Type 1 endoleak of common iliac artery (type Ib endoleak) should be treated during endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). An 86-year-old female was diagnosed with abdominal aortic aneurysm measuring 6.6 cm in diameter and right internal iliac artery aneurysm measuring 4.0 cm in diameter. She underwent EVAR after right internal iliac artery embolization. There was type Ib endoleak, which was repaired by balloon-expandable stent, Palmaz XL stent (Cordis). We report successful treatment of type Ib endoleak with Palmaz XL stent, which may be considered as an alternative option for type Ib endoleak after EVAR.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm; Endovascular procedure; Endoleak
Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has well documented advantages over traditional open repair and has been widely adopted as the alternative treatment modality for abdominal aortic aneurysm. However, endoleaks specifically type II can be a significant problem with this technique leading to aortic sac expansion and potential rupture. A large number of type II endoleaks are caused by persistent inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) retrograde bleeding. Various methods to try to manage this complication have been previously described. IMA embolization via the marginal artery of Drummond, however, has not been adequately popularized as an alternative less invasive approach to the treatment of type II endoleak.
Two men, ages 77 and 81, underwent uneventful EVAR for 5.5 and 5.0 cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms, respectively, using Zenith Cook® bifurcated stent grafts. Computed tomography angiography at 1 and 6 months postoperatively demonstrated small type II endoleaks in both cases which were followed clinically. Subsequent follow-up tomography scan at 12 months revealed persistent type II endoleaks related to retrograde filling from the IMA with significant enlargement of the aneurysm sacs. Both patients underwent successful IMA coil embolization via the marginal artery of Drummond.
Percutaneous IMA embolization using standard endovascular techniques to access the marginal artery of Drummond is an alternative, and in our opinion, preferred technique for controlling type II endoleaks caused by a persistently patent IMA.
Endoleak; marginal artery; drummond; coil embolization
Aortic pathology progression and/or procedure related complications following endovascular repair should always be considered mostly in older patients. We herein describe a hybrid procedure for treatment of rapidly expanding thoracoabdominal aneurysm following endovascular treatment of a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm in an older patient.
A 82-year-old man at 18 months after endovascular surgery for a contained rupture of descending thoracic aortic aneurysm revealed a type IV thoracoabdominal aneurysm with significant increase of the aortic diameters at superior mesenteric and renal artery levels. A hybrid approach consisting of preventive visceral vessel revascularization and endovascular repair of entire abdominal aorta was performed. Under general anaesthesia and by xyphopubic laparotomy, the infrarenal aneurysmatic aorta and common iliac arteries were replaced by a bifurcated woven prosthetic graf. From each of the prosthetic branches two reverse 14x7 mm bifurcated PTFE prosthetic grafts were anastomized to both renal arteries and to the celiac axis and superior mesenteric artery, respectively. Vessel ischemia was restricted to the time required for anastomosis. Three 10 cm Gore endovascular stent-grafts for a total length of 15 cm, were used. The overlapping of the stent-grafts was carried out from the bottom upwards, starting from the aorto-iliac prosthetic body up to the healthy segment of thoracic aorta, 40 mm from the previous stent-grafts.
The patient was discharged on the 9th postoperative day.
This technique offers the advantage of a less invasive treatment, reducing the risk of paraplegia, visceral ischaemia and pulmonary complications, mostly in older patients.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility and clinical efficacy of percutaneous transabdominal treatment of endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair.
Materials and Methods
Between 2000 and 2007, six patients with type I (n = 4) or II (n = 2) endoleaks were treated by the percutaneous transabdominal approach using embolization with N-butyl cyanoacrylate with or without coils. Five patients underwent a single session and one patient had two sessions of embolization. The median time between aneurysm repair and endoleak treatment was 25.5 months (range: 0-84 months). Follow-up CT images were evaluated for changes in the size and shape of the aneurysm sac and presence or resolution of endoleaks. The median follow-up after endoleak treatment was 16.4 months (range: 0-37 months)
Technical success was achieved in all six patients. Clinical success was achieved in four patients with complete resolution of the endoleak confirmed by follow-up CT. Clinical failure was observed in two patients. One eventually underwent surgical conversion, and the other was lost to follow-up. There were no procedure-related complications.
