Stagnant culture methods have permitted only limited physiological studies of the production of H and M antigens by Histoplasma capsulatum because, with such methods, antigen production is uncontrolled. In this investigation, a shake culture method was used to convert yeast-phase inoculum to mycelialphase growth at 25 C. Results strongly suggest that the release of H and M antigens relates to autolysis of the cells. Among the factors influencing production of H and M antigens under shaking conditions, choice of strain was the most important. Alterations of carbon or nitrogen source or variations in amino acid to carbohydrate ratios had limited influence on antigen production. With a strain that produced both H and M antigens, however, proportions of titers of M to H antigens could be made to vary considerably by changes in the medium, the pH, and the temperature. Results suggest that the source of M antigen during autolysis is enzymatic dissolution of the cell wall. The source of H antigen is more obscure. Production of both antigens may be differentially controlled under conditions of good reproducibility by a correct choice of strain and manipulation of culture medium.
This study examined changes in rhythmic arm shaking and laterality biases in infants observed longitudinally at three points: just prior to, at, and just following reduplicated babble onset. Infants (ranging in age from 4 to 9 months at babble onset) were videotaped at home as they played with two visually identical audible and silent rattles presented at midline for 1.5 min each. Rate of rattle shaking increased sharply from the pre-babble to babble onset session; but there was no indication that this increase was specific to the right arm. This finding suggests that the link between babble onset and increased rhythmic arm activity may not be the product of language-specific mechanisms, but is rather part of a broader developmental process that is also perceptual and motor.
A 76 year old man with shaking movements of the fingers, weakness of the arm and lacunar infarctions on computed tomographic scan is described. The shaking limb should be included in the group of lacunar syndromes.
Incomplete drug regimen compliance (DRC) and white-coat hypertension are two of several possible causes of uncontrolled hypertension. Therefore the aim of the present study was to compare DRC in hypertensives treated with combination therapy whose blood pressures (BP) were controlled vers. uncontrolled after 4 weeks of self-monitored BP measurement. To observe the consequences in uncontrolled patients of switching one drug of the combination therapy to candesartan/HCTZ (16 mg/12.5 mg) with and without a compliance intervention program.
Self-and ambulatory-monitoring of BP were done with upper arm oscillometric devices. Patients' dosing histories were compiled electronically (MEMS(c), AARDEX). Patients with office blood pressure (OBP) >140/90 mmHg despite combination therapy were begun on MEMS monitoring and self BP measurement for 4 weeks of run-in. Of 62 such patients, 18 (29%) patients were normotensive according to self BP measurement and ambulatory BP measurement at 4 weeks (Group A); in the remaining 44 still uncontrolled patients, candesartan/HCTZ was substituted for one of the combination therapy drugs, with half these patients receiving passive compliance monitoring (B) and half a DRC intervention program (C). All groups were then followed for 8 weeks.
DRC before week 4 was significantly higher in A than in the uncontrolled patients (B&C). DRC was stable during run-in A, but declined in B and C. DRC after week 4 was not different in the three groups and stayed constant over time. DRC during weekends was lower than during weekdays in all groups.
In group A no significant change in blood pressure was observed with all three methods of BP measurements. In groups B and C significant reductions of systolic and diastolic BP were observed for ABPM and SBPM. After the change to candesartan/HCTZ in B&C ambulatory 24-h-BP (ABPM) was normalized in 39% of patients.
Normalization of BP was associated with superior drug regimen compliance in previously uncontrolled patients treated with a combination drug regimen. Switching still-uncontrolled patients to candesartan/HCTZ significantly improved BP control and stabilized a declining DRC.
To assess the effect of a physician and pharmacist teamwork approach to uncontrolled hypertension in a medical resident teaching clinic, for patients who failed to meet the recommended goals of the fifth Joint National Commission on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure.
Physician and pharmacist teamwork can improve the rate of meeting national blood pressure goals in patients with previously uncontrolled hypertension.
A single-blinded randomized controlled trial lasting 6 months.
A primary care outpatient teaching clinic.
A sample of 95 adult hypertensive patients who failed to meet national blood pressure goals based on three consecutive visits over a 6-month period.
