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1.  Anatomy of open access publishing: a study of longitudinal development and internal structure 
BMC Medicine  2012;10:124.
Background
Open access (OA) is a revolutionary way of providing access to the scholarly journal literature made possible by the Internet. The primary aim of this study was to measure the volume of scientific articles published in full immediate OA journals from 2000 to 2011, while observing longitudinal internal shifts in the structure of OA publishing concerning revenue models, publisher types and relative distribution among scientific disciplines. The secondary aim was to measure the share of OA articles of all journal articles, including articles made OA by publishers with a delay and individual author-paid OA articles in subscription journals (hybrid OA), as these subsets of OA publishing have mostly been ignored in previous studies.
Methods
Stratified random sampling of journals in the Directory of Open Access Journals (n = 787) was performed. The annual publication volumes spanning 2000 to 2011 were retrieved from major publication indexes and through manual data collection.
Results
An estimated 340,000 articles were published by 6,713 full immediate OA journals during 2011. OA journals requiring article-processing charges have become increasingly common, publishing 166,700 articles in 2011 (49% of all OA articles). This growth is related to the growth of commercial publishers, who, despite only a marginal presence a decade ago, have grown to become key actors on the OA scene, responsible for 120,000 of the articles published in 2011. Publication volume has grown within all major scientific disciplines, however, biomedicine has seen a particularly rapid 16-fold growth between 2000 (7,400 articles) and 2011 (120,900 articles). Over the past decade, OA journal publishing has steadily increased its relative share of all scholarly journal articles by about 1% annually. Approximately 17% of the 1.66 million articles published during 2011 and indexed in the most comprehensive article-level index of scholarly articles (Scopus) are available OA through journal publishers, most articles immediately (12%) but some within 12 months of publication (5%).
Conclusions
OA journal publishing is disrupting the dominant subscription-based model of scientific publishing, having rapidly grown in relative annual share of published journal articles during the last decade.
doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-124
PMCID: PMC3478161  PMID: 23088823
Open access; scientific publishing
2.  Do urology journals enforce trial registration? A cross-sectional study of published trials 
BMJ Open  2011;1(2):e000430.
Objectives
(1) To assess endorsement of trial registration in author instructions of urology-related journals and (2) to assess whether randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the field of urology were effectively registered.
Design
Cross-sectional study of author instructions and published trials.
Setting
Journals publishing in the field of urology.
Participants
First, the authors analysed author instructions of 55 urology-related journals indexed in ‘Journal Citation Reports 2009’ (12/2010). The authors divided these journals in two groups: those requiring and those not mentioning trial registration as a precondition for publication. Second, the authors chose the five journals with the highest impact factor (IF) from each group.
Intervention
MEDLINE search to identify RCTs published in these 10 journals in 2009 (01/2011); search of the clinical trials meta-search interface of WHO (International Clinical Trials Registry Platform) for RCTs that lacked information about registration (01–03/2011). Two authors independently assessed the information.
Outcome measures
Proportion of journals providing advice about trial registration and proportion of trials registered.
Results
Of 55 journals analysed, 26 (47.3%) provided some editorial advice about trial registration. Journals with higher IFs were more likely to mention trial registration explicitly (p=0.015). Of 106 RCTs published in 2009, 63 were registered (59.4%) with a tendency to an increase after 2005 (83.3%, p=0.035). 71.4% (30/42) of the RCTs that were published in journals mentioning and requiring registration, and 51.6% (33/64) of the RCTs that were published in journals that did not mention trial registration explicitly were registered. This difference was statistically significant (p=0.04).
Conclusions
The existence of a statement about trial registration in author instructions resulted in a higher proportion of registered RCTs in those journals. Journals with higher IFs were more likely to mention trial registration.
Article summary
Article focus
Trial registration can increase scientific transparency, but its implementation in specialty fields such as urology is unclear.
To assess the endorsement of trial registration in the author instructions of urology-related journals.
To assess whether randomised controlled trials in the field were effectively registered.
Key messages
A statement of trial registration in author instructions resulted in a higher proportion of registered randomised controlled trials.
Journals with high impact factors were more likely to mention trial registration.
We suggest, though, that ensuring trial registration is not the responsibility only of the editors. Medical scientists should realise that trial registration is necessary to contribute to transparency in research.
Strength and limitations of this study
Two authors independently assessed information regarding editorial advice about trial registration and identified the randomised controlled trials.
Potential bias occurred if registered randomised controlled trials were reported without giving a registration number and we could not identify them in the meta-search interface of WHO (International Clinical Trials Registry Platform).
Results might not be representative of the uro-nephrological field as a whole and reported figures may overestimate compliance with trial registration.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2011-000430
PMCID: PMC3236819  PMID: 22146890
3.  Transfusion thresholds and other strategies for guiding allogeneic red blood cell transfusion 
Background
Most clinical practice guidelines recommend restrictive red cell transfusion practices, with the goal of minimising exposure to allogeneic blood. The purpose of this review is to compare clinical outcomes in patients randomised to restrictive versus liberal transfusion thresholds (triggers).
Objectives
To examine the evidence for the effect of transfusion thresholds on the use of allogeneic and/or autologous red cell transfusion, and the evidence for any effect on clinical outcomes.
Search methods
We identified trials by searching: the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register (searched 1 February 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 1), MEDLINE (Ovid) 1948 to January Week 3 2011, EMBASE (Ovid) 1980 to 2011 (Week 04), ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (1970 to February 2011) and ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science (1990 to February 2011). We checked reference lists of other published reviews and relevant papers to identify any additional trials.
Selection criteria
Controlled trials in which patients were randomised to an intervention group or to a control group. We included trials where intervention groups were assigned on the basis of a clear transfusion ‘trigger’, described as a haemoglobin (Hb) or haematocrit (Hct) level below which a red blood cell (RBC) transfusion was to be administered.
Data collection and analysis
We pooled risk ratios of requiring allogeneic blood transfusion, transfused blood volumes and other clinical outcomes across trials using a random-effects model. Two people performed data extraction and assessment of the risk of bias.
Main results
We included 19 trials involving a total of 6264 patients and they were similar enough that results could be combined. Restrictive transfusion strategies reduced the risk of receiving a RBC transfusion by 39% (risk ratio (RR) 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52 to 0.72). This equates to an average absolute risk reduction (ARR) of 34% (95% CI 24% to 45%). The volume of RBCs transfused was reduced on average by 1.19 units (95% CI 0.53 to 1.85 units). However, heterogeneity between trials was statistically significant (P < 0.00001; I2 ≥ 93%) for these outcomes. Restrictive transfusion strategies did not appear to impact the rate of adverse events compared to liberal transfusion strategies (i.e. mortality, cardiac events, myocardial infarction, stroke, pneumonia and thromboembolism). Restrictive transfusion strategies were associated with a statistically significant reduction in hospital mortality (RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.95) but not 30-day mortality (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.03). The use of restrictive transfusion strategies did not reduce functional recovery, hospital or intensive care length of stay. The majority of patients randomised were included in good-quality trials, but some items of methodological quality were unclear. There are no trials in patients with acute coronary syndrome.
