Mirizzi syndrome is a rare complication of prolonged cholelithiasis with presence of large, impacted gallstone into the Hartman's pouch, causing chronic extrinsic compression of common bile duct (CBD). Fistula formation between the CBD and the gallbladder may represent an outcome of that condition. According to Mirizzi's classification and Csendes's subclassification, Mirizzi syndrome type IV represents the most uncommon type (4%).
Spontaneous biliary-enteric fistulas have also been rarely reported (1.2–5%) in a large series of cholecystectomies. Cholecystocolic fistula is the most infrequent biliary enteric fistula, causing significant morbidity and representing a diagnostic challenge.
We describe a very rare, to our knowledge, combination of Mirizzi syndrome type IV and cholecystocolic fistula. A 52 year old male, presented to our clinic complaining of episodic diarrhea (monthly episodes lasting 16 days), high temperature (38°C–39°C), right upper quadrant pain without jaundice. The definitive diagnosis was made intraoperatively. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) demonstrated the presence of Mirizzi syndrome with cholecystocolic fistula formation. The patient was operated upon, and cholecystectomy, cholecystocolic fistula excision and Roux-en-Y biliary-enteric anastomosis were undertaken with excellent post-operative course.
Appropriate biliary tree imaging with ERCP and MRI/MRCP is essential for the diagnosis of Mirizzi syndrome and its complications. Cholecystectomy, fistula excision and biliary-enteric anastomosis with Roux-en-Y loop appears to be the most appropriate surgical intervention in order to avoid damage to Calot's triangle anatomic elements. Particularly in our case, ERCP was a valuable diagnostic tool that Mirizzi syndrome type IV and cholecystocolic fistula.
Cholecystocolic fistula is a rare biliary-enteric fistula with a variable clinical presentation. Despite modern diagnostic tools, a high degree of suspicion is required to diagnose it preoperatively. Biliary-enteric fistulae have been found in 0.9% of patients undergoing biliary tract surgery. The most common site of communication of the fistula is a cholecystoduodenal (70%), followed by cholecystocolic (10–20%), and the least common is the cholecystogastric fistula accounting for the remainder of cases. These fistulae are treated by open as well as laparoscopic surgery, with no difference in intraoperative and postoperative complications.
We report here a case of obstructive jaundice, which was investigated with a plain film of the abdomen, abdominal ultrasonography, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, but none of these gave us any clue to the presence of the fistula was discovered incidentally during an open surgery and was appropriately treated.
Biliary-enteric fistula; cholecystectomy; cholecystocolic fistula ERCP
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive, image-guided procedure for the treatment of hepatic tumors. While RFA is associated with relatively low morbidity, sporadic bronchobiliary fistulae due to thermal damage may occur after RFA, although the incidence is rare. We describe a patient with a bronchobiliary fistula complicated by a liver abscess that occurred after RFA. This fistula was obliterated after placement of an external drainage catheter into the liver abscess for eight weeks.
Bronchobiliary fistula; Radiofrequency ablation; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Liver abscess; Percutaneous drainage
Evidence of relative effectiveness of local treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is scanty. We investigated, in a retrospective cohort study, whether surgical resection, radiofrequency ablation (RFA), percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), and transarterial embolization with (TACE) or without (TAE) chemotherapy resulted in different survival in clinical practice. All patients first diagnosed with HCC and treated with any locoregional therapy from 1998 to 2002 in twelve Italian hospitals were eligible. Overall survival (OS) was the unique endpoint. Three main comparisons were planned: RFA versus PEI, surgical resection versus RFA/PEI (combined), TACE/TAE versus RFA/PEI (combined). Propensity score method was used to minimize bias related to non random treatment assignment. Overall 425 subjects were analyzed, with 385 (91%) deaths after a median followup of 7.7 years. OS did not significantly differ between RFA and PEI (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.79–1.57), between surgery and RFA/PEI (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.64–1.41) and between TACE/TAE and RFA/PEI (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.66–1.17). 5-year OS probabilities were 0.14 for RFA, 0.18 for PEI, 0.27 for surgery, and 0.15 for TACE/TAE. No locoregional treatment for HCC was found to be more effective than the comparator. Adequately powered randomized clinical trials are still needed to definitely assess relative effectiveness of locoregional HCC treatment.