Patients were randomly assigned to a control arm of standard medical care or to an intervention arm in which a physician and pharmacist worked together as a team.
At study completion, the percentage of patients achieving national goals due to intervention was more than double the percentage in the control arm (55% vs 20%, p < .001). Systolic blood pressure declined 23 mm Hg in the intervention arm versus 11 mm Hg in the control arm (p < .01). Diastolic blood pressure declined 14 and 3 mm Hg in the intervention and control arms, respectively (p < .001). The intervention worked equally as well in men and women and demonstrated noticeable promise in a minority of mixed-ancestry Hawaiians in whom hypertension is of special concern.
Patients who fail to achieve national blood pressure goals under standard outpatient medical care may benefit from a program that includes a physician and pharmacist teamwork approach.
blood pressure; coronary heart disease; risk factor; pharmacist; ambulatory care
Both an elaborate coordination of the hand grip force (G; normal component of force acting at the digits-object contact area) and load force (L; tangential component), and the role of cutaneous afferents in G-L coordination have been well documented in a variety of manipulation tasks. However, our recent studies revealed that G-L coordination deteriorates when L consecutively changes direction (bidirectional tasks; e.g., when vigorously shaking objects or using tools). The aim of the study was to distinguish between the possible role of the synergy of hand grip and arm muscles (exerting G and L, respectively) and the role of cutaneous afferent input in the observed phenomenon. Subjects (N=14) exerted sinusoidal L pattern in vertical direction against an externally fixed device in trials that gradually changed from uni- to fully bidirectional. In addition, a manipulation of an external arm support decoupled L measured by the device (and, therefore, recorded by the cutaneous receptors) from the action of arm muscles exerting L. The results revealed that switching from uni- to bidirectional tasks, no matter how low and brief L exertion was in the opposite direction, was associated with an abrupt decrease in G-L coordination. This coordination remained unaffected by the manipulation of external support. The first result corroborates our previous conclusion that the force coordination in uni- and bidirectional manipulation tasks could be based on partly different neural control mechanisms. However, the second finding suggests that the studied control mechanisms could depend more on the cutaneous afferent input, rather than on the synergy of the muscles exerting G and L.
unidirectional; bidirectional; grip; load; force; neural control
Obese breast cancer survivors have increased risk of recurrence and death compared to their normal weight counterparts. Rural women have significantly higher obesity rates, thus weight control intervention may be a key strategy for prevention of breast cancer recurrence in this population. This one arm treatment study examined the impact of a group-based weight control intervention delivered through conference call technology to obese breast cancer survivors living in remote rural locations. The intervention included a reduced calorie diet incorporating prepackaged entrees and shakes, physical activity gradually increased to 225 min/week of moderate intensity exercise, and weekly group phone sessions. Outcomes included anthropomorphic, diet, physical activity, serum biomarker, and quality of life changes. Ninety-one percent of participants (31 of 34) attended > 75% of intervention sessions and completed post-treatment data collection visits. At 6 months, significant changes were observed for weight (-12.5 ± 5.8 kg, 13.9% of baseline weight), waist circumference (-9.4 ± 6.3 cm), daily energy intake (-349 ± 550 kcal/day), fruits and vegetables (+3.7 ± 4.3 servings/day), percent kcal from fat (-12.6 ± 8.6%), physical activity (+1235 ± 832 kcal/week; all p’s < .001), as well as significant reductions in fasting insulin (16.7% reduction, p = .006) and leptin (37.1% reduction, p < .001). Significant improvements were also seen for quality of life domains including mood, body image, and sexuality. In conclusion, the intervention produced > 10% weight loss as well as significant improvements across multiple endpoints. The group phone-based treatment delivery approach may help disseminate effective weight control intervention to hard-to-reach breast cancer survivors.
breast cancer; survivors; rural; weight control; physical activity
A laugh-induced seizure is an unrecognized condition and to the best of our knowledge no case has been reported in the medical literature until now. We present an interesting and extremely rare case in which laughing generated the seizure activity that was recorded and confirmed by video electroencephalography.
