Internal iliac artery (IIA) aneurysms, while rare, carry a significant risk of mortality if they rupture. Endovascular intervention is now the preferred method of treatment for IIAs; however, due to technical considerations, this is not always feasible. We report a case of a patient who developed an enlarging IIA aneurysm in association with a type 2 endoleak supplied by multiple feeding arteries where conventional endovascular treatment was not possible. A novel method of effectively treating the IIA aneurysm with a posterior approach via image-guided puncture of the superior gluteal artery was employed. Five arteries supplying the superior gluteal from the contralateral internal iliac artery were selectively catheterised and coiled before the aneurysmal sac was embolised. The patient made an uneventful recovery, and follow-up imaging demonstrated resolution of the endoleak and decompression of the aneurysmal sac. This case demonstrates that the posterior approach is a safe and viable method of treating internal iliac artery aneurysm when traditional endovascular approaches are technically possible.
Type 1 endoleak of common iliac artery (type Ib endoleak) should be treated during endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). An 86-year-old female was diagnosed with abdominal aortic aneurysm measuring 6.6 cm in diameter and right internal iliac artery aneurysm measuring 4.0 cm in diameter. She underwent EVAR after right internal iliac artery embolization. There was type Ib endoleak, which was repaired by balloon-expandable stent, Palmaz XL stent (Cordis). We report successful treatment of type Ib endoleak with Palmaz XL stent, which may be considered as an alternative option for type Ib endoleak after EVAR.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm; Endovascular procedure; Endoleak
Isolated aneurysms of the iliac arteries are relatively rare conditions that traditionally have been treated by surgical reconstruction. We report our experience with endovascular treatment of iliac artery aneurysms (IAAs) with Anaconda stent graft limb. Two male patients were found to have 4.5 and 3.6 cm isolated common IAAs, respectively. The endograft was successfully advanced and deployed precisely to the intended position in both cases. In one case the internal iliac artery was embolized. No type I or II endoleak was observed immediately after the procedure. In one patient postimplantation fever (>38°C) and gluteal claudication occurred. After 2 years followup both iliac endovascular stent grafts are patent and without endoleak. Endovascular treatment with Anaconda limb stent graft seems to be a safe and feasible alternative to open surgery.
Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has well documented advantages over traditional open repair and has been widely adopted as the alternative treatment modality for abdominal aortic aneurysm. However, endoleaks specifically type II can be a significant problem with this technique leading to aortic sac expansion and potential rupture. A large number of type II endoleaks are caused by persistent inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) retrograde bleeding. Various methods to try to manage this complication have been previously described. IMA embolization via the marginal artery of Drummond, however, has not been adequately popularized as an alternative less invasive approach to the treatment of type II endoleak.
Two men, ages 77 and 81, underwent uneventful EVAR for 5.5 and 5.0 cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms, respectively, using Zenith Cook® bifurcated stent grafts. Computed tomography angiography at 1 and 6 months postoperatively demonstrated small type II endoleaks in both cases which were followed clinically. Subsequent follow-up tomography scan at 12 months revealed persistent type II endoleaks related to retrograde filling from the IMA with significant enlargement of the aneurysm sacs. Both patients underwent successful IMA coil embolization via the marginal artery of Drummond.
Percutaneous IMA embolization using standard endovascular techniques to access the marginal artery of Drummond is an alternative, and in our opinion, preferred technique for controlling type II endoleaks caused by a persistently patent IMA.
Endoleak; marginal artery; drummond; coil embolization
Aortic pathology progression and/or procedure related complications following endovascular repair should always be considered mostly in older patients. We herein describe a hybrid procedure for treatment of rapidly expanding thoracoabdominal aneurysm following endovascular treatment of a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm in an older patient.
A 82-year-old man at 18 months after endovascular surgery for a contained rupture of descending thoracic aortic aneurysm revealed a type IV thoracoabdominal aneurysm with significant increase of the aortic diameters at superior mesenteric and renal artery levels. A hybrid approach consisting of preventive visceral vessel revascularization and endovascular repair of entire abdominal aorta was performed. Under general anaesthesia and by xyphopubic laparotomy, the infrarenal aneurysmatic aorta and common iliac arteries were replaced by a bifurcated woven prosthetic graf. From each of the prosthetic branches two reverse 14x7 mm bifurcated PTFE prosthetic grafts were anastomized to both renal arteries and to the celiac axis and superior mesenteric artery, respectively. Vessel ischemia was restricted to the time required for anastomosis. Three 10 cm Gore endovascular stent-grafts for a total length of 15 cm, were used. The overlapping of the stent-grafts was carried out from the bottom upwards, starting from the aorto-iliac prosthetic body up to the healthy segment of thoracic aorta, 40 mm from the previous stent-grafts.