The percutaneous transabdominal approach for the treatment of type I or II endoleaks, after endovascular aneurysm repair, is an alternative method when conventional endovascular methods have failed.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm; Endovascular aneurysm repair; Endoleak; Embolization; N-butyl cyanoacrylate
We sought to evaluate and describe our centre’s experience with the Amplatzer vascular plug (AVP) for the occlusion of common and internal iliac arteries (CIA; IIA) during endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR).
We performed a retrospective analysis of 20 consecutive patients between October 2006 and December 2007, who underwent occlusion of the CIA or IIA before or during EVAR to prevent endoleak.
Among these 20 patients, 21 occlusion procedures occurred and 20 were successful. In the only unsuccessful case, the patient had EVAR, but occlusion with an AVP was not possible because of severe narrowing at the origin of the vessel. Of the successfully treated patients, 2 presented with ruptured aneurysms, whereas the others had elective procedures. Eleven patients received aortouni-iliac grafts and femoral–femoral bypass, and 9 patients received a bifurcated stent graft. In 5 patients, the AVP occlusion and EVAR procedures were staged; in these cases occlusion occurred first, followed by EVAR on average 29 (standard deviation [SD] 23) days later. We deployed 7 AVPs in the CIA, whereas 13 were deployed in the IIA. The average diameter of the vessels occluded was 10 (SD 1) mm and the average size of the device used was 13 (SD 1) mm, representing a device diameter 28% (SD 2%) greater than the vessel diameter. We used a single device in 18 patients, whereas 2 devices were deployed in the same artery in 2 patients. Four patients underwent concomitant coil embolization. On follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans, all occlusion procedures were clinically successful. At the 14-month (SD 1 mo) follow-up, 4 patients had a small type-II endoleak unrelated to the occlusion procedure and 1 had a type-I endoleak that required graft limb extension. Four patients had buttock claudication but none had changes in sexual function, ischemic complications or device dislodgement on CT scans.
The AVP is a safe and effective method to occlude the CIA and IIA in patients undergoing EVAR.
The purpose of this study was to improve the use of 64-channel multidetector computed tomography using lower doses of ionizing radiation during follow-up procedures in a series of patients with endovascular aortic aneurysm repair.
Thirty patients receiving 5 to 29 months of follow-up after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair were analyzed using a 64-channel multidetector computed tomography device by an exam that included pre- and post-contrast with both arterial and venous phases. Leak presence and type were classified based on the exam phase.
Endoleaks were identified in 8/30 of cases; the endoleaks in 3/8 of these cases were not visible in the arterial phases of the exams.
The authors conclude that multidetector computed tomography with pre-contrast and venous phases should be a part of the ongoing follow-up of patients undergoing endovascular aortic aneurysm repair. The arterial phase can be excluded when the aneurism is stable or regresses. These findings permit a lower radiation dose without jeopardizing the correct diagnosis of an endoleak.
Multidetector Tomography; Aneurism; Aorta; Endoleak; Radiation
We herein present a 60 years old woman with Takayasu arteritis and an extensive thoracic aortic aneurysm who initially underwent a total aortic arch replacement. Then, in the second stage, thoracic endovascular aortic repair was performed using the elephant trunk graft as the proximal landing zone at four weeks after aortic arch repair. The postoperative course was relatively uncomplicated, but a type II endoleak was noted. Currently, about 5 years postoperatively, the slight type II endoleak from intercostal artery persists, but aneurism dilatation has not been noted, so the patient is being followed up.
We present a series of 4 patients in whom mechanical trauma was identified as a factor in the development of late complications after AneuR® Stent Graft placement for repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms.
In all 4 patients, Type I or III endoleaks (and pseudoaneurysms in 2 patients) were discovered several months after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair with the AneuRx device. Two patients had sustained blunt abdominal trauma in a car accident, one had suffered a traumatic fall, and another had been participating in vigorous rowing activity. In all patients, the trauma had occurred several months before the diagnosis of endoleak or pseudoaneurysm (or both) was established. In all patients, follow-up computed tomographic scans identified the complications.
