We report a case of a 74-year-old woman with no history of HIV infection or pyothorax who presented with progressive dyspnoea. Computed tomography (CT) showed bulky pleural mass and pleural effusion associated with the right-sided pleural disease. Thoracoscopic pleural biopsy was performed and revealed the diagnosis of primary pleural malignant lymphoma. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations revealed that it was small B-cell lymphoma with neoplastic cells that expressed the CD-20 antigen. This case is thought to be a very rare case of primary malignant lymphoma arising in the pleura of a patient with no history of pyothorax.
Primary pleural lymphoma; thoracoscopic pleural biopsy
Pyothorax-associated lymphoma (PAL) is a B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and develops after 20-40 years of pyothorax or pleuritis including tuberculosis. An 88-year-old Japanese woman developed fever and right pleural effusion. No mycobacterium was recognized by Ziel-Neelsen stain, culture tests and PCR technique in the effusion. The patient was diagnosed as non-specific pleuritis. No tumor formations were seen in the right pleura by imaging modalities, and she was treated by antibiotics. Eight months later, she complained of severe back pain and fever. Imaging modalities revealed many tumors in the right pleura, and biopsy of the tumors was performed. The biopsy showed severe diffuse proliferation of lymphoid cells. The lymphoid cells consisted of atypical large lymphoid cells and small lymphoid cells. The large atypical cells were positive for CD45 and CD20 but negative for CD15 and CD30, thus confirming B cell neoplasm. Ki-67 labeling was 79%. The small cells were positive for CD45, CD20 and CD3, reflecting a mixture of mature B and T-cells. The small cells appeared non-neoplastic inflammatory cells. CD68-positive macrophages were also scattered. In situ hybridization for EB virus DNA showed positive signals in the large atypical B-cells and, to a lesser degree, in the small lymphocytes. The author thinks that this tumor is PAL with inflammatory reaction. The present case shows that the duration between PAL and pleuritis can be very short, and PAL may be associated with inflammatory reaction at the early neoplastic stage.
Pyothorax-associated lymphoma; pathology; immunohistochemistry
The most common malignancies associated with malignant pleural effusions are carcinomas of the breast, lung, gastrointestinal tract, ovary and lymphomas. Primary peritoneal adenocarcinoma is a very rare cause of malignant pleural effusion.
A 72-year old female patient presented to us with shortness of breath for the last 2 months. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) scan of her-thorax revealed only bilateral pleural effusion with absence of any mass lesion or any mediastinal lymphadenopathy. A cytologic examination of pleural fluid revealed adenocarcinoma cells. A CECT of her abdomen and pelvis revealed heterogenous thickening of omentum with nodular appearances and small amount of ascites. Her ovaries were normal and no other mass lesion was detected. A histological examination of a peritoneal lesion was suggestive of adenocarcinoma.
The patient was diagnosed with a rare case of primary peritoneal adenocarcinoma with bilateral pleural effusion.
Malignant pleural effusion; primary peritoneal adenocarcinoma
Aims—Pyothorax associated lymphoma (PAL) occurs in a clinical setting of longstanding pyothorax or chronic inflammation of the pleura. Like primary effusion lymphoma, it has an association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and is confined to the pleural cavity, but has differing morphological and phenotypic features. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) has been consistently reported in primary effusion lymphoma. This study examines the immunophenotype of two European cases of PAL, investigates the presence of HHV-8 and its expression profile, and assesses whether PAL is similar to other effusion lymphomas.
Methods—Material was obtained from two European cases of PAL. Immunocytochemical analysis was performed using antibodies against CD45, CD20, CD79a, CD45RAA, CD3, CD43, CD45RO (UCHL1), CD30, BCL-2, CD68, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), BCL-6, p53, Ki-67, κ light chain, λ light chain, and the EBV antigens latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) and EBV encoded nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA-2). The cases were examined for HHV-8 by means of polymerase chain reaction in situ hybridisation (PCR-ISH), solution phase PCR, in situ hybridisation (ISH), and real time quantitative TaqMan PCR to HHV-8 open reading frame 26 (ORF-26) and viral (v) cyclin encoding regions. The expression profile of HHV-8 in PAL and in BC-1 and BC-3 cells was assessed by RNA TaqMan PCR to the HHV-8 genes encoding v-cyclin, v-IL-6, and G protein coupled receptor (GPCR).
