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1.  Efficacy of serology driven “test and treat strategy” for eradication of H. pylori in patients with rheumatic disease in the Netherlands 
The treatment of choice of H. pylori infections is a 7-day triple-therapy with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) plus amoxicillin and either clarithromycin or metronidazole, depending on local antibiotic resistance rates. The data on efficacy of eradication therapy in a group of rheumatology patients on long-term NSAID therapy are reported here. This study was part of a nationwide, multicenter RCT that took place in 2000–2002 in the Netherlands. Patients who tested positive for H. pylori IgG antibodies were included and randomly assigned to either eradication PPI-triple therapy or placebo. After completion, follow-up at 3 months was done by endoscopy and biopsies were sent for culture and histology. In the eradication group 13% (20/152, 95% CI 9–20%) and in the placebo group 79% (123/155, 95% CI 72–85%) of the patients were H. pylori positive by histology or culture. H. pylori was successfully eradicated in 91% of the patients who were fully compliant to therapy, compared to 50% of those who were not (difference of 41%; 95% CI 18–63%). Resistance percentages found in isolates of the placebo group were: 4% to clarithromycin, 19% to metronidazole, 1% to amoxicillin and 2% to tetracycline.
doi:10.1007/s10096-011-1174-5
PMCID: PMC3104134  PMID: 21293900
2.  Serological diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori--evaluation of four tests in the presence or absence of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. 
Gut  1993;34(4):461-465.
The host's humoral immune response to Helicobacter pylori has been used in the diagnosis of active infection with these organisms. Several commercial tests are available but there are few and unconfirmed reports of their efficacy. This study aimed to assess and compare the efficacy of the following H pylori serological tests in patients treated or not treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID): Pyloriset Latex, Helico-G, Biolab Malakit, and Bio-Rad GAP Test IgG. Venous blood was tested at random in 124 patients, 64 of whom had received NSAID and 60 who had not. H pylori IgG antibodies were detected by latex agglutination (Pyloriset), or by ELISA (the remaining tests). Endoscopic gastric antral biopsy specimens were also obtained for urease activity, culture, and histology. Detection of H pylori by at least two of these was considered as a true positive, and its absence in all biopsy specimens as a true negative. The sensitivity values in the presence (or absence) of NSAID were: Pyloriset Latex, 59 (60)%; Helico-G, 79 (74)%; Biolab Malakit, 85 (81)%; and Bio-Rad GAP Test IgG, 100 (95)%. The respective specificity values were: 50 (71)%, 47 (59)%, 50 (65)%, and 30 (29)%. The Bio-Rad GAP Test IgG has the highest sensitivity and the lowest specificity values regardless of NSAID intake. The sensitivity of the other tests, however, is less than that of the standard biopsy related tests and their specificity is even lower in chronic NSAID users.
PMCID: PMC1374303  PMID: 8491390
3.  Bovine antibody-based oral immunotherapy for reduction of intragastric Helicobacter pylori colonization: A randomized clinical trial 
BACKGROUND:
Antibiotic-based regimens are frequently used for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. These regimens fail to eradicate H pylori in 15% to 40% of patients, primarily due to antimicrobial resistance and insufficient patient compliance. Effective prevention and eradication of H pylori by passive immunization with orally administered bovine antibodies has been demonstrated in animal studies, and may serve as an alternative therapy in humans.
OBJECTIVE:
To study the efficacy and safety of orally administered bovine anti-H pylori antibodies for the reduction of intragastric bacterial load and eradication of H pylori in humans.
METHODS:
Dairy cows were immunized against H pylori. After confirmation of the presence of anti-H pylori antibodies in the milk, the milk was subsequently processed into a whey protein concentrate (WPC). In a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, H pylori-infected subjects were randomly assigned to treatment with the WPC preparation or placebo. Study medication was continued for 28 days; subjects were followed-up for 56 days.
RESULTS:
Of the 30 subjects included, 27 completed the protocol. Of these 27 evaluable subjects, 14 were treated with WPC and 13 with placebo. There was no significant difference in urea breath test decrease between the WPC- and placebo-treated group (P=0.75). H pylori-associated gastritis and density were not significantly reduced in either group after treatment (P>0.05 for all).
CONCLUSION:
Bovine antibody-based oral immunotherapy appears to be safe, but does not significantly reduce intragastric H pylori density in humans. Further studies are needed to determine whether WPC treatment has additional value to conventional antibiotic treatment for H pylori.
PMCID: PMC3088696  PMID: 21523262
H pylori; Eradication treatment; Immunotherapy; Gastritis
4.  Helicobacter pylori: a risk and severity factor of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced gastropathy. 
Gut  1992;33(12):1608-1611.
