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1.  Primary Effusion Lymphoma in an Elderly HIV-Negative Patient with Hemodialysis: Importance of Evaluation for Pleural Effusion in Patients Receiving Hemodialysis 
Pleural effusion is a ubiquitous complication in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Common etiologies of pleural effusion in this patient group are heart failure, volume overload, parapneumonic effusion, tuberculotic pleuritis, and uremic pleuritis. Although thoracentesis is a useful diagnostic method of pleural effusion, empirical reduction of the dry weight is often attempted without thoracentesis because pleural effusion is commonly caused by volume overload and responds to the dry-weight reduction. However, this empiricism has a risk of overlooking or delaying the diagnosis of potentially fatal etiologies that need specific treatments. We report an 86-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative male on HD with primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), a large-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma presenting with characteristic lymphomatous effusions in the absence of solid tumor masses, which is in association with human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) infection in immunocompromised individuals. The patient presented with left-sided pleural effusion. This is the first case report of PEL developing in a patient receiving HD. Thoracentesis and cytological analysis of the effusion was key to the diagnosis. We also review the literature regarding pleural effusion in HD patients. Further, we examine Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus/HHV8-negative effusion-based lymphoma, a newly proposed distinct lymphoma that clinically and cytomorphologically resembles PEL, because it can be cured without chemotherapy. This report may arouse clinicians’ attention regarding the importance of evaluation for pleural effusion in HD patients, especially when the effusion or symptoms associated with pleural effusion are refractory to volume control.
doi:10.1159/000363223
PMCID: PMC4067712  PMID: 24987405
Primary effusion lymphoma; Thoracentesis; Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus/human herpes virus 8-negative effusion-based lymphoma; Primary effusion lymphoma-like lymphoma; Hemodialysis; Human herpes virus 8
2.  Primary pleural lymphoma: a rare case and a synopsis of the literature 
Journal of Thoracic Disease  2013;5(4):E121-E123.
We report a case of a 74-year-old woman with no history of HIV infection or pyothorax who presented with progressive dyspnoea. Computed tomography (CT) showed bulky pleural mass and pleural effusion associated with the right-sided pleural disease. Thoracoscopic pleural biopsy was performed and revealed the diagnosis of primary pleural malignant lymphoma. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations revealed that it was small B-cell lymphoma with neoplastic cells that expressed the CD-20 antigen. This case is thought to be a very rare case of primary malignant lymphoma arising in the pleura of a patient with no history of pyothorax.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2013.08.02
PMCID: PMC3755660  PMID: 23991319
Primary pleural lymphoma; thoracoscopic pleural biopsy
3.  AB043. Pleural effusion: a common symptom reveals a rare neoplasm 
Background
The case of a male patient, 25, who presented with pleural effusion. Further imaging examinations demonstrated mediastinal and cervical lymphadenopathy.
Methods
The cytologic examination of pleural effusion described an increased number of T-lymphocytes, suggesting further investigation of the patient. A left-sided cervical lymph node was resected, 2 cm in greatest diameter, which was microscopically examinated.
Results
The architectural structure of the lymph node was completely destroyed, due to the presence of neoplastic lymphoid cells, mainly medium-sized, in compact growth pattern. They contained little cytoplasm, with a high nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio, oval nuclei, with distinct nucleoli and condensed chromatin. Mitoses were frequent, while necrosis was absent. The neoplastic cells infiltrated the adjacent fat tissue. Immunochemistry revealed the following immunophenotype: CD7+++, CD79a+++, TdT+++, CD99+++, CD43+++, CD10++/−, Bcl 2+++, CD34+ (scarce—faint), CD3+/− (faint), CD5+/− (faint), CD4−, CD8−, CD45RO−, CD1a−, CD20−, Pax5−, CD19−, CD23−, CD30−, Bcl 6−, CD15−, CD68−, CD117−, MPO−, CD56−, MUM1−, Alk−. The proliferation marker Ki67 was expressed by 90–95% of the neoplastic cells. According to the above, the diagnosis was a T-lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia (T-LBL). The patient received chemotherapy, but unfortunately died 7 months after the diagnosis.
Conclusions
Lymphoblastic lymphoma accounts for 1–2% of non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and T-lymphoblastic lymphoma is the most common of those. It is a highly aggressive neoplasm, which occurs more often in men, usually during adolescence or young adulthood. Typical clinical manifestations include pleural effusion and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. However, the cytologic examination of the pleural effusion is, more often than not, unable to state the final diagnosis. Only 10% of the lymphomas affecting the mediastinum are primary, and, among those, T-lymphoblastic lymphoma is extremely rare. In this case, the cytologic examination of pleural effusion arose the suspicion of a lymphoma, resulting in further investigation and lymph node microscopic examination, which led to the final diagnosis.