Results—Both cases expressed CD24, CD20, CD79a, BCL-2, light chain restriction, and high Ki-67 staining. EBV was identified by EBER-ISH in one case. HHV-8 was not identified by solution phase PCR, but was detected by PCR-ISH (sensitivity of 1 viral genome copy/cell) in 35% of the cells and by TaqMan PCR, which showed 50–100 HHV-8 copies/2000 cell genome equivalents (sensitivity of 1 viral genome in 106 contaminating sequences). HHV-8 v-IL-6, v-cyclin, and GPCR encoded transcripts were identified using RNA TaqMan PCR. v-IL-6 was high in PAL and in BC-1 and BC-3 cells.
Conclusion—The presence of HHV-8 in one of two patients with PAL raises interesting questions in relation to the pathobiology of the condition. Clearly, the results indicate that HHV-8 is not an obligate pathogen, necessary for the effusion phenotype, but might contribute to it by its secretion of specific cytokines.
pyothorax associated lymphoma; human herpesvirus 8; primary effusion lymphoma
Minimally invasive investigations, such as pleural fluid cytological assessment and closed percutaneous pleural biopsy, are often performed first in the investigation of suspected malignant pleural effusions. Malignant pleural effusions can be diagnosed with pleural fluid cytology alone in most cases; however, closed pleural biopsy is performed to increase the diagnostic yield when pleural fluid cytology is negative. This additional yield is at the expense of increased complication rates. We report a 64-year old man with a negative pleural fluid cytology but suspected malignant pleural effusion who underwent a closed pleural biopsy, which was complicated by pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and severe subcutaneous emphysema. Pulmonary laceration by the pleural biopsy needle is the most likely aetiology of these complications. Our case report highlights an infrequent but significant complication of closed percutaneous pleural biopsy.
Pulmonary actinomycosis is a rare bacterial lung disease caused by one of two types of bacteria, Actinomyces or Propioni. Pulmonary actinomycosis in the lung causes lung cavities, lung nodules, and pleural effusion. We report here a case of pulmonary actinomycosis that was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). A 45 year-old male with a history of smoking and alcohol abuse, presented with complaints of cough with hemoptysis, right-sided chest pain, and fever of two months’ duration. A chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT) of the thorax showed a right upper lobe mass lesion with hilar lymphadenopathy. CT-guided FNAC revealed colonies of Actinomyces surrounded by polymorphs. The disease is commonly confused with other chronic suppurative lung diseases and malignancy. An early diagnosis by FNAC prevents difficulties in the management of the disease, as well as considerable physiological and physical morbidity, including unwarranted surgery.
Actinomycosis; guided fine needle aspiration cytology; pulmonary
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), or Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, is a gammaherpesvirus first detected in Kaposi's sarcoma tumor cells and subsequently in primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) tumor cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from PEL patients. PEL has been recognized as an individual nosologic entity based on its distinctive features and consistent association with HHV-8 infection. PEL is an unusual form of body cavity-based B-cell lymphoma (BCBL). It occurs predominantly in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients but occasionally also in elderly HIV-negative patients. We describe a case of PEL, with ascites, bilateral pleural effusions, and a small axillary lymphadenopathy, in a 72-year-old HIV-negative man. PCR performed on a lymph node specimen and in liquid effusion was positive for HHV-8 and negative for Epstein-Barr virus. The immunophenotype of the neoplastic cells was B CD19+ CD20+ CD22+ with coexpression of CD10 and CD23 and with clonal kappa light chain rearrangement. The patient was treated with Rituximab, a chimeric (human-mouse) anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody. Thirteen months later, the patient continued in clinical remission. This is the first report of an HHV-8-associated BCBL in an HIV-negative patient in Argentina.