A 43-year-old obese Caucasian man with history of bipolar disorder and chronic headache presented with multiple episodes of seizures, all induced by laughter while watching comedy shows. Each episode lasted approximately five seconds. In each instance, he started laughing, then his arms started shaking and he felt like ‘his consciousness was being vacuumed away’. A physical examination revealed normal findings. He had been maintained on valproic acid for bipolar disorder and topiramate for his chronic headache, but this did not control his symptoms. His sleep-deprived electroencephalography and brain magnetic resonance imaging were normal except for an arachnoid cyst measuring 4.2 × 2.1cm in the anterior right middle cranial fossa. His video electroencephalography demonstrated laugh-induced seizure activities. He was then placed on carbamazepine. Following treatment, he had two episodes of mild staring but no frank seizures, and his seizures have remained well controlled on this regimen for more than a year.
Laugh-induced seizure is a most unusual clinical entity without any previous case report. Confirmatory diagnosis can be made by video electroencephalography recording of seizure activities provoked by laughing. As in gelastic seizure without hypothalamic hamartoma, our case responded well to polytherapy with topiramate and carbamazepine on top of laugh-provocation avoidance. Further study is required to establish the standard treatment of this condition.
Laugh-induced seizure; Gelastic seizure; EEG; Cingulate gyrus; Topiramate; Carbamazepine
Limb shaking Transient Ischemic Attack is a rare manifestation of carotid-occlusive disease. The symptoms usually point towards a seizure like activity and misdiagnosed as focal seizures. On careful history the rhythmic seizure like activity reveals no Jacksonian march mainly precipitated by maneuvers which lead to carotid compression. We here present a case of an elderly gentleman who was initially worked up as suffering from epileptic discharge and then later on found to have carotid occlusion.
Elderly gentleman presented with symptoms of rhythmic jerky movements of the left arm and both the lower limbs. Clinical suspicion of focal epilepsy was made and EEG, MRI-Brain with MRA were done. EEG and MRI-Brain revealed normal findings but the MRA revealed complete occlusion of right internal carotid artery. On a follow-up visit jerky movements of the left arm were precipitated by hyperextension and a tremor of 3–4 Hz was revealed. Based on this the diagnosis of low flow TIA was made the patient was treated conservatively with adjustment of his anti-hypertensive and anti-platelet medications.
Diagnosis of limb-shaking TIA is important and should be differentiated from other disorders presenting as tremors. Timely diagnosis is important as these patients are shown to benefit from reperfusion procedures either surgical or radiological reducing their risk of stroke.
Peptococcus saccharolyticus was a numerically important organism on the forehead and the antecubital fossa of the arm of ca. 20% of the subjects studied. It was best detected by prolonged (4- to 7-day) anaerobic incubation on a suitably enriched medium but also appeared in smaller numbers in aerobic primary cultures after 4 to 7 days. Initial screening was based on growth patterns in shake cultures and on the relative amounts of growth on aerobic and anaerobic streak plates. The organism was nonhemolytic and usually catalase positive. It produced acid anaerobically from glucose, fructose, and glycerol, but not from maltose, and did not produce lactic acid from glucose.
We sought to understand differences in joint coordination between the dominant and nondominant arms when performing repetitive tasks. The uncontrolled manifold approach was used to decompose the variability of joint motions into components that reflect the use of motor redundancy or movement error. First, we hypothesized that coordination of the dominant arm would demonstrate greater use of motor redundancy to compensate for interaction forces than would coordination of the nondominant arm. Secondly, we hypothesized that when interjoint dynamics were more complex, control of the interlimb relationship would remain stable despite differences in control of individual hand paths. Healthy adults performed bimanual tracing of two orientations of ellipses that resulted in different magnitudes of elbow interaction forces. For the dominant arm, joint variance leading to hand path error was the same for both ellipsis orientations, whereas joint variance reflecting the use of motor redundancy increased when interaction moment was highest. For the nondominant arm, more joint error variance was found when interaction moment was highest, whereas motor redundancy did not differ across orientations. There was no apparent difference in interjoint dynamics between the two arms. Thus, greater skill exhibited by the dominant arm may be related to its ability to utilize motor redundancy to compensate for the effect of interaction forces. However, despite the greater error associated with control of the nondominant hand, control of the interlimb relationship remained stable when the interaction moment increased. This suggests separate levels of control for inter- versus intra-limb coordination in this bimanual task.