The patient was discharged on the 9th postoperative day.
This technique offers the advantage of a less invasive treatment, reducing the risk of paraplegia, visceral ischaemia and pulmonary complications, mostly in older patients.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility and clinical efficacy of percutaneous transabdominal treatment of endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair.
Materials and Methods
Between 2000 and 2007, six patients with type I (n = 4) or II (n = 2) endoleaks were treated by the percutaneous transabdominal approach using embolization with N-butyl cyanoacrylate with or without coils. Five patients underwent a single session and one patient had two sessions of embolization. The median time between aneurysm repair and endoleak treatment was 25.5 months (range: 0-84 months). Follow-up CT images were evaluated for changes in the size and shape of the aneurysm sac and presence or resolution of endoleaks. The median follow-up after endoleak treatment was 16.4 months (range: 0-37 months)
Technical success was achieved in all six patients. Clinical success was achieved in four patients with complete resolution of the endoleak confirmed by follow-up CT. Clinical failure was observed in two patients. One eventually underwent surgical conversion, and the other was lost to follow-up. There were no procedure-related complications.
The percutaneous transabdominal approach for the treatment of type I or II endoleaks, after endovascular aneurysm repair, is an alternative method when conventional endovascular methods have failed.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm; Endovascular aneurysm repair; Endoleak; Embolization; N-butyl cyanoacrylate
We sought to evaluate and describe our centre’s experience with the Amplatzer vascular plug (AVP) for the occlusion of common and internal iliac arteries (CIA; IIA) during endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR).
We performed a retrospective analysis of 20 consecutive patients between October 2006 and December 2007, who underwent occlusion of the CIA or IIA before or during EVAR to prevent endoleak.
Among these 20 patients, 21 occlusion procedures occurred and 20 were successful. In the only unsuccessful case, the patient had EVAR, but occlusion with an AVP was not possible because of severe narrowing at the origin of the vessel. Of the successfully treated patients, 2 presented with ruptured aneurysms, whereas the others had elective procedures. Eleven patients received aortouni-iliac grafts and femoral–femoral bypass, and 9 patients received a bifurcated stent graft. In 5 patients, the AVP occlusion and EVAR procedures were staged; in these cases occlusion occurred first, followed by EVAR on average 29 (standard deviation [SD] 23) days later. We deployed 7 AVPs in the CIA, whereas 13 were deployed in the IIA. The average diameter of the vessels occluded was 10 (SD 1) mm and the average size of the device used was 13 (SD 1) mm, representing a device diameter 28% (SD 2%) greater than the vessel diameter. We used a single device in 18 patients, whereas 2 devices were deployed in the same artery in 2 patients. Four patients underwent concomitant coil embolization. On follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans, all occlusion procedures were clinically successful. At the 14-month (SD 1 mo) follow-up, 4 patients had a small type-II endoleak unrelated to the occlusion procedure and 1 had a type-I endoleak that required graft limb extension. Four patients had buttock claudication but none had changes in sexual function, ischemic complications or device dislodgement on CT scans.
The AVP is a safe and effective method to occlude the CIA and IIA in patients undergoing EVAR.
The use of the endovascular prostheses in abdominal aortic aneurysm has proven to be an effective technique to reduce the pressure and rupture risk of aneurysm. Nevertheless, in a long-term perspective, complications such as leaks inside the aneurysm sac (endoleaks) could appear causing a pressure elevation and increasing the danger of rupture consequently. At present, computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is the most common examination for medical surveillance. However, endoleak complications cannot always be detected by visual inspection on CTA scans. The investigation on new techniques to detect endoleaks and analyse their effects on treatment evolution is of great importance for endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) technique. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the capability of texture features obtained from the aneurysmatic thrombus CT images to discriminate different types of evolutions caused by endoleaks. The regions of interest (ROIs) from patients with different post-EVAR evolution were extracted by experienced radiologists. Three techniques were applied to each ROI to obtain texture parameters, namely the grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), the grey level run length matrix (GLRLM) and the grey level difference method (GLDM). The results showed that GLCM, GLRLM and GLDM features presented a good discrimination ability to differentiate between favourable or unfavourable evolutions. GLCM was the most efficient in terms of classification accuracy (93.41% ± 0.024) followed by GLRLM (90.17% ± 0.077) and finally by GLDM (81.98% ± 0.045). According to the results, we can consider texture analysis as complementary information to classified abdominal aneurysm evolution after EVAR.
