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1.  Cavernous haemangioma of the temporalis muscle: case report and review of the literature 
Haemangiomas are benign vascular neoplasms characterized by an abnormal proliferation of blood vessels. They may occur in any vascularized tissue including skin, subcutaneous tissue muscle and bone. These tumours are common in infancy and childhood and commonly involve subcutaneous or mucosal tissues. Intramuscular haemangiomas, a distinctive type of haemangioma occurring within skeletal muscle, account for less than 1% of all haemangiomas. They occur more often in trunk and extremity muscles, whereas involvement of the temporal muscle is extremely rare. Herein, the case is reported of a 38-year-old male who presented with a round, painless mass in the left temporal fossa, which was interpreted as an intramuscular haemangioma after a magnetic resonance imaging scan. In this report, clinico-pathological findings are described in an additional case of haemangioma involving the temporal muscle, and a review is made of the international literature on this subject.
PMCID: PMC2667234  PMID: 18669073
Temporalis muscle; Benign tumour; Haemangioma
2.  Unusual presentation of a pancreatic mass in an infant: pancreatic haemangioendotheliomatosis 
The British Journal of Radiology  2011;84(1008):e232-e235.
Primary pancreatic tumours are extremely rare in children. We report a case of a 5-month-old male with a diffuse invasive tumour of the head of the pancreas. The tumour demonstrated peripancreatic extension into the porta hepatis, which occluded the portal vein and invaded the superior mesenteric artery. It was found to be haemangioendotheliomatosis of the pancreas. Imaging, pathological findings and a brief relevant classification of haemangioma are discussed.
PMCID: PMC3473828  PMID: 22101589
3.  Cavernous haemangioma of the external auditory canal: clinical case and review of the literature 
Although benign vascular lesions are frequent in the head and the neck region, clinical evidence of cavernous haemangioma of the external auditory canal is extremely rare; when present, the lesion invades the middle ear space. Herein, a rare case of a soft mass filling the external auditory canal, not involving the tympanic membrane, in a symptomatic 59-year-old male is described. Clinical and audiological characteristics, imaging studies and surgical treatment with histological evaluation are reported, which led to a diagnosis of a cavernous haemangioma. This is only the seventh case described in the literature, to date, not involving the tympanic membrane and the middle ear space. In addition, a review has been made of the relevant literature with respect to epidemiology, presentation, evaluation, pathology, and management options for haemangiomas arising in the external auditory canal.
PMCID: PMC3324958  PMID: 22500069
External auditory canal; Vascular lesion; Vascular malformation; Cavernous haemangioma
4.  Lumbar vertebral haemangioma causing pathological fracture, epidural haemorrhage, and cord compression: a case report and review of literature 
Vertebral haemangiomas are recognized to be one of the commonest benign tumours of the vertebral column, occurring mostly in the thoracic spine. The vast majority of these are asymptomatic. Infrequently, these can turn symptomatic and cause neurological deficit (cord compression) through any of four reported mechanisms: (1) epidural extension; (2) expansion of the involved vertebra(e) causing spinal canal stenosis; (3) spontaneous epidural haemorrhage; (4) pathological burst fracture. Thoracic haemangiomas have been reported to be more likely to produce cord compression than lumbar haemangiomas.
A forty-nine year old male with acute onset spinal cord compression from a pathological fracture in a first lumbar vertebral haemangioma. An MRI delineated the haemangioma and extent of bleeding that caused the cord compression. These were confirmed during surgery and the haematoma was evacuated. The spine was instrumented from T12 to L2, and a cement vertebroplasty was performed intra-operatively. Written consent for publication was obtained from the patient.
Clinical Relevance
The junctional location of the first lumbar vertebra, and the structural weakness from normal bone being replaced by the haemangioma, probably caused it to fracture under axial loading. This pathological fracture caused bleeding from the vascularized bone, resulting in cord compression.