Spontaneous enterobiliary fistulae are a complication of biliary disease or a disease of adjacent structures. Cholecystocolic fistulae are rare in relation to gallbladder carcinoma (GBC). Previous reports have presented images showing subtle findings suggestive of cholecystocolic fistula. We report the unusual spread and rare images of a case of cholecystocolicfistula,to highlight the aggressive nature of GBC and findings of gross transmural invasion of the colonic wall. The images acquired in all three planes define the anatomical and pathological extent conclusively. There are a higher number of GBC cases across the geographic belt of North India compared to the West. In this case, the patient’s pathology was extensive and unresectable, and therefore palliative and supportive care wasadvised.
Cholecystocolic fistula; Gallbladder carcinoma; Multidetector CT
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is performed as an alternative to surgical resection for primary or secondary liver malignancies. Although RFA can be performed safely in most patients, early and late complications related to mechanical or thermal damage occur in 8-9.5% cases. Hemocholecyst, which refers to hemorrhage of the gallbladder, has been reported with primary gallbladder disease or as a secondary event associated with hemobilia. Hemobilia, defined as hemorrhage in the biliary tract and most commonly associated with accidental or iatrogenic trauma, is a rare complication of RFA. Here we report a case of hemocholecyst associated with hemobilia after RFA for hepatocellular carcinoma that was successfully managed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Hemobilia; Hemocholecyst; Radiofrequency ablation; Complication
Hepaticojejunostomy (HJ) is the classical reconstruction for benign biliary stricture. Endoscopic management of anastomotic complications after hepaticojejunostomy is extremely difficult. In this work we assess a modified biliary reconstruction in the form of bilio-entero-gastrostomy (BEG) regarding the feasibility of endoscopic access to HJ and management of its stenosis if encountered.
From October 2008 till February 2011 all patients presented to the authors with benign biliary stricture who needed bilio-enteric shunt were considered. For each patient bilio-entero-gastrostomy (BEG) of either type I, II or III was constructed. In the fourth week postoperatively, endoscopy was performed to explore the possibility to access the biliary anastomosis and perform cholangiography.
BEG shunt was performed for seventeen patients, one of whom, with BEG type I, died due to myocardial infarction leaving sixteen patients with a diagnosis of postcholecystectomy biliary injury (9), inflammatory stricture with or without choledocholithiasis (5) and strictured biliary shunt (2). BEG shunts were either type I (3), type II (3) or type III (10). Endoscopic follow up revealed successful access to the anastomosis in 14 patients (87.5%), while the access failed in one type I and one type II BEG (12.5%). Mean time needed to access the anastomosis was 12.6 min (2-55 min). On a scale from 1–5, mean endoscopic difficulty score was 1.7. One patient (6.25%), with BEG type I, developed anastomotic stricture after 18 months that was successfully treated endoscopically by stenting. These preliminary results showed that, in relation to the other types, type III BEG demonstrated the tendency to be surgically simpler to perform, endoscopicall faster to access, easier and with no failure.
BEG, which is a modified biliary reconstruction, facilitates endoscopic access of the biliary anastomosis, offers management option for its complications, and, therefore, could be considered for biliary reconstruction of benign stricture. BEG type III tend to be surgically simpler and endoscopically faster, easier and more successful than type I and II.
Cholecystocolonic fistulas (CCF) are rare complications of gallstones with a variable clinical presentation. Despite modern diagnostic tools, cholecystocolonic fistulas are often asymptomatic and it is difficult to diagnose them preoperatively. Biliary-enteric fistulae have been found in 0.9% of patients undergoing biliary tract surgery. The most common site of communication of the fistula is the cholecystoduodenal (70%), followed by the cholecystocolic (10–20%), and the least common is the cholecystogastric fistula. Herein, we report a case of female patient with multiple episodes of acute recurrent cholangitis due to common bile duct and gallbladder stones in which preoperative imaging studies were negative for cholecystocolonic fistula that was incidentally discovered and treated during surgery and was appropriately treated. A review of the literature is reported too.