Authors’ conclusions
The existing evidence supports the use of restrictive transfusion triggers in most patients, including those with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. As there are no trials, the effects of restrictive transfusion triggers in high-risk groups, such as acute coronary syndrome, need to be tested in further large clinical trials. In countries with inadequate screening of donor blood, the data may constitute a stronger basis for avoiding transfusion with allogeneic red cells.
doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002042.pub3
PMCID: PMC4171966  PMID: 22513904
*Practice Guidelines as Topic; Erythrocyte Transfusion [adverse effects; mortality; *standards]; Hematocrit [standards]; Hemoglobin A [analysis]; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic; Reference Values; Transplantation, Autologous [standards]; Transplantation, Homologous [mortality; standards]; Humans
4.  China’s three-year health reform program and equity in sanitation improvement: a panel analysis 
BMC Public Health  2015;15:38.
Background
Accessible improved sanitation is critical to child health, and inequities in improved sanitation can be interpreted as health inequities across socio-economic groups. From 2009 to 2011, the Chinese government invested 4.448 billion yuan for rural sanitation improvement through a 3-year health reform program. This study assesses the inequity of sanitation improvement in rural China from 2003 to 2011 and examines whether the 3-year health reform program promoted equity in sanitation improvement.
Methods
Data from the China Health Statistics Yearbooks of 2004 to 2012 and the National Bureau of Statistics of China were used to create the concentration curve (CC), concentration index (CI), and absolute concentration index (ACI) of improved sanitation. Data of central investment for sanitation improvement in each province of China for 2009, 2010, and 2011 was gained through correspondence and used to create the CC and CI for investment.
Results
Although the CIs of improved sanitation are lower than the CIs of the net income of rural residents, the latter have an obvious downtrend. The CIs of improved sanitation increased from 2003 until 2008 and started to drop in 2009. As a result, by 2011, the CIs of improved sanitation had reached their 2003 levels. The ACI of improved sanitation decreased slightly from 2003 to 2008, but declined sharply from 2009 to 2011. The CIs of central investment for 2009, 2010, and 2011 are negative and the CCs of central investment are above the line of absolute equality, indicating that investments had been concentrated more on poorer provinces and regions.
Conclusions
The equality of rural residents’ net income has been improving each year, whereas equity in sanitation improvement deteriorated from 2003 to 2008. However, equity in sanitation improvement has increased since 2009 due to central investment in sanitation improvement during the 3-year health reform program that benefits low-income areas more. It is clear that the 3-year health reform program played an important role in promoting the level and equity of sanitation improvement.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12889-015-1364-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12889-015-1364-7
PMCID: PMC4323256  PMID: 25638148
Inequity; Improved sanitation; Three-year health reform program; Central investment; Concentration curve; Concentration index; Absolute concentration index
5.  Routine preoperative medical testing for cataract surgery 
Background
Cataract surgery is practiced widely and substantial resources are committed to an increasing cataract surgical rate in developing countries. With the current volume of cataract surgery and the increases in the future, it is critical to optimize the safety and cost-effectiveness of this procedure. Most cataracts are performed on older individuals with correspondingly high systemic and ocular comorbidities. It is likely that routine preoperative medical testing will detect medical conditions, but it is questionable whether these conditions should preclude individuals from cataract surgery or change their perioperative management.
Objectives
(1) To investigate the evidence for reductions in adverse events through preoperative medical testing, and (2) to estimate the average cost of performing routine medical testing.
Search methods
We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 12), MEDLINE (January 1950 to December 2011), EMBASE (January 1980 to December 2011), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to December 2011), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). There were no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 9 December 2011. We used reference lists and the Science Citation Index to search for additional studies.
Selection criteria
We included randomized clinical trials in which routine preoperative medical testing was compared to no preoperative or selective preoperative testing prior to age-related cataract surgery.
Data collection and analysis
Two review authors independently assessed abstracts to identify possible trials for inclusion. For each included study, two review authors independently documented study characteristics, extracted data, and assessed methodological quality.
Main results
The three randomized clinical trials included in this review reported results for 21,531 total cataract surgeries with 707 total surgery-associated medical adverse events, including 61 hospitalizations and three deaths. Of the 707 medical adverse events reported, 353 occurred in the pretesting group and 354 occurred in the no testing group. Most events were cardiovascular and occurred during the intraoperative period. Routine preoperative medical testing did not reduce the risk of intraoperative (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.22) or postoperative medical adverse events (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.24) when compared to selective or no testing. Cost savings were evaluated in one study which estimated the costs to be 2.55 times higher in those with preoperative medical testing compared to those without preoperative medical testing. There was no difference in cancellation of surgery between those with preoperative medical testing and those with no or limited preoperative testing, reported by two studies.
Authors' conclusions
This review has shown that routine pre-operative testing does not increase the safety of cataract surgery. Alternatives to routine preoperative medical testing have been proposed, including self-administered health questionnaires, which could substitute for health provider histories and physical examinations. Such avenues may lead to cost-effective means of identifying those at increased risk of medical adverse events due to cataract surgery. However, despite the rare occurrence, adverse medical events precipitated by cataract surgery remain a concern because of the large number of elderly patients with multiple medical comorbidities who have cataract surgery in various settings. The studies summarized in this review should assist recommendations for the standard of care of cataract surgery, at least in developed settings. Unfortunately, in developing country settings, medical history questionnaires would be useless to screen for risk since few people have ever been to a physician, let alone been diagnosed with any chronic disease.
doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007293.pub3
PMCID: PMC4261928  PMID: 22419323
Age Factors; Cataract Extraction [*adverse effects; *economics]; Cost Savings; Diagnostic Tests, Routine [*economics]; Hospitalization [statistics & numerical data]; Intraoperative Complications [prevention & control]; Postoperative Complications [prevention & control]; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic; Aged; Humans
6.  Interventions to slow progression of myopia in children 
Background
Nearsightedness (myopia) causes blurry vision when looking at distant objects. Highly nearsighted people are at greater risk of several vision-threatening problems such as retinal detachments, choroidal atrophy, cataracts and glaucoma. Interventions that have been explored to slow the progression of myopia include bifocal spectacles, cycloplegic drops, intraocular pressure-lowering drugs, muscarinic receptor antagonists and contact lenses. The purpose of this review was to systematically assess the effectiveness of strategies to control progression of myopia in children.
Objectives
To assess the effects of several types of interventions, including eye drops, undercorrection of nearsightedness, multifocal spectacles and contact lenses, on the progression of nearsightedness in myopic children younger than 18 years. We compared the interventions of interest with each other, to single vision lenses (SVLs) (spectacles), placebo or no treatment.
Search methods
We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 10), MEDLINE (January 1950 to October 2011), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2011), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to October 2011), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com) and ClinicalTrials.gov (http://clinicaltrials.gov). There were no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 11 October 2011. We also searched the reference lists and Science Citation Index for additional, potentially relevant studies.
Selection criteria
We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which participants were treated with spectacles, contact lenses or pharmaceutical agents for the purpose of controlling progression of myopia. We excluded trials where participants were older than 18 years at baseline or participants had less than −0.25 diopters (D) spherical equivalent myopia.
Data collection and analysis
Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias for each included study. When possible, we analyzed data with the inverse variance method using a fixed-effect or random-effects model, depending on the number of studies and amount of heterogeneity detected.
