Mirizzi syndrome is a rare complication of prolonged cholelithiasis with presence of large, impacted gallstone into the Hartman's pouch, causing chronic extrinsic compression of common bile duct (CBD). Fistula formation between the CBD and the gallbladder may represent an outcome of that condition. According to Mirizzi's classification and Csendes's subclassification, Mirizzi syndrome type IV represents the most uncommon type (4%).
Spontaneous biliary-enteric fistulas have also been rarely reported (1.2–5%) in a large series of cholecystectomies. Cholecystocolic fistula is the most infrequent biliary enteric fistula, causing significant morbidity and representing a diagnostic challenge.
We describe a very rare, to our knowledge, combination of Mirizzi syndrome type IV and cholecystocolic fistula. A 52 year old male, presented to our clinic complaining of episodic diarrhea (monthly episodes lasting 16 days), high temperature (38°C–39°C), right upper quadrant pain without jaundice. The definitive diagnosis was made intraoperatively. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) demonstrated the presence of Mirizzi syndrome with cholecystocolic fistula formation. The patient was operated upon, and cholecystectomy, cholecystocolic fistula excision and Roux-en-Y biliary-enteric anastomosis were undertaken with excellent post-operative course.
Appropriate biliary tree imaging with ERCP and MRI/MRCP is essential for the diagnosis of Mirizzi syndrome and its complications. Cholecystectomy, fistula excision and biliary-enteric anastomosis with Roux-en-Y loop appears to be the most appropriate surgical intervention in order to avoid damage to Calot's triangle anatomic elements. Particularly in our case, ERCP was a valuable diagnostic tool that Mirizzi syndrome type IV and cholecystocolic fistula.
Cholecystocolic fistula is a rare biliary-enteric fistula with a variable clinical presentation. Despite modern diagnostic tools, a high degree of suspicion is required to diagnose it preoperatively. Biliary-enteric fistulae have been found in 0.9% of patients undergoing biliary tract surgery. The most common site of communication of the fistula is a cholecystoduodenal (70%), followed by cholecystocolic (10–20%), and the least common is the cholecystogastric fistula accounting for the remainder of cases. These fistulae are treated by open as well as laparoscopic surgery, with no difference in intraoperative and postoperative complications.
We report here a case of obstructive jaundice, which was investigated with a plain film of the abdomen, abdominal ultrasonography, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, but none of these gave us any clue to the presence of the fistula was discovered incidentally during an open surgery and was appropriately treated.
Biliary-enteric fistula; cholecystectomy; cholecystocolic fistula ERCP
Internal biliary fistulae are a well-recognized complication of biliary lithiasis. Among these, the cholecystoduodenal fistulae are the commonest while cholecystocolic fistulae (CCF) occur much less frequently. CCF secondary to gallbladder carcinoma is a rare occurrence and has been reported in very few studies. Here, the author reports a case of cholecystocolic fistula secondary to gallbladder carcinoma. Preoperative diagnosis of this condition requires high index of suspicion and is usually difficult. Computed tomography scan is helpful in establishing a preoperative diagnosis.
Cholecystocolic fistula; computed tomography; gallbladder carcinoma
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive, image-guided procedure for the treatment of hepatic tumors. While RFA is associated with relatively low morbidity, sporadic bronchobiliary fistulae due to thermal damage may occur after RFA, although the incidence is rare. We describe a patient with a bronchobiliary fistula complicated by a liver abscess that occurred after RFA. This fistula was obliterated after placement of an external drainage catheter into the liver abscess for eight weeks.