PMCID: PMC3127359  PMID: 21756575
Vertebral haemangioma; Pathological fracture; Spinal cord compression; Vertebroplasty; Paralysis; Paraparesis
5.  Natural history of hepatic haemangiomas: clinical and ultrasound study. 
Gut  1991;32(6):677-680.
Hepatic haemangiomas are the most common benign tumours of the liver and commonly present as incidental findings on sonographic examination of the abdomen. Since little is known of the natural course of these tumours, we performed a clinical and sonographic follow up of 123 haemangioma patients. Our prospective study investigated clinical and sonographic findings in 158 haemangiomas for periods of 12 to 60 months. Ninety nine haemangiomas measured less than 2 cm and had an echogenic pattern; 40 were between 2 cm and 5 cm with a mainly echogenic structure; 19 measured greater than 5 cm and showed a mixed echo pattern. At the first examination only eight patients, all with giant haemangiomas, presented symptoms which could be attributed to the tumour. During follow up only one haemangioma changed in shape and size. One patient who was symptom free at the first examination experienced right upper abdominal quadrant pain during follow up. No deterioration occurred in any of the patients with symptoms at the first examination, and all had a satisfactory quality of life. No complications arose during the follow up period. This study shows that in adults haemangiomas remain stable in size and echo patterns rarely change. Only haemangiomas greater than 5 cm may cause symptoms. Prolonged clinical and sonographic follow up of small and medium sized haemangiomas is not warranted.
PMCID: PMC1378888  PMID: 2060877
6.  CT findings in two cases of lobular capillary haemangioma of the nasal cavity: focusing on the enhancement pattern 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2012;41(2):165-168.
Lobular capillary haemangioma, known as pyogenic granuloma, is a relatively common benign vascular neoplasm that is composed of hyperplastic clusters of capillaries arranged in a lobular architectural pattern. Most mucosal lobular capillary haemangioma (LCH) of the head and neck arise in the oral cavity, but the nasal cavity involvement is rare. We report here on the CT imaging findings of two cases of LCH involving the nasal cavity, with an emphasis being placed on the different pattern of enhancement of the tumour on the enhanced CT scans.
PMCID: PMC3520364  PMID: 22074874
lobular capillary haemangioma; nasal cavity; computed tomography
7.  Adrenal haemangioma 
BMJ Case Reports  2011;2011:bcr1220103604.
Adrenal haemangioma is a rare, benign, non-functioning neoplasm. Haemangiomas are tumours mainly affecting the liver. In 1955, Johnson and Jeppesen described the first adrenal cavernous haemangioma. Here the authors report a large adrenal haemangioma presenting in a 75-year-old woman who had experienced left flank pain for 5 months. Laboratory examinations and the plasma levels of tumour markers in the patient were within normal limits. Imaging with ultrasound and CT showed a heterogeneous 15×14×18 cm mass located in the left adrenal gland. The tumour showed irregular peripheral enhancement after bolus intravenous injection of contrast medium. The mass was removed surgically and histopathology revealed infracted cavernous haemangioma. No signs of malignancy were detected. Although rare, haemangioma should be included in the differential diagnosis of adrenal neoplasms.
PMCID: PMC3079485  PMID: 22701011
8.  Intramuscular haemangioma of mylohyoid muscle: A case report 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2010;72(Suppl 1):344-346.
To report a case of intramuscular haemangioma (IMH) with a rare presentation in the mylohyoid, with emphasis on the clinical appearance, and histologic characteristics of the lesion.
Case report and review of the literature.
Neck swellings can often present a diagnostic dilemma, with a wide preoperative differential diagnosis. IMH are rare benign haemangiomas occurring within the skeletal muscle. They account for approximately 1% of all haemangiomas. These are uncommon in the head and neck region and occur most frequently in the trunk and extremities. In the head and neck, masseter and trapezius are the most common sites involved. Intramuscular haemangioma is seldom diagnosed preoperatively, perhaps due to unfamiliarity with this uncommon lesion and nonspecific clinical findings.