Main results
We included 23 studies (4696 total participants) in this review, with 17 of these studies included in quantitative analysis. Since we only included RCTs in the review, the studies were generally at low risk of bias for selection bias. Undercorrection of myopia was found to increase myopia progression slightly in two studies; children who were undercorrected progressed on average 0.15 D (95% confidence interval (CI) −0.29 to 0.00) more than the fully corrected SVLs wearers at one year. Rigid gas permeable contact lenses (RGPCLs) were found to have no evidence of effect on myopic eye growth in two studies (no meta-analysis due to heterogeneity between studies). Progressive addition lenses (PALs), reported in four studies, and bifocal spectacles, reported in four studies, were found to yield a small slowing of myopia progression. For seven studies with quantitative data at one year, children wearing multifocal lenses, either PALs or bifocals, progressed on average 0.16 D (95% CI 0.07 to 0.25) less than children wearing SVLs. The largest positive effects for slowing myopia progression were exhibited by anti-muscarinic medications. At one year, children receiving pirenzepine gel (two studies), cyclopentolate eye drops (one study), or atropine eye drops (two studies) showed significantly less myopic progression compared with children receiving placebo (mean differences (MD) 0.31 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.44), 0.34 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.60), and 0.80 (95% CI 0.70 to 0.90), respectively).
Authors’ conclusions
The most likely effective treatment to slow myopia progression thus far is anti-muscarinic topical medication. However, side effects of these medications include light sensitivity and near blur. Also, they are not yet commercially available, so their use is limited and not practical. Further information is required for other methods of myopia control, such as the use of corneal reshaping contact lenses or bifocal soft contact lenses (BSCLs) with a distance center are promising, but currently no published randomized clinical trials exist.
doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004916.pub3
PMCID: PMC4270373  PMID: 22161388
7.  Research progress in hepatic encephalopathy in recent 10 years: A Web of Science-based literature analysis 
Neural Regeneration Research  2012;7(34):2727-2733.
OBJECTIVE:
To analyze international research trends in hepatic encephalopathy and examine the role of neuroelectrophysiology and neuroimaging in diagnosis of hepatic encephalopathy.
DATA RETRIEVAL:
We performed a bibliometric analysis of studies on hepatic encephalopathy published during 2002–2011 retrieved from Web of Science.
SELECTION CRITERIA:
Inclusion criteria: (1) peer-reviewed published articles on hepatic encephalopathy; (2) original article, review, meeting abstract, proceedings paper, book chapter, editorial material, news items, and (3) published during 2002–2011. Exclusion criteria: (1) articles that required manual searching or telephone access; (2) documents that were not published in the public domain; and (3) corrected papers from the total number of articles.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
(1) Annual publication output; (2) type of publication; (3) publication by research field; (4) publication by journal; (5) publication by author; (6) publication by institution; (7) publication by country; (8) publication by institution in China; (9) most-cited papers.
RESULTS:
A total of 3 233 papers regarding hepatic encephalopathy were retrieved during 2002–2011. The number of papers gradually increased over the 10-year study period and was highest in 2010. Most papers appeared in journals with a focus on gastroenterology and hepatology. Among the included journals, Hepatology published the greatest number of papers regarding hepatic encephalopathy, and the published studies were highly cited. Thus, Hepatology appears to represent a key journal publishing papers on hepatic encephalopathy. Regarding distribution by country for publications on hepatic encephalopathy indexed in Web of Science during 2002–2011, the United States published highest number of papers, with China ranked ninth. As per distribution by institute for publications, the University of Montreal in Canada published the highest number of papers (n = 111). Among the Chinese institutes, Zhejiang University in China was the most prolific institute with 15 papers.
CONCLUSION:
The present bibliometric analysis on hepatic encephalopathy provides an overview of research progress, as well as identifying the most active institutes and experts in this research field during 2002–2011. Research into hepatic encephalopathy has revealed changes in neural injury and regeneration in hepatic encephalopathy. Neuroelectrophysiological and neuroimaging examinations are important for determining clinical classifications and disease severity of hepatic encephalopathy, providing a foundation for further research.
doi:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5374.2012.34.011
PMCID: PMC4200742  PMID: 25337120
hepatic encephalopathy; neuroelectrophysiology; neuroimaging; diagnosis; ammonia; manganese; astrocyte; amino acids unbalance; bibliometrics; neural regeneration
8.  Stem cell transplantation for treating Duchenne muscular dystrophy 
Neural Regeneration Research  2012;7(22):1744-1751.
OBJECTIVE:
To identify global research trends in stem cell transplantation for treating Duchenne muscular dystrophy using a bibliometric analysis of Web of Science.
DATA RETRIEVAL:
We performed a bibliometric analysis of studies on stem cell transplantation for treating Duchenne muscular dystrophy from 2002 to 2011 retrieved from Web of Science.
SELECTION CRITERIA:
Inclusion criteria: (a) peer-reviewed published articles on stem cell transplantation for treating Duchenne muscular dystrophy indexed in Web of Science; (b) original research articles, reviews, meeting abstracts, proceedings papers, book chapters, editorial material, and news items; and (c) publication between 2002 and 2011. Exclusion criteria: (a) articles that required manual searching or telephone access; (b) documents that were not published in the public domain; and (c) corrected papers.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
(1) Annual publication output; (2) distribution according to subject areas; (3) distribution according to journals; (4) distribution according to country; (5) distribution according to institution; (6) distribution according to institution in China; (7) distribution according to institution that cooperated with Chinese institutions; (8) top-cited articles from 2002 to 2006; (9) top-cited articles from 2007 to 2011.
RESULTS:
A total of 318 publications on stem cell transplantation for treating Duchenne muscular dystrophy were retrieved from Web of Science from 2002 to 2011, of which almost half derived from American authors and institutes. The number of publications has gradually increased over the past 10 years. Most papers appeared in journals with a focus on gene and molecular research, such as Molecular Therapy, Neuromuscular Disorders, and PLoS One. The 10 most-cited papers from 2002 to 2006 were mostly about different kinds of stem cell transplantation for muscle regeneration, while the 10 most-cited papers from 2007 to 2011 were mostly about new techniques of stem cell transplantation for treating Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
CONCLUSION:
The publications on stem cell transplantation for treating Duchenne muscular dystrophy were relatively few. It also needs more research to confirm that stem cell therapy is a reliable treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
doi:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5374.2012.22.010
PMCID: PMC4302457  PMID: 25624797
pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy; Duchenne muscular dystrophy; Becker muscular dystrophy; stem cell; myoblast; exon skipping; dystrophin gene; motor function; cell transplantation; regenerative myogenesis; neural regeneration
9.  Use of acupuncture to treat cerebral infarction in the last 10 years: A Scopus-based literature analysis☆ 
Neural Regeneration Research  2012;7(36):2944-2951.
OBJECTIVE:
To identify global research trends in the use of acupuncture to treat cerebral infarction.
DATA RETRIEVAL:
We performed a bibliometric analysis of studies on the use of acupuncture to treat cerebral infarction published during 2002–2011, retrieved from Scopus, using the key words of acupuncture and cerebral infarction or ischemic stroke.