Bronchobiliary fistula; Radiofrequency ablation; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Liver abscess; Percutaneous drainage
Evidence of relative effectiveness of local treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is scanty. We investigated, in a retrospective cohort study, whether surgical resection, radiofrequency ablation (RFA), percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), and transarterial embolization with (TACE) or without (TAE) chemotherapy resulted in different survival in clinical practice. All patients first diagnosed with HCC and treated with any locoregional therapy from 1998 to 2002 in twelve Italian hospitals were eligible. Overall survival (OS) was the unique endpoint. Three main comparisons were planned: RFA versus PEI, surgical resection versus RFA/PEI (combined), TACE/TAE versus RFA/PEI (combined). Propensity score method was used to minimize bias related to non random treatment assignment. Overall 425 subjects were analyzed, with 385 (91%) deaths after a median followup of 7.7 years. OS did not significantly differ between RFA and PEI (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.79–1.57), between surgery and RFA/PEI (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.64–1.41) and between TACE/TAE and RFA/PEI (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.66–1.17). 5-year OS probabilities were 0.14 for RFA, 0.18 for PEI, 0.27 for surgery, and 0.15 for TACE/TAE. No locoregional treatment for HCC was found to be more effective than the comparator. Adequately powered randomized clinical trials are still needed to definitely assess relative effectiveness of locoregional HCC treatment.
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is performed as an alternative to surgical resection for primary or secondary liver malignancies. Although RFA can be performed safely in most patients, early and late complications related to mechanical or thermal damage occur in 8-9.5% cases. Hemocholecyst, which refers to hemorrhage of the gallbladder, has been reported with primary gallbladder disease or as a secondary event associated with hemobilia. Hemobilia, defined as hemorrhage in the biliary tract and most commonly associated with accidental or iatrogenic trauma, is a rare complication of RFA. Here we report a case of hemocholecyst associated with hemobilia after RFA for hepatocellular carcinoma that was successfully managed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Hemobilia; Hemocholecyst; Radiofrequency ablation; Complication
Hepaticojejunostomy (HJ) is the classical reconstruction for benign biliary stricture. Endoscopic management of anastomotic complications after hepaticojejunostomy is extremely difficult. In this work we assess a modified biliary reconstruction in the form of bilio-entero-gastrostomy (BEG) regarding the feasibility of endoscopic access to HJ and management of its stenosis if encountered.
From October 2008 till February 2011 all patients presented to the authors with benign biliary stricture who needed bilio-enteric shunt were considered. For each patient bilio-entero-gastrostomy (BEG) of either type I, II or III was constructed. In the fourth week postoperatively, endoscopy was performed to explore the possibility to access the biliary anastomosis and perform cholangiography.
BEG shunt was performed for seventeen patients, one of whom, with BEG type I, died due to myocardial infarction leaving sixteen patients with a diagnosis of postcholecystectomy biliary injury (9), inflammatory stricture with or without choledocholithiasis (5) and strictured biliary shunt (2). BEG shunts were either type I (3), type II (3) or type III (10). Endoscopic follow up revealed successful access to the anastomosis in 14 patients (87.5%), while the access failed in one type I and one type II BEG (12.5%). Mean time needed to access the anastomosis was 12.6 min (2-55 min). On a scale from 1–5, mean endoscopic difficulty score was 1.7. One patient (6.25%), with BEG type I, developed anastomotic stricture after 18 months that was successfully treated endoscopically by stenting. These preliminary results showed that, in relation to the other types, type III BEG demonstrated the tendency to be surgically simpler to perform, endoscopicall faster to access, easier and with no failure.
BEG, which is a modified biliary reconstruction, facilitates endoscopic access of the biliary anastomosis, offers management option for its complications, and, therefore, could be considered for biliary reconstruction of benign stricture. BEG type III tend to be surgically simpler and endoscopically faster, easier and more successful than type I and II.
Benign biliary postoperative stenoses and biliary leaks and fistulas usually occur due to injury after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, gastric or hepatic resection, bilio-enteric anastomoses and after liver transplantation. In most of the cases a new surgical intervention is not possible and the percutaneous trans-hepatic approach is of paramount importance in the diagnosis and treatment of the problem. This review aims to highlight the spectrum of percutaneous cholangiographic findings and methods of treatment of postoperative benign biliary stenoses and biliary leaks and fistulas. In the case of stenosis, dilation of the narrow tract is the usually the first approach, whereas in the case of leaks and fistulas bile diversion with drainage is usually attempted in order to seal the fistulous tract. However, a great variety of combination of materials and techniques may be used on a “case-by case” approach
A selection of cases of benign biliary postoperative stenoses and biliary leaks and fistulas that were managed percutaneously are presented and the most common lines of approach are discussed.