PMCID: PMC3451854  PMID: 23133293
Mylohyoid; Intramuscular haemangioma; Benign; Neck swelling
9.  Intramuscular haemangioma of the levator anguli oris: a rare case 
Intramuscular haemangiomas are benign malformations of blood vessels occurring in skeletal muscles. Because of the rarity of these lesions, their deep location and variable clinical presentation, they often pose diagnostic difficulties. We herein present the first reported case of intramuscular haemangioma occurring in the levator anguli oris muscle. A 26-year-old man was referred to our Department for evaluation and management of a progressive swelling of the right cheek. Based mainly on the imaging findings, a preoperative diagnosis of intramuscular haemangioma was made and surgery was performed. During intervention, a highly vascular soft tissue mass was identified within the levator anguli oris muscle. The lesion was completely removed via an intraoral approach, and histopathological examination showed an intramuscular haemangioma.
PMCID: PMC3825037  PMID: 24227903
Intramuscular haemangioma; Levator anguli oris
10.  Intramuscular cavernous haemangioma of the triceps 
Haemangiomas are one of the most common soft tissue tumours comprising 7% of all benign tumours. Vascular malformations are often confused with haemangiomas. The etiology is unknown. They are common in infancy and childhood and females are more commonly affected. These tumours may be superficial or deep, and deeply seated lesions, are difficult to diagnose clinically and hence require radiographic assessment. Deep-seated haemangiomas are usually intramuscular, although intra-articular synovial haemangiomas also occur. The commonest anatomic site is the lower limb.
Despite their vascular origin, haemangiomas do not metastasize or undergo malignant transformation. Many treatment modalities for the symptomatic haemangioma are available but surgical excision is the preferred treatment. We present an unusual case of a dumb-bell intramuscular haemangioma involving the triceps and extending into the cubital tunnel of the elbow, distinguish between haemangiomas and vascular malformations and emphasize the importance of surgical technique in ensuring ulnar nerve safety.
PMCID: PMC3199638  PMID: 22096691
Cavernous haemangioma; Haemangioma; Triceps; Intramuscular haemangioma
11.  Spinal intradural capillary haemangioma: a review 
European Spine Journal  2001;10(6):464-472.
Capillary haemangioma is a benign tumour frequently encountered in the skin and other soft tissues. Histologically, these vascular lesions are characterised by nodules of capillary-sized vessels lined by flattened endothelium, each of which is subserved by a feeding vessel. Capillary haemangioma of the central and peripheral nervous system is extremely rare. Less than 20 of these lesions have been described as occurring within the confines of the spinal dura mater, in close relation to the conus medullaris and nerve roots of the cauda equina. The presenting symptoms are similar to those of more common intradural tumours at the conus-cauda region. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging modality of choice, and homogeneous enhancement following administration of Gd-DTPA is a useful clue to the diagnosis. Complete resection is the treatment of choice, and during surgery the vascular tumour is usually found encapsulated and sharply bordered from the surrounding parenchyma of the spinal cord and affected nerve roots. In the present account we give an overview of the clinical features, neuroradiological findings, therapeutic options and histopathological differential diagnostic aspects of spinal intradural capillary haemangioma. In general, vascular lesions of this entity are preoperatively misdiagnosed as neoplasms, and a higher level of clinical and radiological suspicion may avoid surgical overtreatment of these benign tumours.
PMCID: PMC3611536  PMID: 11806386
Capillary haemangioma Spinal cord Vascular malformation Spinal surgery Review
12.  Small bowel haemangioma with local lymph node involvement presenting as intussusception 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2000;53(7):552-553.
Gastrointestinal haemangiomas make up 0.05% of all intestinal neoplasms. They are sometimes multiple and usually present with pain, bleeding, and obstruction. An associated haemangiomatous change in regional lymph nodes has not been reported previously. A woman of 21 years presented with abdominal pain and vomiting. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography scan showed a lower abdominal mass. Laparotomy revealed a small bowel tumour causing an intussusception together with enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes. Pathological examination revealed a small bowel haemangioma with mesenteric node involvement. The pathogenesis of haemangiomatous involvement of lymph nodes is discussed. Hamartomatous change is the likely cause in this patient.