SELECTION CRITERIA:
Inclusion criteria: peer-reviewed articles on the use of acupuncture to treat cerebral infarction indexed in Scopus and published between 2002 and 2011; types of publications were original research articles, reviews, meeting abstracts, proceedings papers, book chapters, editorial material, and news items. Exclusion criteria: articles that required manual searching or telephone access; documents that were not published in the public domain; and corrected papers.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
(a) Annual publication output; (b) language of publication; (c) type of publication; (d) key words of publication; (e) publication by research field; (f) publication by journal; (g) publication by country and institution; (h) publication by author; (i) most-cited papers between 2002 and 2006; and (j) most-cited papers between 2007 and 2011.
RESULTS:
A total of 160 publications on the use of acupuncture to treat cerebral infarction from 2002–2011 were retrieved from Scopus. The number of publications increased gradually over the 10-year study period; most were written in Chinese or English. Articles and reviews constituted the major types. The most frequent key word used was acupuncture. The most prolific journals in this area were Zhongguo Zhen Jiu and the Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation. Of the 160 publications retrieved, half came from Chinese authors and institutions. Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine was the most prolific research institute. Two papers were cited 30 times; they were published in 2002 and 2009, respectively.
CONCLUSION:
In the field of neuroscience, there is little literature on acupuncture for cerebral infarction. The most-cited papers were cited 30 times in the past 3 years. We believe that, with advances in the study of mechanisms in neurobiology, research on acupuncture will also advance and will become the concern of more scholars.
doi:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5374.2012.36.013
PMCID: PMC4190954  PMID: 25317148
acupuncture; cerebral infarction; ischemic stroke; cerebral ischemia; hemiplegia; collateral circulation; blood flow; glial cell; Scopus; neural regeneration
10.  How Far Has the International Neurourology Journal Progressed Since Its Transformation Into an English Language Journal? 
Purpose
The publisher of the International Neurourology Journal changed the text to English in 2010 to promote the journal as an international publication. Four years later, what has happened to this journal? This paper will use citation indicators to describe the degree of internationalization.
Methods
Citation indicators such as impact factors, total citations from Web of Science, Science Journal Rankings (SJR), cites per documents (2 years), and Hirsch indexes (h-indexes) from Web of Science, digital object identifier (DOI)/CrossRef, ScimagoJR, or Scopus were calculated. In addition, the native countries of the authors and researchers citing the journal in Web of Science were analyzed.
Results
Impact factors in 2012 and 2013 were 0.645 and 0.857, respectively. Total citations in 2011, 2012, and 2013 from Web of Science were 15, 51, and 99, respectively, and the SJRs in 2011 and 2012 were 0.220 and 0.390, respectively. The h-indexes from DOI/CrossRef, Scopus, and Web of Science were 7, 8, and 6, respectively. Out of 153 unsolicited published papers, 27 (17.6%) were from outside of Korea. The researchers citing the journal in Web of Science and Scopus were primarily from the United States, Korea, China, the United Kingdom, and France. Funding agencies supported 39 of 101 original articles (38.6%).
Conclusions
After changing the text to the English language, the citation indicators show that the International Neurourology Journal has been elevated to an international journal. Although the nationality of authors varies from year to year, the increase in the number of manuscripts from international authors is obvious.
doi:10.5213/inj.2014.18.1.3
PMCID: PMC3983506  PMID: 24729921
Journal impact factor; Bibliographic database; PubMed
11.  Citation Analysis of the Korean Journal of Urology From Web of Science, Scopus, Korean Medical Citation Index, KoreaMed Synapse, and Google Scholar 
Korean Journal of Urology  2013;54(4):220-228.
The Korean Journal of Urology began to be published exclusively in English in 2010 and is indexed in PubMed Central/PubMed. This study analyzed a variety of citation indicators of the Korean Journal of Urology before and after 2010 to clarify the present position of the journal among the urology category journals. The impact factor, SCImago Journal Rank (SJR), impact index, Z-impact factor (ZIF, impact factor excluding self-citation), and Hirsch Index (H-index) were referenced or calculated from Web of Science, Scopus, SCImago Journal & Country Ranking, Korean Medical Citation Index (KoMCI), KoreaMed Synapse, and Google Scholar. Both the impact factor and the total citations rose rapidly beginning in 2011. The 2012 impact factor corresponded to the upper 84.9% in the nephrology-urology category, whereas the 2011 SJR was in the upper 58.5%. The ZIF in KoMCI was one fifth of the impact factor because there are only two other urology journals in KoMCI. Up to 2009, more than half of the citations in the Web of Science were from Korean researchers, but from 2010 to 2012, more than 85% of the citations were from international researchers. The H-indexes from Web of Science, Scopus, KoMCI, KoreaMed Synapse, and Google Scholar were 8, 10, 12, 9, and 18, respectively. The strategy of the language change in 2010 was successful from the perspective of citation indicators. The values of the citation indicators will continue to increase rapidly and consistently as the research achievement of authors of the Korean Journal of Urology increases.
doi:10.4111/kju.2013.54.4.220
PMCID: PMC3630339  PMID: 23614057
Analysis; Bibliometrics; Database; Korea
12.  Follicle and melanocyte stem cells, and their application in neuroscience: A Web of Science-based literature analysis 
Neural Regeneration Research  2012;7(34):2734-2741.
OBJECTIVE:
To identify global research trends of follicle and melanocyte stem cells, and their application in neuroscience.
DATA RETRIEVAL:
We performed a bibliometric analysis of studies from 2002 to 2011 on follicle and melanocyte stem cells, and their application in neuroscience, which were retrieved from the Web of Science, using the key words follicle stem cell or melanocyte stem cell, and neural, neuro or nerve.
SELECTION CRITERIA:
Inclusion criteria: (a) peer-reviewed published articles on follicle and melanocyte stem cells, and their application in neuroscience, which were indexed in the Web of Science; (b) original research articles, reviews, meeting abstracts, proceedings papers, book chapters, editorial material, and news items. Exclusion criteria: (a) articles that required manual searching or telephone access; (b) documents that were not published in the public domain; and (c) a number of corrected papers from the total number of articles.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
(1) Distribution of publications on follicle and melanocyte stem cells by years, journals, countries, institutions, institutions in China, and most cited papers. (2) Distribution of publications on the application of follicle and melanocyte stem cells in neuroscience by years, journals, countries, institutions, and most cited papers.
RESULTS:
Of the 348 publications from 2002 to 2011 on follicle and melanocyte stem cells, which were retrieved from the Web of Science, more than half were from American authors and institutes. The most prolific institutions in China for publication of papers on follicle and melanocyte stem cells were the Fourth Military Medical University and Third Military Medical University. The most prolific journals for publication of papers on follicle and melanocyte stem cells were the Journal of Investigative Dermatology, Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research. Of the 63 publications from 2002 to 2011 on the application of follicle and melanocyte stem cells in neuroscience, which were retrieved from the Web of Science, more than half were from American authors and institutes, and no papers were from Chinese authors and institutes. The most prolific journals for publication of papers on the application of follicle and melanocyte stem cells in neuroscience were the Journal of Investigative Dermatology, Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research.