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare type of lymphoma that arises in the body cavity without detectable masses. It is associated with human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Recently, PEL unrelated to viral infection has been reported and it has been termed HHV-8 unrelated primary effusion lymphoma-like lymphoma (HHV-8 unrelated PEL-like lymphoma). Here, we report a case of HHV-8 unrelated PEL-like lymphoma in an 80-year-old woman. Chest X-ray and computed tomography revealed left-sided pleural effusion. Pleural effusion analysis and mediastinoscopic biopsy showed atypical cells that had originated from the B cells. The cells were positive for CD20 and bcl-2, but negative for CD3, CD5, CD21, CD30, CD138, epithelial membrane antigen, and HHV-8. Serological tests for HIV and EBV were negative. Considering the patient's age, further treatments were not performed. She has shown good prognosis without chemotherapy for more than 18 months.
Lymphoma, Primary Effusion; Herpesvirus 8, Human; Pleural Effusion
We present a case report of a 20 years old male who had low grade fever, weight loss of about 10 kg and left-sided chest pain increasing in intensity over a year. Clinically, it mimicked left sided pleural effusion with a tender, soft, parietal swelling in left in-fraaxillary area. Chest x-ray and Computerized Tomography-scan of thorax showed pleura based mass in left hemi thorax. Computerized Tomography guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology confirmed the diagnosis of non Hodgkin Lymphoma, diffuse large B cell type, high-grade.
Primary Pleural Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; CT guided FNAC
Fine‐needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is used as a screening test to evaluate lymphadenopathy. The combined use of genetic analysis and flow cytometry for immunophenotyping has increased the accuracy of diagnosis and correct categorisation of lymphomas on cytological preparations.
To show the utility of immunocytochemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the evaluation of cytological preparations of lymph nodes.
Fine needle aspirates were obtained from 33 patients (initial presentation, n = 27; recurrence, n = 6). Routine examination was undertaken using immunocytochemistry and DNA PCR to detect clonality and specific translocations. The cytodiagnosis and subclassification of lymphoma was correlated with histological diagnosis in the available follow‐up biopsies.
14 patients had a cytological diagnosis of non‐Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), 4 had suspected NHL, 2 had atypical lymphoid proliferation and 13 had reactive hyperplasia. A World Health Organization (WHO) subtype was suggested in 8 patients. Incorporating the results of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) and T‐cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements enabled diagnosis of lymphoma in 17 patients, including 5 of the 6 patients suspected to have NHL or an atypical lymphoid proliferation. Identification of the translocations t (14;18) and t (2;5) helped WHO categorisation in 3 of the patients. The cytological findings were confirmed in 12 out of the 13 patients for whom histological follow‐up was available. Seven of the 18 lymphoma patients were managed without a subsequent biopsy. We made one false–positive diagnosis of B‐cell NHL on cytology.
The use of immunocytochemistry and PCR is valuable in the definitive diagnosis and subtyping of malignant lymphomas on cytological preparations. The use of these techniques may avoid lymph node biopsies in some cases and allow definitive treatment based on aspirate findings alone.
A 30-year-old male, carpenter by profession, presented with a history of dry cough and progressive shortness of breath for two months along with right-sided chest pain for one and a half months. The clinico-radiological picture was suggestive of right-sided massive pleural effusion. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the thorax showed a huge mediastinal mass occupying the entire right hemithorax with very small amount of pleural effusion. CT-guided fine needle aspiration cytology and tru-cut biopsy from the mass both revealed small round-cell tumour, possibly small cell carcinoma of the lung. However, on immunohistochemistry tumour cells expressed Mic-2 and it was consistent with a diagnosis of primitive neuroectodermal tumour.
Ewing's sarcoma; immunohistochemistry; mediastinal tumour; primitive neuroectodermal tumour
Patient. A 62-year-old man presented with effort dyspnea, non-productive cough and weakness of 4 month duration. He had no findings on physical examination.
