Haemangiomas are benign vascular neoplasms characterized by an abnormal proliferation of blood vessels. They may occur in any vascularized tissue including skin, subcutaneous tissue muscle and bone. These tumours are common in infancy and childhood and commonly involve subcutaneous or mucosal tissues. Intramuscular haemangiomas, a distinctive type of haemangioma occurring within skeletal muscle, account for less than 1% of all haemangiomas. They occur more often in trunk and extremity muscles, whereas involvement of the temporal muscle is extremely rare. Herein, the case is reported of a 38-year-old male who presented with a round, painless mass in the left temporal fossa, which was interpreted as an intramuscular haemangioma after a magnetic resonance imaging scan. In this report, clinico-pathological findings are described in an additional case of haemangioma involving the temporal muscle, and a review is made of the international literature on this subject.
Temporalis muscle; Benign tumour; Haemangioma
Primary pancreatic tumours are extremely rare in children. We report a case of a 5-month-old male with a diffuse invasive tumour of the head of the pancreas. The tumour demonstrated peripancreatic extension into the porta hepatis, which occluded the portal vein and invaded the superior mesenteric artery. It was found to be haemangioendotheliomatosis of the pancreas. Imaging, pathological findings and a brief relevant classification of haemangioma are discussed.
Although benign vascular lesions are frequent in the head and the neck region, clinical evidence of cavernous haemangioma of the external auditory canal is extremely rare; when present, the lesion invades the middle ear space. Herein, a rare case of a soft mass filling the external auditory canal, not involving the tympanic membrane, in a symptomatic 59-year-old male is described. Clinical and audiological characteristics, imaging studies and surgical treatment with histological evaluation are reported, which led to a diagnosis of a cavernous haemangioma. This is only the seventh case described in the literature, to date, not involving the tympanic membrane and the middle ear space. In addition, a review has been made of the relevant literature with respect to epidemiology, presentation, evaluation, pathology, and management options for haemangiomas arising in the external auditory canal.
External auditory canal; Vascular lesion; Vascular malformation; Cavernous haemangioma
Vertebral haemangiomas are recognized to be one of the commonest benign tumours of the vertebral column, occurring mostly in the thoracic spine. The vast majority of these are asymptomatic. Infrequently, these can turn symptomatic and cause neurological deficit (cord compression) through any of four reported mechanisms: (1) epidural extension; (2) expansion of the involved vertebra(e) causing spinal canal stenosis; (3) spontaneous epidural haemorrhage; (4) pathological burst fracture. Thoracic haemangiomas have been reported to be more likely to produce cord compression than lumbar haemangiomas.
A forty-nine year old male with acute onset spinal cord compression from a pathological fracture in a first lumbar vertebral haemangioma. An MRI delineated the haemangioma and extent of bleeding that caused the cord compression. These were confirmed during surgery and the haematoma was evacuated. The spine was instrumented from T12 to L2, and a cement vertebroplasty was performed intra-operatively. Written consent for publication was obtained from the patient.
The junctional location of the first lumbar vertebra, and the structural weakness from normal bone being replaced by the haemangioma, probably caused it to fracture under axial loading. This pathological fracture caused bleeding from the vascularized bone, resulting in cord compression.
Vertebral haemangioma; Pathological fracture; Spinal cord compression; Vertebroplasty; Paralysis; Paraparesis
Hepatic haemangiomas are the most common benign tumours of the liver and commonly present as incidental findings on sonographic examination of the abdomen. Since little is known of the natural course of these tumours, we performed a clinical and sonographic follow up of 123 haemangioma patients. Our prospective study investigated clinical and sonographic findings in 158 haemangiomas for periods of 12 to 60 months. Ninety nine haemangiomas measured less than 2 cm and had an echogenic pattern; 40 were between 2 cm and 5 cm with a mainly echogenic structure; 19 measured greater than 5 cm and showed a mixed echo pattern. At the first examination only eight patients, all with giant haemangiomas, presented symptoms which could be attributed to the tumour. During follow up only one haemangioma changed in shape and size. One patient who was symptom free at the first examination experienced right upper abdominal quadrant pain during follow up. No deterioration occurred in any of the patients with symptoms at the first examination, and all had a satisfactory quality of life. No complications arose during the follow up period. This study shows that in adults haemangiomas remain stable in size and echo patterns rarely change. Only haemangiomas greater than 5 cm may cause symptoms. Prolonged clinical and sonographic follow up of small and medium sized haemangiomas is not warranted.