CONCLUSION:
Based on our analysis of the literature and research trends, we found that follicle stem cells might offer further benefits in neural regenerative medicine.
doi:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5374.2012.34.012
PMCID: PMC4200743  PMID: 25337121
skin stem cell; follicle stem cell; melanocyte stem cell; skin-derived precursor; neural crest stem cell; neuron; glial cell; differentiation; bibliometric; neural regeneration
13.  Do surgery journals insist on reporting by CONSORT and PRISMA? A follow-up survey of ‘instructions to authors’ 
Aims
Guidance has been published on how best to report randomised controlled trials (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials - CONSORT) and systematic reviews (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis - PRISMA). In 2011, we reported a low rate of enforcement by surgery journals for submitted manuscripts to conform to these guidelines. The aim of this follow-up study is to establish whether there has been any improvement.
Methods
We studied the 134 surgery journals indexed in the Journal Citation Report. The ‘Instructions to Authors’ were scrutinised for inclusion of the following guidance: CONSORT, PRISMA, clinical trial registration and systematic review registration.
Results
Compared to 2011, there has been an improvement in the endorsement of reporting guidance in journals' ‘Instructions to Authors’ in 2014, as follows: trial registration (42% vs 33%), CONSORT (42% vs 30%) and PRISMA (19% vs 10%, all p < 0.001). As in 2011, journals with a higher impact were more likely to adopt trial registration (p < 0.001), CONSORT (p < 0.001) and PRISMA (p = 0.002). Journals with editorial offices in the UK were more likely to endorse guidance compared to those outside the UK (p < 0.05). Only one journal mentioned registration for systematic reviews.
Conclusions
Surgery journals are presently more likely to require submitted manuscripts to follow published reporting guidance compared to three years ago. However, overall concordance rates are still low, and an improvement is required to help enhance the quality of reporting – and ultimately the conduct – of randomised control trials and systematic reviews in surgery.
Highlights
•There has been an improvement in the endorsement of reporting guidance in surgery journals’ instructions to authors.•Higher impact journals are more likely to require trial registration and adherence to CONSORT and PRISMA.•There is still scope to improve the quality of reporting in surgery journals.
doi:10.1016/j.amsu.2014.12.003
PMCID: PMC4323756
Editorial policies; Clinical trials; Conflict of interests; Journalism; Guidelines
14.  Body mass index and dental caries in children and adolescents: a systematic review of literature published 2004 to 2011 
Systematic Reviews  2012;1:57.
The objective
The authors undertook an updated systematic review of the relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children and adolescents.
Method
The authors searched Medline, ISI, Cochrane, Scopus, Global Health and CINAHL databases and conducted lateral searches from reference lists for papers published from 2004 to 2011, inclusive. All empirical papers that tested associations between body mass index and dental caries in child and adolescent populations (aged 0 to 18 years) were included.
Results
Dental caries is associated with both high and low body mass index.
Conclusion
A non-linear association between body mass index and dental caries may account for inconsistent findings in previous research. We recommend future research investigate the nature of the association between body mass index and dental caries in samples that include a full range of body mass index scores, and explore how factors such as socioeconomic status mediate the association between body mass index and dental caries.
doi:10.1186/2046-4053-1-57
PMCID: PMC3621095  PMID: 23171603
Early childhood caries; Childhood obesity; Review; Dental caries; Obesity; Overweight
15.  Assessing the Effect of an Integrated Control Strategy for Schistosomiasis Japonica Emphasizing Bovines in a Marshland Area of Hubei Province, China: A Cluster Randomized Trial 
Introduction
More than 80% of schistosomiasis patients in China live in the lake and marshland regions. The purpose of our study is to assess the effect of a comprehensive strategy to control transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in marshland regions.
Methodology/Principal Findings
In a cluster randomized controlled trial, we implemented an integrated control strategy in twelve villages from 2009 through 2011 in Gong'an County, Hubei Province. The routine interventions included praziquantel chemotherapy and controlling snails, and were implemented in all villages. New interventions, mainly consisting of building fences to limit the grazing area for bovines, building safe pastures for grazing, improving the residents' health conditions and facilities, were only implemented in six intervention villages. Results showed that the rate of S. japonicum infection in humans, bovines, snails, cow dung and mice in the intervention group decreased from 3.41% in 2008 to 0.81% in 2011, 3.3% to none, 11 of 6,219 to none, 3.9% to none and 31.7% to 1.7%, respectively (P<0.001 for all comparisons). In contrast, there were no statistically significant reductions of S. japonicum infection in humans, bovines and snails from 2008 to 2011 in the control group (P>0.05 for all comparisons). Moreover, a generalized linear model showed that there was a higher infection risk in humans in the control group than in the intervention group (OR = 1.250, P = 0.001) and an overall significant downward trend in infection risk during the study period.
Conclusions/Significance
The integrated control strategy, designed to reduce the role of bovines and humans as sources of S. japonicum infection, was highly effective in controlling the transmission of S. japonicum in marshland regions in China.
Trial Registration
Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-PRC-12002405.
Author Summary
More than 80% of schistosomiasis patients in China live in the lake and marshland regions. Hence, how to control transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in these regions is especially important. From 2009 through 2011, we implemented an integrated control strategy, designed to reduce the role of bovines and humans as sources of S. japonicum infection, in twelve villages Gong'an County of Hubei Province, which is located in typical marshland. After three years, the rate of S. japonicum infection in humans, bovines and snails significantly declined in the six intervention villages. In contrast, there was no significant decline in these indexes in the six control villages. Moreover, there was a higher infection risk in humans in the control group than the intervention group. Our study showed that the integrated control strategy was highly effective in controlling the transmission of S. japonicum in marshland regions of China.
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002122
PMCID: PMC3597472  PMID: 23516656
16.  Use of stem cell transplantation to treat epilepsy: A Web of Science-based literature analysis 
Neural Regeneration Research  2012;7(33):2624-2631.
OBJECTIVE:
To identify global research trends in the use of stem cell transplantation to treat epilepsy.
DATA RETRIEVAL:
We performed a bibliometric analysis of studies on the use of stem cell transplantation to treat epilepsy during 2002–2011, retrieved from Web of Science, using the key words epilepsy or epileptic or epilepticus or seizure and “stem cell”.
SELECTION CRITERIA:
Inclusion criteria: (a) peer-reviewed published articles on the use of stem cell transplantation to treat epilepsy indexed in Web of Science; (b) original research articles, reviews, meeting abstracts, proceedings papers, book chapters, editorial material, and news items.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
(a) Annual publication output; (b) type of publication; (c) publication by research field; (d) publication by journal; (e) publication by author; (f) publication by country and institution; (g) publications by institution in China; (h) most-cited papers; and (i) papers published by Chinese authors or institutions.
RESULTS:
A total of 460 publications on the use of stem cell transplantation to treat epilepsy were retrieved from Web of Science, 2002–2011. The number of publications gradually increased over the 10-year study period. Articles and reviews constituted the major types of publications. More than half of the studies were in the field of neuroscience/neurology. The most prolific journals for this topic were Epilepsia, Bone Marrow Transplantation, and Journal of Neuroscience. Of the 460 publications, almost half came from American authors and institutions; relatively few papers were published by Chinese authors or institutions.