Dominance; Redundancy; Motor abundance; Bimanual coordination; Motor control
Takayasu Arteritis is a vasculitis occurring mostly in young females which may present in diverse ways. Here we report a teenager with Takayasu Arteritis who presented with uncontrolled hypertension. This case depicts an atypical presentation of this disease where the girl visited many physicians for controlling the level of hypertension and put a diagnostic dilemma about the underlying etiology of young hypertension.
A 13 year old girl presented with epistaxis, persistent headache and uncontrolled hypertension. Her clinical examination revealed normal radial, very feeble femoral and absent other lower limb pulses. There was a blood pressure discrepancy of 50/40 mm of Hg between two arms. There were bruits over multiple areas including the abdominal aorta. She had features of left ventricular hypertrophy. Her Arch aortogram showed hugely dilated arch of aorta which became abruptly normal just after origin of left subclavian artery. There was ostio-proximal stenosis of right bracheocephalic artery, left common carotid and left subclavian artery with post stenotic dilatation of all the vessels. Abdominal aortogram revealed critical stenosis of abdominal aorta above the origin of renal arteries with a pressure gradient of 80/11 mm of Hg.
Takayasu’s Arteritis should also be kept in mind while searching for the cause of uncontrolled hypertension in the young age group.
Takayasu’s Arteritis (TA)
Treated but uncontrolled hypertension is highly prevalent in African American and Hispanic communities.
To test the effectiveness on blood pressure of home blood pressure monitors alone or in combination with follow-up by a nurse manager.
Randomized controlled effectiveness trial.
Four hundred and sixteen African American or Hispanic patients with a history of uncontrolled hypertension. Patients with blood pressure ≥150/95, or ≥140/85 for patients with diabetes or renal disease, at enrollment were recruited from one community clinic and four hospital outpatient clinics in East and Central Harlem, New York City.
Patients were randomized to receive usual care or a home blood pressure monitor plus one in-person counseling session and 9 months of telephone follow-up with a registered nurse. During the trial, the home monitor alone arm was added.
Change in systolic and diastolic blood pressure at 9 and 18 months.
Changes from baseline to 9 months in systolic blood pressure relative to usual care was −7.0 mm Hg (Confidence Interval [CI], -13.4 to −0.6) in the nurse management plus home blood pressure monitor arm, and +1.1 mm Hg (95% CI, -5.5 to 7.8) in the home blood pressure monitor only arm. No statistically significant differences in systolic blood pressure were observed among treatment arms at 18 months. No statistically significant improvements in diastolic blood pressure were found across treatment arms at 9 or 18 months. Changes in prescribing practices did not explain the decrease in blood pressure in the nurse management arm.
A nurse management intervention combining an in-person visit, periodic phone calls, and home blood pressure monitoring over 9 months was associated with a statistically significant reduction in systolic, but not diastolic, blood pressure compared to usual care in a high risk population. Home blood pressure monitoring alone was no more effective than usual care.
hypertension; randomized trial; minority; nurse management; home blood pressure monitor
Shake flasks are widely used because of their low price and simple handling. Many researcher are, however, not aware of the physiological consequences of oxygen limitation and substrate overflow metabolism that occur in shake flasks. Availability of a wireless measuring system brings the possibilities for quality control and design of cultivation conditions.
Here we present a new wireless solution for the measurement of pH and oxygen from shake flasks with standard sensors, which allows data transmission over a distance of more than 100 metres in laboratory environments. This new system was applied to monitoring of cultivation conditions in shake flasks. The at-time monitoring of the growth conditions became possible by simple means. Here we demonstrate that with typical protocols E. coli shake flask cultures run into severe oxygen limitation and the medium is strongly acidified. Additionally the strength of the new system is demonstrated by continuous monitoring of the oxygen level in methanol-fed Pichia pastoris shake flask cultures, which allows the optimisation of substrate feeding for preventing starvation or methanol overfeed. 40 % higher cell density was obtained by preventing starvation phases which occur in standard shake flask protocols by adding methanol when the respiration activity decreased in the cultures.