In conclusion, blunt mechanical injury is an unrecognized factor contributing to the late failure of endovascular stent grafts. Vigorous physical activity may also contribute to graft disruption or to the separation of modular components. (Tex Heart Inst J 2003;30:186–93)
Aortic aneurysm, abdominal; aortic rupture; blood vessel prosthesis implantation; endovascular repair; iliac aneurysm; postoperative complications; prosthesis failure; stents; trauma
We sought to compare the efficacy of a low-permeability version of the Gore Excluder™ device with that of the original device. We used volumetric analysis and maximum transverse diameter measurements to examine abdominal aortic aneurysm size regression after endovascular aneurysm repair.
From November 2002 through April 2007, 101 patients (82% men; mean age, 71.5 ± 8.9 yr) underwent endovascular aneurysm repair with the Excluder stent-graft: 34 with the original device, and 67 with the low-permeability device. Only patients without endoleak and with preprocedural and 1- and 2-year follow-up computed tomographic scans were included. Eight patients with type II endoleak and 2 with type I endoleak were excluded. Maximum abdominal aortic aneurysm diameter and volume were measured before endovascular aneurysm repair and annually thereafter. Postprocessing, multiplanar computed tomography, and 3-dimensional reconstructions were compared with baseline measurements. Diameter and volume changes that were greater than 5 mm or that exceeded 10% were considered significant.
At 12 months, the mean maximum transverse diameter had decreased by −0.16 ± 12.1 mm in recipients of the original device and by −4.8 ± 5.9 mm in recipients of the low-permeability device (P = NS). In addition, mean reduction in volume had changed by −17 ± 16 mL in original-device recipients and by −36.1 ± 37.9 mL in low-permeability device recipients (P < 0.01).
One-year follow-up revealed that the low-permeability stent-graft resulted in a greater decrease in abdominal aortic aneurysm volume than did the original stent-graft.
Aortic aneurysm, abdominal/exclusion/repair; blood vessel prosthesis; endoleak; stent-grafts; stents; tomography, x-ray computed; treatment outcome
Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is an important treatment option for abdominal aortic aneurysms, with lower perioperative morbidity and mortality rates than open surgical aneurysm repair. However, EVAR is associated with several unique complications that are not encountered with surgical repair such as endoleaks, graft migration, and renal artery occlusion. Preservation of the morbidity and mortality advantages of EVAR relies on the successful treatment of these complications by minimally invasive, endovascular approaches. Some of the techniques used to treat EVAR complications include balloon dilation and stenting, deployment of additional stent-graft pieces, coil embolization, and thrombolysis. Although the employment of these endovascular salvage techniques is common, data regarding their intermediate- to long-term efficacy is sparse, and further studies are needed to determine their efficacy in preventing conversion to open aneurysm repair and aneurysm rupture.
Endovascular repair; aortic aneurysm; stent graft; endoleak
Endoleaks are unique complications of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) that necessitate lifelong imaging surveillance for the patient. Several imaging modalities may be used to monitor the patient for endoleaks and other complications related to the stent graft. At present, computed tomographic angiography remains the gold standard for the detection of endoleaks. Other modalities that can be used to detect endoleaks include magnetic resonance, ultrasonography, nuclear medicine techniques, and pressure monitoring. In addition, follow-up imaging with digital subtraction angiography is important for endoleak classification and to guide decisions regarding therapy. In this article, we review the classification of endoleaks and discuss the different imaging strategies available for post-EVAR surveillance.
Endovascular aneurysm repair; endoleak; computed tomography; ultrasound; magnetic resonance imaging; angiography
Endovascular repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVARs) has revolutionized the treatment of aortic aneurysms, with over half of elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs performed endoluminally each year. Since the first endografts were placed two decades ago, many changes have been made in graft design, operative technique, and management of complications. This paper summarizes modern endovascular grafts, considerations in preoperative planning, and EVAR techniques. Specific areas that are addressed include endograft selection, arterial access, sheath delivery, aortic branch management, graft deployment, intravascular ultrasonography, pressure sensors, management of endoleaks and compressed limbs, and exit strategies.