CONCLUSION:
Literature on stem cell transplantation for epilepsy includes many reports of basic research, but few of clinical trials or treatments. Exact effects are not yet evaluated. Epilepsy rehabilitation is a long-term, complex, and comprehensive system engineering. With advances in medical development, some effective medical, social and educational measures are needed to facilitate patient's treatment and training and accelerate the recovery of life ability, learning ability and social adaptability to the largest extent to improve patient's quality of life.
doi:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5374.2012.33.008
PMCID: PMC4200730  PMID: 25368639
epilepsy; seizure; hippocampus; stem cell; ancestral cell; neurons; neurogenesis; central nervous system; brain; bibliometric; neural regeneration
17.  Elongated muscle belly of the flexor digitorum superficial causing carpal tunnel syndrome 
Hand (New York, N.Y.)  2012;7(3):333-334.
Background
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is by far the most common entrapment neuropathy (Adams et al. Am J Ind Med 25:527–536, 1994; Cheadle et al. Am J Public Health 84:190–196, 1994; Stevens et al. Neurology 38:134–138, 1988). A combination of described symptoms, clinical findings and electrophysiological testing is used to confirm the diagnosis. Several studies have suggested that in patients with a clinical diagnosis of CTS, the accuracy of nerve sonography is similar to that for electromyography (Chen et al. BMC Med Imaging 11:22, 2011; Guan et al. Neurol Res 33:970–953, 2011; Kele et al. Neurology 61:389–391, 2003; Tai et al. Ultrasound Med Biol 38:1121–1128, 2012). In special cases though, the nerve sonography can reveal the cause of the median entrapment neuropathy (Fumière et al. JBR-BTR 85:1–3, 2002; Kele et al. J Neurosurg 97:471–473, 2002; Kele et al. Neurology 61:389–391, 2003; Zamora et al. J Clin Ultrasound 39:44–47, 2011).
Methods
A 43-year-old farmer was admitted to our department with 1 year of intermittent pain in the left hand and numbness of the thumb, index and middle finger. The pain and the numbness could be reproduced by extension of the wrist and fingers. The electrophysiological testing revealed signs of an entrapment median neuropathy in carpal tunnel.
Results
The high-resolution sonography (18 MHz) revealed signs of entrapment neuropathy with increased cross-sectional area, disturbed echostructure of the nerve and pathological wrist-to-forearm ratio, confirming the results from a similar study (Kele et al. Neurology 61:389–391, 2003). In addition, an elongated muscle belly of the flexor digitorum superficialis in the carpal tunnel could be identified. During the extension of the wrist and fingers, a greater protrusion of the muscle belly could be demonstrated causing compression of the median nerve.
Conclusions
We present a video case report of the sonographic findings of a patient diagnosed with carpal tunnel syndrome due to an elongated muscle belly of the flexor digitorum superficialis in the carpal tunnel. Our case highlights the importance of nerve sonography in the differential diagnosis of the cause of a carpal tunnel syndrome. With the aid of ultrasonography, it is possible to obtain very important information concerning different aspects of this case. First, in showing the presence of the elongated muscle belly of the flexor digitorum superficialis, the cause of the symptoms could be explained. Second, it was possible through the ultrasound study to explain the atypical clinical appearance in this case, demonstrating the compression neuropathy only after extension of the wrist and fingers. There have been no previous reports in which authors described an elongated muscle belly as cause of a CTS. Third, and perhaps most important, ultrasonography had a direct influence on our selection of therapeutical strategy and approach. As a result, we recommended in this patient a surgical therapy to completely solve the problem, but the patient declined this option and preferred a conservative therapy with a hand orthosis to prevent wrist extension. In conclusion we recommend ultrasonography as a very useful method in the diagnostic evaluation of carpal tunnel syndrome. We have clearly demonstrated that ultrasonography can be used to discover the cause of median nerve compression, especially in cases with an atypical clinical presentation.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11552-012-9435-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s11552-012-9435-z
PMCID: PMC3418357  PMID: 23997744
Carpal tunnel syndrome; Median nerve neuropathy; Ultrasound
18.  Detection, Isolation and Confirmation of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Human, Ticks and Animals in Ahmadabad, India, 2010–2011 
Background
In January 2011, human cases with hemorrhagic manifestations in the hospital staff were reported from a tertiary care hospital in Ahmadabad, India. This paper reports a detailed epidemiological investigation of nosocomial outbreak from the affected area of Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India.
Principal Findings
Samples from 3 suspected cases, 83 contacts, Hyalomma ticks and livestock were screened for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus by qRT-PCR of which samples of two medical professionals (case C and E) and the husband of the index case (case D) were positive for CCHFV. The sensitivity and specificity of indigenous developed IgM ELISA to screen CCHFV specific antibodies in human serum was 75.0% and 97.5% respectively as compared to commercial kit. About 17.0% domestic animals from Kolat, Ahmadabad were positive for IgG antibodies while only two cattle and a goat showed positivity by qRT-PCR. Surprisingly, 43.0% domestic animals (Buffalo, cattle, sheep and goat) showed IgG antibodies in the adjoining village Jivanpara but only one of the buffalo was positive for CCHFV. The Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks were positive in PCR and virus isolation. CCHFV was isolated from the blood sample of case C, E in Vero E-6 cells and Swiss albino mice. In partial nucleocapsid gene phylogeny from CCHFV positive human samples of the years 2010 and 2011, livestock and ticks showed this virus was similar to Tajikistan (strain TAJ/H08966), which belongs in the Asian/middle east genetic lineage IV.
Conclusions
The likely source of CCHFV was identified as virus infected Hyalomma ticks and livestock at the rural village residence of the primary case (case A). In addition, retrospective sample analysis revealed the existence of CCHFV in Gujarat and Rajasthan states before this outbreak. An indigenous developed IgM ELISA kit will be of great use for screening this virus in India.
Author Summary
A nosocomial outbreak of CCHFV occurred in January 2011, in a tertiary care hospital in Ahmadabad, Gujarat State in western India. Out of a total five cases reported, contact transmission occurred to three treating medical professionals, all of whom succumbed to the disease. The only survivor was the husband of the index case. These results highlight the importance of considering CCHFV as a potential aetiology for Hemorrhagic fever (HF) cases in India. This also underlines the need for strict barrier nursing and patient isolation while managing these patients. During the investigation presence of CCHFV RNA in Hyalomma anatolicum ticks and livestock were detected in the village from where the primary case (case A) was reported. Further retrospective investigation confirmed two CCHF human cases in Rajkot village 20 kilometres to the west of Ahmadabad in 2010, and CCHFV presence in the livestock 200 kilometres to the north in the neighbouring State Rajasthan. This report shows the presence of CCHFV in human, ticks and animals in Gujarat, India. The fact of concern is the spread of this disease from one state to another due to trading of livestock.
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001653
PMCID: PMC3352827  PMID: 22616022
19.  Use of nerve conduits for peripheral nerve injury repair: A Web of Science-based literature analysis★ 
Neural Regeneration Research  2012;7(35):2826-2833.
OBJECTIVE:
To identify global research trends in the use of nerve conduits for peripheral nerve injury repair.