Benign biliary postoperative stenoses and biliary leaks and fistulas usually occur due to injury after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, gastric or hepatic resection, bilio-enteric anastomoses and after liver transplantation. In most of the cases a new surgical intervention is not possible and the percutaneous trans-hepatic approach is of paramount importance in the diagnosis and treatment of the problem. This review aims to highlight the spectrum of percutaneous cholangiographic findings and methods of treatment of postoperative benign biliary stenoses and biliary leaks and fistulas. In the case of stenosis, dilation of the narrow tract is the usually the first approach, whereas in the case of leaks and fistulas bile diversion with drainage is usually attempted in order to seal the fistulous tract. However, a great variety of combination of materials and techniques may be used on a “case-by case” approach
A selection of cases of benign biliary postoperative stenoses and biliary leaks and fistulas that were managed percutaneously are presented and the most common lines of approach are discussed.
The imaging spectrum of percutaneous treatment of benign biliary postoperative stenoses and biliary leaks and fistulas is presented in order to aid interpretation and management with image guided procedures.
• Treatment of benign biliary stenosis is performed with cholangioplasty and stents.
• The main goal of fistula treatment is to divert the bile away from the site of bile wall defect.
• Drain collection and tract embolisation are the other options for bile leak percutaneous treatment.
Biliary tract disease; Postoperative biliary injury; Benign biliary strictures; Bile leaks and fistula; Biliary drainage
Thoracobiliary fistulas are pathological communications between the biliary tract and the bronchial tree (bronchobiliary fistulas) or the biliary tract and the pleural space (pleurobiliary fistulas).
Review of the literature
We have reviewed aetiology, pathogenesis, predilection formation points, the clinical picture, diagnostic possibilities, and therapeutic options for thoracobiliary fistulas.
A patient with an iatrogenic bronchobiliary fistula which developed after radiofrequency ablation of a colorectal carcinoma metastasis of the liver is present. We also describe the closure of the bronchobiliary fistula with the greater omentum as a possible manner of fistula closure, which was not reported previously according to the knowledge of the authors.
Newer papers report of successful non-surgical therapy, although the bulk of the literature advocates surgical therapy. Fistula closure with the greater omentum is a possible method of the thoracobiliary fistula treatment.
thoracobiliary fistula; bronchobiliary fistula; treatment; omentum majus
In previous randomized trials, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) has shown an improvement of survival rate in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) when combined with radiofrequency ablation (RFA), percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) or other therapies. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness of combination therapy of TACE with RFA, PEI, radiotherapy (RT), three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) or High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU).
Randomized or nonrandomized studies comparing TACE combined with RFA, PEI, RT, 3D-CRT or HIFU with TACE alone for HCC were included. Meta-analysis was performed using a fix-effects model in RCTs and a random-effects model among the observational studies.
10 randomized trials and 18 observational studies matched the selection criteria, including 2497 patients (682 in RCTs, 1815 in non-RCTs). Meta-analysis of RCTs showed that the combination of TACE and PEI ((RR)1-year=1.10, 95%CI=0.99-1.22, p=0.073; (RR)3-year=2.32, 95%CI=1.52-3.53, p<0.001), TACE+RT ((RR)1-year=1.37, 95%CI=1.11-1.70, p=0.004; (RR)3-year=2.32, 95%CI=1.44-3.75, p=0.001) were associated with higher survival rates. The results of observational studies were in good consistency with that of RCTs. Furthermore, TACE plus 3D-CRT ((RR)1-year=1.22, 95%CI=1.06-1.41, p=0.005; (RR)3-year=2.05, 95%CI=1.48-2.84, p<0.001) and TACE plus HIFU ((RR)1-year=1.16, 95%CI=1.01-1.33, p=0.033; (RR)3-year=1.66, 95%CI=1.12-2.45, p=0.011) have introduced marked survival benefit when pooling results from observational studies.
This meta-analysis demonstrated that TACE combined with local treatments, especially PEI, HIFU or 3D-CRT could improve the overall survival status than performing TACE alone. Importantly, these results need to be validated in further high-quality clinical trials.
To evaluate the effect of temporary stent graft placement in the treatment of benign anastomotic biliary strictures.
Materials and Methods
Nine patients, five women and four men, 22-64 years old (mean, 47.5 years), with chronic benign biliary anastomotic strictures, refractory to repeated balloon dilations, were treated by prolonged, temporary placement of stent-grafts. Four patients had strictures following a liver transplantation; three of them in bilio-enteric anastomoses and one in a choledocho-choledochostomy. Four of the other five patients had strictures at bilio-enteric anastomoses, which developed after complications following laparoscopic cholecystectomies and in one after a Whipple procedure for duodenal carcinoma. In eight patients, balloon-expandable stent-grafts were placed and one patient was treated by insertion of a self-expanding stent-graft.