Key Words: haemangioma • lymph node • intussusception • small bowel
PMCID: PMC1731219  PMID: 10961181
13.  Intramuscular haemangioma of the orbicularis oculi muscle of the orbit 
Intramuscular haemangiomas are uncommon, benign tumours frequently arising in the trunk and extremities. When they appear in the head and neck, the most frequent sites are the trapezius and the masseter muscles, rarely other sites. The case is reported of an intramuscular haemangioma with an unusual location in the orbital part of the orbicularis oculi muscle of a 54-year-old female. Clinical, radiological and histological findings as well as the treatment approach are discussed.
PMCID: PMC2640035  PMID: 18198758
Head and neck neoplasm; Muscular tumour; Orbit; Intramuscular haemangioma; Orbicularis oculi muscle
14.  Intranodal and extranodal tumour growth in early metastasised non-small cell lung cancer: problems in histological diagnosis. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1994;47(10):920-923.
AIM--To question the observer reliability or agreement of reports on the intranodal and extranodal tumour growth patterns in early metastasised non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS--In a pilot study original histological sections of mediastinal lymph node metastases from NSCLC obtained by lymph node dissection (n = 82) or by mediastinoscopy (n = 62) were examined and classified independently by three pathologists as extranodal, intranodal, or indefinite. After clear criteria for these growth patterns had been defined sections were re-examined and recategorised one year later. Interobserver agreement was examined for both investigations. RESULTS--In the dissected lymph nodes the kappa value improved significantly from 0.52 (moderate agreement) at the first investigation to 0.72 (good agreement) at the second. In the mediastinoscopic lymph node biopsy specimens an increase in kappa value from 0.50 at the first to 0.67 at the second examination was found, although this improvement was not significant. In mediastinoscopic biopsy specimens a very high proportion of tissue samples showed indefinite tumour extension. CONCLUSION--Good reproducibility of intranodal and extranodal growth patterns in the histological examination of mediastinal lymph node metastases can be achieved, provided that pathologists use strictly defined criteria. In mediastinoscopic biopsy specimens it is often impossible to differentiate between intranodal and extranodal tumour growth.
PMCID: PMC502176  PMID: 7962605
15.  Intranodal palisaded myofibroblastoma: a case report 
Cases Journal  2010;3:45.
Intranodal palisaded myofibroblastoma is a rare benign soft tissue tumor, almost always arising from inguinal lymph nodes. It usually presents as a painless, slow-growing inguinal mass. We report herein a case of an intranodal palisaded myofibroblastoma occurring in a 36-year-old man. The salient clinicopathologic features of this unusual tumor are presented and the literature is briefly reviewed.
PMCID: PMC2824639  PMID: 20205819
16.  Left ventricular haemangioma with papillary endothelial hyperplasia and liver involvement 
Heart  2004;90(8):e49.
An intracardiac haemangioma with papillary endothelial hyperplasia (PEH) and liver involvement has not been previously reported in the English literature. This report describes a 65 year old man with a left ventricular haemangioma with PEH coexistent with multiple nodular hepatic haemangiomas. Transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography identified a large tumour in the left ventricular cavity with a pedicle connected to the apex. Abdominal sonography also identified multiple hyperechoic hepatic tumours. Magnetic resonance imaging showed hypervascularity of both the cardiac and hepatic lesions. The left ventricular tumour was totally resected and the liver nodules were biopsied. Tissue pathological study showed that both the left ventricular tumour and liver lesions were haemangiomas with PEH. The patient was discharged without complications postoperatively.
PMCID: PMC1768380  PMID: 15253991
haemangioma; papillary endothelial hyperplasia; liver; heart
17.  The 'Pinocchio' nasal deformity due to cavernous lymphangioma. 
The 'Pinocchio' or 'Cyrano' nose is a rare condition in which deformity of the nasal tip is produced by an underlying soft tissue tumour. Previously reported cases have been due to either capillary or cavernous haemangiomas (angiolipomas). The deformity is the cause of much teasing in children. There has been debate as to whether surgical intervention is indicated, as a proportion of cases will regress spontaneously. We report a case of 'Pinocchio' nose with a lymphangioma of the nasal tip which is previously undescribed and review the options for management.
