Acute appendicitis is one of the most common surgical emergencies. Accurate diagnosis of acute appendicitis is based on careful history, physical examination, laboratory and imaging investigation. The aim of the study is to analyze the role of C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood count (WBC) and Neutrophil percentage (NP) in improving the accuracy of diagnosis of acute appendicitis and to compare it with the intraoperative assessment and histopathology findings.
Materials and methods
This investigation was a prospective double blinded clinical study. The study was done on 173 patients surgically treated for acute appendicitis. The WBC, NP, and measurement of CRP were randomly collected pre-operatively from all involved patients. Macroscopic assessment was made from the operation. Appendectomy and a histopathology examination were performed on all patients. Gross description was compared with histopathology results and then correlated with CRP, WBC, and NP.
The observational accuracy was 87,3%, as compared to histopathological accuracy which was 85.5% with a total of 173 patients that were operated on. The histopathology showed 25 (14.5%) patients had normal appendices, and 148 (85.5%) patients had acutely inflamed, gangrenous, or perforated appendicitis. 52% were male and 48% were female, with the age ranging from 5 to 59 with a median of 19.7. The gangrenous type was the most frequent (52.6%). The WBC was altered in 77.5% of the cases, NP in 72.3%, and C-reactive protein in 76.9% cases. In those with positive appendicitis, the CRP and WBC values were elevated in 126 patients (72.8%), whereas NP was higher than 75% in 117 patients (67.6%). Out of 106 patients with triple positive tests, 101 (95.2%) had appendicitis. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values of the 3 tests in combination were 95.3%, 72.2%, and 95.3%, respectively.
The raised value of the CRP was directly related to the severity of inflammation (p-value <0.05). CRP monitoring enhances the diagnostic accuracy of acute appendicitis. The diagnostic accuracy of CRP is not significantly greater than WBC and NP. A combination of these three tests significantly increases the accuracy. We found that elevated serum CRP levels support the surgeon's clinical diagnosis.
Acute appendicitis; CRP correlation; White blood count; Neutrophil percentage; Histopathology findings
Acute appendicitis (AA) is a common surgical problem that is associated with an acute-phase reaction. Previous studies have shown that cytokines and acute-phase proteins are activated and may serve as indicators for the severity of appendicitis. The aim of this study was to compare diagnostic value of different serum inflammatory markers in detection of phlegmonous or perforated appendicitis in children.
Data were collected prospectively on 211 consecutive children. Laparotomy was performed for suspected AA for 189 patients. Patients were subdivided into groups: nonsurgical abdominal pain, early appendicitis, phlegmonous or gangrenous appendicitis, perforated appendicitis.
White blood cell count (WBC), serum C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), acid α1-glycoprotein (α1GP), endotoxin, and erythrocyte sedimentation reaction (ESR) were estimated ad the time of admission. The diagnostic performance was analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.
WBC count, CRP and IL-6 correlated significantly with the severity of appendiceal inflammation. Identification of children with severe appendicitis was supported by IL-6 or CRP but not WBC. Between IL-6 and CRP, there were no significant differences in diagnostic use.
Laboratory results should be considered to be integrated within the clinical assessment. If used critically, CRP and IL-6 equally provide surgeons with complementary information in discerning the necessity for urgent operation.
Procalcitonin (PCT) is an established laboratory marker for disease severity in patients with infection and sepsis. In addition, PCT has been shown to be an effective marker for a limited number of localized infections. However, whether or not PCT has any diagnostic value for acute appendicitis, still remains unclear. The purpose of this prospective bicenter study was, therefore, to determine whether or not the PCT levels in the serum of patients with acute appendicitis have any diagnostic value.
This prospective study included 103 patients who received an appendectomy, based on the clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis, in a surgical department of an academic teaching hospital in Germany or in a county hospital in Spain. White blood cell count (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) values were determined preoperatively. All appendectomy specimens were sent for routine histopathological evaluation. Based on this information, the patients were assigned to 1 of 5 groups that reflected the severity of the appendicitis.
Of the 103 patients who were included in the study, 98 had appendicitis. Fourteen (14.3%) showed an increase in PCT values. Of those 14, 4 had a serum PCT >0.5 ng/ml, 9 had a PCT value >2–10 ng/ml and 1 had a PCT value >10 ng/ml. The sensitivity of PCT was calculated to be 0.14. The mean WBC value was 13.0/nl (± 5.2, 3.4–31), and for CRP it was 8.8 mg/dl (± 13, 0–60.2). The values of CRP, WBC and PCT increased with the severity of the appendicitis.
PCT is potentially increased in rare cases of severe inflammation and, in particular, after appendiceal perforation or gangrenous appendicitis. However, its remarkably low sensitivity prohibits its routine use for the diagnosis of appendicitis.
Procalcitonin; Appendicitis; Diagnostic
BACKGROUND: The early diagnosis of acute abdomen is of great importance. To date, several inflammatory markers have been used for the diagnosis of acute abdominal conditions, including acute appendicitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic utility of D-dimer, Procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) measurements in the acute appendicitis.
METHODS: This prospective study was conducted between March 1st, 2010 and July 1st, 2011. In this period, seventy-eight patients were operated with the diagnosis of acute appendicitis, and D-dimer, PCT and CRP levels of the patients were measured. The patients were grouped as phlegmonous appendicitis (Group 1), gangrenous appendicitis (Group 2), perforated appendicitis (Group 3) and negative appendectomy (Group 4) according to the surgical findings and histopathological results.
