Haemangiomas are benign vascular neoplasms characterized by an abnormal proliferation of blood vessels. They may occur in any vascularized tissue including skin, subcutaneous tissue muscle and bone. These tumours are common in infancy and childhood and commonly involve subcutaneous or mucosal tissues. Intramuscular haemangiomas, a distinctive type of haemangioma occurring within skeletal muscle, account for less than 1% of all haemangiomas. They occur more often in trunk and extremity muscles, whereas involvement of the temporal muscle is extremely rare. Herein, the case is reported of a 38-year-old male who presented with a round, painless mass in the left temporal fossa, which was interpreted as an intramuscular haemangioma after a magnetic resonance imaging scan. In this report, clinico-pathological findings are described in an additional case of haemangioma involving the temporal muscle, and a review is made of the international literature on this subject.
Temporalis muscle; Benign tumour; Haemangioma
Capillary haemangioma is a benign tumour frequently encountered in the skin and other soft tissues. Histologically, these vascular lesions are characterised by nodules of capillary-sized vessels lined by flattened endothelium, each of which is subserved by a feeding vessel. Capillary haemangioma of the central and peripheral nervous system is extremely rare. Less than 20 of these lesions have been described as occurring within the confines of the spinal dura mater, in close relation to the conus medullaris and nerve roots of the cauda equina. The presenting symptoms are similar to those of more common intradural tumours at the conus-cauda region. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging modality of choice, and homogeneous enhancement following administration of Gd-DTPA is a useful clue to the diagnosis. Complete resection is the treatment of choice, and during surgery the vascular tumour is usually found encapsulated and sharply bordered from the surrounding parenchyma of the spinal cord and affected nerve roots. In the present account we give an overview of the clinical features, neuroradiological findings, therapeutic options and histopathological differential diagnostic aspects of spinal intradural capillary haemangioma. In general, vascular lesions of this entity are preoperatively misdiagnosed as neoplasms, and a higher level of clinical and radiological suspicion may avoid surgical overtreatment of these benign tumours.
Capillary haemangioma Spinal cord Vascular malformation Spinal surgery Review
Vertebral haemangiomas are recognized to be one of the commonest benign tumours of the vertebral column, occurring mostly in the thoracic spine. The vast majority of these are asymptomatic. Infrequently, these can turn symptomatic and cause neurological deficit (cord compression) through any of four reported mechanisms: (1) epidural extension; (2) expansion of the involved vertebra(e) causing spinal canal stenosis; (3) spontaneous epidural haemorrhage; (4) pathological burst fracture. Thoracic haemangiomas have been reported to be more likely to produce cord compression than lumbar haemangiomas.
A forty-nine year old male with acute onset spinal cord compression from a pathological fracture in a first lumbar vertebral haemangioma. An MRI delineated the haemangioma and extent of bleeding that caused the cord compression. These were confirmed during surgery and the haematoma was evacuated. The spine was instrumented from T12 to L2, and a cement vertebroplasty was performed intra-operatively. Written consent for publication was obtained from the patient.
The junctional location of the first lumbar vertebra, and the structural weakness from normal bone being replaced by the haemangioma, probably caused it to fracture under axial loading. This pathological fracture caused bleeding from the vascularized bone, resulting in cord compression.
Vertebral haemangioma; Pathological fracture; Spinal cord compression; Vertebroplasty; Paralysis; Paraparesis
Although benign vascular lesions are frequent in the head and the neck region, clinical evidence of cavernous haemangioma of the external auditory canal is extremely rare; when present, the lesion invades the middle ear space. Herein, a rare case of a soft mass filling the external auditory canal, not involving the tympanic membrane, in a symptomatic 59-year-old male is described. Clinical and audiological characteristics, imaging studies and surgical treatment with histological evaluation are reported, which led to a diagnosis of a cavernous haemangioma. This is only the seventh case described in the literature, to date, not involving the tympanic membrane and the middle ear space. In addition, a review has been made of the relevant literature with respect to epidemiology, presentation, evaluation, pathology, and management options for haemangiomas arising in the external auditory canal.
External auditory canal; Vascular lesion; Vascular malformation; Cavernous haemangioma
Evaluation of palpable neck masses may be a diagnostic problem in pediatric patients, with differential diagnosis including congenital, inflammatory, tumoral and traumatic lesions. Ultrasonography is usually a satisfactory method to make a correct pre-operative evaluation of neck masses, although diagnosis is often challenging for the surgeon and the radiologist and sometimes only possible after a histopathological examination of the resected lesion.