Discussion. Chest X-ray revealed a large mass in the left anterior mediastinum. Computerized tomography of the chest showed a well-delineated homogeneous mediastinal mass with fat-equivalent density and a small pleural effusion. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed narrowing of the left main bronchus, secondary to external compression. The bronchial mucosa was normal and brush cytology was negative. A CT-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the mass yielded fragments of cells embedded in myxoid background material and closely packed atypical lipoblasts, compatible with liposarcoma. The patient underwent a left lateral thoracotomy and margibnal resection of the mass. The histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of mixed-type liposarcoma, consisted of myxoid and pleomorphic liposarcoma. Postoperative two-field radiation therapy was delivered to the mediastinum for a total midplane dose of 40 Gy. After a disease-free interval of 8 months the disease recurred in the mediastinum and pleura. Palliative chemotherapy achieved a short duration partial response but the patient succumbed to local recurrence 2 years after the diagnosis.
Primary effusion lymphoma is a recently recognized entity of AIDS related non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Despite Africa being greatly affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, an extensive MEDLINE/PubMed search failed to find any report of primary effusion lymphoma in sub-Saharan Africa. To our knowledge this is the first report of primary effusion lymphoma in sub-Saharan Africa. We report the clinical, cytomorphologic and immunohistochemical findings of a patient with primary effusion lymphoma.
A 70-year-old newly diagnosed HIV-positive Ugandan African woman presented with a three-month history of cough, fever, weight loss and drenching night sweats. Three weeks prior to admission she developed right sided chest pain and difficulty in breathing. On examination she had bilateral pleural effusions.
Haematoxylin and eosin stained cytologic sections of the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cell block made from the pleural fluid were processed in the Department of Pathology, Makerere University, College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda. Immunohistochemistry was done at the Institute of Haematology and Oncology "L and A Seragnoli", Bologna University School of Medicine, Bologna, Italy, using alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase method. In situ hybridization was used for detection of Epstein-Barr virus.
The tumor cells were CD45+, CD30+, CD38+, HHV-8 LANA-1+; but were negative for CD3-, CD20-, CD19-, and CD79a- and EBV RNA+ on in situ hybridization. CD138 and Ki-67 were not evaluable. Our patient tested HIV positive and her CD4 cell count was 127/μL.
A definitive diagnosis of primary effusion lymphoma rests on finding a proliferation of large immunoblastic, plasmacytoid and anaplastic cells; HHV-8 in the tumor cells, an immunophenotype that is CD45+, pan B-cell marker negative and lymphocyte activated marker positive. It is essential for clinicians and pathologists to have a high index of suspicion of primary effusion lymphoma when handling HIV positive patients who have effusions without palpable tumor masses. Basic immunohistochemistry is essential for definitive diagnosis.
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare extranodal lymphoma that typically presents in a body cavity in the absence of a detectable tumor mass and that occurs predominantly in immunosuppressed individuals. The neoplastic lymphoid cells are frequently infected with human herpes virus 8 (HHV8), also known as Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV). We describe two HIV-negative patients who presented with primary effusion lymphoma of B-cell lineage involving the pleural cavity, but whose tumor cells lacked infection by HHV8. We review the English language literature of HHV8-negative PEL of B-cell lineage and compare these lymphomas to HHV8-associated PEL with regard to clinical and pathological characteristics, therapy, and outcome.
An 8-month old intact male Turkish Angora cat was referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (VMTH), Seoul National University, for an evaluation of anorexia and severe dyspnea. The thoracic radiographs revealed significant pleural effusion. A cytology evaluation of the pleural fluid strongly suggested a lymphoma containing variable sized lymphocytes with frequent mitotic figures and prominent nucleoli. The feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus tests were negative. The cat was euthanized at his owner's request and a necropsy was performed. A mass was detected on the mediastinum and lung lobes. A histopathology evaluation confirmed the mass to be a lymphoma. Immunohistochemistry revealed the mass to be CD3 positive. In conclusion, the cat was diagnosed as a T-cell mediastinal lymphoma.