The imaging spectrum of percutaneous treatment of benign biliary postoperative stenoses and biliary leaks and fistulas is presented in order to aid interpretation and management with image guided procedures.
• Treatment of benign biliary stenosis is performed with cholangioplasty and stents.
• The main goal of fistula treatment is to divert the bile away from the site of bile wall defect.
• Drain collection and tract embolisation are the other options for bile leak percutaneous treatment.
Biliary tract disease; Postoperative biliary injury; Benign biliary strictures; Bile leaks and fistula; Biliary drainage
Thoracobiliary fistulas are pathological communications between the biliary tract and the bronchial tree (bronchobiliary fistulas) or the biliary tract and the pleural space (pleurobiliary fistulas).
Review of the literature
We have reviewed aetiology, pathogenesis, predilection formation points, the clinical picture, diagnostic possibilities, and therapeutic options for thoracobiliary fistulas.
A patient with an iatrogenic bronchobiliary fistula which developed after radiofrequency ablation of a colorectal carcinoma metastasis of the liver is present. We also describe the closure of the bronchobiliary fistula with the greater omentum as a possible manner of fistula closure, which was not reported previously according to the knowledge of the authors.
Newer papers report of successful non-surgical therapy, although the bulk of the literature advocates surgical therapy. Fistula closure with the greater omentum is a possible method of the thoracobiliary fistula treatment.
thoracobiliary fistula; bronchobiliary fistula; treatment; omentum majus
To assess the technical feasibility and local efficacy of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for an intermediate-sized (3-5 cm in diameter) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) under the dual guidance of biplane fluoroscopy and ultrasonography (US).
Materials and Methods
Patients with intermediate-sized HCCs were treated with percutaneous RFA combined with TACE. RFA was performed under the dual guidance of biplane fluoroscopy and US within 14 days after TACE. We evaluated the rate of major complications on immediate post-RFA CT images. Primary technique effectiveness rate was determined on one month follow-up CT images. The cumulative rate of local tumor progression was estimated with the use of Kaplan-Meier method.
Twenty-one consecutive patients with 21 HCCs (mean size: 3.6 cm; range: 3-4.5 cm) were included. After TACE (mean: 6.7 d; range: 1-14 d), 20 (95.2%) of 21 HCCs were visible on fluoroscopy and were ablated under dual guidance of biplane fluoroscopy and US. The other HCC that was poorly visible by fluoroscopy was ablated under US guidance alone. Major complications were observed in only one patient (pneumothorax). Primary technique effectiveness was achieved for all 21 HCCs in a single RFA session. Cumulative rates of local tumor progression were estimated as 9.5% and 19.0% at one and three years, respectively.
RFA combined with TACE under dual guidance of biplane fluoroscopy and US is technically feasible and effective for intermediate-sized HCC treatment.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Radiofrequency ablation; Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization; Fluoroscopy; Ultrasonography
AIM: To clarify the role of surgical resection for multiple hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) compared to transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and liver transplantation (LT).
METHODS: Among the HCC patients who were managed at Yonsei University Health System between January 2003 and December 2008, 160 patients who met the following criteria were retrospectively enrolled: (1) two or three radiologically diagnosed HCCs; (2) no radiologic vascular invasion; (3) Child-Pugh class A; (4) main tumor smaller than 5 cm in diameter; and (5) platelet count greater than 50 000/mm3. Long-term outcomes were compared among the following three treatment modalities: surgical resection or combined radiofrequency ablation (RFA) (n = 36), TACE (n = 107), and LT (n = 17). The survival curves were computed using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with a log-rank test. To identify the patients who gained a survival benefit from surgical resection, we also investigated prognostic factors for survival following surgical resection. Multivariate analyses of the prognostic factors for survival were performed using the Cox proportional hazard model.