We report an 8-month-old patient with a cervical, anterior midline mass. Ultrasonographic images showed features suggesting a partly cystic lesion, with a preoperative suspect of thyroglossal duct cyst. Histological examination, performed after surgical removal of the mass, led to a diagnosis of lymph node angiomyomatous hamartoma (AH).
AH, a rarely occurring benign lymph node lesion, has been reported in the neck lateral region only twice. This case, presenting as a palpable neck midline mass, is the first reported case occurring in infancy. Although rare, AH should be included in the differential diagnosis of head and neck masses.
Angiomyomatous hamartoma; Pediatric neck mass; Ultrasonography; Lymph node
Soft tissue haemangiomas are common benign vascular lesions that can be accompanied by reactive changes in the adjacent bone structure. This study aimed to discuss the MRI features of soft-tissue haemangiomas with an emphasis on changes in bone.
The radiographic and MRI findings of 23 patients (9 males, 14 females; mean age 25 years; age range 2–46 years) with soft-tissue haemangiomas were analysed retrospectively. MR images were evaluated for location of the lesion, size, configuration, signal features, contrast patterns, proximity to adjacent bone and changes in the accompanying bone. Excisional biopsy was performed in 15 patients.
Radiographs demonstrated phleboliths in 8 patients (34%) and reactive bone changes in 4 (19%). On MRI, T1 weighted images showed that most of the lesions were isointense or isohyperintense, as compared with muscle tissue; however, on T2 weighted images all lesions appeared as hyperintense. Following intravenous gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) administration, homogeneous enhancement was observed in 3 lesions and heterogeneous enhancement was seen in 19. No enhancement was observed in one patient. Bone atrophy adjacent to the lesion was observed in four patients.
MRI is the most valuable means of diagnosing deep soft-tissue haemangiomas. Bone changes can accompany deeply situated haemangiomas; in four of our patients, we found atrophy of the bone adjacent to the lesion. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature regarding atrophy of the bone adjacent to a lesion.
Hepatic haemangiomas are the most common benign tumours of the liver and commonly present as incidental findings on sonographic examination of the abdomen. Since little is known of the natural course of these tumours, we performed a clinical and sonographic follow up of 123 haemangioma patients. Our prospective study investigated clinical and sonographic findings in 158 haemangiomas for periods of 12 to 60 months. Ninety nine haemangiomas measured less than 2 cm and had an echogenic pattern; 40 were between 2 cm and 5 cm with a mainly echogenic structure; 19 measured greater than 5 cm and showed a mixed echo pattern. At the first examination only eight patients, all with giant haemangiomas, presented symptoms which could be attributed to the tumour. During follow up only one haemangioma changed in shape and size. One patient who was symptom free at the first examination experienced right upper abdominal quadrant pain during follow up. No deterioration occurred in any of the patients with symptoms at the first examination, and all had a satisfactory quality of life. No complications arose during the follow up period. This study shows that in adults haemangiomas remain stable in size and echo patterns rarely change. Only haemangiomas greater than 5 cm may cause symptoms. Prolonged clinical and sonographic follow up of small and medium sized haemangiomas is not warranted.
Primary pancreatic tumours are extremely rare in children. We report a case of a 5-month-old male with a diffuse invasive tumour of the head of the pancreas. The tumour demonstrated peripancreatic extension into the porta hepatis, which occluded the portal vein and invaded the superior mesenteric artery. It was found to be haemangioendotheliomatosis of the pancreas. Imaging, pathological findings and a brief relevant classification of haemangioma are discussed.
Haemangiomas are one of the most common soft tissue tumours comprising 7% of all benign tumours. Vascular malformations are often confused with haemangiomas. The etiology is unknown. They are common in infancy and childhood and females are more commonly affected. These tumours may be superficial or deep, and deeply seated lesions, are difficult to diagnose clinically and hence require radiographic assessment. Deep-seated haemangiomas are usually intramuscular, although intra-articular synovial haemangiomas also occur. The commonest anatomic site is the lower limb.
Despite their vascular origin, haemangiomas do not metastasize or undergo malignant transformation. Many treatment modalities for the symptomatic haemangioma are available but surgical excision is the preferred treatment. We present an unusual case of a dumb-bell intramuscular haemangioma involving the triceps and extending into the cubital tunnel of the elbow, distinguish between haemangiomas and vascular malformations and emphasize the importance of surgical technique in ensuring ulnar nerve safety.