This prospective study aimed to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in relation to the occurrence and severity of NSAIDs induced gastropathy. A total of 111 patients were studied-66 were taking NSAIDs and 45 were control patients. All patients underwent endoscopy during which antral biopsy specimens were taken to determine H pylori status (Gram and Giemsa staining, urease test, and cultures). The NSAID group comprised: group I, patients without mucosal damage (n = 28); group II, patients with gastropathy (n = 26); and group III, patients with bleeding associated with NSAID induced gastropathy (n = 12). Control patients had neither dyspeptic symptoms nor endoscopic lesions. There were no differences in age, sex ratio, or presence of H pylori (26% v 24%) between the NSAID and the control groups. Among patients taking NSAIDs, H pylori infection was more frequently (p < 0.02) diagnosed in those who presented with gastropathy (groups II and III: 37%) than in those without lesions (group I: 11%). The frequency of H pylori infection increased significantly with the severity of gastropathy (group I = 11%; group II = 31%; group III = 50%; p < 0.03). H pylori infection was associated with chronic active gastritis (group I = 21%; group II = 35%; group III = 67%; p < 0.05). These data suggest that H pylori may be a risk factor of NSAID induced gastropathy.
PMCID: PMC1379569  PMID: 1487160
5.  Serological Assessment of the Early Response to Eradication Therapy Using an Immunodominant Outer Membrane Protein of Helicobacter pylori 
Eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection cures gastritis and prevents recurrence of peptic ulcers. Endoscopy is usually used to evaluate the effectiveness of eradication therapy. We designed a new noninvasive assay system for the early evaluation of eradication of H. pylori infection in which a crude H. pylori outer membrane protein preparation (HPOmp) is used as an antigen, and we determined the sensitivity and specificity of the serological assay system. Immunoblot analysis showed that anti-HPOmp antibodies reacted to a protein with a molecular mass of approximately 29 kDa. In those patients who responded to therapy, the anti-HPOmp immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at 1 month after the end of therapy were significantly lower than those before treatment (34.8% reduction; P < 0.001), and the posttreatment reduction in the antibody titer was significantly greater than that of the titer measured with a commercially available anti-H. pylori IgG ELISA (34.8% versus 16.1%; P < 0.001). When a 25% reduction of anti-HPOmp IgG titer at 1 month after the end of treatment was taken as the cutoff value for H. pylori eradication, the sensitivity and specificity of our new assay were 75% (51 of 68 treatment responders) and 96% (22 of 23 nonresponders), respectively. Our results indicate that the novel serological test with HPOmp might be a clinically useful tool for assessment of eradication of H. pylori.
PMCID: PMC96215  PMID: 9801348
6.  No effect of intramuscular gold therapy on serological parameters of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a 12 month prospective study. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1994;53(6):400-402.
OBJECTIVES--To assess prospectively the influence of intramuscular gold therapy on Helicobacter pylori serology in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS--Fifty patients with RA were started on intramuscular gold or chloroquine, as the control group and were followed serologically for H pylori infection for 12 months. RESULTS--Twelve patients treated with gold and eight control patients treated with chloroquine, all with serological evidence for H pylori infection, showed no significant decline of IgA and IgG anti-H pylori antibody levels or serum pepsinogen A and C levels. Total serum IgA and IgG levels declined significantly during gold therapy, while they remained unchanged during chloroquine therapy. CONCLUSIONS--Intramuscular gold therapy in patients with RA does not influence the serological parameters of H pylori infection.
PMCID: PMC1005356  PMID: 8037498
7.  Short-Term Follow-Up by Serology of Patients Given Antibiotic Treatment for Helicobacter pylori Infection 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1998;36(5):1193-1196.
Helicobacter pylori serology and in particular enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the measurement of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody titers form an accurate means of diagnosing H. pylori infection in patients before treatment. H. pylori serology is of limited value in monitoring treatment because of the slow decline in antibody titers. In the present study we aimed to measure the most suitable moment after antibiotic treatment at which serology should be used to monitor treatment. Sixty-four patients who had nonulcer dyspepsia and H. pylori infection and who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy because of persistent dyspeptic symptoms were included in the study. H. pylori cure was confirmed by histology and culture 5 weeks after the completion of the antibiotic treatment. Serological examination was performed before therapy and at 5 weeks, 10 weeks, and 1 year after the completion of antibiotic treatment. Diagnostic performance was assessed by receiver-operating characteristic analysis. The areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves of the H. pylori antibody titers at 5 weeks, 10 weeks, and 1 year after the completion of treatment were 0.53 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36 to 0.69), 0.60 (95% CI, 0.43 to 0.76), and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.63 to 0.93), respectively. The areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves of the changes in H. pylori IgG antibody titers at 5 weeks, 10 weeks, and 1 year after the completion of treatment in comparison with the pretreatment titers were 0.85 (95% CI, 0.72 to 0.97), 0.96 (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.0), and 1.0 (95% CI, not estimable), respectively. We conclude that serology forms a useful means of monitoring treatment in patients with nonulcer dyspepsia and H. pylori infection as early as 10 weeks and maybe even sooner after the completion of treatment for the infection.
PMCID: PMC104798  PMID: 9574675
8.  Serum pepsinogen I and II concentrations and IgG antibody to Helicobacter pylori in dyspeptic patients. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1993;46(9):826-828.