RESULTS: Of 78 patients, 54 (69.2 %) were male and 24 (30.8 %) were female, and the mean age was 25.4 ± 11.1 years (range, 18 to 69 years). 66 (84.6 %) patients had increased leukocyte count (white blood cell count). The PCT values were higher than the upper normal limit in 20 (25.6%) patients, followed by D-dimer in 22 (28.2 %) patients and CRP in 54 (69.2 %) patients. The diagnostic value of leukocyte count and CRP in acute appendicitis was higher than that of the other markers, whereas leukocyte count showed very low specificity. CRP values were higher in perforated appendicitis when compared with the phlegmonous appendicitis (p<0.05). However, PCT and D-dimer showed lower diagnostic values (26% and 31%, respectively).
CONCLUSION: An increase in CRP levels alone is not sufficient to make the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. However, CRP levels may differentiate between phlegmonous appendicitis and perforated appendicitis. Due to their low sensitivity and diagnostic value, PCT and D-dimer are not better markers than CRP for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis.
Appendicitis; D-dimer; Procalcitonin; C-reactive protein.
To assess the accuracy of novel and traditional biomarkers in patients with suspected appendicitis as a function of duration of symptoms.
This was a prospective cohort study, conducted in a tertiary care emergency department (ED). The authors enrolled children 3 to 18 years old with acute abdominal pain of less than 96 hours, and measured serum levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-8 (IL-8), C - reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell count (WBC), and absolute neutrophil count (ANC). Final diagnosis was determined by histopathology or telephone follow-up. Trends in biomarker levels were examined based on duration of abdominal pain. The accuracy of biomarkers was assessed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Optimal cut-points and test performance characteristics were calculated for each biomarker.
Of 280 patients enrolled, the median age was 11.3 years (IQR 8.6 to 14.8), 57% were male, and 33% had appendicitis. Median IL-6, median CRP, mean WBC, and mean ANC differed significantly (p < 0.001) between patients with non-perforated appendicitis and those without appendicitis; median IL-8 levels did not differ between groups. In non-perforated appendicitis, median IL-6, WBC, and ANC levels were maximal at less than 24 hrs of pain, while CRP peaked between 24 and 48 hours. In perforated appendicitis, median IL-8 levels were highest by 24 hours, WBC and IL-6 by 24 to 48 hours, and CRP after 48 hours of pain. The WBC appeared to be the most useful marker to predict appendicitis in those with fewer than 24 or more than 48 hours of pain, while CRP was the most useful in those with 24 to 48 hours of pain.
In this population, the serum levels and accuracy of novel and traditional biomarkers varies in relation to duration of abdominal pain. IL-6 shows promise as a novel biomarker to identify children with appendicitis.
C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) are proinflammatory markers. They are major pathophysiological for the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to address the independent associations between MetS and WBC counts and serum CRP levels and evaluation of their magnitude in relation to the MetS, based on the sex in the Iranian adults.
Materials and Methods:
In this cross-sectional study, subjects who met the MetS criteria, based on the Adult Treatment Panel III were selected from the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program database. A questionnaire containing the demographic data, weight, height, waist, and hip circumference of the respondents was completed for each person. Blood pressure was measured and the anthropometric measurements were done, and fasting blood samples were taken for 2 h postload plasma glucose (2 hpp). Serum [total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein] levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, and CRP as well as WBC counts were determined. The univariate analyses were carried out to assess the relation between the CRP levels, WBC counts with the MetS in both sexes the.
In men with the abdominal obesity, the higher levels of WBC count, high serum triglyceride and blood glucose levels, a low serum HDL level, and raised systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed. However, the higher serum CRP levels were only observed in those with the low serum HDL-cholesterol levels. The mean values of the WBC counts were statistically different between the men with and without MetS, but the mean values of the CRP levels were similar between the two groups. In women, the mean values of WBC count and CRP levels were statistically different in the subjects with and without a MetS components (except for the low serum HDL levels and high diastolic blood pressure for the WBC measures and abdominal obesity for the CRP measures) and for those with and without MetS. The age and smoking adjusted changes in the CRP levels and WBC counts correlated with the number of Mets components in the women.
The findings of this study suggest substantial implications for the prevention and management of the MetS and atherosclerotic diseases, as these involve the suppression of inflammatory conditions rather than the incitement of anti-inflammatory conditions.
C-reactive protein level; metabolic syndrome; white blood cell count
Accurate diagnosis and optimal management of acute appendicitis, despite being the most common surgical emergency encountered in emergency departments, is often delayed in pediatric patients due to nonspecific symptoms and communication barriers, often leading to more complicated cases. The aim of this study is to investigate the diagnostic significance of common laboratory markers.
A total of 421 patients aged 15 and younger underwent surgical treatment for acute appendicitis. We conducted a retrospective analysis for white blood cell (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP) and bilirubin. All patients were classified into simple or complicated appendicitis groups based on postoperative histology.
The mean age of the patients in the complicated appendicitis group was younger than that in the simple group (P = 0.005). WBC, CRP and bilirubin levels were significantly higher in the complicated appendicitis group (P < 0.001, <0.001, 0.002). The relative risk for complicated appendicitis was calculated using age, WBC, CRP and bilirubin. Elevated CRP levels were associated with the highest risk for complicated appendicitis (hazard ratio [HR], 2.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38 to 4.65) followed by WBC (HR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.07 to 5.46) and bilirubin (HR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.09 to 3.82). The most sensitive markers for diagnosing complicated appendicitis were WBC (95.2%) and CRP (86.3%). Bilirubin levels showed the highest specificity at 74.8%.