Cavernous haemangioma; Haemangioma; Triceps; Intramuscular haemangioma
Lobular capillary haemangioma, known as pyogenic granuloma, is a relatively common benign vascular neoplasm that is composed of hyperplastic clusters of capillaries arranged in a lobular architectural pattern. Most mucosal lobular capillary haemangioma (LCH) of the head and neck arise in the oral cavity, but the nasal cavity involvement is rare. We report here on the CT imaging findings of two cases of LCH involving the nasal cavity, with an emphasis being placed on the different pattern of enhancement of the tumour on the enhanced CT scans.
lobular capillary haemangioma; nasal cavity; computed tomography
Intramuscular haemangiomas are benign malformations of blood vessels occurring in skeletal muscles. Because of the rarity of these lesions, their deep location and variable clinical presentation, they often pose diagnostic difficulties. We herein present the first reported case of intramuscular haemangioma occurring in the levator anguli oris muscle. A 26-year-old man was referred to our Department for evaluation and management of a progressive swelling of the right cheek. Based mainly on the imaging findings, a preoperative diagnosis of intramuscular haemangioma was made and surgery was performed. During intervention, a highly vascular soft tissue mass was identified within the levator anguli oris muscle. The lesion was completely removed via an intraoral approach, and histopathological examination showed an intramuscular haemangioma.
Intramuscular haemangioma; Levator anguli oris
Inclusions of ectopic breast tissue in axillary lymph nodes are reported very infrequently and typically are only identified microscopically as an incidental finding. Furthermore the development of a benign proliferative lesion in the form of an intraductal papilloma from intranodal ectopic breast tissue is an extremely rare phenomenon with only three previous cases reported. This report describes an unusual and rare case of an intraductal papilloma arising in an axillary lymph node of a patient known to have the human immunodeficiency virus.
A 40-year-old Black African woman underwent excision of an enlarged palpable axillary lymph node. In the preceding 7 years she had received at least six separate surgical excisions to her ipsilateral breast for papillomatosis. The last surgical intervention was performed 1 year prior to presentation with an enlarged axillary lymph node. Histological examination of her axillary lymph node revealed a papillomatous proliferative epithelial lesion within an apparent encompassing duct, resembling a mammary intraductal papilloma. In the surrounding lymphoid tissue small groups of duct-like structures were additionally noted. Immunostaining with a panel of myoepithelial markers in conjunction with oestrogen receptor produced a mixed heterogeneous staining pattern in both the papillomatous lesion and the peripheral duct-like structures. This confirmed the diagnosis of a benign intraductal papilloma within an axillary lymph node, considered to have arisen from ectopic breast tissue.
This case demonstrates that intranodal ectopic breast tissue has the potential to undergo benign proliferative change albeit extremely rarely. Therefore this possibility must be considered to ensure the correct diagnosis is made. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report which has described recurrent intraductal papillomas and the subsequent development of an intraductal papilloma within an ipsilateral axillary lymph node, in a patient who is human immunodeficiency virus positive. There is minimal literature investigating the specific types of breast pathologies experienced by patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus and it remains unexplored as to whether human immunodeficiency virus may lead to proliferative papillomatous epithelial changes. This report considers the role of the human papillomavirus and recommends that further investigatory studies are required.
Axillary lymph node; Ectopic breast tissue; HIV-infection; Intraductal papilloma
Schwannoma arising in a lymph node is an extremely rare primary mesenchymal tumor of the lymph node. Although intranodal schwannoma is benign, this lesion in a lymph node may be initially alarming and it may suggest a diagnosis of intranodal metastasis from a spindle cell tumor. Microscopic examination of tumor shows Antoni A areas, which are moderate to highly cellular areas of elongated cells arranged in fascicles, and Antoni B areas, which are hypocellular areas with myxoid and microcystic change. Tumor cell morphology is similar in both areas with elongated shape and regular oval nuclei. Immunohistochemistry report shows strong and diffuse positivity for S-100 which is consistent with Schwann cell origin. We report a rare case of intranodal schwannoma arising in the hilar lymph node with its clinical, light microscopic, and immunohistochemical findings
Schwannoma; Lymph node; Myofibroblastoma
AIM--To question the observer reliability or agreement of reports on the intranodal and extranodal tumour growth patterns in early metastasised non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS--In a pilot study original histological sections of mediastinal lymph node metastases from NSCLC obtained by lymph node dissection (n = 82) or by mediastinoscopy (n = 62) were examined and classified independently by three pathologists as extranodal, intranodal, or indefinite. After clear criteria for these growth patterns had been defined sections were re-examined and recategorised one year later. Interobserver agreement was examined for both investigations. RESULTS--In the dissected lymph nodes the kappa value improved significantly from 0.52 (moderate agreement) at the first investigation to 0.72 (good agreement) at the second. In the mediastinoscopic lymph node biopsy specimens an increase in kappa value from 0.50 at the first to 0.67 at the second examination was found, although this improvement was not significant. In mediastinoscopic biopsy specimens a very high proportion of tissue samples showed indefinite tumour extension. CONCLUSION--Good reproducibility of intranodal and extranodal growth patterns in the histological examination of mediastinal lymph node metastases can be achieved, provided that pathologists use strictly defined criteria. In mediastinoscopic biopsy specimens it is often impossible to differentiate between intranodal and extranodal tumour growth.