AIMS--To investigate the association between histologically confirmed gastritis, carriage of Helicobacter pylori and pepsinogen (PG) I and PG II concentrations. METHODS--Prospective study of 81 dyspeptic patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was made. The extent of gastric mucosal inflammation and the presence of H pylori was determined, and serology to evaluate PG I and II concentrations and IgG titres to H pylori was carried out. RESULTS--The presence of H pylori was strongly correlated with high IgG antibody titres to H pylori and gastritis. Patients who were H pylori positive had significantly higher PG I and PG II concentrations and a significantly lower PG I:PG II ratio than patients who were negative for H pylori. In 13 patients with duodenal ulcer and H pylori positive gastritis serum PG I concentrations were significantly higher than in H pylori positive patients without duodenal ulcer. Significant correlations were found between the age of patients and serum PG II, the PG I:PG II ratio, IgG antibodies to H pylori, the severity of body gastritis and H pylori infection, and between the degree of gastritis in the body of the stomach and the PG II concentration. CONCLUSIONS--Serum PG I and II concentrations, together with a fall in the PG I:PG II ratio, could be used as predictors of H pylori infection as well as serum IgG antibody response to H pylori.
PMCID: PMC501517  PMID: 8227432
9.  Is saliva serology useful for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori? 
Gut  1996;39(1):27-30.
BACKGROUND: The Cortecs Diagnostics Helisal Assay test is a quantitative immunoassay for salivary IgG antibodies against Helicobacter pylori. Saliva can be obtained simply with the kit in the general practitioners surgery. AIMS: To compare the new saliva serological test for H pylori with 'gold standard' evidence of H pylori infection (antral biopsy specimens for histology, culture, and urease test) and a new serum serological test. PATIENTS: Eighty six unselected dyspeptic patients undergoing endoscopy. METHODS: Each patient provided saliva and serum before endoscopy for H pylori serology, which was compared against 'gold standard' evidence of infection. RESULTS: Thirty two patients were H pylori positive by the 'gold standard' tests. At a cut off value of 0.15 EU/ml the saliva test had a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 71%, with a negative predictive value of 90%. If patients who were taking omeprazole or had recent antibiotics are excluded, the sensitivity is unchanged but the specificity increases to 79%. The serum test had a similar sensitivity of 85% but better specificity of 78%. CONCLUSION: Serum testing remains the best serological test for H pylori in the hospital setting. Saliva testing may have a role in epidemiological studies and in screening dyspeptic patients in general practice, especially in children in whom venesection is more difficult.
PMCID: PMC1383225  PMID: 8881803
10.  The effect of Helicobacter pylori infection and eradication in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: A parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentre study 
Objectives
This study aimed to resolve controversy regarding the effects of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy and H. pylori infection in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.
Design
A randomized, double-blind, multicentre trial was performed in patients presenting with reflux symptoms. H. pylori-positive patients were randomized to receive either antibiotics or placebo for 7 days. H. pylori-negative patient controls received placebo. All received esomeprazole 20 mg b.d. for 7 days, followed by 40 mg o.d. to complete an 8-week course, and were followed up for 32 weeks by telephone.
Results
In this study, 198/589 (34%) patients were H. pylori-positive and 113 H. pylori-negative patients served as controls. Baseline endoscopy revealed 63% Los Angeles grade 0A and 37% Los Angeles grade BCD oesophagitis with no difference between patient groups. Symptom improvement on esomeprazole was seen in 89%. H. pylori eradication was successful in 82%. H. pylori eradication had no effect on symptomatic relapse (hazard ratio 1.15, 95% CI 0.74–1.8; p = 0.5). Overall, H. pylori-positive patients had a lower probability of relapse compared to H. pylori-negative controls (hazard ratio 0.6, 95% CI 0.43–0.85; p = 0.004). Relapse hazard was modulated also by oesophagitis grade (BCD vs. 0A, hazard ratio 2.1, 95% CI 1.5–3.0).
Conclusion
Relapse of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms after a course of high dose acid suppression took longer for H. pylori-positive patients than H. pylori-negative controls; however eradication therapy had no effect on the risk of relapse; ClincialTrials.gov number, NCT00574925.
doi:10.1177/2050640613484020
PMCID: PMC4040789  PMID: 24917966
H. pylori eradication therapy; esomeprazole; gastritis; gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; Helicobacter pylori; oesophagitis; symptomatic relapse
11.  Helicobacter pylori infection in bleeding peptic ulcer patients after non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug consumption 
AIM: To establish the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in patients with a bleeding peptic ulcer after consumption of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
METHODS: A very early upper endoscopy was performed to find the source of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and to take biopsy specimens for analysis of H. pylori infection by the rapid urease (CLO) test, histological examination, and bacterial culture. IgG anti-CagA were also sought. The gold standard for identifying H. pylori infection was positive culture of biopsy specimens or contemporary positivity of the CLO test and the presence of H. pylori on tissue sections.
