Thirteen out of 14 C. coli were resistant to erythromycin and all C. coli strains were resistant to ampicillin. Conclusion: Our results emphasize the need for a surveillance and monitoring system with respect to the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in poultry, as well as for the use of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine in Greece.
Campylobacter; animals; sequencing identification; antimicrobial resistance
Salmonella enterica has been one of the most widespread foodborne pathogens in Korea. Between 1998 and 2007, a total of 9,472 Salmonella isolates were identified from foodborne and waterborne illness patients. During that time, Korea was transitioning into a developed country in industry as well as in its hygiene system. Although the isolation number of total Salmonella including serovar Typhi has decreased since 1999, the isolation of rare Salmonella serovars has emerged. Three most prevalent serovars during 1998-2007 were S. enterica Typhi, S. enterica Enteritidis, and S. enterica Typhimurium. There were remarkable outbreaks caused by rare serovars such as S. enterica Othmarschen, S. enterica London and S. enterica Paratyphi A, and overseas traveler-associated infections caused by S. enterica Weltevreden and S. enterica Anatum. Salmonella serovars from overseas travelers made a diverse Salmonella serovar pool in Korea. This study is the first review of the status of the human Salmonella infection trend in a developing country during 1998-2007. Newly emerging rare Salmonella serovars should be traced and investigated to control new type pathogens in the developed world.
Salmonella; Serovar; Foodborne Diseases
From March 2001 to June 2002, a total of 981 samples of retail raw meats (chicken, turkey, pork, and beef) were randomly obtained from 263 grocery stores in Iowa and cultured for the presence of Enterococcus spp. A total of 1,357 enterococcal isolates were recovered from the samples, with contamination rates ranging from 97% of pork samples to 100% of ground beef samples. Enterococcus faecium was the predominant species recovered (61%), followed by E. faecalis (29%), and E. hirae (5.7%). E. faecium was the predominant species recovered from ground turkey (60%), ground beef (65%), and chicken breast (79%), while E. faecalis was the predominant species recovered from pork chops (54%). The incidence of resistance to many production and therapeutic antimicrobials differed among enterococci recovered from retail meat samples. Resistance to quinupristin-dalfopristin, a human analogue of the production drug virginiamycin, was observed in 54, 27, 9, and 18% of E. faecium isolates from turkey, chicken, pork, and beef samples, respectively. No resistance to linezolid or vancomycin was observed, but high-level gentamicin resistance was observed in 4% of enterococci, the majority of which were recovered from poultry retail meats. Results indicate that Enterococcus spp. commonly contaminate retail meats and that dissimilarities in antimicrobial resistance patterns among enterococci recovered from different meat types may reflect the use of approved antimicrobial agents in each food animal production class.