RESULTS: The overall survival (OS) rate was significantly higher in the surgical resection group than in the TACE group (48.1% vs 28.9% at 5 years, P < 0.005). LT had the best OS rate, which was better than that of the surgical resection group, although the difference was not statistically significant (80.2% vs 48.1% at 5 years, P = 0.447). The disease-free survival rates were also significantly higher in the LT group than in the surgical resection group (88.2% vs 11.2% at 5 years, P < 0.001). Liver cirrhosis was the only significant prognostic factor for poor OS after surgical resection. Clinical liver cirrhosis rates were 55.6% (20/36) in the resection group and 93.5% (100/107) in the TACE group. There were 19 major and 17 minor resections. En bloc resection was performed in 23 patients, multi-site resection was performed in 5 patients, and combined resection with RFA was performed in 8 patients. In the TACE group, only 34 patients (31.8%) were recorded as having complete remission after primary TACE. Seventy-two patients (67.3%) were retreated with repeated TACE combined with other therapies. In patients who underwent surgical resection, the 16 patients who did not have cirrhosis had higher 5-year OS and disease-free survival rates than the 20 patients who had cirrhosis (80.8% vs 25.5% 5-year OS rate, P = 0.006; 22.2% vs 0% 5-year disease-free survival rate, P = 0.048). Surgical resection in the 20 patients who had cirrhosis did not provide any survival benefit when compared with TACE (25.5% vs 24.7% 5-year OS rate, P = 0.225). Twenty-nine of the 36 patients who underwent surgical resection experienced recurrence. Of the patients with cirrhosis, 80% (16/20) were within the Milan criteria at the time of recurrence after resection.
CONCLUSION: Among patients with two or three HCCs, no radiologic vascular invasion, and tumor diameters ≤ 5 cm, surgical resection is recommended only in those without cirrhosis.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Hepatectomy; Liver transplantation; Chemoembolization; Cirrhosis
To evaluate the effect of temporary stent graft placement in the treatment of benign anastomotic biliary strictures.
Materials and Methods
Nine patients, five women and four men, 22-64 years old (mean, 47.5 years), with chronic benign biliary anastomotic strictures, refractory to repeated balloon dilations, were treated by prolonged, temporary placement of stent-grafts. Four patients had strictures following a liver transplantation; three of them in bilio-enteric anastomoses and one in a choledocho-choledochostomy. Four of the other five patients had strictures at bilio-enteric anastomoses, which developed after complications following laparoscopic cholecystectomies and in one after a Whipple procedure for duodenal carcinoma. In eight patients, balloon-expandable stent-grafts were placed and one patient was treated by insertion of a self-expanding stent-graft.
In the transplant group, treatment of patients with bilio-enteric anastomoses was unsuccessful (mean stent duration, 30 days). The patient treated for stenosis in the choledocho-choledochostomy responded well to consecutive self-expanding stent-graft placement (total placement duration, 112 days). All patients with bilio-enteric anastomoses in the non-transplant group were treated successfully with stent-grafts (mean placement duration, 37 days).
Treatment of benign biliary strictures with temporary placement of stent-grafts has a positive effect, but is less successful in patients with strictures developed following a liver transplant.
Biliary anastomotic stricture; Benign stricture; Liver transplant
An inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is an uncommon, benign lesion characterized by the mesenchymal proliferation and infiltration of inflammatory cells composed primarily of lymphocytes and plasma cells. A percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an effective and safe therapeutic modality used for the management of liver malignancies. Here we report, for the first time, a case of IMT as a complication of RFA for hepatocellular carcinoma in a 61-year-old man with a Child's class A hepatitis B-related liver cirrhosis. Gastrohepatic fistula formation was pathologically proven and associated with the RFA. Such a longstanding inflammation of the fistula might have been a possible cause of the development of IMT in this case.
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor; Radiofrequency ablation, complication
Experiences with seven cases of gallbladder perforation managed in Kingston, Jamaica, at the District of Columbia General Hospital, and other Howard University affiliated hospitals are presented. The results of a review of 197 consecutive biliary operations at DC General Hospital for occurrence of this entity are presented.
Gallbladder perforation is a complication of cholecystitis in 1 to 4 percent of cases. Niemeier1 classified this complication in three types in 1934, and currently these are described as type 1—free perforation, type 2—perforation with abscess, and type 3—chronic perforation with cholecysto-enteric fistula.