Lobular capillary haemangioma, known as pyogenic granuloma, is a relatively common benign vascular neoplasm that is composed of hyperplastic clusters of capillaries arranged in a lobular architectural pattern. Most mucosal lobular capillary haemangioma (LCH) of the head and neck arise in the oral cavity, but the nasal cavity involvement is rare. We report here on the CT imaging findings of two cases of LCH involving the nasal cavity, with an emphasis being placed on the different pattern of enhancement of the tumour on the enhanced CT scans.
lobular capillary haemangioma; nasal cavity; computed tomography
To report a case of intramuscular haemangioma (IMH) with a rare presentation in the mylohyoid, with emphasis on the clinical appearance, and histologic characteristics of the lesion.
Case report and review of the literature.
Neck swellings can often present a diagnostic dilemma, with a wide preoperative differential diagnosis. IMH are rare benign haemangiomas occurring within the skeletal muscle. They account for approximately 1% of all haemangiomas. These are uncommon in the head and neck region and occur most frequently in the trunk and extremities. In the head and neck, masseter and trapezius are the most common sites involved. Intramuscular haemangioma is seldom diagnosed preoperatively, perhaps due to unfamiliarity with this uncommon lesion and nonspecific clinical findings.
Mylohyoid; Intramuscular haemangioma; Benign; Neck swelling
Haemangiomas are one of the most common soft tissue tumours comprising 7% of all benign tumours. Vascular malformations are often confused with haemangiomas. The etiology is unknown. They are common in infancy and childhood and females are more commonly affected. These tumours may be superficial or deep, and deeply seated lesions, are difficult to diagnose clinically and hence require radiographic assessment. Deep-seated haemangiomas are usually intramuscular, although intra-articular synovial haemangiomas also occur. The commonest anatomic site is the lower limb.
Despite their vascular origin, haemangiomas do not metastasize or undergo malignant transformation. Many treatment modalities for the symptomatic haemangioma are available but surgical excision is the preferred treatment. We present an unusual case of a dumb-bell intramuscular haemangioma involving the triceps and extending into the cubital tunnel of the elbow, distinguish between haemangiomas and vascular malformations and emphasize the importance of surgical technique in ensuring ulnar nerve safety.
Cavernous haemangioma; Haemangioma; Triceps; Intramuscular haemangioma
Gastrointestinal haemangiomas make up 0.05% of all intestinal neoplasms. They are sometimes multiple and usually present with pain, bleeding, and obstruction. An associated haemangiomatous change in regional lymph nodes has not been reported previously. A woman of 21 years presented with abdominal pain and vomiting. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography scan showed a lower abdominal mass. Laparotomy revealed a small bowel tumour causing an intussusception together with enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes. Pathological examination revealed a small bowel haemangioma with mesenteric node involvement. The pathogenesis of haemangiomatous involvement of lymph nodes is discussed. Hamartomatous change is the likely cause in this patient.