RESULTS: Eighty patients, 61 males (76.3%), mean age 61.2 ± 15.9 years, were consecutively enrolled. Forty-seven (58.8%) patients occasionally consumed NSAIDs, while 33 (41.3%) were on chronic treatment with low-dose aspirin (LD ASA). Forty-four (55.0%) patients were considered infected by H. pylori. The infection rate was not different between patients who occasionally or chronically consumed NSAIDs. The culture of biopsy specimens had a sensitivity of 86.4% and a specificity of 100%; corresponding figures for histological analysis were 65.9% and 77.8%, for the CLO test were 68.2% and 75%, for the combined use of histology and the CLO test were 56.8% and 100%, and for IgG anti-CagA were 90% and 98%. The highest accuracy (92.5%) was obtained with the culture of biopsy specimens.
CONCLUSION: Patients with a bleeding peptic ulcer after NSAID/LD ASA consumption frequently have H. pylori infection. Biopsy specimen culture after an early upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy seems the most efficient test to detect this infection.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v17.i40.4509
PMCID: PMC3218142  PMID: 22110282
Helicobacter pylori; Helicobacter pylori infection; Low-dose aspirin; Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs; Peptic ulcer hemorrhage; Endoscopy
12.  Indications for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection: a systematic overview. 
OBJECTIVE: To determine (a) the advantages and disadvantages of treatment options for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori and (b) whether eradication of H. pylori is indicated in patients with duodenal ulcer, nonucler dyspepsia and gastric cancer. DATA SOURCES: A MEDLINE search for articles published in English between January 1983 and December 1992 with the use of MeSH terms Helicobacter pylori (called Campylobacter pylori before 1990) and duodenal ulcer, gastric cancer, dyspepsia and clinical trial. Six journals and Current Contents were searched manually for pertinent articles published in that time frame. STUDY SELECTION: For duodenal ulcer the search was limited to studies involving adults, studies of H. pylori eradication and randomized clinical trials comparing anti-H. pylori therapy with conventional ulcer treatment. For nonulcer dyspepsia with H. pylori infection the search was limited to placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials. DATA EXTRACTION: The quality of each study was rated independently on a four-point scale by each author. For the studies of duodenal ulcer the outcome measures assessed were acute ulcer healing and time required for healing, H. pylori eradication and ulcer relapse. For the studies of nonulcer dyspepsia with H. pylori infection the authors assessed H. pylori eradication, the symptoms used as outcome measures and whether validated outcome measures had been used. DATA SYNTHESIS: Eight trials involving duodenal ulcer met our inclusion criteria: five were considered high quality, two were of reasonable quality, and one was weak. Six trials involving nonulcer dyspepsia met the criteria, but all were rated as weak. Among treatment options triple therapy with a bismuth compound, metronidazole and either amoxicillin or tetracycline achieved the highest eradication rates (73% to 94%). Results concerning treatment indications for duodenal ulcer were consistent among all of the studies: when anti-H. pylori therapy was added to conventional ulcer treatment acute ulcers healed more rapidly. Ulcer relapse rates were dramatically reduced after H. pylori eradication. All of the studies involving nonulcer dyspepsia assessed clearance rather than eradication of H. pylori. No study used validated outcome measures. A consistent decrease in symptom severity was no more prevalent in patients in whom the organism had been cleared than in those taking a placebo. Of the studies concerning gastric cancer none investigated the effect of eradication of H. pylori on subsequent risk of gastric cancer. CONCLUSIONS: There is sufficient evidence to support the use of anti-H. pylori therapy in patients with duodenal ulcers who have H. pylori infection, triple therapy achieving the best results. There is no current evidence to support such therapy for nonulcer dyspepsia in patients with H. pylori infection. Much more attention must be paid to the design of nonulcer dyspepsia studies. Also, studies are needed to determine whether H. pylori eradication in patients with gastritis will prevent gastric cancer.
PMCID: PMC1486210  PMID: 8287341
13.  Helicobacter pylori eradication in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura 
AIM: To assess the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication on platelet counts in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (cITP).
METHODS: A total of 36 cITP patients were included in the study. The diagnosis of H. pylori was done by rapid urease test and Giemsa staining of the gastric biopsy specimen. All H. pylori positive patients received standard triple therapy for 14 d and were subjected for repeat endoscopy at 6 wk. Patients who continued to be positive for H. pylori on second endoscopy received second line salvage therapy. All the patients were assessed for platelet response at 6 wk, 3rd and 6th months.
RESULTS: Of the 36 patients, 17 were positive for H. pylori infection and eradication was achieved in 16 patients. The mean baseline platelet count in the eradicated patients was 88615.38 ± 30117.93/mm3 and platelet count after eradication at 6 wk, 3 mo and 6 mo was 143230.77 ± 52437.51/mm3 (P = 0.003), 152562.50 ± 52892.3/mm3 (P = 0.0001), 150187.50 ± 41796.68/mm3 (P = 0.0001) respectively and in the negative patients, the mean baseline count was 71000.00 ± 33216.46/mm3 and at 6 wk, 3rd and 6th month follow up was 137631.58 ± 74364.13/mm3 (P = 0.001), 125578.95 ± 71472.1/mm3 (P = 0.005), 77210.53 ± 56892.28/mm3 (P = 0.684) respectively.