feline; immunohistochemistry; mediastinal lymphoma; T-cell; Turkish Angora cat
In recent years, endoscopic ultrasound techniques with Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) have become an increasingly used diagnostic aid in the differentiation of mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) and endoesophageal ultrasound (EUS) are now available for clinicians to reach mediastinal and paramediastinal masses using a minimally invasive approach. These techniques are an established component for diagnosing and staging lung cancer and their benefit in the diagnosis of lymphoma's has been highlighted in a number of case studies. However, the lack of tissue architecture obtained by cytological FNA specimens decreases the diagnostic accuracy for benign causes of thoracic lymphadenopathies, lymphomas, and histopathological subtyping of lung cancer. Accordingly, our study group have adapted the FNA sampling technique, resulting in tissue fragments that can be used for histopathological examinations. As an illustration, we report a case of follicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma, diagnosed on tissue fragments obtained by adjusted EUS FNA. We believe that this relatively simple adjustment to routine FNA sampling can help to overcome the diagnostic limitations inherent in cytology obtained by routine FNA.
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive large B-cell lymphoma (ALK-positive LBCL) is an extremely rare distinct clinicopathological subtype of LBCL, characterized by the presence of ALK-positive monomorphic large immunoblast-like neoplastic B cells. Herein, we describe the first cytological report on ALK-positive LBCL in the pleural effusion. A 69-year-old Japanese male with a past history of malignant lymphoma of the cecum presented with progressive dyspnea and pleural effusion. Removal of the pleural effusion and aspiration of bone marrow were performed. May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain of the pleural fluid revealed abundant single or small aggregates of large-sized round cells. These cells had centrally-located large round to oval nuclei. The peculiar finding was the presence of pseudopodial cytoplasmic projections, and some neoplastic cells had eosinophilic pseudopodial cytoplasmic projections, which resembled “flaming plasma cells”. Histopathological and immunohistochemical studies of the bone marrow demonstrated CD138+, ALK1+, CD20-, CD79a-, CD30-, and IgA+ large-sized neoplastic cells. Therefore, a diagnosis of ALK-positive LBCL was made. The peculiar finding of the present case was that most of the neoplastic cells had pseudopodial cytoplasmic projections, and some of them had eosinophilic pseudopodial cytoplasmic projections that resembled “flaming plasma cells”, which has been recognized as the characteristic finding of IgA myeloma. Therefore, tumor cells that resembled “flaming plasma cells” in the pleural effusion may have had IgA in the cytoplasm. Albeit extremely rare, ALK-positive LBCL shows aggressive clinical course, thus, recognition of the cytomorphological features of this type of malignant lymphoma is important for early and correct diagnosis.
ALK-positive large B-cell lymphoma; pleural effusion; pseudopodial cytoplasmic projection
We describe a 10-yr-old boy with T-lineage non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. He had a mediastinal mass, swollen supraclavicular lymph nodes, and pleural effusion. A supraclavicular lymph node biopsy under light microscopy showed a malignant lymphoma of diffuse lymphoblastic type. Most of the cells taken from the malignant pleural effusion expressed T cell-associated antigens such as Leu-1 and OKT 8. To confirm these antigens as T-lineage lymphoma, we examined genomic DNA from malignant cells obtained from the pleural effusion. As was expected, T cell receptor beta-chain gene rearrangements were demonstrated. However, when the immunoglobulin gene organization was analyzed, we detected rearrangements in both the heavy- and kappa-chain genes. To our knowledge, this is the first case in which kappa-chain gene rearrangement was detected in apparent T-lineage cells. These findings provide important information relating to determination of the cellular lineage of lymphoid malignancy.