Key Words: haemangioma • lymph node • intussusception • small bowel
AIM--To question the observer reliability or agreement of reports on the intranodal and extranodal tumour growth patterns in early metastasised non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS--In a pilot study original histological sections of mediastinal lymph node metastases from NSCLC obtained by lymph node dissection (n = 82) or by mediastinoscopy (n = 62) were examined and classified independently by three pathologists as extranodal, intranodal, or indefinite. After clear criteria for these growth patterns had been defined sections were re-examined and recategorised one year later. Interobserver agreement was examined for both investigations. RESULTS--In the dissected lymph nodes the kappa value improved significantly from 0.52 (moderate agreement) at the first investigation to 0.72 (good agreement) at the second. In the mediastinoscopic lymph node biopsy specimens an increase in kappa value from 0.50 at the first to 0.67 at the second examination was found, although this improvement was not significant. In mediastinoscopic biopsy specimens a very high proportion of tissue samples showed indefinite tumour extension. CONCLUSION--Good reproducibility of intranodal and extranodal growth patterns in the histological examination of mediastinal lymph node metastases can be achieved, provided that pathologists use strictly defined criteria. In mediastinoscopic biopsy specimens it is often impossible to differentiate between intranodal and extranodal tumour growth.
Intramuscular haemangiomas are uncommon, benign tumours frequently arising in the trunk and extremities. When they appear in the head and neck, the most frequent sites are the trapezius and the masseter muscles, rarely other sites. The case is reported of an intramuscular haemangioma with an unusual location in the orbital part of the orbicularis oculi muscle of a 54-year-old female. Clinical, radiological and histological findings as well as the treatment approach are discussed.
Head and neck neoplasm; Muscular tumour; Orbit; Intramuscular haemangioma; Orbicularis oculi muscle
Intranodal palisaded myofibroblastoma is a rare benign soft tissue tumor, almost always arising from inguinal lymph nodes. It usually presents as a painless, slow-growing inguinal mass. We report herein a case of an intranodal palisaded myofibroblastoma occurring in a 36-year-old man. The salient clinicopathologic features of this unusual tumor are presented and the literature is briefly reviewed.
An intracardiac haemangioma with papillary endothelial hyperplasia (PEH) and liver involvement has not been previously reported in the English literature. This report describes a 65 year old man with a left ventricular haemangioma with PEH coexistent with multiple nodular hepatic haemangiomas. Transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography identified a large tumour in the left ventricular cavity with a pedicle connected to the apex. Abdominal sonography also identified multiple hyperechoic hepatic tumours. Magnetic resonance imaging showed hypervascularity of both the cardiac and hepatic lesions. The left ventricular tumour was totally resected and the liver nodules were biopsied. Tissue pathological study showed that both the left ventricular tumour and liver lesions were haemangiomas with PEH. The patient was discharged without complications postoperatively.
haemangioma; papillary endothelial hyperplasia; liver; heart
The 'Pinocchio' or 'Cyrano' nose is a rare condition in which deformity of the nasal tip is produced by an underlying soft tissue tumour. Previously reported cases have been due to either capillary or cavernous haemangiomas (angiolipomas). The deformity is the cause of much teasing in children. There has been debate as to whether surgical intervention is indicated, as a proportion of cases will regress spontaneously. We report a case of 'Pinocchio' nose with a lymphangioma of the nasal tip which is previously undescribed and review the options for management.
Synovial haemangioma is a rare intra-articular benign tumour, which may arise from any synovium-lined surface, but particularly in the knee joint. Synovial haemangioma originating from the anterior cruciate ligament has not been reported previously.
A 34-year-old man presented with a history of intermittent knee pain, locking and swelling.
Knee intra-articular haemangioma, a very rare benign tumour, is often misdiagnosed. Magnetic resonance imaging is effective in detecting this lesion and should be performed in cases of persistent knee swelling and pain.
It is important to distinguish between orbital cavernous haemangioma and schwannoma because the treatments of choice for the two tumours are different. The aim was to evaluate MR imaging findings distinguishing the two tumours.
Magnetic resonance imaging including T1- and T2-weighted imaging and contrast-enhanced MR imaging was performed in 43 patients with cavernous haemangiomas and 16 patients with schwannomas confirmed by pathology. Location, configuration, margins, signal intensity, homogeneity and enhancement pattern of the tumour were retrospectively evaluated.