CONCLUSION: Eradication of H. pylori leads to increase in platelet counts in patients with cITP and can be recommended as a complementary treatment with conventional therapy.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i22.6918
PMCID: PMC4051932  PMID: 24944483
Helicobacter pylori; Immune thrombocytopenic purpura; Platelet counts
14.  Antibody to Heat Shock Protein Can Be Used for Early Serological Monitoring of Helicobacter pylori Eradication Treatment 
Infection with Helicobacter pylori induces humoral immune responses against various antigens of the bacterium. Heat shock proteins (hsps) are immunodominant antigens in various diseases including H. pylori infection. In the present study, we measured the anti-hsp antibody titers in 42 patients with H. pylori-infected peptic ulcers during a bacterial eradication study. The patients were treated with a proton pump inhibitor and antimicrobial agents to eradicate the organism. Their sera were obtained at pretreatment and at 1 month and 6 months after the eradication therapy. The titers of immunoglobulin G antibodies to the H. pylori hsp, whole-cell lysate, and urease (30-kDa subunit) antigens in serum were measured by a capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The levels of H. pylori hsp60 antibodies in sera collected 1 month after treatment had declined significantly, even when changes in the titers of antibodies to whole-cell and urease antigens were not apparent. These results suggest that measurement of antibodies to H. pylori hsp60 in serum is useful for the early monitoring of the effectiveness of eradication therapy.
PMCID: PMC95916  PMID: 10882654
15.  Effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on chronic gastritis during omeprazole therapy 
Gut  2000;46(5):615-621.
BACKGROUND—We have previously observed that profound acid suppressive therapy in Helicobacter pylori positive patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is associated with increased corpus inflammation and accelerated development of atrophic gastritis.
AIM—To investigate if H pylori eradication at the start of acid suppressive therapy prevents the development of these histological changes.
PATIENTS/METHODS—In a prospective randomised case control study, patients with reflux oesophagitis were treated with omeprazole 40 mg once daily for 12 months. H pylori positive patients were randomised to additional double blind treatment with omeprazole 20 mg, amoxicillin 1000 mg and clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily or placebo for one week. Biopsy sampling for histology, scored according to the updated Sydney classification, and culture were performed at baseline, and at three and 12 months.
RESULTS—In the persistently H pylori positive group (n=24), active inflammation increased in the corpus and decreased in the antrum during therapy (p=0.032 and p=0.002, respectively). In contrast, in the H pylori positive group that became H pylori negative as a result of treatment (n=33), active and chronic inflammation in both the corpus and antrum decreased (p⩽0.0001). The decrease in active and chronic inflammation in the corpus differed significantly compared with the persistently H pylori positive group (both p=0.001). For atrophy scores, no significant differences were observed between H pylori eradicated and persistently H pylori positive patients within one year of follow up. No changes were observed in the H pylori negative control group (n=26).
CONCLUSIONS—H pylori eradication prevents the increase in corpus gastritis associated with profound acid suppressive therapy. Longer follow up is needed to determine if H pylori eradication prevents the development of atrophic gastritis.


Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; gastritis; omeprazole; atropy; gastro-oesophageal reflux disease
doi:10.1136/gut.46.5.615
PMCID: PMC1727929  PMID: 10764703
16.  The Immunohistochemistry and Toluidine Blue Roles for Helicobacter pylori Detection in Patients with Gastritis 
Iranian Biomedical Journal  2013;17(1):36-41.
Background: Helicobacter pylori, which is associated with many upper gastrointestinal diseases, is found in half of the population of the world. Several special stains and immunohistochemistry stain for H. pylori are available. The need for and usefulness of immunohistochemical (IHC) technique has been debated for years. Toluidine blue is a simple stain for microbiological studies and is easily available in laboratories. Therefore, this study was conducted to compare hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Giemsa and toluidine blue staining with immunehistochemistry for detection of H. pylori in patients with gastritis and also to correlate the results of these staining methods with pathological grading. Methods: We reviewed 54 consecutive gastric biopsy specimens stained by H&E and Giemsa as well as by toluidine blue and immunohistochemistry stains for H. pylori. Results: H. pylori was positively identified by IHC in 43 (79.63%) patients, while positive samples were found in 18 (33.33%), 24 (44.44%) and 33 (61.11%) patients using H&E, Giemsa and toluidine blue staining methods. Our results showed that classical histological staining methods are not sensitive enough to identify low numbers or coccoid forms of organism, while toluidine blue and immunohistochemistry play an important role in detection of H. pylori infection. Conclusion: Toluidine blue has been proved to be much more reliable than H&E and Giemsa in detection of H. pylori. In addition, in post treatment biopsies and in biopsies with unexplained chronic active gastritis without histological evidence of H. pylori should have immunohistochemistry done to detect possible low density or coccoid form of organisms.
doi:10.6091/IBJ.1094.2012
PMCID: PMC3600970  PMID: 23279833
Helicobacter pylori; Immunohistochemistry; Gastritis
17.  Positive Result by Serology Indicates Active Helicobacter pylori Infection in Patients with Atrophic Gastritis 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1998;36(6):1808-1810.