doi:10.21037/atm.2016.AB043
PMCID: PMC5159394
Mediastinal lymphadenopathy; cervical lymphadenopathy; pleural effusion
4.  Clinical history of HIV infection may be misleading in cytopathology 
CytoJournal  2010;7:7.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are at an increased risk for developing opportunistic infections, reactive conditions and neoplasms. As a result, a broad range of conditions are frequently included in the differential diagnosis of HIV-related lesions. The clinical history of HIV infection may, however, be misleading in some cases. Illustrative cases are presented in which knowledge of a patient's HIV status proved to be misleading and increased the degree of complexity of the cytologic evaluation. Case 1 involved the fine needle aspiration (FNA) of a painful 3 cm unilateral neck mass in a 38-year-old female with generalized lymphadenopathy. Her aspirate revealed a spindle cell proliferation devoid of mycobacteria that was immunoreactive for S-100 and macrophage markers (KP-1, PGM1). Multiple noncontributory repeat procedures were performed until a final excision revealed a schwannoma. Case 2 was a CT-guided FNA of a positron emission tomography positive lung mass in a 53-year-old man. The acellular aspirate in this case contained structures resembling fungal spore forms that were negative for mucicarmine and GMS stains, as well as cryptococcal antigen immunocytochemistry. A Von Kossa stain confirmed that these pseudo-fungal structures were calcified debris. Follow up revealed multiple calcified lung and hilar node based granulomata. Case 3 involved the cytologic evaluation of pleural fluid from a 47-year-old man with Kaposi sarcoma and recurrent chylous pleural effusions. Large atypical cells identified in his effusion were concerning for primary effusion lymphoma. Subsequent pleural biopsy revealed extramedullary hematopoiesis, documenting these atypical cells as megakaryocytes. These cases demonstrate that knowledge of a patient's HIV status can be misleading in the evaluation of cytology specimens, with potential for misdiagnosis and/or multiple procedures. To avoid this pitfall in the setting of HIV infection, common entities unrelated to HIV infection and artifacts should always be included in the differential diagnosis.
doi:10.4103/1742-6413.64375
PMCID: PMC2895884  PMID: 20607096
AIDS; cytology; HIV; misleading
5.  Multidetector CT Findings and Differential Diagnoses of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma and Metastatic Pleural Diseases in Korea 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2016;17(4):545-553.
Objective
To compare the multidetector CT (MDCT) features of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and metastatic pleural disease (MPD).
Materials and Methods
The authors reviewed the MDCT images of 167 patients, 103 patients with MPM and 64 patients with MPD. All 167 cases were pathologically confirmed by sonography-guided needle biopsy of pleura, thoracoscopic pleural biopsy, or open thoracotomy. CT features were evaluated with respect to pleural effusion, pleural thickening, invasion of other organs, lung abnormality, lymphadenopathy, mediastinal shifting, thoracic volume decrease, asbestosis, and the presence of pleural plaque.
Results
Pleural thickening was the most common CT finding in MPM (96.1%) and MPD (93.8%). Circumferential pleural thickening (31.1% vs. 10.9%, odds ratio [OR] 3.670), thickening of fissural pleura (83.5% vs. 67.2%, OR 2.471), thickening of diaphragmatic pleura (90.3% vs. 73.4%, OR 3.364), pleural mass (38.8% vs. 23.4%, OR 2.074), pericardial involvement (56.3% vs. 20.3%, OR 5.056), and pleural plaque (66.0% vs. 21.9%, OR 6.939) were more frequently seen in MPM than in MPD. On the other hand, nodular pleural thickening (59.2% vs. 76.6%, OR 0.445), hilar lymph node metastasis (5.8% vs. 20.3%, OR 0.243), mediastinal lymph node metastasis (10.7% vs. 37.5%, OR 0.199), and hematogenous lung metastasis (9.7% vs. 29.2%, OR 0.261) were less frequent in MPM than in MPD. When we analyzed MPD from extrathoracic malignancy (EMPD) separately and compared them to MPM, circumferential pleural thickening, thickening of interlobar fissure, pericardial involvement and presence of pleural plaque were significant findings indicating MPM than EMPD. MPM had significantly lower occurrence of hematogenous lung metastasis, as compared with EMPD.
Conclusion
Awareness of frequent and infrequent CT findings could aid in distinguishing MPM from MPD.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2016.17.4.545
PMCID: PMC4936177  PMID: 27390546
Mesothelioma; Metastasis; CT; Pleura
6.  Primary effusion lymphoma associated with Human Herpes Virus-8 and Epstein Barr virus in an HIV-infected woman from Kampala, Uganda: a case report 
Introduction
Primary effusion lymphoma is a recently recognized entity of AIDS related non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Despite Africa being greatly affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, an extensive MEDLINE/PubMed search failed to find any report of primary effusion lymphoma in sub-Saharan Africa. To our knowledge this is the first report of primary effusion lymphoma in sub-Saharan Africa. We report the clinical, cytomorphologic and immunohistochemical findings of a patient with primary effusion lymphoma.
Case presentation
A 70-year-old newly diagnosed HIV-positive Ugandan African woman presented with a three-month history of cough, fever, weight loss and drenching night sweats. Three weeks prior to admission she developed right sided chest pain and difficulty in breathing. On examination she had bilateral pleural effusions.
Haematoxylin and eosin stained cytologic sections of the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cell block made from the pleural fluid were processed in the Department of Pathology, Makerere University, College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda. Immunohistochemistry was done at the Institute of Haematology and Oncology "L and A Seragnoli", Bologna University School of Medicine, Bologna, Italy, using alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase method. In situ hybridization was used for detection of Epstein-Barr virus.
The tumor cells were CD45+, CD30+, CD38+, HHV-8 LANA-1+; but were negative for CD3-, CD20-, CD19-, and CD79a- and EBV RNA+ on in situ hybridization. CD138 and Ki-67 were not evaluable. Our patient tested HIV positive and her CD4 cell count was 127/μL.