The risk of complicated appendicitis was significantly higher in patients younger than 10 years old. Preoperative WBC, CRP and bilirubin have clinical value in diagnosing complicated appendicitis with a HR of 2.0 to 2.5. Our results suggest that the utilization of WBC, CRP, and bilirubin can assist in the diagnosis of complicated appendicitis in pediatric patients, allowing prompt diagnosis and optimal management.
Appendicitis; Child; Leukocytes; C-reactive protein; Bilirubin
to evaluate whether total and differential WBC counts are altered in young obese patients (aged 6-12 years) and if a relationship exists between WBC counts and the severity of obesity as well as with CRP level.
Materials and Methods:
a group of 77 obese patients [32 males and 45 females] and 19 controls [7 males and 12 females] were studied. Total WBC count was performed by using an automatic blood cell counter. Blood cell morphology and WBC differential count were evaluated in Wright stained blood films. The plasma levels of CRP were evaluated by immunoturbidimetry.
obese participants presented with a statistically significant higher neutrophil percentage and CRP levels when compared to controls; the median CRP value was about 5 times higher than that observed in controls. Absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio were also higher in patients, though without statistical significance. The parameters that were statistically significant related with adiposity markers were neutrophil count and CRP levels. The neutrophil count was positively and statistically correlated with body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score, waist circumference and waist/height ratio, and also with CRP levels. In multiple regression analysis, the only variable that remained statistically associated with neutrophil count was CRP (neutrophil count = 2.612 + 0.439lnCRP; standardised coefficient/beta: 0.384, P=0.001). When performing multiple regression without CRP, the only variable that remained statistically associated with neutrophil count was BMI.
our results demonstrated in obese patients aged 6-12 years, a significant change in the differential leukocyte count towards neutrophilia, together with a significant higher CRP concentration, and that absolute neutrophil count correlates with obesity markers and with CRP levels. Our data also indicate that neutrophil count, a current clinically used low-cost parameter, may be used as an obesity-related inflammatory marker in young obese patients.
Leukocytes; C-reactive protein; children obesity.
The role of white blood cell (WBC) count in pathogenesis of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity-related disorders has been reported earlier. Recent studies revealed that higher WBC contributes to atherosclerotic progression and impaired fasting glucose. However, it is unknown whether variations in WBC and haematologic profiles can occur in healthy obese individuals. The aim of this study is to further evaluate the influence of obesity on WBC count, inflammatory biomarkers, and metabolic risk factors in healthy women to establish a relationship among variables analyzed. The sample of the present study consisted of 84 healthy women with mean age of 35.56±6.83 years. They were categorized into two groups based on their body mass index (BMI): obese group with BMI >30 kg/m2 and non-obese group with BMI <30 kg/m2. We evaluated the relationship between WBC and platelet count (PLT) with serum interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), angiotensin Π (Ang Π), body fat percentage (BF %), waist-circumference (WC), and lipid profile. WBC, PLT, CRP, and IL-6 in obese subjects were significantly higher than in non-obese subjects (p< 0.05). The mean WBC count in obese subjects was 6.4±0.3 (×109/L) compared to 4.4±0.3 (×109/L) in non-obese subjects (p=0.035). WBC correlated with BF% (r=0.31, p=0.004), CRP (r=0.25, P=0.03), WC (r=0.22, p=0.04), angiotensin Π (r=0.24, p=0.03), triglyceride (r=0.24, p=0.03), and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) levels (r=0.3, p=0.028) but not with IL-6. Platelet count was also associated with WC and waist-to-hip ratio (p<0.05). Haemoglobin and haematocrit were in consistent relationship with LDL-cholesterol (p<0.05). In conclusion, obesity was associated with higher WBC count and inflammatory parameters. There was also a positive relationship between WBC count and several inflammatory and metabolic risk factors in healthy women.
Angiotensin Π; C-reactive protein; Interleukin 6; Obesity; White blood cell count
Aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation of inflammatory markers procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP) and leukocyte count (WBC) with microbiological etiology of CAP.
We enrolled 1337 patients (62 ± 18 y, 45% f) with proven CAP. Extensive microbiological workup was performed. In all patients PCT, CRP, WBC and CRB-65 score were determined. Patients were classified according to microbial diagnosis and CRB-65 score.
In patients with typical bacterial CAP, levels of PCT, CRP and WBC were significantly higher compared to CAP of atypical or viral etiology. There were no significant differences in PCT, CRP and WBC in patients with atypical or viral etiology of CAP. In contrast to CRP and WBC, PCT markedly increased with severity of CAP as measured by CRB-65 score (p < 0.0001). In ROC analysis for discrimination of patients with CRB-65 scores > 1, AUC for PCT was 0.69 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.71), which was higher compared to CRP and WBC (p < 0.0001). CRB-65, PCT, CRP and WBC were higher (p < 0.0001) in hospitalised patients in comparison to outpatients.
PCT, CRP and WBC are highest in typical bacterial etiology in CAP but do not allow individual prediction of etiology. In contrast to CRP and WBC, PCT is useful in severity assessment of CAP.