Patients with atrophic corpus gastritis and elevated Helicobacter pylori antibody titers but 13C-urea breath test (13C-UBT) and histology results negative for H. pylori were randomized into eradication therapy or follow-up only. Antibody levels decreased significantly in six out of seven patients in the eradication group, while in the follow-up group, the titers declined in only one out of eight patients. In patients with atrophic corpus gastritis, positive serology results may indicate an ongoing infection in spite of negative 13C-UBT and histology results.
PMCID: PMC104930  PMID: 9620430
18.  Colonisation density and topographic localisation of Helicobacter pylori do not depend on the cagA status 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2001;54(10):771-773.
Aims—To explore the correlation between the cagA status of Helicobacter pylori and the density and topographic localisation of H pylori.
Methods—Gastric antral biopsy specimens were taken from 716 consecutive patients, including 293 H pylori positive patients (124 men, 169 women; mean age, 52.6 years; range, 12–87). A serum sample was taken for determination of IgG anti-CagA antibodies (sensitivity of 94.4% and specificity of 92.5%). The density of H pylori was assessed semiquantitatively (grades I–IV) in biopsy specimens stained with the modified Giemsa stain. Topographic localisation was classified as follows: score A, H pylori closely attached to the mucosa; score B, H pylori attached to the mucosa and in the mucus; and score C, H pylori solely in the mucus.
Results—CagA antibodies were present in 154 (52.5%) of the patients. There was no significant difference in colonisation density and cagA status: grade I, 23 (14%); grade II, 78 (50.6%); grade III, 42 (27.5%); and grade IV, 11 (7.2%) in the cagA+ strains and 29 (21.2%), 57 (40.8%), 38 (27%), and 15 (11%), respectively, in the cagA- strains. There was no difference in topographic localisation between cagA+ and cagA-H pylori. Mean anti-CagA titres were 0.84, 0.84, 0.89, and 0.73 in patients with grades I–IV bacterial density, respectively.
Conclusion—Antibody titres do not correlate with H pylori density and there is no difference in density between cagA+ and cagA-H pylori strains. In addition there is no difference in topographic localisation between cagA+ and cagA- H pylori strains.
Key Words: Helicobacter pylori topography • Helicobacter pylori colonisation • density • antibody titres
PMCID: PMC1731292  PMID: 11577124
19.  Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and its effect on symptoms and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced gastrointestinal damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. 
Gut  1993;34(12):1677-1680.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and Helicobacter (H pylori) are both associated with an increased risk of peptic ulceration and gastropathy. It is not known, however, if there is an interaction between these two agents, and thus whether or not screening for H pylori before NSAID treatment is of value. The aim of this study was to find out if H pylori potentiates the damaging effects of NSAIDs. Fifty two patients with rheumatoid arthritis requiring longterm NSAID treatment were studied. Dyspeptic symptoms were assessed according to a standardised questionnaire. Gastroscopy was performed after a one week washout period during which NSAIDs were discontinued. Gastric and duodenal mucosal damage was graded endoscopically. H pylori was identified by biopsy urease test and by histological tests. Investigations were repeated after one month's treatment with an NSAID. Patients with H pylori infection (n = 26) had a higher dyspeptic symptom score (p < 0.05). One patient with duodenal ulcer (H pylori +ve) and two with endoscopic gastritis (both H pylori +ve) were excluded from further study. Forty two subjects completed the study. After treatment there was a rise in the gastric damage score both in the H pylori +ve (p = 0.06) and the H pylori -ve (p < 0.005) groups. There was no difference in the extent of increase in grade or the final grade at the end of the treatment period between the H pylori +ve and -ve patients. It is concluded that H pylori infection is associated with increased dyspeptic symptoms in patients receiving NSAIDs but that it does not potentiate NSAID gastropathy.
PMCID: PMC1374461  PMID: 8282254
20.  Differential Normalization of Mucosal Interleukin-8 and Interleukin-6 Activity after Helicobacter pylori Eradication 
Infection and Immunity  1998;66(10):4742-4747.