Conclusions
A definitive diagnosis of primary effusion lymphoma rests on finding a proliferation of large immunoblastic, plasmacytoid and anaplastic cells; HHV-8 in the tumor cells, an immunophenotype that is CD45+, pan B-cell marker negative and lymphocyte activated marker positive. It is essential for clinicians and pathologists to have a high index of suspicion of primary effusion lymphoma when handling HIV positive patients who have effusions without palpable tumor masses. Basic immunohistochemistry is essential for definitive diagnosis.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-5-60
PMCID: PMC3048476  PMID: 21320326
7.  Rare case of primary pleural lymphoma presenting with pleural effusion 
Thoracic Cancer  2015;7(1):145-150.
Abstract
Primary pleural lymphoma is rare and has been described in association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or pyothorax. We report a rare case of primary pleural lymphoma in a 73‐year‐old man who presented with chest pain and no history of HIV infection or pyothorax. Chest imaging showed pleural thickening and pleural effusion. Thoracoscopic pleural biopsy was performed. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations conformed to that of a diffuse large B‐cell lymphoma. Physicians should be aware of this rare location of primary lymphoma and implement thoracoscopy as soon as possible.
doi:10.1111/1759-7714.12256
PMCID: PMC4718130  PMID: 26813352
Diffuse large B‐cell lymphoma; pleural; primary lymphoma
8.  Thymic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma involving lymph nodes 
INTRODUCTION
Thymic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma involving lymph nodes is quite rare with only 13 previous cases reported in the literature.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
The 33-years-old female was referred to our department for the investigation of abnormalities on computed tomographic (CT) scans. CT scans showed a 9-cm × 3-cm mass composed of a mixture of soft tissue and fat at the anterior mediastinum with lymphadenopathy in the neck, axillary and mediastinal regions. She was underwent complete surgical resection of the mass with regional lymph node dissection through a median sternotomy. Histological examination of the surgical specimens confirmed the diagnosis of MALT lymphoma arising in the thymus with nodal metastasis. She achieved complete remission after postoperative rituximab combined chemotherapy.
DISCUSSION
Thymic MALT lymphoma occurs most frequently in Asian female aged 40–60 years and commonly appears anterior mediastinal masses on CT scans. The excised tissue is necessary to confirm the accurate histological diagnosis. The disease usually remains localized for a long time, making local surgical resection highly effective. However, when the lymph nodes are involved, effective treatment approaches of the disease is still undefined.
CONCLUSION
We report a case of thymic MALT lymphoma involving lymph nodes, in which the patient was successfully treated with primary site resection with regional lymph node dissection followed by rituximab combined chemotherapy. Surgery provided not only a useful approach for collecting tissue for an accurate histological diagnosis, but also an effective local treatment, even in the case of advanced-stage thymic MALT lymphoma.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2012.12.002
PMCID: PMC3604650  PMID: 23333805
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma; Thymus; Thymectomy; Rituximab
9.  Medical thoracoscopy in MALT lymphoma causing pleural effusion: A case report 
Thoracic Cancer  2015;6(3):372-374.
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a form of low-grade malignant B-cell extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. It is classified as marginal-zone lymphoma and represents less than 1% of all lung cancer. We describe a case of MALT lymphoma limited exclusively to the lung that came to our attention with infective pleural effusion and concomitant lung consolidation of the left lower lobe. Our case demonstrates that MALT can begin with an acute clinical presentation. The clinical scenario, with fever, parietal chest pain, and leukocytosis, suggested an infective process. Radiological and sonographic examinations and the endoscopic aspect during medical thoracoscopy (MT) were typical of an infective etiology. The histological outcome of non-specific inflammatory pleuritis confirmed our suppositions. However, the missing resolution of lung consolidation after several weeks led us to an alternative diagnosis. Parenchymal biopsies obtained by bronchoscopy allowed us to reach the correct diagnosis: MALT lymphoma limited to the lung.
doi:10.1111/1759-7714.12183
PMCID: PMC4448385  PMID: 26273387
Lymphoma; MALT; medical thoracoscopy; pleural effusion
10.  Usefulness of 18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography for the diagnosis of pyothorax-associated lymphoma: A report of three cases 
Oncology Letters  2010;1(5):833-836.
Pyothorax-associated lymphoma (PAL) is a unique and rare non-Hodgkin's lymphoma developing in the pleural cavity following a long-standing history of chronic pyothorax (CP). The development of F-18 2′-deoxy-2fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT) has contributed to the evaluation of lymphoma staging. However, only a few studies describing FDG-PET/CT findings in PAL have been published. This study reported three cases of PAL; all 3 patients had previously undergone artificial collapse therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis. Both the first case (an 84-year-old male) and second case (an 83-year-old male) complained of abdominal pain. An ultrasound scan revealed a mass shadow in the left chest wall without abnormal findings in the abdomen, and the CT and magnetic resonance imaging scans suggested malignant lymphoma of the left chest. FDG-PET/CT imaging showed extremely intense FDG uptake only in the left pleura and chest wall. Diagnosis was CP in the two patients, showing a high maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax: early, 14.8 and delayed, 19.4 in the first case; early, 20.8 and delayed, 27.3 in the second case, respectively). Histopathological analysis of the specimens obtained by biopsy of the PET/CT-positive pleural mass showed non-Hodgkin's, diffuse large B cell lymphoma in the two cases. The third case was a 79-year-old male with relapse after right pleuropneumonectomy for PAL (diffuse large B cell lymphoma) 4 years earlier. PET/CT showed intense FDG uptake (SUVmax: early, 19.9 and delayed, 35.7) in the right pleura and chest wall. Diagnosis was CP, suggesting the recurrence of PAL. Furthermore, abnormal intense FDG uptake was noted in the hilar, mediastinal and supraclavicular lymph nodes, as well as in the spleen. In conclusion, FDG-PET/CT imaging is useful in the evaluation of the area of invasion in PAL.