Background: Delay in diagnosis and treatment of acute appendicitis (AA) results in an increased rate of perforation, postoperative morbidity, mortality and hospital length of stay. Several biochemical parameters including white blood cell (WBC) count, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL6) and Procalcitonin (PCT) have been used to further improve the clinical diagnosis of AA. The aim of this study was to assess the value of procalcitonin
as a predictor of diagnosis and severity of appendicitis in order to improve the clinical decision making, since other studies have been unable to demonstrate a diagnostic value for PCT elevation in acute appendicitis.
Methods: One-hundred patients who underwent open appendectomy, including 75 men and 25 women with a mean age of 28 years were included in this study. Procalcitonin values were measured by an immunofluorescent method). Serum PCT>0.5 ng/ml was considered positive. The PCT serum values were measured in four different categories, including ˂0.5ng/ml, 0.5-2 ng/ml, 2-10ng/ml and more than 10ng/ml.
Results: The sensitivity and specificity of PCT level measurement for acute appendicitis diagnosis were 44% and 100% respectively. The value of PCT increased with the severity of appendicitis and also with the presence of peritonitis and infection, at the site of surgery.
Conclusions: Procalcitonin measurement cannot be used as a diagnostic test for adult patients with acute appendicitis and its routine use in such patients is not cost effective and conclusive. Procalcitonin values can be used as a prognostic marker and predictor of infectious complications following surgery and it can help to carry out timely surgical intervention which is highly recommended in patients with PCT values more than 0.5ng/ml.
Appendicitis; Procalcitonin; Diagnosis; Prognosis
Appendicitis is a common condition presenting to the emergency department (ED). Increasingly emergency physicians (EP) are using bedside ultrasound (BUS) as an adjunct diagnostic tool. Our objective is to investigate the test characteristics of BUS for the diagnosis of appendicitis and identify components of routine ED workup and BUS associated with the presence of appendicitis.
Patients four years of age and older presenting to the ED with suspected appendicitis were eligible for enrollment. After informed consent was obtained, BUS was performed on the subjects by trained EPs who had undergone a minimum of one-hour didactic training on the use of BUS to diagnose appendicitis. They then recorded elements of clinical history, physical examination, white blood cell count (WBC) with polymophonuclear percentage (PMN), and BUS findings on a data form. We ascertained subject outcomes by a combination of medical record review and telephone follow-up.
A total of 125 subjects consented for the study, and 116 had adequate image data for final analysis. Prevalence of appendicitis was 40%. Mean age of the subjects was 20.2 years, and 51% were male. BUS was 100% sensitive (95% CI 87–100%) and 32% specific (95% CI 14–57%) for detection of appendicitis, with a positive predictive value of 72% (95% CI 56–84%), and a negative predictive value of 100% (95% CI 52–100%). Assuming all non-diagnostic studies were negative would yield a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 81%. Subjects with appendicitis had a significantly higher occurrence of anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and a higher WBC and PMN count when compared to those without appendicitis. Their BUS studies were significantly more likely to result in visualization of the appendix, appendix diameter >6mm, appendix wall thickness >2mm, periappendiceal fluid, visualization of the appendix tip, and sonographic Mcburney’s sign (p<0.05). In subjects with diagnostic BUS studies, WBC, PMN, visualization of appendix, appendix diameter >6mm, appendix wall thickness >2mm, periappendiceal fluid were found to be predictors of appendicitis on logistic regression.
BUS is moderately useful for appendicitis diagnosis. We also identified several components in routine ED workup and BUS that are associated with appendicitis generating hypothesis for future studies.
To study the anti-inflammatory activity of fluoxetine and escitalopram in newly diagnosed patients of depression and also to evaluate the association between depression and inflammation.
Materials and Methods:
Ninety-eight newly diagnosed patients of depression were recruited as cases. From these, 48 had started treatment with fluoxetine (20 mg/day) and 50 had started treatment with escitalopram (20 mg/day). After 2 months of treatment of these patients, Hamilton rating scale for depression (HRSD scale), C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and white blood cell (WBC) count were measured and compared to their respective baseline values before starting treatment. One hundred healthy volunteers were recruited as controls and their baseline of CRP, ESR and WBC count were measured and compared with their respective baseline values of cases. Severity of depression was measured by HRSD scale and anti-inflammatory activity was measured by reduction CRP, ESR and WBC count.
On baseline comparison between cases and controls, there were significant increases in the levels of CRP (P = 0.014), ESR (P = 0.023) and WBC count (P = 0.020) in cases. In fluoxetine (20 mg/day) treatment group, there was a significant reduction in the levels of CRP (P = 0.046), ESR (P = 0.043) and WBC count (P = 0.021) after 2 months of treatment but no significant reduction in HRSD scale (P = 0.190). Similarly, in escitalopram treatment group, there was a significant reduction in CRP (P = 0.041), ESR (P = 0.030) and WBC count (P = 0.017) after 2 months of treatment but no significant reduction in HRSD scale (P = 0.169).
In newly diagnosed patients of depression, inflammatory markers such as CRP, ESR and WBC count were significantly raised and Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIs such as fluoxetine and escitalopram reduced them independent of their antidepressant effect. So, SSRIs have some anti-inflammatory activity independent of their antidepressant action.
Anti-inflammatory activity; C-reactive protein; erythrocyte sedimentation rate; Hamilton rating scale for depression; white blood cell count
Cigarette smoking has been associated with increases in C-reactive protein (CRP) and leukocyte counts (WBC); however, the effects of smoking intensity and smoking cessation on inflammatory markers have not been evaluated prospectively in a large, modern cohort of current smokers.