Pyothorax-associated lymphoma (PAL) is a unique and rare non-Hodgkin's lymphoma developing in the pleural cavity following a long-standing history of chronic pyothorax (CP). The development of F-18 2′-deoxy-2fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT) has contributed to the evaluation of lymphoma staging. However, only a few studies describing FDG-PET/CT findings in PAL have been published. This study reported three cases of PAL; all 3 patients had previously undergone artificial collapse therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis. Both the first case (an 84-year-old male) and second case (an 83-year-old male) complained of abdominal pain. An ultrasound scan revealed a mass shadow in the left chest wall without abnormal findings in the abdomen, and the CT and magnetic resonance imaging scans suggested malignant lymphoma of the left chest. FDG-PET/CT imaging showed extremely intense FDG uptake only in the left pleura and chest wall. Diagnosis was CP in the two patients, showing a high maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax: early, 14.8 and delayed, 19.4 in the first case; early, 20.8 and delayed, 27.3 in the second case, respectively). Histopathological analysis of the specimens obtained by biopsy of the PET/CT-positive pleural mass showed non-Hodgkin's, diffuse large B cell lymphoma in the two cases. The third case was a 79-year-old male with relapse after right pleuropneumonectomy for PAL (diffuse large B cell lymphoma) 4 years earlier. PET/CT showed intense FDG uptake (SUVmax: early, 19.9 and delayed, 35.7) in the right pleura and chest wall. Diagnosis was CP, suggesting the recurrence of PAL. Furthermore, abnormal intense FDG uptake was noted in the hilar, mediastinal and supraclavicular lymph nodes, as well as in the spleen. In conclusion, FDG-PET/CT imaging is useful in the evaluation of the area of invasion in PAL.
pyothorax-associated lymphoma; positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography; F-18 2′-deoxy-2fluoro-D-glucose; pulmonary tuberculosis; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
Primary pleural angiosarcomas are extremely rare. As of 2010, only around 50 case reports have been documented in the literature. Herein, we report the case of a 63-year-old gentleman who presented with a 3-month history of right-sided chest pain, dyspnea, and hemoptysis. Chest X-ray showed bilateral pleural effusion with partial bibasilar atelectasis. Ultrasound-guided thoracocentesis showed bloody and exudative pleural fluid. Cytologic examination was negative for malignant cells. An abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan showed two right diaphragmatic pleural masses. Whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan showed two hypermetabolic fluorodeoxyglucose- (FDG-) avid lesions involving the right diaphragmatic pleura. CT-guided needle-core biopsy was performed and histopathological examination showed neoplastic cells growing mainly in sheets with focal areas suggestive of vascular spaces lined by cytologically malignant epithelioid cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed strong positivity for vimentin, CD31, CD68, and Fli-1 markers. The overall pathological and immunohistochemical features supported the diagnosis of epithelioid angiosarcoma. The patient was scheduled for surgery in three weeks. Unfortunately, the patient died after one week after discharge secondary to pulseless ventricular tachycardia arrest followed by asystole. Moreover, we also present a brief literature review on pleural angiosarcoma.
A primary effusion lymphoma is a rare type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma where serous cavities are involved. That-cause peritoneal, pleural and pericardial effusions without any lymphadenopathy. They affect immunosuppressive patients with human herpes virus-8 being the suspected etiological agent. The prognosis is usually poor despite treatment. Herein, the case of an immunocompetent patient with ascites and pleural effusion diagnosed as primary effusion lymphoma is presented and discuss the case in the light of the current literature.
Primary effusion lymphoma; human herpes virus-8; ascites
Primary soft tissue non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) of the extremities is very rare. The clinical features of NHL mimic those of other soft tissue tumors, particularly sarcoma; however, they should be differentiated, as the treatment and prognosis are completely different. In this study, the case of a 68-year-old female with a giant mass, movement disorder, numbness and painful sensations in the right thigh is presented. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a huge circle-shaped mass. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the tumor demonstrated neoplastic small, round cells. The tentative diagnosis was of a mesenchymal sarcoma. The right thigh was amputated. On histological examination of the amputated extremity, the diagnosis was found to be large B cell lymphoma. Primary soft tissue NHL of the extremities is a systemic malignant disease and is sensitive to chemo-therapy and radiotherapy. The histological diagnosis should be identified as far as possible before the tumor is widely excised.
non-Hodgkin lymphoma; soft tissue; amputation; extremity
Objective: To describe the range of pathology causing pleural effusions in HIV infected patients with acute respiratory episodes and to attempt to identify whether any associated radiological abnormalities enabled aetiological discrimination.