Endovascular coil embolisation is increasingly used to treat unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA). Endovascular coil embolisation of UIA is associated with a 5–10% risk of morbidity and nearly zero mortality from the procedure. Complete or near complete occlusion is usually achieved in >90% of cases, and endovascular therapy seems to reduce the risk of future rupture significantly. Specific selection criteria for endovascular embolisation and novel approaches to endovascular treatment of aneurysms are discussed. Endovascular therapy appears to be a safe and effective treatment for selected UIA. Treatment failure rates will probably decrease with greater experience and advances in techniques and devices. Further study with long term follow up, however, is still necessary to characterise the efficacy, durability, and cost efficiency of endovascular treatment of UIA.
endovascular management; Guglielmi coil; intracranial aneurysm
The main criterion for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair is an AAA diameter ≥5.5 cm. However, some AAAs rupture when they are smaller. Size alone may therefore not be a sufficient criterion to determine rupture risk. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake is increased in the presence of inflammation and it was suggested that this may be a better predictor of rupture risk than AAA size. Furthermore, increased FDG uptake following endovascular AAA repair may be an indirect predictor of continuous AAA sac enlargement due to the presence of an endoleak (even if this is not detected by imaging modalities) and/or increased AAA rupture risk. The role of FDG uptake needs to be explored further in the management of AAAs.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm; fluorodeoxyglucose; endovascular aneurysm repair; rupture risk; predictor; endoleak.
For many patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm, unsuitable anatomy of the infrarenal aortic neck precludes endovascular aortic aneurysm repair or causes type I endoleak after the procedure. In an attempt to overcome these challenges, we retrospectively examined the usefulness of aortic banding as an adjunctive procedure to endovascular repair in 8 patients who had an abdominal aortic aneurysm with a complex infrarenal aortic neck. The procedures were performed with the patients under general anesthesia and involved making an 8-cm upper-midline laparotomy incision to expose the aneurysmal aorta. Three patients underwent aortic banding before endovascular repair; the other 5 underwent banding after the repair because of persistent type I endoleak. After banding, the abdominal aortic aneurysm was successfully excluded in all 8 patients. Long-term follow-up (mean, 38 ± 20 mo) revealed no type I endoleak and no procedure-related complications. In patients who have an abdominal aortic aneurysm with complex infrarenal neck anatomy or a refractory type I endoleak, performing aortic banding as an adjunctive procedure to endovascular aortic repair appears to be a safe strategy with good long-term results.
Aortic aneurysm, abdominal/complications/surgery; blood vessel prosthesis implantation/adverse effects/methods; patient selection; postoperative complications; risk factors; stents; treatment outcome; vascular surgical procedures/instrumentation
The combination of Trans-Atlantic Intersociety Consensus (TASC) D aortoiliac occlusive disease as well as a symptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is not a common occurrence. Extensive calcified atherosclerotic disease, occlusions, and small iliofemoral segmental arteries make transfemoral access difficult, if not impossible, for endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in these patients. We present a case in which “controlled rupture” of the external iliac artery with a covered stent allowed transfemoral delivery of an aortouni-iliac stent graft with a completion femoral-to-femoral bypass. The patient is a 60-year-old male with a 5.3 cm symptomatic infrarenal AAA and a history of one block right leg claudication. Preoperative computed tomography angiography revealed the patient to have occlusion of the right common iliac artery, extensive calcified stenoses of his aortoiliac segments, and a prohibitively small left external iliac artery, which measured 4.5 mm at its narrowest diameter. The patient, despite discussions concerning the suitability of his iliac arteries as conduits for the delivery of the stent graft, insisted on an endovascular approach to lessen his chances of postoperative sexual dysfunction as well as minimize his length of stay. Access was obtained through bilateral femoral artery cutdowns, and attempts at dilating the left external iliac artery using 16-French dilators were performed without success. An 8 mm × 5 cm covered self-expanding stent was deployed in the diseased 4.5 mm left external iliac artery, followed by angioplasty performed with an 8 mm noncompliant balloon to disrupt the vessel. This endoconduit now allowed accommodation of our 18-French introducer for the aortouni-iliac stent graft. The operation was completed with a femoral—femoral bypass. Flow to both hypogastric arteries was preserved. We believe use of such techniques will ultimately expand the number of patients eligible for EVAR and avoid devastating access-related complications.
Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has emerged as a viable alternative to open repair for abdominal aortic aneurysms. Endoleaks are a complication unique to EVAR and can occur in up to 25% of patients. In this article, the management of endoleaks following EVAR will be discussed.
Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR); endoleak; embolization
Isolated aneurysms of the internal iliac (hypogastric) artery are a rare variant of aorto-iliac aneurysm disease, with an incidence at around 0.04% of all aorto-iliac aneurysms. Because of their location deep within the pelvis, they may present late and are often large. The incidence of rupture is high and may be up to 38% at initial presentation; furthermore, this has been reported to carry a 58% mortality rate. As such the early and aggressive management of isolated internal iliac artery aneurysms (IIAAs) is mandatory to avoid the high morbidity and mortality associated with rupture. This article includes a literature review regarding IIAAs and outlines the current surgical and endovascular management options for this most rare and technically challenging of aneurysms.
Idiopathic spontaneous intra-abdominal haemorrhage is a rare, but challenging condition, associated with high mortality if not managed appropriately. The preoperative diagnosis is difficult, despite the recent advances in imaging. We present the clinical manifestations of this condition, as well as the available diagnostic and therapeutic modalities.
Presentation of case
We report a case of a spontaneously ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the middle colic artery, which was managed with an emergency laparotomy and aneurysmatectomy. Interestingly, no evidence of vasculitis, infection or collagen disease was discovered during the histopathology examination of the specimen.
The treatment of idiopathic spontaneous intra-abdominal haemorrhage revolves around patient resuscitation and management of the source of bleeding. In case of a ruptured aneurysm of the middle colic artery, the surgical management includes emergency laparotomy, arterial ligation and resection of the aneurysm. Transarterial embolisation has been suggested as a safe and less invasive alternative approach.
A ruptured middle colic artery aneurysm should be included in the differential diagnosis of any unexplained intra-abdominal haemorrhage. Aneurysmatectomy is the treatment of choice, with radiologic interventional techniques gaining ground in the management of this entity.
Idiopathic spontaneous intraabdominal haemorrhage; Middle colic artery; Aneurysm; Rupture; Abdominal apoplexy
The objective and importance of this study was to describe the challenges encountered with treating a high-flow vertebral arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and ruptured aneurysm in a patient with life-threatening hemorrhage. A 36-year-old female with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) presented 2 weeks after uneventful cesarean section with a rapidly expanding pulsatile neck mass. Angiography demonstrated a complex left vertebral AVF and multiple associated vertebral artery aneurysms. Emergent endovascular coil embolization was performed using a retrograde and antegrade approach to occlude the fistulas and trap the ruptured aneurysm, successfully treating the acute hemorrhage. Subsequent definitive therapy was accomplished utilizing a combined neurointerventional and neurosurgical strategy of direct-puncture acrylic embolization and ligation of the vertebral artery. Recent advances in neurointerventional technology allow novel approaches in the primary and/or preoperative treatment of complex vascular lesions such as those seen in NF1.
An 82-year-old man underwent an endovascular procedure with a commercially available endovascular graft for an anastomotic juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm. The anastomotic aneurysm, which showed no sign of infection, developed 4 years after implantation of an aortic end-to-end graft for an infrarenal aortic aneurysm.
The aneurysm was diagnosed during routine ultrasonographic follow-up; there was no apparent infection of the graft. Aortography confirmed the diagnosis and also revealed a small pseudoaneurysm at the level of the distal aortic anastomosis. Endovascular surgery was performed in the operating room with the guidance of C-arm fluoroscopy and intravascular ultrasound. Two Vanguard™ Straight Endovascular Aortic Graft Cuffs (26 × 50 mm and 24 × 50 mm) were implanted, successfully excluding both the anastomotic juxtarenal aortic aneurysm and the distal pseudoaneurysm. The renal arteries were preserved and no early or late endoleaks were observed.