Aneurysm; EVAR; Texture features; Neural network
The purpose of this study was to improve the use of 64-channel multidetector computed tomography using lower doses of ionizing radiation during follow-up procedures in a series of patients with endovascular aortic aneurysm repair.
Thirty patients receiving 5 to 29 months of follow-up after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair were analyzed using a 64-channel multidetector computed tomography device by an exam that included pre- and post-contrast with both arterial and venous phases. Leak presence and type were classified based on the exam phase.
Endoleaks were identified in 8/30 of cases; the endoleaks in 3/8 of these cases were not visible in the arterial phases of the exams.
The authors conclude that multidetector computed tomography with pre-contrast and venous phases should be a part of the ongoing follow-up of patients undergoing endovascular aortic aneurysm repair. The arterial phase can be excluded when the aneurism is stable or regresses. These findings permit a lower radiation dose without jeopardizing the correct diagnosis of an endoleak.
Multidetector Tomography; Aneurism; Aorta; Endoleak; Radiation
Only a few cases of endoleak following conventional abdominal aortic aneurysm repair have been reported. We treated a patient with a type I endoleak-like phenomenon occuring 12 years after conventional abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Computed tomography demonstrated dilation of the surgically replaced, once-shrunken aneurysm sac to a diameter of 3.5 cm. Thrombus was identified between the graft and the sac. Four months later the sac ruptured, and emergency repair was performed. Dehiscence of the proximal anastomosis causing dilation and tearing of the sac was found. Dilation of a surgically replaced aneurysm sac after initial shrinkage may suggest an endoleak-like phenomenon requiring second repair.
endoleak; open repair; abdominal aortic aneurysm
We herein present a 60 years old woman with Takayasu arteritis and an extensive thoracic aortic aneurysm who initially underwent a total aortic arch replacement. Then, in the second stage, thoracic endovascular aortic repair was performed using the elephant trunk graft as the proximal landing zone at four weeks after aortic arch repair. The postoperative course was relatively uncomplicated, but a type II endoleak was noted. Currently, about 5 years postoperatively, the slight type II endoleak from intercostal artery persists, but aneurism dilatation has not been noted, so the patient is being followed up.
A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether embolization is superior to surveillance for a type II endoleak associated with a static sac size post-endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). Four hundred and sixty-one papers were identified, of which 10 papers presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, and relevant outcomes and results are tabulated. A review of the available literature suggests that most type II endoleaks are innocuous and will seal spontaneously during the long-term follow-up, even when they persist for more than 6 months. An analysis of the large European Collaborators on Stent-Graft Techniques for Aortic Aneurysm Repair (EUROSTAR) registry that includes prospective data on 2463 patients from 87 European hospitals showed that type II endoleaks were not associated with an increased risk of rupture; this correlates well with the large single-centre studies included in this review. Based on the available evidence, we conclude that the management of most isolated type II endoleaks should be conservative—with close radiological follow-up—even when persistent, with intervention restricted to theoese associated with sac enlargement >5 mm over a 6-month period or >10 mm when compared with pre-EVAR diameter.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm; Endovascular repair; Endoleak; Conservative management
We present a case of an 80-year-old male who had a right buttock claudication
after embolization of the right internal iliac artery and endovascular aneurysm
repair (EVAR) for aneurysms of the right common iliac and abdominal arteries. We
used follow-up dynamic computed tomography to measure the diameter of the
superior gluteal artery (SGA). The comparison ratio (SGA diameter after EVAR /
SGA diameter before EVAR) of the right SGA at 1, 3, and 9 months was 0.74, 0.80,
and 1.1, respectively, while that of the left SGA at 9 months was 0.97. The
patient reported using a walking stick at 1- and 3-month follow-ups but not at
the 9-month follow-up. The computed tomography (CT) showed sequential dilatation
of the SGA, which appeared to be associated with the relief of the buttock
abdominal aortic aneurysm; endovascular aneurysm repair; buttock claudication; internal iliac artery
We present a series of 4 patients in whom mechanical trauma was identified as a factor in the development of late complications after AneuR® Stent Graft placement for repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms.