DATA RETRIEVAL:
Numerous basic and clinical studies on nerve conduits for peripheral nerve injury repair were performed between 2002–2011. We performed a bibliometric analysis of the institutions, authors, and hot topics in the field, from the Web of Science, using the key words peripheral nerve and conduit or tube.
SELECTION CRITERIA:
Inclusion criteria: peer-reviewed published articles on nerve conduits for peripheral nerve injury repair, indexed in the Web of Science; original research articles, reviews, meeting abstracts, proceedings papers, book chapters, editorial material, and news items. Exclusion criteria: articles requiring manual searching or telephone access; documents not published in the public domain; and several corrected papers.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
(a) Annual publication output; (b) publication type; (c) publication by research field; (d) publication by journal; (e) publication by funding agency; (f) publication by author; (g) publication by country and institution; (h) publications by institution in China; (i) most-cited papers.
RESULTS:
A total of 793 publications on the use of nerve conduits for peripheral nerve injury repair were retrieved from the Web of Science between 2002–2011. The number of publications gradually increased over the 10-year study period. Articles constituted the main type of publication. The most prolific journals were Biomaterials, Microsurgery, and Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A. The National Natural Science Foundation of China supported 27 papers, more than any other funding agency. Of the 793 publications, almost half came from American and Chinese authors and institutions.
CONCLUSION:
Nerve conduits have been studied extensively for peripheral nerve regeneration; however, many problems remain in this field, which are difficult for researchers to reach a consensus.
doi:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5374.2012.35.011
PMCID: PMC4190865  PMID: 25317133
nerve conduit; biomaterial; axon; neurotrophic factor; stem cell; extracellular matrix; peripheral nerve injury; peripheral nerve repair; degradation; biocompatibility; neural regeneration
20.  Influence of real-world characteristics on outcomes for patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal skin and soft tissue infections: a multi-country medical chart review in Europe 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2014;14(1):476.
Background
Patient-related (demographic/disease) and treatment-related (drug/clinician/hospital) characteristics were evaluated as potential predictors of healthcare resource use and opportunities for early switch (ES) from intravenous (IV)-to-oral methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-active antibiotic therapy and early hospital discharge (ED).
Methods
This retrospective observational medical chart study analyzed patients (across 12 European countries) with microbiologically confirmed MRSA complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTI), ≥3 days of IV anti-MRSA antibiotics during hospitalization (July 1, 2010-June 30, 2011), and discharged alive by July 31, 2011. Logistic/linear regression models evaluated characteristics potentially associated with actual resource use (length of IV therapy, length of hospital stay [LOS], IV-to-oral antibiotic switch), and ES and ED (using literature-based and expert-verified criteria) outcomes.
Results
1542 patients (mean ± SD age 60.8 ± 16.5 years; 61.5% males) were assessed with 81.0% hospitalized for MRSA cSSTI as the primary reason. Several patient demographic, infection, complication, treatment, and hospital characteristics were predictive of length of IV therapy, LOS, IV-to-oral antibiotic switch, or ES and ED opportunities. Outcomes and ES and ED opportunities varied across countries. Length of IV therapy and LOS (r = 0.66, p < 0.0001) and eligibilities for ES and ED (r = 0.44, p < 0.0001) showed relatively strong correlations. IV-to-oral antibiotic switch patients had significantly shorter length of IV therapy (−5.19 days, p < 0.001) and non-significantly shorter LOS (−1.86 days, p > 0.05). Certain patient and treatment characteristics were associated with increased odds of ES (healthcare-associated/ hospital-acquired infection) and ED (patient living arrangements, healthcare-associated/ hospital-acquired infection, initiating MRSA-active treatment 1–2 days post cSSTI index date, existing ED protocol), while other factors decreased the odds of ES (no documented MRSA culture, ≥4 days from admission to cSSTI index date, IV-to-oral switch, IV line infection) and ED (dementia, no documented MRSA culture, initiating MRSA-active treatment ≥3 days post cSSTI index date, existing ES protocol).
Conclusions
Practice patterns and opportunity for further ES and ED were affected by several infection, treatment, hospital, and geographical characteristics, which should be considered in identifying ES and ED opportunities and designing interventions for MRSA cSSTI to reduce IV days and LOS while maintaining the quality of care.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-476) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-476
PMCID: PMC4164818  PMID: 25182029
IV-to-oral antibiotic switch; Length of stay; Clinical criteria; Antibiotic therapy
21.  Research and collaboration overview of Institut Pasteur International Network: a bibliometric approach toward research funding decisions 
Background: Institut Pasteur International Network (IPIN), which includes 32 research institutes around the world, is a network of research and expertise to fight against infectious diseases. A scientometric approach was applied to describe research and collaboration activities of IPIN.
Methods: Publications were identified using a manual search of IPIN member addresses in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) between 2006 and 2011. Total publications were then subcategorized by geographic regions. Several scientometric indicators and the H-index were employed to estimate the scientific production of each IPIN member. Subject and geographical overlay maps were also applied to visualize the network activities of the IPIN members.
Results: A total number of 12667 publications originated from IPIN members. Each author produced an average number of 2.18 papers and each publication received an average of 13.40 citations. European Pasteur Institutes had the largest amount of publications, authored papers, and H-index values. Biochemistry and molecular biology, microbiology, immunology and infectious diseases were the most important research topics, respectively. Geographic mapping of IPIN publications showed wide international collaboration among IPIN members around the world.
Conclusion: IPIN has strong ties with national and international authorities and organizations to investigate the current and future health issues. It is recommended to use scientometric and collaboration indicators as measures of research performance in IPIN future policies and investment decisions.
doi:10.15171/ijhpm.2014.05
PMCID: PMC3937946  PMID: 24596896
International Cooperation; Scientometrics; Institut Pasteur; Organizational Policy
22.  Effectiveness of organisational infrastructures to promote evidence-based nursing practice 
Background
Nurses and midwives form the bulk of the clinical health workforce and play a central role in all health service delivery. There is potential to improve health care quality if nurses routinely use the best available evidence in their clinical practice. Since many of the factors perceived by nurses as barriers to the implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) lie at the organisational level, it is of interest to devise and assess the effectiveness of organisational infrastructures designed to promote EBP among nurses.
Objectives
To assess the effectiveness of organisational infrastructures in promoting evidence-based nursing.
Search methods
We searched the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, BIREME, IBECS, NHS Economic Evaluations Database, Social Science Citation Index, Science Citation Index and Conference Proceedings Citation Indexes up to 9 March 2011.
We developed a new search strategy for this update as the strategy published in 2003 omitted key terms. Additional search methods included: screening reference lists of relevant studies, contacting authors of relevant papers regarding any further published or unpublished work, and searching websites of selected research groups and organisations.
Selection criteria
We considered randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, interrupted times series (ITSs) and controlled before and after studies of an entire or identified component of an organisational infrastructure intervention aimed at promoting EBP in nursing. The participants were all healthcare organisations comprising nurses, midwives and health visitors.
Data collection and analysis
Two authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. For the ITS analysis, we reported the change in the slopes of the regression lines, and the change in the level effect of the outcome at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up.