It is important to distinguish between orbital cavernous haemangioma and schwannoma because the treatments of choice for the two tumours are different. The aim was to evaluate MR imaging findings distinguishing the two tumours.
Magnetic resonance imaging including T1- and T2-weighted imaging and contrast-enhanced MR imaging was performed in 43 patients with cavernous haemangiomas and 16 patients with schwannomas confirmed by pathology. Location, configuration, margins, signal intensity, homogeneity and enhancement pattern of the tumour were retrospectively evaluated.
There was a significant difference between cavernous haemangiomas and schwannomas regarding the location, configuration and margins of the mass, signal intensity and homogeneity on T1- and T2-weighted imaging, the spread pattern of contrast enhancement, the enhancement pattern and the type of time–intensity curve (P < 0.05). Markedly homogeneous hyperintensity signal on T2-weighted imaging and the spread pattern of the contrast enhancement favoured cavernous haemangioma rather than schwannoma (P < 0.01).
Cavernous haemangiomas and schwannomas have different MR imaging features that could be helpful in the differentiation between the tumours. The spread pattern of the contrast enhancement on dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging is the most reliable finding distinguishing cavernous haemangiomas from schwannomas.
Orbit; Cavernous haemangioma; Schwannoma; Magnetic resonance imaging; Differential diagnosis
Adrenal haemangioma is a rare, benign, non-functioning neoplasm. Haemangiomas are tumours mainly affecting the liver. In 1955, Johnson and Jeppesen described the first adrenal cavernous haemangioma. Here the authors report a large adrenal haemangioma presenting in a 75-year-old woman who had experienced left flank pain for 5 months. Laboratory examinations and the plasma levels of tumour markers in the patient were within normal limits. Imaging with ultrasound and CT showed a heterogeneous 15×14×18 cm mass located in the left adrenal gland. The tumour showed irregular peripheral enhancement after bolus intravenous injection of contrast medium. The mass was removed surgically and histopathology revealed infracted cavernous haemangioma. No signs of malignancy were detected. Although rare, haemangioma should be included in the differential diagnosis of adrenal neoplasms.
To report a case of intramuscular haemangioma (IMH) with a rare presentation in the mylohyoid, with emphasis on the clinical appearance, and histologic characteristics of the lesion.
Case report and review of the literature.
Neck swellings can often present a diagnostic dilemma, with a wide preoperative differential diagnosis. IMH are rare benign haemangiomas occurring within the skeletal muscle. They account for approximately 1% of all haemangiomas. These are uncommon in the head and neck region and occur most frequently in the trunk and extremities. In the head and neck, masseter and trapezius are the most common sites involved. Intramuscular haemangioma is seldom diagnosed preoperatively, perhaps due to unfamiliarity with this uncommon lesion and nonspecific clinical findings.
Mylohyoid; Intramuscular haemangioma; Benign; Neck swelling
Haemangioma is the most common benign tumour of the liver. Most of them are small in size (less than 4 cm) and are often asymptomatic and discovered incidentally on modern diagnostic imaging. Lesions with a diameter larger than 4 cm are called giant haemangiomas, and these are usually located in the right hepatic lobe. Although haemangioma is the most frequent benign tumour of the liver, ‘giant’ haemangiomas are rare. Such lesions may give rise to symptoms requiring treatment. In this case report, we describe the case of a 50-year-old Indian man who presented with giant liver haemangioma and systemic inflammatory manifestations.
Aim: To investigate whether extracutaneous infantile haemangioma-like tumours are immunohistochemically similar to cutaneous infantile haemangiomas.