PMCID: PMC1295340  PMID: 7562857
18.  Intra-articular knee haemangioma originating from the anterior cruciate ligament: a case report 
Synovial haemangioma is a rare intra-articular benign tumour, which may arise from any synovium-lined surface, but particularly in the knee joint. Synovial haemangioma originating from the anterior cruciate ligament has not been reported previously.
Case presentation
A 34-year-old man presented with a history of intermittent knee pain, locking and swelling.
Knee intra-articular haemangioma, a very rare benign tumour, is often misdiagnosed. Magnetic resonance imaging is effective in detecting this lesion and should be performed in cases of persistent knee swelling and pain.
PMCID: PMC2516524  PMID: 18662402
19.  Segmentectomy for giant pulmonary sclerosing haemangiomas with high serum KL-6 levels 
We describe a 61-year old female patient with a giant pulmonary sclerosing haemangioma (PSH) and an extremely high preoperative serum KL-6 level. During an annual health screening, the patient showed a posterior mediastinal mass on chest radiography. Chest computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-circumscribed 60 mm diameter nodule with a marked contrast enhancement in the left lower lobe. The preoperative serum KL-6 level was elevated to 8204 U/ml. We performed a four-port thoracoscopic basal segmentectomy and lymph node sampling for diagnosis and therapy. The postoperative diagnosis showed PSH. The serum KL-6 level decreased dramatically with tumour resection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with PSH showing a high serum KL-6 level.
PMCID: PMC3380972  PMID: 22454483
Pulmonary sclerosing haemangioma; KL-6; Thoracoscopic segmentectomy
20.  Evaluation of MR imaging findings differentiating cavernous haemangiomas from schwannomas in the orbit 
European Radiology  2010;20(9):2221-2228.
It is important to distinguish between orbital cavernous haemangioma and schwannoma because the treatments of choice for the two tumours are different. The aim was to evaluate MR imaging findings distinguishing the two tumours.
Magnetic resonance imaging including T1- and T2-weighted imaging and contrast-enhanced MR imaging was performed in 43 patients with cavernous haemangiomas and 16 patients with schwannomas confirmed by pathology. Location, configuration, margins, signal intensity, homogeneity and enhancement pattern of the tumour were retrospectively evaluated.
There was a significant difference between cavernous haemangiomas and schwannomas regarding the location, configuration and margins of the mass, signal intensity and homogeneity on T1- and T2-weighted imaging, the spread pattern of contrast enhancement, the enhancement pattern and the type of time–intensity curve (P < 0.05). Markedly homogeneous hyperintensity signal on T2-weighted imaging and the spread pattern of the contrast enhancement favoured cavernous haemangioma rather than schwannoma (P < 0.01).
Cavernous haemangiomas and schwannomas have different MR imaging features that could be helpful in the differentiation between the tumours. The spread pattern of the contrast enhancement on dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging is the most reliable finding distinguishing cavernous haemangiomas from schwannomas.
PMCID: PMC2914262  PMID: 20393718
Orbit; Cavernous haemangioma; Schwannoma; Magnetic resonance imaging; Differential diagnosis
21.  Capillary haemangioma of the testis 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2000;53(8):641-642.
A case of testicular capillary haemangioma is reported and the importance of intraoperative examination of this very rare lesion emphasised. Capillary haemangioma of the testis can be similar to malignant testicular tumours on clinical presentation, as well as on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, and therefore should be included in the intraoperative differential diagnosis. Because of the benign nature of this lesion, conservative surgical treatment by means of tumour enucleation with preservation of the testis is possible, if intraoperative examination of frozen sections of representative tissue can be performed.