doi:10.3892/ol_00000146
PMCID: PMC3436407  PMID: 22966389
pyothorax-associated lymphoma; positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography; F-18 2′-deoxy-2fluoro-D-glucose; pulmonary tuberculosis; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
11.  MALT lymphoma of the left biceps muscle: a rare case with an interesting presentation 
SpringerPlus  2016;5(1):1194.
Background
Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), also called mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma accounts for 7–8 % of non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) and most commonly involves the stomach. However, muscle involvement is very rare.
Case description
A 57-year-old woman was referred to our orthopaedics and traumatology clinic with a painful lump in the left arm. Physical examination revealed a red-colored mass on the left arm and an enlarged lymph node measuring almost 5 cm in the left axillary region and 3 cm in the right axillary region. Tru-cut biopsy of the mass in the left arm was consistent with MZL. The diagnosis was MALT lymphoma infiltrating the skeletal muscle (stage IIEA). R-CHOP was started. Two additional infusions of rituximab were administered after the sixth cycle of R-CHOP. Then, the patient received radiotherapy to the left arm at a dose of 30 Gy. After 1 year of follow-up, the patient had no evidence of disease.
Discussion and evaluation
MALT lymphoma arises in a number of epithelial tissues. The clinical presentation of MALT lymphoma varies depending upon the tissue involved. To our knowledge, rare cases of MALT lymphoma of the skeletal muscle have been reported. Although the available literature suggests that primary skeletal muscle NHL with advanced stage is associated with poor prognosis, the case presented here suggests that rituximab based combination therapy followed by radiotherapy can be an effective treatment for primary skeletal MALT lymphoma.
Conclusion
There is limited data regarding the prognosis and treatment of MALT lymphoma of the skeletal muscle. This case implies that rituximab based combination therapy followed by radiotherapy should be considered for the treatment of primary skeletal MALT lymphoma.
doi:10.1186/s40064-016-2880-3
PMCID: PMC4963335  PMID: 27516932
Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (MZL); Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT); Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs); Skeletal muscle
12.  Malignant lymphoma of the urinary bladder: a clinicopathological study of 11 cases 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2000;53(6):458-461.
Aim—To report the clinical and histological features and outcome of primary and secondary malignant lymphomas of the urinary bladder.
Methods—Eleven cases of malignant lymphoma of the urinary bladder were obtained from the registry of cases at St Bartholomews and the Royal London Hospitals. The lymphomas were classified on the basis of their morphology and immunophenotype, and the clinical records were reviewed.
Results—There were six primary lymphomas: three extranodal marginal zone lymphomas of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type and three diffuse large B cell lymphomas. Of the five secondary cases, four were diffuse large B cell lymphomas, one secondary to a systemic follicular follicle centre lymphoma, and one nodular sclerosis Hodgkins disease. Four patients with secondary lymphoma for whom follow up was available had died of disease within 13 months of diagnosis. Primary lymphomas followed a more indolent course. In one case, there was evidence of transformation from low grade MALT-type to diffuse large B cell lymphoma. The most common presenting symptom was haematuria. Cystoscopic appearances were of solid, sometimes necrotic tumours resembling transitional cell carcinoma, and in one case the tumours were multiple. These cases represented 0.2% of all bladder neoplasms.
Conclusions—Diffuse large B cell lymphoma and MALT-type lymphoma are the most common primary malignant lymphomas of the bladder. Lymphoepithelial lesions in MALT-type lymphoma involve transitional epithelium, and their presence in high grade lymphoma suggests a primary origin owing to transformation of low grade MALT-type lymphoma. Primary and secondary diffuse large B cell lymphomas of the bladder are histologically similar, but the prognosis of the former is favourable.
Key Words: bladder • lymphoma • mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma
doi:10.1136/jcp.53.6.458
PMCID: PMC1731210  PMID: 10911804
13.  T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma presenting with pleural effusion: A case report 
Adult lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) is an aggressive form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma occurring in predominantly adolescent and young adult men, accounting for 1% to 2% of all non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. In contrast to B-LBL, T-cell LBL is much more common, accounting for up to 90% of disease in adults. Mediastinal mass, pleural and/or pericardial effusions are the major characteristics of T-LBL. We report an 18-year-old male with a pleural effusion, mediastinal mass, a light pericardial effusion, and a normal hemogram. The cytology of the pleural effusion initially suggested malignancy, but definitive diagnosis was unclear. After a medical thoracoscopy, the partial pleura was picked and immunophenotypic study revealed the following: CD3+, TdT+, CD99+, CD20−. The patient was finally diagnosed with T-LBL and died only 6 months after that. The case highlight the point that medical thoracoscopy is a safe and accurate diagnostic procedure for pleural diseases, and partial pleura biopsy with immunophenotyping was essential for achieving the correct diagnosis of LBL.
doi:10.1016/j.rmcr.2014.04.003
PMCID: PMC4061434  PMID: 26029543
T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; Pleural effusion; Medical thoracoscopy
14.  Primary peritoneal adenocarcinoma causes pleural effusion 
Context:
The most common malignancies associated with malignant pleural effusions are carcinomas of the breast, lung, gastrointestinal tract, ovary and lymphomas. Primary peritoneal adenocarcinoma is a very rare cause of malignant pleural effusion.