Methods: Mammary, salivary gland, liver (one each), and placental (two cases) capillary haemangiomas and typical examples of cutaneous (eight cases) infantile haemangioma were investigated immunohistochemically for α smooth muscle actin and Glut1, a proposed marker for the skin localised lesion. Positive internal controls included red blood cells, perineurium, trophoblast, and endothelial cells of the placental capillaries. Extralesional vessel endothelium acted as a negative control (except in the placenta). The liver haemangioma and both chorioangiomas presented in patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.
Results: The endothelial cells of all the vascular lesions were Glut1 positive. These were consistently surrounded by a rim of α smooth muscle actin positive pericytic cells. Controls reacted appropriately.
Conclusions: All infantile haemangiomas were immunohistochemically positive for Glut1: expression of this molecule was not limited to infantile haemangiomas of the skin. These tumours comprise proliferations of both endothelial and pericytic cells. The association with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome may provide a clue to the molecular genetics of infantile haemangioma.
Glut1; chorioangioma; infantile haemangioma
Gastrointestinal haemangiomas make up 0.05% of all intestinal neoplasms. They are sometimes multiple and usually present with pain, bleeding, and obstruction. An associated haemangiomatous change in regional lymph nodes has not been reported previously. A woman of 21 years presented with abdominal pain and vomiting. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography scan showed a lower abdominal mass. Laparotomy revealed a small bowel tumour causing an intussusception together with enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes. Pathological examination revealed a small bowel haemangioma with mesenteric node involvement. The pathogenesis of haemangiomatous involvement of lymph nodes is discussed. Hamartomatous change is the likely cause in this patient.
Key Words: haemangioma • lymph node • intussusception • small bowel
Intramuscular haemangiomas are uncommon, benign tumours frequently arising in the trunk and extremities. When they appear in the head and neck, the most frequent sites are the trapezius and the masseter muscles, rarely other sites. The case is reported of an intramuscular haemangioma with an unusual location in the orbital part of the orbicularis oculi muscle of a 54-year-old female. Clinical, radiological and histological findings as well as the treatment approach are discussed.
Head and neck neoplasm; Muscular tumour; Orbit; Intramuscular haemangioma; Orbicularis oculi muscle
Intra-osseous haemangioma is a rare, benign neoplasm that usually involves the vertebrae and craniofacial bones. Furthermore, its occurrence in the long bones is extremely rare. We report the findings of fluorine-18-fludeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and MRI in a patient with intra-osseous haemangioma in the proximal tibia, who was initially misdiagnosed as having a malignancy based on 18F-FDG PET/CT. 18F-FDG PET/CT showed a well-marginated osteolytic lesion with abnormal FDG uptake. The mass demonstrated low signal intensity on T1 weighted MRI. On T2 weighted images, the lesion appeared as a cluster of high signal intensity lobules and showed strong enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1 weighted images. Surgical curettage was performed and histopathological examination of the excised tissue confirmed a cavernous haemangioma.
An intracardiac haemangioma with papillary endothelial hyperplasia (PEH) and liver involvement has not been previously reported in the English literature. This report describes a 65 year old man with a left ventricular haemangioma with PEH coexistent with multiple nodular hepatic haemangiomas. Transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography identified a large tumour in the left ventricular cavity with a pedicle connected to the apex. Abdominal sonography also identified multiple hyperechoic hepatic tumours. Magnetic resonance imaging showed hypervascularity of both the cardiac and hepatic lesions. The left ventricular tumour was totally resected and the liver nodules were biopsied. Tissue pathological study showed that both the left ventricular tumour and liver lesions were haemangiomas with PEH. The patient was discharged without complications postoperatively.
haemangioma; papillary endothelial hyperplasia; liver; heart
The 'Pinocchio' or 'Cyrano' nose is a rare condition in which deformity of the nasal tip is produced by an underlying soft tissue tumour. Previously reported cases have been due to either capillary or cavernous haemangiomas (angiolipomas). The deformity is the cause of much teasing in children. There has been debate as to whether surgical intervention is indicated, as a proportion of cases will regress spontaneously. We report a case of 'Pinocchio' nose with a lymphangioma of the nasal tip which is previously undescribed and review the options for management.
Vascular anomalies comprise a widely heterogeneous group of tumours and malformations. Haemangioma is the most common benign tumour of vascular origin of the head and neck region. The possible sites of occurrence in oral cavity are lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, and palate. Despite its benign origin and behaviour, it is always of clinical importance to the dental profession and requires appropriate management. This case study reports a rare case of capillary haemangioma on the palatal gingiva in a 14-year-old female.