Methods: Prospective study of chest radiographs of 58 consecutive HIV infected patients with pleural effusion and their microbiological, cytological, and histopathological diagnoses.
Results: A specific diagnosis was made in all cases. Diagnoses were Kaposi's sarcoma, 19 patients; parapneumonic effusion, 16 patients; tuberculosis, eight patients; Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, six patients; lymphoma, four patients; pulmonary embolus, two patients; and heart failure, aspergillus/leishmaniasis, and Cryptococcus neoformans, one case each. Most effusions (50/58) were small. Bilateral effusions were commoner in Kaposi's sarcoma (12/19) and lymphoma (3/4) than in parapneumonic effusion (3/16). Concomitant interstitial parenchymal shadowing did not aid discrimination. A combination of bilateral effusions, focal air space consolidation, intrapulmonary nodules, and/or hilar lymphadenopathy suggests Kaposi's sarcoma. Unilateral effusion with focal air space consolidation suggests parapneumonic effusion if intrapulmonary nodules are absent: if miliary nodules and/or mediastinal lymphadenopathy are detected, this suggests tuberculosis.
Conclusions: A wide variety of infectious and malignant conditions cause pleural effusions in HIV infected patients, the most common cause in this group was Kaposi's sarcoma. The presence of additional radiological abnormalities such as focal air space consolidation, intrapulmonary nodules, and mediastinal lymphadenopathy aids aetiological discrimination.
Key Words: pleural effusion; Kaposi's sarcoma; bacterial pneumonia; chest radiograph
Aims: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is an accepted means of diagnosing and typing common forms of lymphoma, particularly small lymphocytic lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and large B cell lymphoma. However, its usefulness for diagnosing less common forms of lymphoma is not clearly established and this study was designed to examine this.
Methods: The study reviewed the FNAs of suspected lymphomas collected over a period of approximately five years.
Results: FNA samples were available for 138 definite lymphomas; most were common forms of B cell lymphoma. However, there was also one Burkitt lymphoma (BL), two Burkitt-like large B cell lymphomas, 15 classic Hodgkin lymphomas (HLs), two nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphomas, four mantle cell lymphomas, two mediastinal (thymic) large B cell lymphomas (MLBCLs), 11 peripheral T cell lymphomas (PTCLs), and five T cell rich large B cell lymphomas (TCRLBCLs).
Conclusions: FNA diagnosis of BL was possible with immunoflow cytometry (IFC), cell block immunohistochemistry (IHC), and cell block fluorescent in situ hybridisation for c-myc alteration. It was difficult to make a definite diagnosis of HL and MLBCL on FNA alone. Both tend to be sclerotic tumours and FNA tends to yield scanty neoplastic cells. The FNA diagnosis of PTCL depended on cell block IHC; IFC was not usually useful. TCRLBCL did not show light chain restriction on IFC of FNA samples, probably because of frequent reactive B cells in the tumour. Thus, HL, MLBCL, and TCRLBCL are often difficult to diagnose accurately on FNA cytology, even when using IFC and cell block IHC.
fine needle aspiration cytology; cytology; immunohistochemistry; flow cytometry; lymphoma
A domestic-longhair cat presented due to lethargy, dyspnoea and hypersalivation. Radiographic examination revealed a bilateral pleural effusion, which was diagnosed as pyothorax based on cytological examination. Ultrasonographic examination revealed extensive loculations within the thoracic cavity. Exploratory sternotomy, under general anaesthesia, allowed the removal of approximately 100 ml of purulent fluid and debridement of a partially walled-off abscess and necrotic material from the pleural cavity. Postoperative positive-pressure ventilation was required due to severe respiratory depression. Intensive postoperative care, including intensive continuous monitoring, thoracostomy tube drainage and lavage of the pleural cavity and oesophagostomy tube feeding, was performed. Complete resolution of clinical signs had occurred by 15 days postoperatively. Clinical or radiographic abnormalities were not detected at a follow-up examination one year after surgery.