The here introduced wireless system can read parallel sensor data over long distances from shake flasks that are under vigorous shaking in cultivation rooms or closed incubators. The presented technology allows centralised monitoring of decentralised targets. It is useful for the monitoring of pH and dissolved oxygen in shake flask cultures. It is not limited to standard sensors, but can be easily adopted to new types of sensors and measurement places (e.g., new sensor points in large-scale bioreactors).
Head shaking and congenital nystagmus were recorded in a patient presented with visual tasks. When she was at rest the nystagmus took a 6 cycles per second saw-tooth wave-form. When she was attentive the nystagmus beat at a 2 to 2.6 cycles per second with a saddle-shaped deformation which permitted foveation. The head shaking occurred occasionally when the patient was attentive and was phase-locked to the nystagmus with resemblances in wave form and direction. Deceleration of the head shaking to zero velocity and peak displacement (to the left) coincided with the onset of the saddle of the nystagmus and hence assisted foveation; all other parts of the head-shaking cycle were detrimental to vision. It is proposed that the head shaking has a common pathological origin with the nystagmus and that, just as an isolated congenital nystagmus wave form becomes altered with attention to permit periods of foveal fixation, the pattern of combined head and eye nodding in this patient provided similar peroids of fixation.
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of workspace location on joint coordination in persons with post-stroke hemiparesis when trunk motion was required to complete reaches beyond the arm’s functional reach length. Seven subjects with mild right hemiparesis following a stroke and seven age and gender matched control subjects participated. Joint motions and characteristics of hand and trunk movement were measured over multiple repetitions. The variance (across trials) of joint combinations was partitioned into two components at every point in the hand’s trajectory using the uncontrolled manifold approach; the first component is a measure of the extent to which equivalent joint combinations are used to control a given hand path, and reflects performance flexibility. The second component of joint variance reflects the use of non-equivalent joint combinations, which lead to hand path error. Compared to the control subjects, persons with hemiparesis demonstrated a significantly greater amount of non-equivalent joint variability related to control of the hand’s path and of the hand’s position relative to the trunk when reaching toward the hemiparetic side (ipsilaterally), but not when reaching to the less involved side. The relative timing of the hand and trunk was also altered when reaching ipsilaterally. The current findings support the idea that the previously proposed “arm compensatory synergy” may be deficient in subjects with hemiparesis. This deficiency may be due to one or a combination of factors: changes in central commands that are thought to set the gain of the arm compensatory synergy; a limited ability to combine shoulder abduction and elbow extension that limits the expression of an appropriately set arm compensatory synergy; or a reduction of the necessary degrees-of-freedom needed to adequately compensate for poor trunk control when reaching ipsilaterally.
Stroke; Reaching; Synergy; Coordination
This article reviews the evidence for efficacy and safety of Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) for various disease indications in adults based on the peer-reviewed, randomized clinical trials and pre-clinical studies from the published medical literature (Medline, Clinical Trial websites and meeting abstracts) between 1976 and 2009. For meta-analysis, only randomized, blinded controlled trials unrestricted by language were included. Pre-clinical studies, volunteer studies and uncontrolled studies were excluded from the review of efficacy and meta-analysis, but included in the systematic review. Of 31 randomized, placebo-controlled treatment arms in 27 trials (encompassing 5029 study patients), S. boulardii was found to be significantly efficacious and safe in 84% of those treatment arms. A meta-analysis found a significant therapeutic efficacy for S. boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) (RR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.35-0.63, P < 0.001). In adults, S. boulardii can be strongly recommended for the prevention of AAD and the traveler’s diarrhea. Randomized trials also support the use of this yeast probiotic for prevention of enteral nutrition-related diarrhea and reduction of Heliobacter pylori treatment-related symptoms. S. boulardii shows promise for the prevention of C. difficile disease recurrences; treatment of irritable bowel syndrome, acute adult diarrhea, Crohn’s disease, giardiasis, human immunodeficiency virus-related diarrhea; but more supporting evidence is recommended for these indications. The use of S. boulardii as a therapeutic probiotic is evidence-based for both efficacy and safety for several types of diarrhea.