In all 4 patients, Type I or III endoleaks (and pseudoaneurysms in 2 patients) were discovered several months after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair with the AneuRx device. Two patients had sustained blunt abdominal trauma in a car accident, one had suffered a traumatic fall, and another had been participating in vigorous rowing activity. In all patients, the trauma had occurred several months before the diagnosis of endoleak or pseudoaneurysm (or both) was established. In all patients, follow-up computed tomographic scans identified the complications.
In conclusion, blunt mechanical injury is an unrecognized factor contributing to the late failure of endovascular stent grafts. Vigorous physical activity may also contribute to graft disruption or to the separation of modular components. (Tex Heart Inst J 2003;30:186–93)
Aortic aneurysm, abdominal; aortic rupture; blood vessel prosthesis implantation; endovascular repair; iliac aneurysm; postoperative complications; prosthesis failure; stents; trauma
We sought to compare the efficacy of a low-permeability version of the Gore Excluder™ device with that of the original device. We used volumetric analysis and maximum transverse diameter measurements to examine abdominal aortic aneurysm size regression after endovascular aneurysm repair.
From November 2002 through April 2007, 101 patients (82% men; mean age, 71.5 ± 8.9 yr) underwent endovascular aneurysm repair with the Excluder stent-graft: 34 with the original device, and 67 with the low-permeability device. Only patients without endoleak and with preprocedural and 1- and 2-year follow-up computed tomographic scans were included. Eight patients with type II endoleak and 2 with type I endoleak were excluded. Maximum abdominal aortic aneurysm diameter and volume were measured before endovascular aneurysm repair and annually thereafter. Postprocessing, multiplanar computed tomography, and 3-dimensional reconstructions were compared with baseline measurements. Diameter and volume changes that were greater than 5 mm or that exceeded 10% were considered significant.
At 12 months, the mean maximum transverse diameter had decreased by −0.16 ± 12.1 mm in recipients of the original device and by −4.8 ± 5.9 mm in recipients of the low-permeability device (P = NS). In addition, mean reduction in volume had changed by −17 ± 16 mL in original-device recipients and by −36.1 ± 37.9 mL in low-permeability device recipients (P < 0.01).
One-year follow-up revealed that the low-permeability stent-graft resulted in a greater decrease in abdominal aortic aneurysm volume than did the original stent-graft.
Aortic aneurysm, abdominal/exclusion/repair; blood vessel prosthesis; endoleak; stent-grafts; stents; tomography, x-ray computed; treatment outcome
A significant proportion of patients undergoing endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) have common iliac artery aneurysms (CIAA). Aneurysmal involvement at the iliac bifurcation potentially undermines long-term durability.
Patients who underwent EVAR with CIAA were identified in two teaching hospitals. Bell-bottom technique (iliac limb ≥ 20mm) (BBT) or internal iliac artery embolization and limb extension to the external iliac artery (IIE+EE) were used. Outcome between these two approaches are compared.
One hundred and eighty five patients were identified. . Indication for EVAR included asymptomatic AAA (n=157), symptomatic or ruptured aneurysm (n=19), and common iliac artery aneurysm (n=9). Mean AAA diameter was 59 mm. A total of 260 large CIAAs were treated. One hundred and sixty six CIAA limbs were treated with BBT, 94 limbs underwent IIE+EE. Total reintervention rates were similar for BBT (n=19, 11%) and IIE+EE (n=18, 19.1%) (p=0.149). Similar rates of reintervention for type 1b or 3 endoleak are reported, BBT (n=7, 4%) versus IIE+EE (n=4, 4%) (p=1.0). There was no significant difference in limb patency rates. Thirty-day mortality was 1%. Median follow-up was 22 months. While there was no significant difference in complications between the two groups the combined incidence of perioperative complications and reinterventions was higher in the IIE+EE group (49% versus 22%, p-0.002).
The combined incidence of perioperative complications and reinterventions is significantly higher in the IIE+EE when compared with the BB technique. Therefore, when feasible, BB is desirable..
Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is an important treatment option for abdominal aortic aneurysms, with lower perioperative morbidity and mortality rates than open surgical aneurysm repair. However, EVAR is associated with several unique complications that are not encountered with surgical repair such as endoleaks, graft migration, and renal artery occlusion. Preservation of the morbidity and mortality advantages of EVAR relies on the successful treatment of these complications by minimally invasive, endovascular approaches. Some of the techniques used to treat EVAR complications include balloon dilation and stenting, deployment of additional stent-graft pieces, coil embolization, and thrombolysis. Although the employment of these endovascular salvage techniques is common, data regarding their intermediate- to long-term efficacy is sparse, and further studies are needed to determine their efficacy in preventing conversion to open aneurysm repair and aneurysm rupture.
Endovascular repair; aortic aneurysm; stent graft; endoleak
Isolated bilateral internal iliac artery (IIA) aneurysm is a rare and potentially lethal disease. Endovascular repair of this disorder is a matter of debate. A symptomatic 68-year-old male presented with severe pelvic pains. Computed tomography revealed a leaking 46-mm aneurysm in the right IIA, a 27-mm aneurysm in the left IIA, and ectatic changes at a diameter of 31 mm in the right common iliac artery (CIA). Due to lower rates of morbidity and mortality, an endovascular approach was chosen instead of open surgical repair. However, due to anatomical constraints, an endograft had to be implanted in a healthy aorta in order to support an iliac branch endograft in the left CIA. Subsequently, following coil embolization of the left IIA, an iliac stent graft was extended to the right external iliac artery (EIA). Two-year follow-up CT imaging showed complete exclusion of all the aneurysms and patency of the pelvic visceral arteries. The patient is currently asymptomatic.
Endovascular repair of bilateral isolated IIAs can be a feasible treatment option. However, due to limited availability of sizes in iliac branch devices currently on the market, a main body device is sometimes required to be deployed in a healthy aorta for additional endograft support.
Iliac aneurysm; Iliac artery; Treatment outcome
Endovascular repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVARs) has revolutionized the treatment of aortic aneurysms, with over half of elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs performed endoluminally each year. Since the first endografts were placed two decades ago, many changes have been made in graft design, operative technique, and management of complications. This paper summarizes modern endovascular grafts, considerations in preoperative planning, and EVAR techniques. Specific areas that are addressed include endograft selection, arterial access, sheath delivery, aortic branch management, graft deployment, intravascular ultrasonography, pressure sensors, management of endoleaks and compressed limbs, and exit strategies.
Endoleaks are unique complications of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) that necessitate lifelong imaging surveillance for the patient. Several imaging modalities may be used to monitor the patient for endoleaks and other complications related to the stent graft. At present, computed tomographic angiography remains the gold standard for the detection of endoleaks. Other modalities that can be used to detect endoleaks include magnetic resonance, ultrasonography, nuclear medicine techniques, and pressure monitoring. In addition, follow-up imaging with digital subtraction angiography is important for endoleak classification and to guide decisions regarding therapy. In this article, we review the classification of endoleaks and discuss the different imaging strategies available for post-EVAR surveillance.
Endovascular aneurysm repair; endoleak; computed tomography; ultrasound; magnetic resonance imaging; angiography
Endovascular coil embolisation is increasingly used to treat unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA). Endovascular coil embolisation of UIA is associated with a 5–10% risk of morbidity and nearly zero mortality from the procedure. Complete or near complete occlusion is usually achieved in >90% of cases, and endovascular therapy seems to reduce the risk of future rupture significantly. Specific selection criteria for endovascular embolisation and novel approaches to endovascular treatment of aneurysms are discussed. Endovascular therapy appears to be a safe and effective treatment for selected UIA. Treatment failure rates will probably decrease with greater experience and advances in techniques and devices. Further study with long term follow up, however, is still necessary to characterise the efficacy, durability, and cost efficiency of endovascular treatment of UIA.
endovascular management; Guglielmi coil; intracranial aneurysm
The main criterion for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair is an AAA diameter ≥5.5 cm. However, some AAAs rupture when they are smaller. Size alone may therefore not be a sufficient criterion to determine rupture risk. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake is increased in the presence of inflammation and it was suggested that this may be a better predictor of rupture risk than AAA size. Furthermore, increased FDG uptake following endovascular AAA repair may be an indirect predictor of continuous AAA sac enlargement due to the presence of an endoleak (even if this is not detected by imaging modalities) and/or increased AAA rupture risk. The role of FDG uptake needs to be explored further in the management of AAAs.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm; fluorodeoxyglucose; endovascular aneurysm repair; rupture risk; predictor; endoleak.