Case Report:
A 72-year old female patient presented to us with shortness of breath for the last 2 months. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) scan of her-thorax revealed only bilateral pleural effusion with absence of any mass lesion or any mediastinal lymphadenopathy. A cytologic examination of pleural fluid revealed adenocarcinoma cells. A CECT of her abdomen and pelvis revealed heterogenous thickening of omentum with nodular appearances and small amount of ascites. Her ovaries were normal and no other mass lesion was detected. A histological examination of a peritoneal lesion was suggestive of adenocarcinoma.
Conclusions:
The patient was diagnosed with a rare case of primary peritoneal adenocarcinoma with bilateral pleural effusion.
PMCID: PMC3347636  PMID: 22574304
Malignant pleural effusion; primary peritoneal adenocarcinoma
15.  Pleural effusions in patients with AIDS 
Sexually Transmitted Infections  2000;76(2):122-125.
Objective: To describe the range of pathology causing pleural effusions in HIV infected patients with acute respiratory episodes and to attempt to identify whether any associated radiological abnormalities enabled aetiological discrimination.
Methods: Prospective study of chest radiographs of 58 consecutive HIV infected patients with pleural effusion and their microbiological, cytological, and histopathological diagnoses.
Results: A specific diagnosis was made in all cases. Diagnoses were Kaposi's sarcoma, 19 patients; parapneumonic effusion, 16 patients; tuberculosis, eight patients; Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, six patients; lymphoma, four patients; pulmonary embolus, two patients; and heart failure, aspergillus/leishmaniasis, and Cryptococcus neoformans, one case each. Most effusions (50/58) were small. Bilateral effusions were commoner in Kaposi's sarcoma (12/19) and lymphoma (3/4) than in parapneumonic effusion (3/16). Concomitant interstitial parenchymal shadowing did not aid discrimination. A combination of bilateral effusions, focal air space consolidation, intrapulmonary nodules, and/or hilar lymphadenopathy suggests Kaposi's sarcoma. Unilateral effusion with focal air space consolidation suggests parapneumonic effusion if intrapulmonary nodules are absent: if miliary nodules and/or mediastinal lymphadenopathy are detected, this suggests tuberculosis.
Conclusions: A wide variety of infectious and malignant conditions cause pleural effusions in HIV infected patients, the most common cause in this group was Kaposi's sarcoma. The presence of additional radiological abnormalities such as focal air space consolidation, intrapulmonary nodules, and mediastinal lymphadenopathy aids aetiological discrimination.
Key Words: pleural effusion; Kaposi's sarcoma; bacterial pneumonia; chest radiograph
doi:10.1136/sti.76.2.122
PMCID: PMC1758298  PMID: 10858714
16.  Extranodal pulmonary marginal zone B-cell lymphoma☆ 
Aim
Extranodal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) arises a number of epithelial tissues, including the stomach, salivary gland, lung, small bowel, and elsewhere. Here we present a male patient with an uncommon site of extranodal MALT such as a pelvic mass diagnosed after a long period of evaluation, which initially presented with an incidental pulmonary nodule.
Method
We report a 60 years old man presenting with pulmonary nodules and consolidation. He refused invasive procedures and 3 years later was administered to our clinic with disseminated pulmonary nodules on chest X-ray. Subsequently a thin needle aspiration biopsy was performed and candida geotrichum was suspected in the specimen of the lung biopsy by light microscopic examination. After this time the patient was referred to our clinic, bronchoscopy, mediastinoscopy and abdominal computerized tomography (CT) scans were performed.
Results
Lymphoid hyperplasia was seen in the mediastinal lymph nodes biopsy specimens and the pelvic mass (52 × 18 mm) on the superior iliac muscles not related to any organs. Thin needle biopsy revealed MALT lymphoma and pathological examination of pulmonary nodule was similar to pelvic mass (MALT lymphoma). After the diagnosis, the thin needle biopsy of lung was repeated. The specimen appeared to be similar to the pelvic mass (MALT lymphoma) in the pathologic examination. The patient survived 5 years after initial diagnosis.