There is differential resolution of mucosal infiltration with neutrophils and mononuclear cells following successful Helicobacter pylori eradication. We investigated the effects of H. pylori eradication on mucosal interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-6 activity in relation to the resolution of H. pylori-associated gastritis. Eighty-one duodenal ulcer patients with H. pylori infection received dual- or triple-treatment eradication therapy, and mucosal biopsy specimens obtained at the initial and follow-up endoscopic examinations were cultured in vitro for 24 h. The levels of IL-8 and IL-6 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. In the 42 patients in whom H. pylori eradication failed, there was little change in the numbers of neutrophils and mononuclear cells infiltrating the mucosa and in IL-8 and IL-6 activity. In the 39 patients in whom H. pylori was eradicated, there was normalization both in the numbers of infiltrating neutrophils and in mucosal IL-8 activity, which was evident within 1 month following therapy. In contrast, there was a gradual resolution of mononuclear cell infiltration over a 6-month period, accompanied by a gradual normalization in IL-6 levels. Addition of H. pylori to cultures of mucosal tissues induced a significant increase in IL-8 activity in both uninfected control subjects and patients from whom H. pylori was eradicated. However, this introduction yielded a significant increase in IL-6 activity only in the latter group. This study indicates a dichotomy in the changes of mucosal IL-8 and IL-6 activity after H. pylori eradication. The rapid normalization of IL-8 after H. pylori eradication and the ability of H. pylori cells to stimulate IL-8 in control tissues indicate that IL-8 induction is a part of the innate (nonimmune) responses to this organism. In contrast, the results of experiments analyzing IL-6 activity in cultured mucosal tissues suggest that the gradual resolution of mucosal IL-6 activity and mononuclear infiltration after successful eradication observed in vivo may reflect gradually diminishing residual immune responses against H. pylori.
PMCID: PMC108584  PMID: 9746573
21.  Reliability of Diagnostic Tests for Helicobacter pylori Infection 
Introduction. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is very common worldwide. A reliable diagnosis is crucial for patients with H. pylori-related diseases. At followup, it is important to confirm that eradication therapy has been successful. There is no established gold standard for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Material and Methods. A sample of 304 volunteers from the general population was screened for H. pylori infection with serology, 13C-urea breath test (UBT), rapid urease test (RUT) on fresh biopsy, culture from biopsy, and histological examination. Culture was used as gold standard. Results. The sensitivity was 0.99 for serology, 0.90 for UBT, 0.90 for RUT, and 0.90 for histological examination. Corresponding specificities were 0.82, 0.99, 0.98, and 0.97, respectively. The accuracy was 0.86 for serology, 0.96 for UBT, 0.95 for RUT, 0.93 for culture, and 0.95 for histology. There was a strong correlation between the results of UBT and the histological scores of H. pylori colonisation as well as between the results of UBT and the scores of RUT. Conclusion. There were only minor differences in accuracy between the three invasive tests for H. pylori infection in this population. RUT may be recommended as the first choice since a result is obtained within hours. The accuracy of UBT was comparable to the invasive tests, and it is recommended for situations when endoscopy is not needed.
doi:10.1155/2011/940650
PMCID: PMC3150189  PMID: 21826138
22.  Influence of Helicobacter pylori infection on ghrelin levels in children 
AIM: To compare ghrelin levels in plasma and gastric mucosa before and after Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) treatment in children with H. pylori-associated functional dyspepsia.
METHODS: Children with H. pylori-associated functional dyspepsia were enrolled in this study. H. pylori infection was confirmed by positive bacterial culture results. All of the children received triple H. pylori eradication therapy (a 2 wk course of omeprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin). The children were divided into two groups based on the success of the H. pylori treatment: group 1 (eradicated) - patients who had a negative 13C-urea breath test 2 mo after the end of therapy; and group 2 (non-eradicated) - patients who had a positive 13C-urea breath test. Plasma ghrelin, gastric ghrelin mRNA, and the body mass index were evaluated in both groups before and after the H. pylori treatment. The plasma ghrelin levels were measured by a radioimmunoassay. The expression of gastric ghrelin mRNA was determined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: A total of 50 children with H. pylori-associated functional dyspepsia were treated with triple H. pylori eradication therapy. The mean age of the children was 5.52 ± 0.83 years, and there were 28 males and 22 females. Among the 50 H. pylori-positive children, 30 successfully achieved eradication, and 20 did not. The mean plasma ghrelin levels of group 1 were 22.17 ± 1.73 ng/L and 26.59 ± 2.05 ng/L before and after the treatment, respectively, which was a significant increase (P = 0.001). However, the mean plasma ghrelin level of group 2 before and after the H. pylori treatment was 21.34 ± 2.40 ng/L and 22.24 ± 2.10 ng/L (P = 0.785). The plasma ghrelin levels increased substantially after treatment in group 1 but showed only minor changes in group 2. Similarly, the gastric ghrelin mRNA expression in group 1 before treatment was 2.84 ± 0.08. After treatment, the level was 3.11 ± 0.65, which was significantly different (P = 0.023). The gastric ghrelin mRNA expression in group 2 did not change significantly during the treatment (2.82 ± 0.44 vs 2.79 ± 0.31, P = 0.875). The plasma ghrelin and gastric ghrelin mRNA levels in group 1 increased substantially after the treatment but did not do so in group 2. In addition, the body mass index the two groups did not differ significantly 2 mo before and after the H. pylori treatment.