The gallbladder may, in extremely unusual occurrences, perforate into the biliary tree itself with significant operative implications, and therefore Niemeier's classification can be modified to include cholecystobiliary fistuale formation as type 4. Seven case reports manifesting all four types of perforation are presented, representing the spectrum of current treatment and diagnostic options.
The purpose of this study was to assess the technical feasibility and local efficacy of biplane fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Our retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board and informed consent was waived. 18 patients with 19 HCCs (mean 2.5 cm diameter; range 2–4.2 cm) were treated with percutaneous RF ablation combined with TACE. After segmental TACE, 18 (95%) of 19 HCCs were visible on fluoroscopy. Shortly (median 2 days; range 1–4 days) after TACE, percutaneous RF ablation was performed under real-time biplane fluoroscopic guidance. We evaluated major complications, rate of technical success at immediate post-RF ablation CT images and local tumour progression at follow-up CT images.
Major complication was not observed in any patients. Technical success was achieved for all 18 visible HCCs. During the follow-up period (median 20 months; range 5–30 months), no local tumour progression was found.
Biplane fluoroscopy-guided RF ablation combined with TACE is technically feasible and effective for treatment of HCC.
Background and aims: Percutaneous tumour ablation (PTA), such as ethanol injection and radiofrequency ablation, is now recognised as a primary treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although PTA is a relatively safe procedure, it can cause biliary obstruction as a rare complication. As patients with cirrhosis undergoing surgery or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography/sphincterotomy have a high mortality rate from bleeding, we adopted the use of endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation (EPBD) in these patients and now report the results. We retrospectively analysed the incidence of biliary obstruction after PTA and the efficacy of treatment with EPBD.
Patients and methods: A total of 1043 patients with HCC were treated by PTA, of whom 538 were treated with transarterial embolisation with up to eight years of follow up.
Results: There were 17 (1.6%) cases of hilar obstruction due to tumour progression and 35 (3.4%) cases of extrahepatic obstruction. Apart from the expected causes of biliary obstruction (haemobilia n = 11, gallstones n = 11, and three miscellaneous causes), we found that 10 patients had obstruction due to biliary casts. This is the first description of biliary casts after percutaneous tumour ablation therapy. Extrahepatic biliary obstruction by procedure related haemobilia occurred within three days of PTA while other causes occurred between 0 and 17 (average 4.9) months. Biliary casts occurred more frequently after ethanol injection than after radiofrequency ablation. EPBD successfully dissipated biliary obstruction in 33 of 35 cases, while two died due to hepatic failure despite successful drainage.
Conclusions: Extrahepatic biliary obstruction is an uncommon complication after PTA for HCC, and can be safely and effectively treated with EPBD, despite impaired liver function.
biliary cast; haemobilia; choledocholithiasis; endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation; percutaneous ethanol injection therapy
We report 210 cases of external biliary fistula treated in our clinics between 1970–1992. In 7 cases, fistulas were formed after iatrogenic bile duct injury, in 4 cases after exploration of common bile duct, in 4 cases due to disruption of biliary-intestinal anastomosis, and in 2 cases due to liver trauma. In 85 cases bile leak was observed after cholecystomy, in 103 cases after hydatid disease surgery, and in 4 cases after the passage of P.T.C. catheter. In one patient the appearance of the fistula was due to spontaneous discharge of a gallbladder empyema. 173 cases were managed conservatively, and 37 cases surgically.