Main results
We included one study from the USA (re-analysed as an ITS) involving one hospital and an unknown number of nurses and patients. The study evaluated the effects of a standardised evidence-based nursing procedure on nursing care for patients at risk of developing healthcare-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPUs). If a patient’s admission Braden score was below or equal to 18 (i.e. indicating a high risk of developing pressure ulcers), nurses were authorised to initiate a pressure ulcer prevention bundle (i.e. a set of evidence-based clinical interventions) without waiting for a physician order. Re-analysis of data as a time series showed that against a background trend of decreasing HAPU rates, if that trend was assumed to be real, there was no evidence of an intervention effect at three months (mean rate per quarter 0.7%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7 to 3.3; P = 0.457). Given the small percentages post intervention it was not statistically possible to extrapolate effects beyond three months.
Authors’ conclusions
Despite extensive searching of published and unpublished research we identified only one low-quality study; we excluded many studies due to non-eligible study design. If policy-makers and healthcare organisations wish to promote evidence-based nursing successfully at an organisational level, they must ensure the funding and conduct of well-designed studies to generate evidence to guide policy.
doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002212.pub2
PMCID: PMC4204172  PMID: 22336783
*Efficiency, Organizational; Evidence-Based Nursing [*methods]; Nursing Care [*standards]; Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care) [standards]; Pressure Ulcer [prevention & control]; Humans
23.  Retrospective Analysis of First-Line Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Treatment Patterns in Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration 
Advances in Therapy  2013;30(12):1111-1127.
Introduction
This study compared the number of, and expenditures on, first-line intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections between patients who were treated with aflibercept or ranibizumab for wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
Methods
This was a retrospective cohort study based on U.S. administrative claims data. Selected patients had initiated first-line intravitreal anti-VEGF treatment with ranibizumab or aflibercept (index date) between November 18, 2011 and April 30, 2013, were aged ≥18 years on the index date, had 12 months of continuous insurance enrollment prior to the index date (baseline period), were diagnosed with wet AMD during the baseline period or on the index date, and had at least 6 or 12 months of follow-up enrollment after the index date without switching to a different anti-VEGF agent (follow-up periods). Outcomes measured within the 6 and 12 month follow-up periods included the number of, and healthcare expenditures on, intravitreal anti-VEGF injections. Multivariable regressions compared the outcomes between aflibercept and ranibizumab.
Results
The 6 months analyses included 319 aflibercept patients and 1,054 ranibizumab patients (12 month analyses: 57 and 374, respectively). Over the first 6 months after the index date, neither the number of injections (aflibercept mean = 3.8 ± 1.6; ranibizumab mean = 3.9 ± 1.9) nor the expenditures on injections (aflibercept mean = $7 468 ± $4 211; ranibizumab mean = $7 816 ± $4 834) differed significantly between aflibercept patients and ranibizumab patients (in multivariable regression treating ranibizumab as reference: incidence rate ratio = 0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91–1.03, P = 0.277; cost ratio = 0.96, 95% CI 0.89–1.04, P = 0.338). Differences were also insignificant in the 12 month analyses. The overall mean days between injections differed by only 1.8 (95% CI 1.3–2.3) days between the aflibercept patients and ranibizumab patients (42.4 and 40.6, respectively).
Conclusion
Aflibercept and ranibizumab were used at a similar frequency resulting in similar intravitreal anti-VEGF injection healthcare expenditures among wet AMD patients initiating first-line intravitreal anti-VEGF treatment.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12325-013-0078-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s12325-013-0078-4
PMCID: PMC3906738  PMID: 24310208
Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor; Healthcare expenditures; Healthcare utilization; Intravitreal; Ophthalmology; Retrospective wet age-related macular degeneration
24.  Difference between Luminal A and Luminal B Subtypes According to Ki-67, Tumor Size, and Progesterone Receptor Negativity Providing Prognostic Information 
BACKGROUND
The St. Gallen International Expert Consensus of 2011 proposes a new classification system for breast cancer based on its division into five subgroups. The criteria to identify these subtypes were recently refined at the 2013 Conference. In this respect, the authors of this paper have conducted a retrospective analysis of breast cancer subtypes, related to Ki-67 and involvement of the axillary lymph nodes (ALNs). The analysis was performed only in the cases of invasive breast cancer in the pT2 stages. The research and results of the paper have shown that investigating the value of these parameters could be of great benefit in future treatment strategies of invasive breast cancer.
METHODS
A retrospective analysis of breast cancer subtypes, tumor nodal metastatic staging, and histopathological grading of 108 cases has been performed according to the methods recommended and provided by the St. Gallen International Expert Consensus Report, 2011. The estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), and Ki-67 of 108 tumor samples were all investigated by immunohistochemistry according to the methods used to classify breast cancer subtypes as proposed in the St. Gallen Consensus Report, 2011. Invasive breast cancers (n = 108) were immunohistochemically classified as follows: 28 (25.92%) as Luminal A, 51 (47.22%) as Luminal B (HER2 negative), 21 (19.44%) as Luminal B-like (HER2 negative), 2 (1.85%) as HER2 positive, and 6 (5.55%) as being a triple-negative subtype.
RESULTS
The conclusion was made that when Ki-67 was found to be higher, patients also showed a higher involvement in their ALNs. The chi-square test shows the difference to be significant (chi-square = 4.757; P = 0.029). Luminal B subtypes had the highest percentage (54.9%) of involvement of lymph nodes when compared to the other four subtypes. The Luminal B subtype had a higher percentage (51.4%) of involvement of lymph nodes than did Luminal A (10.7%). The chi-square test also shows the difference to be significant (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION
A combination of the Ki-67 index, HER negative tumors, PR negativity, and a low value that can be used to segregate ER positive pT2 tumors into prognostically significantly different clinical outcomes may be utilized clinically to guide patient management in accordance with these tumor characteristics.
doi:10.4137/CMO.S18006
PMCID: PMC4167319  PMID: 25249766
breast cancer; Luminal A; Luminal B; Ki-67; positive lymph node status; prognostic information
25.  Research productivity in Syria: Quantitative and qualitative analysis of current status 
Context:
Scientific research output measured by the number and quality of publications reflects the research productivity of a certain community.
Aims:
To examine the quantity and quality of research produced by Syrian institutions with particular emphasis on the clinical and biomedical research.
Settings and Design:
Retrospective observational analysis of research originating from Syrian institutions indexed by Medline and Science Citation Index (SciVerse) Scopus bibliographic databases.
Materials and Methods:
Comprehensive review of the literature indexed by Medline and SciVerse was conducted including data from Jan 01, 1980 till February 2011 searching for authors affiliated with Syrian institutions. Clinical and biomedical research data were further analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively.
Results:
The total of manuscripts indexed by SciVerse originating from Syrian institutions during the last 3 decades is 3540. A total of 458 publications cover clinical and biomedical subject areas. The quality of these 458 publications was evaluated by the citation frequency and impact factor of publishing journals with h-index of 24.
Conclusions:
Although the spectrum of research originating from Syrian institutions is broad, the overall number of publications particularly in clinical and biomedical subjects is minuscule and of limited quality. The presented data indicate the need to promote research capabilities and to bridge the gap in research productivity by Syrian institutions.
doi:10.4103/2231-0770.83716
PMCID: PMC3507054  PMID: 23210002
Bibliographic databases; research; Syria

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