Conclusion
MALT has an affinity for the different tissues however has not been located in the pelvis. Our case represent an unusual presentation in a 60 years old man with lung and a pelvic mass.
doi:10.1016/j.rmcr.2016.02.005
PMCID: PMC4901169  PMID: 27330951
Pulmonary; B-cell; Lymphoma
17.  Pleural sarcoidosis diagnosed on the basis of an increased CD4/CD8 lymphocyte ratio in pleural effusion fluid: a case report 
Introduction
Pleural effusion induced by sarcoidosis is rare, and pleural sarcoidosis is often diagnosed by thoracoscopic surgery. The diagnosis of pleural sarcoidosis using thoracentesis may be less invasive when sarcoidosis is already diagnosed histologically in more than one organ specimen. Here we report the case of a 64-year-old woman with pleural sarcoidosis diagnosed on the basis of an increased CD4/CD8 lymphocyte ratio in pleural effusion fluid obtained by thoracentesis. This case report is important because it highlights the usefulness of the CD4/CD8 lymphocyte ratio in pleural effusion as an indicator of pleural involvement of sarcoidosis.
Case presentation
A 64-year-old Japanese woman visited our hospital with an initial symptom of dyspnea on exertion for a period of 4 months. Chest computed tomography showed bilateral hilar and multiple mediastinal lymphadenopathy, multiple small nodular shadows in her bilateral lungs, small nodular shadows along the interlobar pleura, and bilateral pleural effusion. Her serum angiotensin-converting enzyme and soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels were elevated. Histological analysis of a resected subcutaneous nodule, and biopsy specimens from a right mediastinal lymph node and from her right lung revealed non-caseous epithelioid granulomas. Her bronchoalveolar lavage fluid exhibited a predominance of lymphocytes together with an increase in the CD4/CD8 lymphocyte ratio. The lymphocytic predominance and the increased CD4/CD8 lymphocyte ratio were also detected in the right-sided pleural effusion fluid obtained by thoracentesis. We diagnosed sarcoidosis with pleural involvement. Because pleural effusion did not resolve spontaneously and her symptom of dyspnea on exertion worsened, corticosteroid therapy was initiated, which ameliorated the sarcoidosis and the pleuritis.
Conclusions
Analysis of the CD4/CD8 lymphocyte ratio in pleural effusion fluid obtained by thoracentesis may be helpful for the diagnosis of pleural sarcoidosis when the diagnosis is already made by histological examination of more than one organ specimen.
doi:10.1186/s13256-015-0656-y
PMCID: PMC4536796  PMID: 26271927
CD4/CD8 lymphocyte ratio; Pleural effusion; Pleural sarcoidosis; Sarcoidosis; Thoracentesis
18.  A case of Meigs’ syndrome with preceding pericardial effusion in advance of pleural effusion 
Background
Meigs’ syndrome is defined as the presence of a benign ovarian tumor with pleural effusion and ascites that resolve after removal of the tumor. The pathogenesis of the production of ascites and pleural effusion in this syndrome remains unknown. Aside from pleural effusion and ascites, pericardial effusion is rarely observed in Meigs’ syndrome. Here, we report the first case of Meigs’ syndrome with preceding pericardial effusion in advance of pleural effusion.
Case presentation
An 84-year-old Japanese non-smoking woman with a history of lung cancer, treated by surgery, was admitted due to gradual worsening of dyspnea that had occurred over the previous month. She had asymptomatic and unchanging pericardial effusion and a pelvic mass, which had been detected 3 and 11 years previously, respectively. The patient was radiologically followed-up without the need for treatment. Two months before admission, the patient underwent a right upper lobectomy for localized lung adenocarcinoma and intraoperative pericardial fenestration confirmed that the pericardial effusion was not malignant. However, she began to experience dyspnea on exertion leading to admission. A chest, abdomen, and pelvis computed tomography scan confirmed the presence of right-sided pleural and pericardial effusion and ascites with a left ovarian mass. Repeated thoracentesis produced cultures that were negative for any microorganism and no malignant cells were detected in the pleural effusions. Pleural fluid accumulation persisted despite a tube thoracostomy for pleural effusion drainage. With a suspicion of Meigs’ syndrome, the patient underwent surgical resection of the ovarian mass and histopathological examination of the resected mass showed ovarian fibroma. Pleural and pericardial effusion as well as ascites resolved after tumor resection, confirming a diagnosis of Meigs’ syndrome. This clinical course suggests a strong association between pericardial effusion and ovarian fibroma, as well as pleural and peritoneal fluid.
Conclusions
In female patients with unexplained pericardial effusion and an ovarian tumor, clinicians should consider the possibility of Meigs’ syndrome. Although a malignant disease should be suspected in all patients with undiagnosed pleural and/or pericardial effusion, Meigs’ syndrome is curable by tumor resection and should be differentiated from malignancy.
doi:10.1186/s12890-016-0241-1
PMCID: PMC4862177  PMID: 27160723
Meigs’ syndrome; Ovarian fibroma; Pericardial effusion; Pleural fluid
19.  Lymphoproliferative disorder in pleural effusion in a subject with past asbestos exposure 
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that presents as serous effusions without detectable masses or organomegaly. Here we report a case of PEL-like lymphoma in a patient with past asbestos exposure. A 65-year-old man was referred to our hospital due to dyspnea upon exertion. He had been exposed to asbestos for three years in the construction industry. Chest X-ray and CT images demonstrated left pleural effusion. Cytological analysis of the pleural effusion revealed large atypical lymphocytes with distinct nuclear bodies and high nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that the cells were CD20+, CD3−, CD5−, and CD10−. These findings led to a diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. PEL or PEL-like lymphoma should be considered a potential cause of pleural effusion in subjects with past asbestos exposure.
doi:10.1016/j.rmcr.2015.11.002
PMCID: PMC4681999  PMID: 26744692
Asbestos; Lymphoma; Mesothelioma; Pleural effusion; Thoracoscopy; PEL, primary effusion lymphoma; HHV, human herpesvirus; CT, computed tomography; DLBCL, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
20.  Primary Spinal Marginal Zone Lymphoma Relapse at a Different Spinal Level after Remission of the Primary Lesion 
Global Spine Journal  2013;3(4):261-264.