Over the past decade, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has evolved into an important therapeutical tool for the treatment of non resectable primary and secondary liver tumors. The clinical benefit of RFA is represented in several clinical studies. They underline the safety and feasibility of this new and modern concept in treating liver tumors. RFA has proven its clinical impact not only in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but also in metastatic disease such as colorectal cancer (CRC). Due to the increasing number of HCC and CRC, RFA might play an even more important role in the future. Therefore, the refinement of RFA technology is as important as the evaluation of data of prospective randomized trials that will help define guidelines for good clinical practice in RFA application in the future. The combination of hepatic resection and RFA extends the feasibility of open surgical procedures in patients with extensive tumors. Adverse effects of RFA such as biliary tract damage, liver failure and local recurrence remain an important task today but overall the long term results of RFA application in treating liver tumors are promising. Incomplete ablation of liver tumors due to insufficient technology of ablation needles, tissue cooling by the neighbouring blood vessels, large tumor masses and ablation of tumors in close vicinity to heat sensitive organs remain difficult tasks for RFA. Future solutions to overcome these limitations of RFA will include refinement of ultrasonographic guidance (accuracy of probe placement), improvements in needle technology (e.g. needles preventing charring) and intraductal cooling techniques.
Radiofrequency ablation; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Thermoablation; Colorectal cancer; Liver metastases
To assess the technical feasibility and local efficacy of biplane fluoroscopy plus US-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for viable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) around retained iodized oil after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE).
Materials and Methods
Our prospective study was approved by our institutional review board and informed consent was obtained from all participating patients. For patients with viable HCC around retained iodized oil after TACE, biplane fluoroscopy plus US-guided RFA was performed. We evaluated the rate of technical success and major complications on a post-RFA CT examination and local tumor progression with a follow-up CT.
Among 40 consecutive patients, 19 were excluded due to one of the following reasons: poorly visible HCC on fluoroscopy (n = 13), high risk location (n = 2), RFA performed under monoplane fluoroscopy and US guidance (n = 2), and poorly identifiable new HCCs on US (n = 2). The remaining 21 patients with 21 viable HCCs were included. The size of total tumors ranged from 1.4 to 5.0 cm (mean: 3.2 cm) in the longest diameter. Technical success was achieved for all 21 HCCs, and major complications were observed in none of the patients. During the follow-up period (mean, 20.3 months; range, 6.5-29.9 months), local tumor progression was found in two patients (2/21, 9.5%). Distant intrahepatic metastasis developed in 76.2% (16/21) of patients.
When retained iodized oil around the tumor after TACE hampers the targeting of the viable tumor for RFA, biplane fluoroscopy plus US-guided RFA may be performed owing to its technical feasibility and effective treatment for viable HCCs.
Liver; Guidance; Radiofrequency ablation; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Biplane fluoroscopy; Ultrasonography; Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, iodized oil
Problems have been reported in the treatment of pancreatic cancer with radiofrequency ablation (RFA), such as the friability of the organ itself. This report presents possible solutions to such problems. Although our patient suffered from locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer, she remained well at 18 mo after RFA with no evidence of recurrence. To ameliorate the side effects of RFA, after a palliative bypass procedure, the subject was treated with combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy. After this regimen had been administered, a contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan confirmed that RFA is a viable approach to the treatment of pancreatic cancer as the chemoradiotherapy had resulted in marked tumor shrinkage and pancreatic fibrosis; i.e., sufficient tumor ablation was achieved without serious RFA-related complications, such as pancreatitis or pancreatic fistulae. The present case suggests that RFA combined with preceding chemoradiotherapy is safe and effective for the palliative treatment of locally advanced pancreatic cancer.
Chemotherapy; Locally advanced pancreatic cancer; Radiotherapy; Radiofrequency ablation
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) therapy is recognised as a safe and effective treatment option for osteoid osteoma. This case report describes a 27-year-old man who underwent computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous RFA for a femoral osteoid osteoma, which was diagnosed based on his clinical presentation and CT findings. The patient developed worsening symptoms complicated by osteomyelitis after the procedure. His clinical progression and subsequent MRI findings had led to a revised diagnosis of a Brodie’s abscess, which was further supported by the eventual resolution of his symptoms following a combination of antibiotics treatment and surgical irrigations. This case report illustrates the unusual MRI features of osteomyelitis mimicking soft tissue tumours following RFA of a misdiagnosed Brodie’s abscess and highlights the importance of a confirmatory histopathological diagnosis for an osteoid osteoma prior to treatment.