Probiotic; Diarrhea; Saccharomyces boulardii; Adult patients; Meta-analysis
Shoulder subluxation is a frequent complication of motor impairment after stroke, leading to soft tissue damage, stretching of the joint capsule, rotator cuff injury, and in some cases pain, thus limiting use of the affected extremity beyond weakness. In this pilot study, we determined whether robotic treatment of chronic shoulder subluxation can lead to functional improvement and whether any improvement was robust.
18 patients with chronic stroke (3.9 ± 2.9 years from acute stroke), completed 6 weeks of robotic training using the linear shoulder robot. Training was performed 3 times per week on alternate days. Each session consisted of 3 sets of 320 repetitions of the affected arm, and the robotic protocol alternated between training vertical arm movements, shoulder flexion and extension, in an anti-gravity plane, and training horizontal arm movements, scapular protraction and retraction, in a gravity eliminated plane.
Training with the linear robot improved shoulder stability, motor power, and resulted in improved functional outcomes that were robust 3 months after training.
In this uncontrolled pilot study, the robotic protocol effectively treated shoulder subluxation in chronic stroke patients. Treatment of subluxation can lead to improved functional use of the affected arm, likely by increasing motor power in the trained muscles.
Stroke; Subluxation; Spasticity; Shoulder; Rehabilitation; Robotics
The preceding experiments showed that partial or complete inactivation of serum by shaking brought about a marked decrease in the activity of homologous fibroblasts. Generally, serum was not completely inactivated by shaking. In only one instance was the hemo-lytic effect of chicken serum on sheep corpuscles entirely lost after the serum had been shaken for 8 hours. In all other cases, the normal hemolytic power of chicken and dog sera for sheep erythrocytes was merely decreased. The effect of shaking varied according to certain conditions of the serum. It may be compared to the inffuence of heat, which differs widely according to individual sera, even when they are obtained from animals which are apparently in identical condition. Shaken serum always inhibited the activity of homologous fibroblasts more than normal serum. When chicken serum was completely inactivated by shaking, its restraining action on chicken fibroblasts became also more marked. On the contrary, dog serum partly inactivated by shaking was much less toxic for chicken fibroblasts than normal serum. Thus, shaking brought about a change in the condition of serum, against which homologous and heterologous fibroblasts reacted in an opposite manner. At the same time, the normal lytic action of serum on foreign erythrocytes decreased. This last phenomenon is caused, as is well known, by the partial or complete destruction of alexin. The decrease of the restraining effect of shaken serum on foreign fibroblasts may be attributed to the same cause. The increase of the inhibiting action of shaken serum on homologous fibroblasts is due possibly to the disappearance of a substance favoring the activity of homologous cells. A similar hypothesis was advanced for explaining the increase of the growth-inhibiting action of serum under the influence of senescence and of heat. The restraining power of adult serum on cell multiplication may be due to the antagonistic action of growth-promoting and growth-inhibiting substances, the growth-promoting substance being as unstable as alexin and certain tissue juices which have the property of increasing the rate of cell proliferation. Alexin and growth-activating substances contained in embryonic and gland tissue juices have in common the property of being destroyed by heat and by shaking. Leucocytes added to serum under certain conditions increase its hemolytic power on foreign erythrocytes and decrease its inhibiting action on homologous fibroblasts. Variations in the alex-inic activity of serum under other influences are followed also by a change in its action on homologous cells. Long ago, Gengou found that serum from plasma is less bactericidal than serum from blood. We observed that the lytic effect on sheep erythrocytes of dog and chicken serum from blood was sometimes more marked than that of serum from plasma, but there was often no difference in the action of both sera. At the same time, the growth of homologous fibroblasts was always more extensive in the serum from blood. The opposite effect was observed when heterologous fibroblasts were used. The growth-inhibiting power of serum from blood was still less marked on leucocytes than on fibroblasts. But embryonic juice, which greatly enhances the rate of multiplication of homologous cells, did not increase the lytic action of serum on foreign erythrocytes. It may be concluded that, under the conditions of the experiments: 1. Chicken serum partly or completely inactivated by shaking becomes more inhibiting for chicken fibroblasts. 2. Dog serum partly inactivated by shaking becomes less inhibiting for chicken fibroblasts.