CONCLUSION: H. pylori eradication increases the plasma and tissue ghrelin levels in children with H. pylori-associated functional dyspepsia.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i36.5096
PMCID: PMC3460338  PMID: 23049220
Helicobacter pylori; Functional dyspepsia; Ghrelin; Eradication; Children
23.  Eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection reverses E‐cadherin promoter hypermethylation 
Gut  2006;55(4):463-468.
Background
E‐cadherin methylation is important in gastric carcinogenesis. Reversing hypermethylation may halt the carcinogenic process. We have previously reported that Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with E‐cadherin methylation in chronic gastritis patients.
Aim
To examine if eradication of H pylori could reverse E‐cadherin methylation.
Methods
Patients with dyspepsia and positive for H pylori infection, with a mucosal biopsy showing chronic active gastritis, were randomised to receive H pylori eradication therapy (group 1, n = 41) or no treatment (group 2, n = 40), and were followed up prospectively. Gastric mucosae were taken for methylation assay at week 0 (before treatment) and week 6 (after treatment). Archived specimens of intestinal metaplasia with H pylori infection (n = 22) and without (n = 19) were retrieved for methylation analysis. Methylation was assessed using methylation specific polymerase chain reaction and sequencing.
Results
Methylation at E‐cadherin was detected in 46% (19/41) and 17% (7/41) of patients at weeks 0 and 6, respectively, in group 1 (p = 0.004); 78.9% (15/19) of specimens were unmethylated after eradication of H pylori. Mucosal biopsy showed chronic inactive gastritis in 35 patients, intestinal metaplasia in one, and normal mucosa in five at week 6. Methylation was detected in 47.5% (19/40) and 52.5% (21/40) of patients at weeks 0 and 6, respectively, in group 2 (P = 0.5). Gastric mucosal biopsy showed persistent chronic active gastritis in all cases. Methylation frequency did not differ in H pylori positive or negative intestinal metaplastic specimens (72.7% v 63%; p = 0.5).
Conclusion
H pylori eradication therapy could reverse methylation in patients with chronic gastritis. This demonstrates an environmental effect on methylation.
doi:10.1136/gut.2005.077776
PMCID: PMC1856151  PMID: 16428266
E‐cadherin methylation; gastric cancer; intestinal metaplasia;  Helicobacter pylori
24.  Helicobacter pylori in sleeve gastrectomies: prevalence and rate of complications 
Helicobacter pylori in Sleeve gastrectomies: Prevalence & Rate of Complications. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori has not been established in sleeve gastrectomy specimens and yet initial observations indicate that it is significant. The aim is to determine prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and correlate with rate of post-operative complications. A total of 89 Sleeve gastrectomies were identified. Pathology reports and slides were re-examined. Warthin Starry special stain and clinical history were obtained. 38 cases were Helicobacter pylori positive (44%). 33 (39%) cases initially reported negative for Helicobacter pylori on routine hematoxylin and eosin stained slide; were positive when Warthin starry stain was employed. The presence of neutrophils in tissue was strongly associated with presence of Helicobacter pylori on Warthin stain (p<0.001). Post-operative complications were observed in 8 patients (9%). Complications were not significantly associated with Warthin-Starry special stain status (p=0.98).
PMCID: PMC3560499  PMID: 23386918
Sleeve gastrectomy; helicobacter pylori; warthin starry stain; gastric leak; obesity
25.  The effect of eradicating Helicobacter pylori on idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy patients 
Purpose
To evaluate the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication on the remission of acute idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (ICSCR).
Study design
A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study of 53 participants.
Main outcome measure
Twenty-seven acute ICSCR patients tested positive for H. pylori were given an eradication H. pylori therapy, and another 26 patients with the same diagnosis received matching placebo medication. All participants were tested for the following items: (1) disappearance rate of subretinal fluid (SRF); (2) best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA); and (3) central retinal sensitivity at baseline, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks after treatment. The difference between the two groups was analyzed by PASW statistics version 18.0.
Results
At each follow-up, the disappearance rate of SRF in the active treatment group seemed slightly better than in the control group, but no statistically significant differences were observed (P > 0.05 at each follow-up). The BCVA between the two groups also did not demonstrate statistically significant differences (P > 0.05 at each follow-up). Unlike the BCVA and the disappearance rate of SRF, we compared the change in central retinal sensitivity at 12 weeks after treatment; a statistical difference was observed (P = 0.042).
Conclusion
Our findings suggested that H. pylori eradication does not improve BCVA and the disappearance rate of SRF, but it could improve the central retinal sensitivity in acute ICSCR patients. We recommend that chronic ICSCR patients and more sensitive methods for H. pylori diagnosis should be involved in evaluating the effect of H. pylori eradication.
doi:10.2147/TCRM.S50407
PMCID: PMC3772708  PMID: 24043941
Helicobacter pylori; acute idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy; best-corrected visual acuity; subretinal fluid; central retinal sensitivity

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