The patient was discharged 2 days after the procedure. Sixteen months later, he was alive and well, with no endovascular leakage, no enlargement of the aortic aneurysms, and no sign of infection.
In our opinion, this experience shows that commercially available endovascular grafts may be used successfully to treat anastomotic aortic aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms.
Anastomosis, surgical/adverse effects; aortic aneurysm, abdominal/surgery; blood vessel prosthesis; postoperative complications/surgery; reoperation; vascular surgical procedures/methods
Aberrant right subclavian artery aneurysms are rare but demonstrate a propensity toward rupture; thus, early elective repair is mandated. Novel endovascular modalities are available to offer less-invasive treatment for a patient population with increasing comorbidities. We report a case of a 65-year-old woman with an aberrant right subclavian artery aneurysm causing dysphagia lusoria. The aneurysm was excluded proximally at Kommerell's diverticulum with a Zenith iliac plug and excluded distally by surgical ligation combined with a right carotid-subclavian artery bypass to preserve extremity perfusion.
To study the role of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in evaluating various complications following endovascular stenting of aortic aneurysms.
Materials and Methods:
Over a period of 2 years
(June 2005 to June 2007), 50 patients with aortic aneurysm on computed tomography (CT) angiogram were prospectively studied. Images were acquired on a 64 slice multidetector row CT scanner (GE—LightSpeed VCT) after intravenous administration of nonionic iodinated contrast. Nineteen patients underwent endovascular stent-graft repair based on their medical and surgical risk factors. Stent-graft related complications were recorded by CT angiography and analyzed using descriptive statistics.
Most common complication related to the endovascular stent-graft placement was endoleak (44.4%), followed by puncture site hematoma (27.8%), thrombotic occlusion of a limb of the bifurcated stent graft, kinking of the stent-graft, and difficult catheterization with intimal tear in the common iliac artery were 5.6% each. Poststent diameter of the aneurysm was an important predictor of endoleaks. All the patients with either increase or no change in the aneurysm size had endoleaks.
MDCT angiography is an important modality in identifying, describing, and following up the various complications following endovascular repair of aortic aneurysms, endoleaks being the most common complication. Decrease in the poststent diameter of the aneurysm suggested a good outcome.
Aneurysm; endoleaks; multidetector computed tomography; stents
The study assessed the effectiveness and safety of endovascular covered stents in the management of intracranial pseudoaneurysms, fusiform aneurysms and direct carotid-cavernous fistulas.
Fourteen endovascular covered stents were used to repair three pseudoaneurysms, six fu-siform aneurysms and six direct carotid-cavernous fistulas. Aneurysms were in the carotid artery in seven cases, in the vertebral artery two cases. It was not possible to treat two additional cases transcutaneously for technical reasons
Percutaneous closure of the lesions with an endovascular covered stent was successful in 13 of 15 cases. Initial follow-up showed good stent patency. No complications were observed after stent implantation. During follow-up, stent thromboses were detected in two of nine patients with follow-up digital subtracted angiography. One carotid-cavernous fistula of Barrow Type A transformed into Barrow Type D at nine month follow-up study was cured with a procudure of Onyx-18 injection.
Endovascular covered stents may be an option for percutaneous closure of intracranial pseudoaneurysms, fusiform aneurysms and direct carotid-cavernous fistulas. Endoluminal vascular repair with covered stents offers an alternative therapeutic approach to conventional modalities.
covered stent, endovascular treatment, aneurysm, carotid-cavernous fistula
Ruptured aneurysm of a branch of ileocolic artery is a rare finding and is an unusual cause of haemoperitoneum. Rapid diagnosis, and surgical or endovascular intervention are necessary to avoid devastating consequences and high mortality rates following an emergency operation after rupture. Resection is a good choice for surgical intervention for some aneurysms that are not suitable for endovascular repair. This report describes the case of a middle-aged man with a ruptured superior mesenteric artery branch aneurysm and his subsequent surgical management.
Haemoperitoneum; ileocolic artery; aneurysm; superior mesenteric artery