Icilin, a cooling compound, produces vigorous wet-dog shakes in rats. We have reported previously that icilin-induced wet-dog shakes are blocked by the kappa opioid receptor agonists, nalfurafine and U50,488H, and that icilin evokes a dose- and time-dependent increase in glutamate within the dorsal striatum. Since activation of kappa opioid receptors inhibits glutamate release intrastriatally, we targeted glutamate release within the dorsal striatum using nalfurafine and examined the role of the dorsal striatum in icilin-induced wet-dog shakes, more specifically, the effect that icilin-evoked intrastriatal glutamate release has on the overt stimulant behavior. We report that nalfurafine (0.04 mg/kg) inhibits icilin (0.50 mg/kg)-induced wet-dog shakes and that this inhibition is reversed by intrastriatal perfusion of the kappa opioid receptor antagonist, norbinaltorphimine (100 nM). Furthermore, we antagonized icilin-evoked glutamate release with nalfurafine (0.04 mg/kg), and reversed inhibition of glutamate release with intrastriatal norbinaltorphimine (100 nM). These findings support a central component in the behavioral response to icilin and suggest that activation of kappa opioid receptors antagonizes icilin-induced wet-dog shakes in rats by inhibiting glutamate release within the dorsal striatum.
icilin ; dorsal striatum; microdialysis; wet-dog shakes; glutamate; kappa opioid receptors
Dissolved oxygen tension (DOT) is an important parameter for evaluating a bioprocess. Conventional means to measure DOT in shake flasks using fixed Clark-type electrodes immersed in the bulk liquid are problematic, because they inherently alter the hydrodynamics of the systems. Other approaches to measure DOT that apply fluorescing sensor spots fixed at the inside wall of a shake flask are also suboptimal. At low filling volumes for cultivating microorganisms with a high oxygen demand, the measured DOT signal may be erroneous. Here, the sensor spot is sometimes exposed to gas in the head space of the flask. Merely repositioning the sensor spot elsewhere in the flask does not address this problem, since there is no location in the shake flask that is always covered by the rotating bulk liquid. Thus, the aim of this prospective study is first, to verify the systemic error of Clark-type electrodes for measuring DOT in shake flasks. The second principle aim is to use the newly built "flexitube optical sensor" to verify potential errors in conventional optical DOT measurements based on fixed sensor spots.
With the Clark-type electrode, the maximum oxygen transfer capacity in shake flasks rose compared to that of an analogous system without an electrode. This proves changed hydrodynamics in the system with the Clark-type electrode. Furthermore, regarding the sensor spot experiments under oxygen-limited conditions where the DOT value ought to approach zero, the acquired signals were clearly above zero. This implies that the sensor spot is influenced by oxygen present in the headspace and not only by oxygen in the bulk liquid.
The Clark-type electrode is unsuitable for measuring DOT. Moreover, the newly built rotating flexitube optical sensor is useful to verify potential errors of conventional optical DOT measurement techniques applying fixed sensor spots.
Application of chemical solvents especially in problematic canals is usually a part of the retreatment process. This study was performed to compare the solubility of Gutta-Percha and Resilon in chloroform and to find the effect of sample thickness as well as the time of shaking on their solubility.
Materials and Methods:
Specific weight of Resilon and gutta-percha was placed in a sample tube and after adding 1.0 ml of chloroform at 37ºC, the tubes were capped and shaked for 1, 3 and 5 minutes. The amount of non dissolved material was determined by reweighting of each sample and the percent of solubility was assessed according to the exact weight loss of the samples. The procedure was repeated three times for a given thickness and time of shaking. The difference in the solubility of Gutta-Percha and Resilon as well as the effect of sample thickness and time of shaking on solubility were assessed by repeated measurement ANOVA (p<0.05).
Resilon has significantly higher solubility than Gutta-Percha in chloroform (p<0.05). Resilon as well as Gutta-Percha Solubility are increased significantly over the time .The amount of solubility is not affected by sample thickness.
Comparison of Resilon and Gutta-Percha solubility in chloroform shows that one of the advantages for Resilon could be the chance for using possible safer organic solvents during retreatment.