WBC count and high-sensitivity CRP were measured in current smokers enrolled in a randomized, prospective clinical trial of five smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. Smoking intensity parameters included: cigarettes/day, pack-years, Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND) score, and carbon monoxide (CO) levels. CRP also was measured after 1 year with assessment of abstinence status.
The 1,504 current smokers (58% female) were mean (standard deviation): 44.7 (11.1) years old, smoked 21.4 (8.9) cigarettes/day and had a smoking burden of 29.4 (20.4) pack-years. Log (CRP) was not associated with any marker of smoking intensity, except for a weak correlation with pack-years (r=0.05, p=0.047). In contrast, statistically significant correlations were observed between all 4 markers of smoking intensity and WBC count (all p≤0.011). In multivariable models, waist circumference (p<0.001) and triglycerides (p<0.05), but no markers of smoking intensity, were associated with log(CRP). However, pack-years (p=0.002), cigarettes/day (p=0.013), CO (p<0.001), and FTND (p<0.001) were independently associated with WBC count. After 1 year, log(CRP) (p=0.296) and changes in log(CRP) (p=0.455) did not differ between abstainers and continuing smokers.
Smoking intensity is associated with increased WBC count, but not CRP levels. Smoking cessation does not reduce CRP. The relationship between CRP and smoking intensity may be masked by CRP’s stronger relationship with adiposity.
C-reactive protein; Inflammation; Leukocytes; Risk factors; Smoking
Simple investigations like white cell count (WCC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) may help to improve the accuracy of diagnosis in paediatric appendicitis. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of WCC and CRP for the severity of acute appendicitis in children.
This study was conducted on all children who underwent open appendectomy from January 2007 to December 2008 at a District General Hospital. Data regarding demographics, WCC, CRP, histology and postoperative complications were analysed.
All children who underwent open appendectomy during the study period.
Main outcome measures
Diagnostic accuracy of WCC and CRP for simple acute appendicitis and a perforated appendix.
Out of 204 patients, 112 (54.9%) were girls. At surgery, appendix was grossly inflamed in 175 of which 32 had perforation. Histology revealed simple acute appendicitis in 135 (66.2%) and gangrenous appendicitis in 32 (15.7%). The rest were normal. The duration of symptoms, temperature, length of stay, WCC and CRP were significantly worse in the perforated group (P value <0.05). Postoperative complications included wound infection (n = 18), pelvic collection (n = 5) and intestinal obstruction (n = 6); and were more common among patients with a perforated appendix (P value <0.05). WCC had a higher diagnostic accuracy and higher sensitivity than CRP in diagnosing simple acute appendicitis. The combined sensitivity of WCC and CRP increased to 95% and 100% for the diagnosis of simple acute appendicitis and a perforated appendix, respectively.
Accuracy of WCC is higher than CRP for diagnosing simple acute appendicitis. The combined sensitivity of WCC and CRP increases for simple acute appendicitis as well as a perforated appendix.
We explored the diagnostic value of a urine soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) for early sepsis identification, severity and prognosis assessment, and for secondary acute kidney injury (AKI). We compared this with white blood cell (WBC) counts, serum C-reactive protein (CRP), serum procalcitonin (PCT), urine output, creatinine clearance (CCr), serum creatinine (SCr), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN).
We enrolled 104 subjects admitted to the ICU: 16 cases with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS); 35 with sepsis and 53 with severe sepsis. Results for urine sTREM-1, WBC, serum CRP and serum PCT were recorded on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14. For 17 sepsis cases diagnosed with secondary AKI, comparisons between their urine sTREM-1, urine output, CCr, SCr and BUN at diagnosis and 48 h before diagnosis were made.
On the day of admission to the ICU, and compared with the SIRS group, the sepsis group exhibited higher levels of urine sTREM-1 and Acute Physiologic Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores (P < 0.05). Areas under the curve (AUC) shaped by the scores were 0.797 (95% CI 0.711 to 0.884) and 0.722 (95% CI 0.586 to 0.858), respectively. On days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14, urine sTREM-1, serum PCT and WBC levels registered higher in the severe sepsis group in contrast to the sepsis group (P < 0.05). Urine sTREM-1 and serum PCT levels continuously increased among non-survivors, while WBC and serum CRP levels in both groups declined. For 17 patients with AKI, urine sTREM-1, SCr and BUN levels at 48 h before AKI diagnosis were higher, and CCr level was lower than those for non-AKI subjects (P < 0.05). AUC for urine sTREM-1 was 0.922 (95% CI 0.850 to 0.995), the sensitivity was 0.941, and the specificity was 0.76 (based on a cut-off point of 69.04 pg/ml). Logistic regression analysis showed that urine sTREM-1 and severity were risk factors related to AKI occurrence.
Besides being non-invasive, urine sTREM-1 testing is more sensitive than testing WBC, serum CRP, and serum PCT for the early diagnosis of sepsis, as well as for dynamic assessments of severity and prognosis. It can also provide an early warning of possible secondary AKI in sepsis patients.
ClinicalTrial.gov identifier NCT01333657
urine; soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1(sTREM-1); sepsis; severity; prognosis; acute kidney injury (AKI); sensitivity; specificity
The role of free oxygen radicals in inflammatory conditions is well known. Free radicals cause lipid peroxidation of cellular membranes resulting in cell death. The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of total anti-oxidant status (TAS), as a marker of anti-oxidant defense system and malondialdehyde (MDA), as a marker of oxidative stress, in the plasma of patients with acute appendicitis.