Key Words: testis • haemangioma
PMCID: PMC1762925  PMID: 11002773
22.  Moderate size infantile haemangioma of the neck – conservative or surgical treatment? : a case report 
Infantile haemangioma is the commonest benign tumour in infancy. While the management of the majority of small haemangiomas consists of simply watching or steroid treatment, giant and moderate size infantile haemangiomas are challenging problems, especially in health systems with limited resources in developing countries.
Case presentation
A one-year old boy was presented to us by his parents with a moderate size haemangioma on the posterior triangle of the left side of the neck. Clinical assessment and radiological examinations were helpful in confirming the diagnosis. Surgical excision was performed successfully without major morbidity. Partial necrosis of the skin flap developed shortly after the operation but healing was complete in eight weeks. There was no residual problem on review five years after the operation.
Early surgical excision of a moderate size infantile haemangioma may be justified especially when there is difficulty of follow-up, which can be a common problem in developing countries. This approach will prevent growth deformation, impact on nearby vital organs and psychological problems.
PMCID: PMC2265728  PMID: 18284695
23.  Laparoscopic splenectomy for haemangioma of the spleen 
Splenic haemangioma is a rare disorder but remains the most common benign neoplasm of the spleen. It accounts for 0.1 to 14% of many large autopsy series. Most haemangiomas tend to be discovered in adults in the age group 30-50 years. In 80% of cases splenic haemangioma is usually found incidentally. Spontaneous rupture has been reported to occur in as many as 25% of these patients especially when the diameter of the tumour is more than 4 cm necessitating splenectomy as the only modality of treatment. We report a case of splenic haemangioma in a 23-year female. Laparoscopic splenectomy was undertaken and spleen removed through a small left inguinal hand port incision. Post-operative period was uneventful and histopathological examination report showed splenic haemangioma. She remains well three years post-operative.
PMCID: PMC3902560  PMID: 24501510
Haemangioma; laparoscope; spleen; splenectomy
24.  MRI manifestations of soft-tissue haemangiomas and accompanying reactive bone changes 
The British Journal of Radiology  2011;84(1008):1100-1108.
Soft tissue haemangiomas are common benign vascular lesions that can be accompanied by reactive changes in the adjacent bone structure. This study aimed to discuss the MRI features of soft-tissue haemangiomas with an emphasis on changes in bone.
The radiographic and MRI findings of 23 patients (9 males, 14 females; mean age 25 years; age range 2–46 years) with soft-tissue haemangiomas were analysed retrospectively. MR images were evaluated for location of the lesion, size, configuration, signal features, contrast patterns, proximity to adjacent bone and changes in the accompanying bone. Excisional biopsy was performed in 15 patients.
Radiographs demonstrated phleboliths in 8 patients (34%) and reactive bone changes in 4 (19%). On MRI, T1 weighted images showed that most of the lesions were isointense or isohyperintense, as compared with muscle tissue; however, on T2 weighted images all lesions appeared as hyperintense. Following intravenous gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) administration, homogeneous enhancement was observed in 3 lesions and heterogeneous enhancement was seen in 19. No enhancement was observed in one patient. Bone atrophy adjacent to the lesion was observed in four patients.
MRI is the most valuable means of diagnosing deep soft-tissue haemangiomas. Bone changes can accompany deeply situated haemangiomas; in four of our patients, we found atrophy of the bone adjacent to the lesion. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature regarding atrophy of the bone adjacent to a lesion.
PMCID: PMC3473825  PMID: 21123304
25.  Ovarian haemangioma: A rare case report☆ 
Haemangioma of ovary is a rare tumour.
We report an ovarian haemangioma which presented as an acute abdomen due to an adnexal mass.
We report an ovarian haemangioma which presented as an acute abdomen due to an adnexal mass. Haemangiomas have been reported in other organs but ovarian haemangioma is a rare tumor, usually asymptomatic and presenting as an incidental finding. Large lesions tend to present clinically with pain. A few cases have been described in the literature.
Considering their rare occurrence such tumors are a diagnostic challenge.
PMCID: PMC3825994  PMID: 24091074
Ovarian haemangioma; Ovarian tumour; Mesenchymal tumour

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