There was a significant difference between cavernous haemangiomas and schwannomas regarding the location, configuration and margins of the mass, signal intensity and homogeneity on T1- and T2-weighted imaging, the spread pattern of contrast enhancement, the enhancement pattern and the type of time–intensity curve (P < 0.05). Markedly homogeneous hyperintensity signal on T2-weighted imaging and the spread pattern of the contrast enhancement favoured cavernous haemangioma rather than schwannoma (P < 0.01).
Cavernous haemangiomas and schwannomas have different MR imaging features that could be helpful in the differentiation between the tumours. The spread pattern of the contrast enhancement on dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging is the most reliable finding distinguishing cavernous haemangiomas from schwannomas.
Orbit; Cavernous haemangioma; Schwannoma; Magnetic resonance imaging; Differential diagnosis
A case of testicular capillary haemangioma is reported and the importance of intraoperative examination of this very rare lesion emphasised. Capillary haemangioma of the testis can be similar to malignant testicular tumours on clinical presentation, as well as on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, and therefore should be included in the intraoperative differential diagnosis. Because of the benign nature of this lesion, conservative surgical treatment by means of tumour enucleation with preservation of the testis is possible, if intraoperative examination of frozen sections of representative tissue can be performed.
Key Words: testis • haemangioma
Infantile haemangioma is the commonest benign tumour in infancy. While the management of the majority of small haemangiomas consists of simply watching or steroid treatment, giant and moderate size infantile haemangiomas are challenging problems, especially in health systems with limited resources in developing countries.
A one-year old boy was presented to us by his parents with a moderate size haemangioma on the posterior triangle of the left side of the neck. Clinical assessment and radiological examinations were helpful in confirming the diagnosis. Surgical excision was performed successfully without major morbidity. Partial necrosis of the skin flap developed shortly after the operation but healing was complete in eight weeks. There was no residual problem on review five years after the operation.
Early surgical excision of a moderate size infantile haemangioma may be justified especially when there is difficulty of follow-up, which can be a common problem in developing countries. This approach will prevent growth deformation, impact on nearby vital organs and psychological problems.
Soft tissue haemangiomas are common benign vascular lesions that can be accompanied by reactive changes in the adjacent bone structure. This study aimed to discuss the MRI features of soft-tissue haemangiomas with an emphasis on changes in bone.
The radiographic and MRI findings of 23 patients (9 males, 14 females; mean age 25 years; age range 2–46 years) with soft-tissue haemangiomas were analysed retrospectively. MR images were evaluated for location of the lesion, size, configuration, signal features, contrast patterns, proximity to adjacent bone and changes in the accompanying bone. Excisional biopsy was performed in 15 patients.
Radiographs demonstrated phleboliths in 8 patients (34%) and reactive bone changes in 4 (19%). On MRI, T1 weighted images showed that most of the lesions were isointense or isohyperintense, as compared with muscle tissue; however, on T2 weighted images all lesions appeared as hyperintense. Following intravenous gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) administration, homogeneous enhancement was observed in 3 lesions and heterogeneous enhancement was seen in 19. No enhancement was observed in one patient. Bone atrophy adjacent to the lesion was observed in four patients.
MRI is the most valuable means of diagnosing deep soft-tissue haemangiomas. Bone changes can accompany deeply situated haemangiomas; in four of our patients, we found atrophy of the bone adjacent to the lesion. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature regarding atrophy of the bone adjacent to a lesion.
Intranodal palisaded myofibroblastoma is one of the primary mesenchymal tumours. The inguinal region is the commonest site of this rare tumour. As there are only about 55 such cases reported in the literature, the precise aetiology and pathogenesis have yet to be explained adequately. Here we report a case of a 72 year old man presented with incidental finding of intranodal palisaded myofibroblastoma in the retroperitoneal region.