Fifty-one adult patients with a median age of 31 years who underwent operations with a preoperative diagnosis of acute appendicitis were included in this prospective study. Blood samples for C-reactive protein (CRP), MDA and TAS were collected preoperatively. Groups were compared by using the Mann-Whitney U test.
There were 27 patients with acute phlagmenous appendicitis and 19 patients with advanced appendicitis (10 gangrenous and 9 perforated appendicitis), while 5 negative explorations were documented. No significant differences in WBC counts and MDA levels between groups were encountered. Plasma CRP was significantly higher in patients with perforated appendicitis, but not in the other groups. In advanced appendicitis group, TAS level was significantly lower than the other groups. On the other hand, plasma TAS level in acute phlagmenous appendicitis group was significantly higher.
A decrease in plasma total anti-oxidant capacity might be a predictor of the progression of inflammation to the perforation in acute appendicitis.
Infections in status epilepticus (SE) patients result in severe morbidity making early diagnosis crucial. As SE may lead to inflammatory reaction, the value of acute phase proteins and white blood cells (WBC) for diagnosis of infections during SE may be important. We examined the reliability of C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and WBC for diagnosis of infections during SE.
All consecutive SE patients treated in the ICU from 2005 to 2009 were included. Clinical and microbiological records, and measurements of CRP and WBC during SE were analyzed. Subgroup analysis was performed for additional PCT measurements in the first 48 hours of SE.
A total of 22.5% of 160 consecutive SE patients had infections during SE. Single levels of CRP and WBC had no association with the presence of infections. Their linear changes over the first three days after SE onset were significantly associated with the presence of infections (P = 0.0012 for CRP, P = 0.0137 for WBC). Levels of PCT were available for 31 patients and did not differ significantly in patients with and without infections. Sensitivity of PCT and CRP was high (94% and 83%) and the negative predictive value of CRP increased over the first three days to 97%. Specificity was low, without improvement for different cut-offs.
Single levels of CRP and WBC are not reliable for diagnosis of infections during SE, while their linear changes over time significantly correlate with the presence of infections. In addition, low levels of CRP and PCT rule out hospital-acquired infections in SE patients.
Acute appendicitis is the most common abdominal emergency requiring emergency surgery. However, the diagnosis is often challenging and the decision to operate, observe or further work-up a patient is often unclear. The utility of clinical scoring systems (namely the Alvarado score), laboratory markers, and the development of novel markers in the diagnosis of appendicitis remains controversial. This article presents an update on the diagnostic approach to appendicitis through an evidence-based review.
We performed a broad Medline search of radiological imaging, the Alvarado score, common laboratory markers, and novel markers in patients with suspected appendicitis.
Computed tomography (CT) is the most accurate mode of imaging for suspected cases of appendicitis, but the associated increase in radiation exposure is problematic. The Alvarado score is a clinical scoring system that is used to predict the likelihood of appendicitis based on signs, symptoms and laboratory data. It can help risk stratify patients with suspected appendicitis and potentially decrease the use of CT imaging in patients with certain Alvarado scores. White blood cell (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP), granulocyte count and proportion of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells are frequently elevated in patients with appendicitis, but are insufficient on their own as a diagnostic modality. When multiple markers are used in combination their diagnostic utility is greatly increased. Several novel markers have been proposed to aid in the diagnosis of appendicitis; however, while promising, most are only in the preliminary stages of being studied.
While CT is the most accurate mode of imaging in suspected appendicitis, the accompanying radiation is a concern. Ultrasound may help in the diagnosis while decreasing the need for CT in certain circumstances. The Alvarado Score has good diagnostic utility at specific cutoff points. Laboratory markers have very limited diagnostic utility on their own but show promise when used in combination. Further studies are warranted for laboratory markers in combination and to validate potential novel markers.
High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is an inflammatory marker known to be related to inflammation, infection, and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate hs-CRP level in serum of asthmatics and its relationship with pulmonary function tests, serum IgE levels, and peripheral blood white blood cell (WBC) counts.
Materials and Methods
The under study subjects were 108 patients with acute asthma and 93 healthy volunteers. The levels of hs-CRP of 108 patients with acute bronchial asthma and 93 non-asthmatic control subjects were measured. Spirometry, serum immunoglobulin-E (IgE) measurement, and WBC counts were done for patient and control groups.
The mean serum hs-CRP levels were significantly higher in patients with acute asthma compared with controls (5.47±7.33 mg/l versus 1.46± 1.89 mg/l, p < 0.001). Among asthmatic patients, mean hs-CRP levels were not correlated with indices of pulmonary function tests (forced expiratory volume in one second, forced vital capacity and forced mid-expiratory flow), serum IgE level, eosinophil count or WBC count.
Serum C-reactive protein levels measured by high-sensitivity assays increase in acute asthma and may be useful as a diagnostic tool for detecting and monitoring inflammation in these patients. In our study on patients with acute asthma, no significant correlation was revealed between hs-CRP and pulmonary function tests, total serum IgE, or peripheral blood white blood cell counts.
Asthma; C-Reactive Protein; Pulmonary function tests; Sensitivity
The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the quantitative C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and white blood cell (WBC) count in urinary tract infections (UTI) among hospitalised infants and children in Qazvin, Iran.