Study Design Case report.
Objective Most spinal lymphomas occur in the context of systematic lymphomas. Marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) is a type of B-cell lymphoma originating from the marginal zone of B-cell follicles. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a type of extranodal MZL and rarely occurs in the central nervous system. To date, there has been only one case report of primary spinal MALT lymphoma and there are no case reports of relapsed MALT lymphoma at a different location of the spine.
Results A 58-year-old man complained of gait disturbance and urinary dysfunction. Magnetic resonance images showed an abnormal lesion in the epidural space at T11–L1 compressing the conus medullaris. The patient underwent laminectomy and partial resection of the tumor. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with MALT lymphoma. Following postoperative radiotherapy, the epidural mass disappeared completely. Three years later, epidural MALT lymphoma at a different location in the thoracic spine (T8–T10) occurred and caused myelopathy again. Histologic diagnosis of the relapsed tumor was the same as had been seen 3 years previously.
Conclusions This is the first case report of relapsed spinal MALT lymphoma at a different location of the thoracic spine. Though the prognosis of MALT lymphoma is fairly good, careful follow-up is needed to screen any relapse or transformation to a high-grade lymphoma.
doi:10.1055/s-0033-1354249
PMCID: PMC3854575  PMID: 24436880
spinal tumors; epidural tumor; spinal marginal cell lymphoma; MALT lymphoma; thoracic spine
21.  Malignant Mesothelioma Versus Metastatic Carcinoma of the Pleura: A CT Challenge 
Iranian Journal of Radiology  2016;13(1):e10949.
Background:
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare malignant neoplasm of the pleura that typically affects individuals occupationally exposed to asbestos through a variety of industries. MPM presents with several CT features similar to more common pleural diseases such as metastatic pleural malignancy.
Objectives:
The aim of this study is to differentiate malignant pleural mesothelioma from metastatic carcinoma of the pleura by pathological and radiological assessment in order to investigate accuracy of CT scan in this regard and to compare CT features of these two malignancies.
Patients and Methods:
Chest CT scans of 55 pleural malignancy patients including MPM and metastatic pleural malignancy were evaluated in this retrospective study. The pathologist made the definite diagnosis based on immunohistochemistry. A chest radiologist unaware of the pathology diagnosis observed all CT scans. Several parameters including pleural thickening, pleural effusion, thickening of inter lobar fissure, contralateral extension, contraction of involved hemithorax, parenchymal involvement (infiltration, nodules, fibrosis), pleural mediastinal involvement, lymphadenopathy, extrapleural invasion (hepatic, chest wall, diaphragm, intraperitoneal), and pericardial involvement were checked. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS version 16, and the ability of CT scan to differentiate malignant pleural mesothelioma and metastatic pleural diseases was investigated.
Results:
Totally 29 males and 26 females were assessed in this study. Based on pathology, 17 MPM and 38 metastatic pleural malignancies were diagnosed. According to CT study, about 82% of the patients with MPM and about 79% of the patients with metastatic pleural diseases were correctly diagnosed by a radiologist. The most common findings suggestive of MPM were pleural thickening (88.2%), loculated effusion (58.8%), and thickening of the interlobar fissure (47.1%). Whereas free pleural effusion (71.7%), parenchymal infiltration (65.8%) and pleural thickening (63.2%) were most prevalent parameters among metastatic cases.
Conclusion:
CT scan is highly accurate in differentiating malignant pleural mesothelioma and metastatic pleural diseases. Pleural thickening and thickening of interlobar fissure lead us to the diagnosis of MPM and massive free pleural effusion is more commonly seen in metastatic pleural malignancy.
doi:10.5812/iranjradiol.10949
PMCID: PMC4837229  PMID: 27110327
Pleural Diseases; Malignant Mesothelioma; Tomography; X-Ray Computed; Neoplasm Metastasis
22.  Clinico- pathological profile and course of malignant pleural effusion in a tertiary care teaching hospital in western U.P. with special reference to lung cancer 
Background:
Malignant pleural effusion is a major clinical problem associated with primary and metastatic pleural malignancies. Pleural effusions from an unknown primary are responsible for 7-15% of all malignant pleural effusions. Presence of malignant pleural effusion puts the patient in advanced stage and renders the prognosis as poor.
Aim:
In this study we intend to find out the incidence of malignant pleural effusion, its aetiology and clinical course in patients attending a tertiary care teaching hospital.
Results:
A total of 308 patients were included in this study. A majority of the patients were in age group 50- 70 years (median age = 58.8 years; range 32- 85 yrs). Male to female ratio was 2.5:1. The major primary cancers were lung cancer (135), lymphoma (40), breast cancer (36), female genital tract (30) gastrointestinal (21), and others (8). In 38 cases primary remained unknown. The yields of pleural fluid cytology, blind pleural biopsy, CT/USG guided pleural biopsy and thoracoscopy were 60%, 49%, 76% and 91% respectively. Chemical pleurodesis yielded complete response in 80%, incomplete response in another 13% patients. Only 136 (44%) cases could be followed up for minimum of 6 months. A majority of them (95, 69.85%) died.