Brodie’s abscess; osteoid osteoma; radiofrequency ablation; misdiagnosis
Loco-regional treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are important alternatives to curative transplantation or resection. Among them, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is accepted as the most popular technique showing excellent local tumor control and acceptable morbidity. The current role of RFA is well documented in the evidence-based practice guidelines of European Association of Study of Liver, American Association of Study of the Liver Disease and Japanese academic societies. Several randomized controlled trials have confirmed that RFA is superior to percutaneous ethanol injections in terms of local tumor control and survival. The overall survival after RFA is comparable to after surgical resection in a selected group of patients with smaller (< 3 cm) tumors. Currently, the clinical benefits of combined RFA with transarterial chemoembolization for intermediate stage HCC are increasingly being explored. Here we review the ongoing technical advancements of RFA and future potential.
Image-guided tumor ablation; Radiofrequency ablation; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Thermal ablation; Loco-regional therapy
Liver transplantation is considered as one of therapeutic approaches to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy of various therapeutic options for HCC.
Materials and methods
One hundred twenty patients with known HCC in various tumour stages were evaluated in the present study. Patients were treated either with primary tumour resection, transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) or liver transplantation (LTx) by an interdisciplinary team.
The overall 1-year and 5-year survivals of patients in LTx group were 95 and 57%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in primary tumour resection group (65 and 33%, P < 0.01) and those in TACE group (44 and 4%, P < 0.01). In parallel, 1-year and 5-year tumour-free survivals of patients in LTx group (75 and 62%) were significantly higher than those in primary tumour resection group (50 and 11%, P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in 1- and 5-year survivals of patients with early tumour stage received LTx or primary tumour resection, whereas patients in advanced tumour stage based on pathological findings of explanted liver significantly benefited from LTx as compared to primary resection.
LTx can be a curative approach for patients with advanced HCC without extrahepatic metastasis. However, organ shortage is a major limiting factor in the selection of HCC patients for LTx.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Liver transplantation; Transarterial chemoembolisation; Tumour-free survival
Partial hepatectomy has long been the standard treatment modality for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), although the majority of patients with HCCs are not candidates for curative resection. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been widely used as the preferred locoregional therapy. RFA and hepatectomy can be complementary to each other for the treatment of multifocal HCCs. Combining hepatectomy with RFA permits the removal of larger tumors while simultaneously ablating any smaller residual tumors. By using this combination treatment, more patients might become candidates for curative resection. For treating recurrent tumors involving the liver after hepatectomy, RFA has been performed recently instead of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization or ethanol ablation. Many retrospective studies on the combination of RFA and hepatectomy demonstrate favorable results of effectiveness and safety. However, further investigation of prospective design will be needed to confirm these encouraging results.
Radiofrequency ablation; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Hepatectomy; Combination treatment
The liver is a common location of both primary and secondary malignancies. For unresectable liver cancer, many local ablative therapies have been developed. These include e.g., percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), percutaneous acetic acid injection, radiofrequency ablation (RFA), cryoablation, microwave ablation, laser-induced thermotherapy, and high-intensity focused ultrasound. RFA has recently gained interest and is the most widely applied thermoablative technique. RFA allows more effective tumor control in fewer treatment sessions compared with PEI, but with a higher rate of complications. However, there are certain circumstances where PEI therapy represents a better strategy to control liver tumors than RFA, especially in situations where RFA is difficult, for example when large vessels surround the tumor. In the context of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), both RFA and PEI are feasible and of benefit in non-operable patients. RFA seems superior to PEI in HCC > 2 cm, and the combination of interventions may be of benefit in selected patients. Liver resection is superior to RFA for patients with HCC meeting the Milan criteria, but RFA can be employed in tumors ≤ 3 cm and where there is an increased expected operative mortality. In addition, some lines of evidence indicate that RFA and PEI can be employed as a bridge to liver transplantation. The use of RFA in colorectal liver metastases is currently limited to unresectable disease and for patients unfit for surgery. The aim of this article is to summarize the current status of RFA in the management of liver tumors and compare it to the cheap and readily available technique of PEI.
Colorectal liver metastases; Hepatocellular cancer; Liver resection; Percutaneous ethanol injection; Radiofrequency ablation