This cross-sectional study was conducted on 127 hospitalised children ranging in age from 2 months to 12 years old 31.79 months (SD 30.73) who were suspected of having a UTI and who did not receive antibiotics prior to being seen at a Qazvin teaching children’s hospital between 2005 and 2006. A urine analysis (U/A) and urine culture (U/C) were performed. The blood was taken for CRP, ESR and WBC analyses. U/C has been considered the gold standard test for a UTI and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy (DMSA) as the gold standard for an upper UTI (pyelonephritis). These tests were used to determine the diagnostic accuracy, which is represented as the percent of correct results.
Within the study population, 72 patients (56.7%) were younger than two years old 9.86 months (SD 4.56) and 55 (43.3%) were older than two years old 63.58 months (SD 30.96). One hundred and two patients (80.3%) were female. There were 100 cases that had a positive U/C. Of the patients with a positive U/C, 81 had pyuria (WBC more than 5/hpf), 71 had a peripheral WBC count of more than 10 000 /mL, 95 had a CRP of more than 10 mg/L and 82 had an ESR > 10 mm/h. The sensitivity and specificity as well as the positive and negative predictive values and the accuracy of CRP when using U/C as the gold standard were, respectively, 96%, 11.1%, 80.2%, 50%, and 78%; when using ESR as the gold standard were, respectively, 55%, 40%, 77.6%, 17.2%, and 52%; and when using WBC counts as the gold standard were, respectively, 69%, 52%, 86.6%, 35.6%, and 65%. The accuracy of CRP, ESR and WBC counts when considering the DMSA as the gold standard were 58.3%, 62.8%, and 64.5%, respectively.
Although acute phase reactants can help in the diagnosis of a UTI, they are not pathognomonic. CRP, ESR and WBC were neither completely sensitive nor specific for detecting a UTI and its localisation site in Iranian children. Therefore, in a country where advanced clinical diagnostic tests are available, the advanced test should be used in conjunction with CRP, ESR and WBC analyses. Finally, a combination of laboratory tests along with history and exact clinical examination are needed for the diagnosis of a UTI and its localisation site.
children; DMSA renal scintigraphy; erythrocyte sedimentation rate; Urinary tract infection; quantitative C-reactive protein
Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are associated with health and the disease status. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association among white blood cell (WBC) counts, neutrophil counts as a WBC subpopulation, and diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) levels in an asymptomatic population.
The clinical data, including general cardiovascular risk variables and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), were collected from 100 female subjects (mean age, 62 years) in outpatient clinics. The correlation of the d-ROMs with hs-CRP, WBC, and neutrophil counts was examined.
The mean/median levels were WBC counts 5.9 × 109/L, neutrophil counts 3.6 × 109/L, hs-CRP 0.06 mg/dL, and d-ROMs 359 CURR U. A simple correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation of the d-ROMs with the WBC counts, neutrophil counts, or hs-CRP levels. The correlation between d-ROMs and neutrophil counts (β = 0.22, P < 0.05), as well as that between d-ROMs and hs-CRP (β = 0.28, P < 0.01), remained significant and independent in a multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for other variables. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that WBC counts had only a positive correlation tendency to the d-ROMs.
Neutrophils may be slightly but more involved in the oxidative stress status, as assessed by d-ROMs, in comparison to the overall WBC. Further studies are needed to clarify the biologic mechanism(s) of the observed relationship.
C-reactive protein; inflammation; leukocyte; neutrophil; oxidative stress
AIM: To evaluate acute cholecystitis, complicated by peritonitis, acute phase response and immunological status in patients treated by laparoscopic or open approach.
METHODS: From January 2002 to May 2012, we conducted a prospective randomized study on 45 consecutive patients (27 women, 18 men; mean age 58 years). These subjects were taken from a total of 681 patients who were hospitalised presenting similar preoperative findings: acute upper abdominal pain with tenderness, involuntary guarding under the right hypochondrium and/or in the flank; fever higher than 38 °C, leukocytosis greater than 10 × 109/L or both, and ultrasonographic evidence of calculous cholecystitis possibly complicated by peritonitis. These patients had undergone cholecystectomy for acute calculous cholecystitis, complicated by bile peritonitis. Randomly, 23 patients were assigned to laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), and 22 patients to open cholecystectomy (OC). Blood samples were collected from all patients before operation and at days 1, 3 and 6 after surgery. Serum bacteraemia, endotoxaemia, white blood cells (WBCs), WBC subpopulations, human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR), neutrophil elastase, interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min, at 4, 6, 12, 24 h, and then daily (8 A.M.) until post-op day 6.