Background: Fenestrated endovascular abdominal aneurysm repair (FEVAR) using branched arteries devices for visceral arteries is increasingly being used for the repair of juxtarenal aortic aneurysms (JAAs) in Europe, United States, Australia, New Zealand, and Asia. This study aimed to evaluate the technical feasibility and short-term results of FEVAR in treating JAAs in Japanese patients.
Methods and Results: FEVAR with Cook fenestrated stent-graft (Cook Medical Inc., Bloomington, Indiana, USA) was performed for 5 patients at high risk for open repair of JAA. Seventeen visceral vessels were successfully accommodated with 12 fenestrations, and five visceral arteries with four scallops with a loss of renal artery. In one case, a type III endoleak occurred at a renal artery fenestration, and this had disappeared in the 1-month postoperative computed tomography (CT). The mean follow-up duration was 8 months. Iliac leg occlusion occurred in 1 case, which was treated with thrombectomy and additional leg device deployment. All patients had survived at the end of the follow-up period and continued their outpatient visits.
Conclusions: Implantation of a Cook fenestrated stent-graft incorporating the visceral arteries is technically feasible in high-risk Japanese patients with JAA and may be a viable alternative to current methods.
juxtarenal aortic aneurysm; fenestrated stent-graft; branched stent-graft; conduit graft; brachio-femoral artery shunt
For many patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm, unsuitable anatomy of the infrarenal aortic neck precludes endovascular aortic aneurysm repair or causes type I endoleak after the procedure. In an attempt to overcome these challenges, we retrospectively examined the usefulness of aortic banding as an adjunctive procedure to endovascular repair in 8 patients who had an abdominal aortic aneurysm with a complex infrarenal aortic neck. The procedures were performed with the patients under general anesthesia and involved making an 8-cm upper-midline laparotomy incision to expose the aneurysmal aorta. Three patients underwent aortic banding before endovascular repair; the other 5 underwent banding after the repair because of persistent type I endoleak. After banding, the abdominal aortic aneurysm was successfully excluded in all 8 patients. Long-term follow-up (mean, 38 ± 20 mo) revealed no type I endoleak and no procedure-related complications. In patients who have an abdominal aortic aneurysm with complex infrarenal neck anatomy or a refractory type I endoleak, performing aortic banding as an adjunctive procedure to endovascular aortic repair appears to be a safe strategy with good long-term results.
Aortic aneurysm, abdominal/complications/surgery; blood vessel prosthesis implantation/adverse effects/methods; patient selection; postoperative complications; risk factors; stents; treatment outcome; vascular surgical procedures/instrumentation
The combination of Trans-Atlantic Intersociety Consensus (TASC) D aortoiliac occlusive disease as well as a symptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is not a common occurrence. Extensive calcified atherosclerotic disease, occlusions, and small iliofemoral segmental arteries make transfemoral access difficult, if not impossible, for endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in these patients. We present a case in which “controlled rupture” of the external iliac artery with a covered stent allowed transfemoral delivery of an aortouni-iliac stent graft with a completion femoral-to-femoral bypass. The patient is a 60-year-old male with a 5.3 cm symptomatic infrarenal AAA and a history of one block right leg claudication. Preoperative computed tomography angiography revealed the patient to have occlusion of the right common iliac artery, extensive calcified stenoses of his aortoiliac segments, and a prohibitively small left external iliac artery, which measured 4.5 mm at its narrowest diameter. The patient, despite discussions concerning the suitability of his iliac arteries as conduits for the delivery of the stent graft, insisted on an endovascular approach to lessen his chances of postoperative sexual dysfunction as well as minimize his length of stay. Access was obtained through bilateral femoral artery cutdowns, and attempts at dilating the left external iliac artery using 16-French dilators were performed without success. An 8 mm × 5 cm covered self-expanding stent was deployed in the diseased 4.5 mm left external iliac artery, followed by angioplasty performed with an 8 mm noncompliant balloon to disrupt the vessel. This endoconduit now allowed accommodation of our 18-French introducer for the aortouni-iliac stent graft. The operation was completed with a femoral—femoral bypass. Flow to both hypogastric arteries was preserved. We believe use of such techniques will ultimately expand the number of patients eligible for EVAR and avoid devastating access-related complications.