Conclusion:
We conclude that malignant pleural effusion is a commonly misdiagnosed medical entity. Lung cancer is the commonest cause. Despite all efforts, in about 15% of the cases, primary remains undiagnosed. Thoracoscopy/pleuroscopy is a cost effective measure for diagnosis. Chemical pleurodesis provides expected results but mortality remains high.
doi:10.4103/0970-2113.159551
PMCID: PMC4502195  PMID: 26180380
Diagnosis; etiology; malignant pleural effusion
23.  Role of percutaneous closed needle pleural biopsy among patients of undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion 
Background:
Sometimes etiological diagnosis of pleural effusion is difficult despite cytological, biochemical and microbiological tests and labeled as undiagnosed exudative pleural effusions.Aim of present study was to make an etiological diagnosis of pleural effusion.
Materials and Methods:
Study group included patients of exudative pleural effusion where etiological diagnosis could not be yielded by conventional cytological, biochemical and microbiological investigations. Pleural tissue was obtained by Cope’s pleural biopsy needle and or thoracoscopy. Pleural biopsy was subjected to histopathology, ZN staining and culture to find the mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Results:
Out of 25 patients, 17 (68%) and 8 (32%) were male and female, respectively. Age ranged from 15 to 65 years (mean 31.72). Mean value of serum and pleural fluid LDH was 170.56 U/L and 1080.28 U/L, respectively. Histopathology of 9 (36%) showed epitheloid granuloma with caseation necrosis. In other 9 (36%) patients, epitheloid granulomas (with or without giant cells) was reported. In 5 (20%) patients, histopathology report was of nonspecific chronic inflammation. Histopathology was reported as normal in one case; it turned out to be a case of malignancy. In two (8%) patients, pleural tissue obtained was inadequate for opinions; however, other tests revealed malignancy in one and tuberculosis in other. Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain was positive for AFB in two patients and culture of pleural tissue showed presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in three patients.
Conclusions:
The role of percutaneous closed needle biopsy of pleura among patients of undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion is still accepted as a diagnostic tool, as this may lead to a specific diagnosis among 76% of cases. This is of particular importance in a developing country like India where the facilities of thoracoscopy and imaging guided cutting needle biopsies are not easily available.
doi:10.4103/0970-2113.80319
PMCID: PMC3109830  PMID: 21712918
Closed needle pleural biopsy; pleural biopsy; undiagnosed pleural effusion
24.  Kappa-chain gene rearrangement in an apparent T-lineage lymphoma. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1986;78(6):1439-1442.
We describe a 10-yr-old boy with T-lineage non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. He had a mediastinal mass, swollen supraclavicular lymph nodes, and pleural effusion. A supraclavicular lymph node biopsy under light microscopy showed a malignant lymphoma of diffuse lymphoblastic type. Most of the cells taken from the malignant pleural effusion expressed T cell-associated antigens such as Leu-1 and OKT 8. To confirm these antigens as T-lineage lymphoma, we examined genomic DNA from malignant cells obtained from the pleural effusion. As was expected, T cell receptor beta-chain gene rearrangements were demonstrated. However, when the immunoglobulin gene organization was analyzed, we detected rearrangements in both the heavy- and kappa-chain genes. To our knowledge, this is the first case in which kappa-chain gene rearrangement was detected in apparent T-lineage cells. These findings provide important information relating to determination of the cellular lineage of lymphoid malignancy.
Images
PMCID: PMC423886  PMID: 3097073
25.  Acute onset pyothorax-associated lymphoma (PAL) with inflammatory features 
Pyothorax-associated lymphoma (PAL) is a B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and develops after 20-40 years of pyothorax or pleuritis including tuberculosis. An 88-year-old Japanese woman developed fever and right pleural effusion. No mycobacterium was recognized by Ziel-Neelsen stain, culture tests and PCR technique in the effusion. The patient was diagnosed as non-specific pleuritis. No tumor formations were seen in the right pleura by imaging modalities, and she was treated by antibiotics. Eight months later, she complained of severe back pain and fever. Imaging modalities revealed many tumors in the right pleura, and biopsy of the tumors was performed. The biopsy showed severe diffuse proliferation of lymphoid cells. The lymphoid cells consisted of atypical large lymphoid cells and small lymphoid cells. The large atypical cells were positive for CD45 and CD20 but negative for CD15 and CD30, thus confirming B cell neoplasm. Ki-67 labeling was 79%. The small cells were positive for CD45, CD20 and CD3, reflecting a mixture of mature B and T-cells. The small cells appeared non-neoplastic inflammatory cells. CD68-positive macrophages were also scattered. In situ hybridization for EB virus DNA showed positive signals in the large atypical B-cells and, to a lesser degree, in the small lymphocytes. The author thinks that this tumor is PAL with inflammatory reaction. The present case shows that the duration between PAL and pleuritis can be very short, and PAL may be associated with inflammatory reaction at the early neoplastic stage.
PMCID: PMC3294231  PMID: 22400078
Pyothorax-associated lymphoma; pathology; immunohistochemistry

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