RESULTS: The two groups were comparable in the severity of peritoneal contamination as indicated by the viable bacterial count (open group = 90% of positive cultures vs laparoscopic group = 87%) and endotoxin level (open group = 33.21 ± 6.32 pg/mL vs laparoscopic group = 35.02 ± 7.23 pg/mL). Four subjects in the OC group (18.1%) and 1 subject (4.3%) in the LC group (P < 0.05) developed intra-abdominal abscess. Severe leukocytosis (range 15.8-19.6/mL) was observed only after OC but not after LC, mostly due to an increase in neutrophils (days 1 and 3, P < 0.05). This value returned to the normal range within 3-4 d after LC and 5-7 d after OC. Other WBC types and lymphocyte subpopulations showed no significant variation. On the first day after surgery, a statistically significant difference was observed in HLA-DR expression between LC (13.0 ± 5.2) and OC (6.0 ± 4.2) (P < 0.05). A statistically significant change in plasma elastase concentration was recorded post-operatively at days 1, 3, and 6 in patients from the OC group when compared to the LC group (P < 0.05). In the OC group, the serum levels of IL-1 and IL-6 began to increase considerably from the first to the sixth hour after surgery. In the LC group, the increase of serum IL-1 and IL-6 levels was delayed and the peak values were notably lower than those in the OC group. Significant differences between the groups, for these two cytokines, were observed from the second to the twenty-fourth hour (P < 0.05) after surgery. The mean values of serum CRP in the LC group on post-operative days (1 and 3) were also lower than those in the OC group (P < 0.05). Systemic concentration of endotoxin was higher in the OC group at all intra-operative sampling times, but reached significance only when the gallbladder was removed (OC group = 36.81 ± 6.4 ρg/mL vs LC group = 16.74 ± 4.1 ρg/mL, P < 0.05). One hour after surgery, microbiological analysis of blood cultures detected 7 different bacterial species after laparotomy, and 4 species after laparoscopy (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: OC increased the incidence of bacteraemia, endotoxaemia and systemic inflammation compared with LC and caused lower transient immunological defense, leading to enhanced sepsis in the patients examined.
Systemic inflammation; Immune response; Laparoscopy; Cholecystectomy; Bile peritonitis
Background. Burns are a unique injury which not only is devastating for the patients but also puts a great burden on society by consuming enormous health care resources. Despite improvements in burn wound care and treatment, understanding the role of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as the mechanisms responsible for the healing process remains to be clarified. Although leptin is regarded as a circulating hormone, it can exert a direct effect on T cells and monocytes, causing the release of cytokines. It may induce angiogenesis or influence angiogenic factors. The aim of the present work is to determine serum levels of leptin, tumour necrosis factor a (TNFa), interleukin-6 (IL-6), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), procalcitonin (PCT), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in a group of children with thermal burns and to determine the changes in these parameters in relation to the duration of hospital stay, the presence of infection, and the total body surface area (TBSA) burned. Patients and methods. The study included 42 children with burns (22 males and 20 females; age range, 2 months to 7 years). The study also included 26 age-matched controls. Besides full clinical assessment, including assessment of TBSA burned and the presence or absence of sepsis, all the patients and controls had the following investigations performed: complete blood count, CRP, IL-6, TNFa, PCT, serum leptin, bFGF, and transforming growth factor a (TGFa). Results. The fatality rate in this study was 28.6%. Burn cases as a whole showed significantly higher values of white blood cells (WBC), CRP, PCT, TNFa, IL-6, leptin, bFGF, and TGFa than controls. Cases with sepsis showed significantly higher values of WBC, CRP, PCT, TNFa, and IL-6 than cases without sepsis. They showed significantly lower values of TGFa than cases without sepsis. Patients with larger TBSA (>30%) showed significantly higher levels of WBC, CRP, PCT, TNFa, IL-6, and leptin than cases with smaller TBSA. They showed significantly lower levels of bFGF and TGFa than patients with smaller TBSA. Non-survivors showed significantly higher levels of WBC, CRP, PCT, TNFa, and IL-6 than survivors. They showed significantly lower levels of leptin, bFGF, and TGFa than survivors. Correlation studies showed a significant positive correlation between TBSA and each of IL-6, TNFa, and leptin. Conclusions. Cytokines and leptin increased in severely burned patients, cases associated with sepsis, and in fatal cases, while bFGF and TGFa levels were lower in severe cases. This may point to impaired healing in such cases and to their poorer prognosis. Recommendations. It is highly recommended to monitor immunological parameters such as PCT and/or IL-6 for early detection of infectious complications following thermal injury. Leptin can be regarded as a novel treatment modality to diminish burn-induced inflammation, reduce post-burn immune dysfunction, and enhance burn healing.
BIOMARKERS; CYTOKINES; GROWTH; CHILDREN; BURN; INJURIES
This study reports differential blood cells counts and their correlations with creatine kinase (CK) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients and normal subjects. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from all 39 AMI patients and 35 controls for blood cell counts and CK and CRP analyses. Total WBC, WBC fractions, RBC and platelets were measured with an automated hematology analyzer. The results showed a significant increase in total WBC (8.688 × 109/L versus 6.148 × 109/L), monocytes (1.271 versus 0.497 × 109/L), and neutrophils (8.367 versus 3.223 × 109/L) counts in AMI patients than controls. The RBC count was significantly less in AMI patients (4.638 × 1012/L) as compared to controls (5.105 × 1012/L). However, there was no significant difference in lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils and platelet counts between AMI patients and controls. Both, serum CK (215.38 ± 43.15 versus 100.82 ± 8.86 U/L) and CRP (29.49 ± 7.61 versus 3.48 ± 0.60 mg/L) were significantly higher in AMI patients as compared to controls. Age of the subjects was neither correlated with blood cell counts nor CK indicating the validity of these markers irrespective of patient age. A significant correlation was observed between WBC counts and CK (R = 0.242, P = 0.041) as well as CRP (R = 0.416, P = 0.000). In conclusion, this study clearly showed significant increase in total and differential leukocyte counts indicating a pro-inflammatory cascade in AMI patients. A significant correlation between WBC counts and CK or CRP levels suggest a possible biomarker value of WBC for a quick prediction of both myocardial necrosis and inflammation in AMI patients.
Acute myocardial infarction; blood cells count; creatine kinase; inflammation; biomarker