A 72-year old man presented with abdominal pain in right upper quadrant with an incidental finding of abdominal mass in the right flank. The computerised tomogram scan of abdomen confirmed acute cholecystitis with a 5 x 5 cm retroperitoneal mass. He underwent cholecystectomy with excision of this mass. He recovered well following his operation and was discharged from the hospital. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of intranodal palisaded myofibroblastoma.
To our knowledge, this is the first case of intranodal palisaded myofibroblastoma originating from retroperitoneum. Along with the rarity of this case, we also discussed its typical histopathological findings, aetiology and pathogenesis.
Intranodal palisaded myofibroblastoma; retroperitoneum; lymph nodes
Subglottic haemangiomas are benign vascular malformations presenting in early infancy with respiratory distress due to progressive airway obstruction. The lesion, after undergoing proliferation during the first few months, naturally involutes by an age of 2–3 years. Due to high incidence of mortality, therapy should be initiated immediately. Multiple therapeutic options, such as steroids, interferon, surgery and laser ablation, are available but the best treatment is controversial. This report describes an infant presenting with respiratory distress and cutaneous haemangioma who was detected to have airway obstructive haemangioma from the subglottis to the carina. Due to the massive size, surgical and laser ablation could not be exercised. Also, the infant showed no response to dexamethasone, prednisolone or interferon. Following failure of these modalities, the infant was successfully managed with concurrent administration of daily interferon and pulse methylprednisolone. The regime resulted in rapid shrinkage of the haemangioma and resolution of symptoms, with no recurrence up to 24 months of age.
Vascular anomalies comprise a widely heterogeneous group of tumours and malformations. Haemangioma is the most common benign tumour of vascular origin of the head and neck region. The possible sites of occurrence in oral cavity are lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, and palate. Despite its benign origin and behaviour, it is always of clinical importance to the dental profession and requires appropriate management. This case study reports a rare case of capillary haemangioma on the palatal gingiva in a 14-year-old female.
Haemangiomas are benign vascular tumours relatively common in the head and neck district but very rare in the temporal bone. Depending
on its clinical presentation, haemangioma can be mistaken for other vascular masses such as glomus tumour or other lesions of the middle
ear. Unfortunately, clinical and radiological evaluation may be insufficient to make a pre-operative diagnosis and the diagnosis is often
based upon intra-operative biopsy specimen findings.
Middle ear; Vascular tumour; Haemangioma; Glomus tumour
Lymphangioma is a benign and congenital malformation of the lymphatic system. Most lymphangiomas are preferentially located in the head and neck region. The abdominal organs are uncommon sites of origin. Several cases of lymphangioma in abdominal organs were reported, however, the pancreas is one of the rarest origins. Generally, intra-abdominal lymphangioma is asymptomatic and found incidentally, but in some cases, the patient complains of abdominal distension or a palpable mass. We describe the case of a 38-year-old male who presented with sudden-onset upper abdominal pain. Rupture of a cystic tumor of the pancreatic head was suspected, based on the findings of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic ultrasonography. Subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was undertaken. The tumor, which was 4 × 4.5 × 8 cm in size, was pathologically diagnosed as a cystic lymphangioma. In conclusion, pancreatic lymphangioma is mostly asymptomatic, a ruptured case causing ‘acute abdomen’ has never been reported. Since lymphangioma is benign, it could be observed with accurate diagnosis. The surgical indication would be limited to cases of symptomatic lymphangiomas.
Lymphangioma; Pancreas; Rupture; D2-40
A case of mulitple sclerosing haemangiomas of the lung is described from a 40-year-old woman, who presented with haemoptysis. A chest X-ray revealed multiple circumscribed coin lesions in both lungs. A right upper lobectomy was done for diagnosis. The patient has remained well for 2 years after surgery. Multiplicity of tumour masses of pulmonary sclerosing haemangiomas is extremely rare and, although benign, may pose a great diagnostic problem.