Solubility; Chloroform; Resilon sealer; Gutta-Percha; Solvents
Cerebral arterial vasospasm leads to delayed cerebral ischemia and constitutes the major delayed complication following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebral vasospasm can be reduced by increased blood clearance from the subarachnoid space. Clinical pilot studies allow the hypothesis that the clearance of subarachnoid blood is facilitated by means of head shaking. A major obstacle for meaningful clinical studies is the lack of data on appropriate parameters of head shaking. Our in vitro study aims to provide these essential parameters.
A model of the basal cerebral cistern was derived from human magnetic resonance imaging data. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was simulated by addition of dyed experimental blood to transparent experimental cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) filling the model of the basal cerebral cistern. Effects of various head positions and head motion settings (shaking angle amplitudes and shaking frequencies) on blood clearance were investigated using the quantitative dye washout method. Blood washout can be divided into two phases: Blood/CSF mixing and clearance. The major effect of shaking consists in better mixing of blood and CSF thereby increasing clearance rate. Without shaking, blood/CSF mixing and blood clearance in the basal cerebral cistern are hampered by differences in density and viscosity of blood and CSF. Blood clearance increases with decreased shaking frequency and with increased shaking angle amplitude. Head shaking facilitates clearance by varying the direction of gravitational force.
From this in vitro study can be inferred that patient or head shaking with large shaking angles at low frequency is a promising therapeutic strategy to increase blood clearance from the subarachnoid space.
Our ability to make logical inferences is considered as one of the cornerstones of human intelligence, fuelling investigations of reasoning abilities in non-human animals. Yet, the evidence to date is equivocal, with apes as the prime candidates to possess these skills. For instance, in a two-choice task, apes can identify the location of hidden food if it is indicated by a rattling noise caused by the shaking of a baited container. More importantly, they also use the absence of noise during the shaking of the empty container to infer that this container is not baited. However, since the inaugural report of apes solving this task, to the best of our knowledge, no comparable evidence could be found in any other tested species such as monkeys and dogs. Here, we report the first successful and instantaneous solution of the shaking task through logical inference by a non-ape species, the African grey parrot. Surprisingly, the performance of the birds was sensitive to the shaking movement: they were successful with containers shaken horizontally, but not with vertical shaking resembling parrot head-bobbing. Thus, grey parrots seem to possess ape-like cross-modal reasoning skills, but their reliance on these abilities is influenced by low-level interferences.
grey parrots; reasoning; inference; shaking; cognition; convergence
Individuals are continuously looking for faster, more efficient methods with which to develop physical fitness. This has led to the development of products and programs marketed towards increasing physical fitness in minimal time. The Shake Weight® (SW) has been advertised to increase muscular strength among other factors in less time than traditional weightlifting. The purpose of this study was to compare the electromyographic (EMG) muscle activity of the SW to a traditional dumbbell (DB) performing the same exercises. Twelve men (22.9 ± 1.6 years) and 13 women (23.0 ± 1.9 years) volunteered to participate in this study. Subjects performed the chest shake (CS), biceps shake (BS), and triceps shake (TS) using the SW and DW. Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) were exhibited for all muscles. EMG activity was recorded for the pectoralis major (PM), triceps brachii (TB), biceps brachii (BB), anterior deltoid (AD), trapezius (TR), and rectus abdominus (RA) and compared to detect differences between modalities. EMG activity for each muscle group was reported as a percentage of each subject’s individual MVIC. A repeated measures ANOVA revealed no significant differences between the SW and DB modalities during each exercise for all muscles except the BB (p < 0.05). During the CS exercise muscle activity was significantly greater for DB in the BB muscle when compared to the SW mode (50.8 ± 28.9%; 35.8 ± 30.8%). The SW did not have any advantage over the DB for any exercise, nor for any muscle group. Further, no muscle group during any of the SW trials exhibited an MVIC over 60%, the level necessary to increase muscular strength.
An oscillating dumbbell is not significantly effective for eliciting muscle activity when compared to traditional dumbbells performing the same exercises.
The SW modality did not elicit >60% MVIC which is reportedly required for increases in muscle strength.
Physical activity; muscular strength; muscular endurance; fitness products.