In the transplant group, treatment of patients with bilio-enteric anastomoses was unsuccessful (mean stent duration, 30 days). The patient treated for stenosis in the choledocho-choledochostomy responded well to consecutive self-expanding stent-graft placement (total placement duration, 112 days). All patients with bilio-enteric anastomoses in the non-transplant group were treated successfully with stent-grafts (mean placement duration, 37 days).
Treatment of benign biliary strictures with temporary placement of stent-grafts has a positive effect, but is less successful in patients with strictures developed following a liver transplant.
Biliary anastomotic stricture; Benign stricture; Liver transplant
Internal biliary fistulae are a well-recognized complication of biliary lithiasis. Among these, the cholecystoduodenal fistulae are the commonest while cholecystocolic fistulae (CCF) occur much less frequently. CCF secondary to gallbladder carcinoma is a rare occurrence and has been reported in very few studies. Here, the author reports a case of cholecystocolic fistula secondary to gallbladder carcinoma. Preoperative diagnosis of this condition requires high index of suspicion and is usually difficult. Computed tomography scan is helpful in establishing a preoperative diagnosis.
Cholecystocolic fistula; computed tomography; gallbladder carcinoma
To assess the technical feasibility and local efficacy of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for an intermediate-sized (3-5 cm in diameter) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) under the dual guidance of biplane fluoroscopy and ultrasonography (US).
Materials and Methods
Patients with intermediate-sized HCCs were treated with percutaneous RFA combined with TACE. RFA was performed under the dual guidance of biplane fluoroscopy and US within 14 days after TACE. We evaluated the rate of major complications on immediate post-RFA CT images. Primary technique effectiveness rate was determined on one month follow-up CT images. The cumulative rate of local tumor progression was estimated with the use of Kaplan-Meier method.
Twenty-one consecutive patients with 21 HCCs (mean size: 3.6 cm; range: 3-4.5 cm) were included. After TACE (mean: 6.7 d; range: 1-14 d), 20 (95.2%) of 21 HCCs were visible on fluoroscopy and were ablated under dual guidance of biplane fluoroscopy and US. The other HCC that was poorly visible by fluoroscopy was ablated under US guidance alone. Major complications were observed in only one patient (pneumothorax). Primary technique effectiveness was achieved for all 21 HCCs in a single RFA session. Cumulative rates of local tumor progression were estimated as 9.5% and 19.0% at one and three years, respectively.
RFA combined with TACE under dual guidance of biplane fluoroscopy and US is technically feasible and effective for intermediate-sized HCC treatment.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Radiofrequency ablation; Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization; Fluoroscopy; Ultrasonography
AIM: To clarify the role of surgical resection for multiple hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) compared to transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and liver transplantation (LT).
METHODS: Among the HCC patients who were managed at Yonsei University Health System between January 2003 and December 2008, 160 patients who met the following criteria were retrospectively enrolled: (1) two or three radiologically diagnosed HCCs; (2) no radiologic vascular invasion; (3) Child-Pugh class A; (4) main tumor smaller than 5 cm in diameter; and (5) platelet count greater than 50 000/mm3. Long-term outcomes were compared among the following three treatment modalities: surgical resection or combined radiofrequency ablation (RFA) (n = 36), TACE (n = 107), and LT (n = 17). The survival curves were computed using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with a log-rank test. To identify the patients who gained a survival benefit from surgical resection, we also investigated prognostic factors for survival following surgical resection. Multivariate analyses of the prognostic factors for survival were performed using the Cox proportional hazard model.
RESULTS: The overall survival (OS) rate was significantly higher in the surgical resection group than in the TACE group (48.1% vs 28.9% at 5 years, P < 0.005). LT had the best OS rate, which was better than that of the surgical resection group, although the difference was not statistically significant (80.2% vs 48.1% at 5 years, P = 0.447). The disease-free survival rates were also significantly higher in the LT group than in the surgical resection group (88.2% vs 11.2% at 5 years, P < 0.001). Liver cirrhosis was the only significant prognostic factor for poor OS after surgical resection. Clinical liver cirrhosis rates were 55.6% (20/36) in the resection group and 93.5% (100/107) in the TACE group. There were 19 major and 17 minor resections. En bloc resection was performed in 23 patients, multi-site resection was performed in 5 patients, and combined resection with RFA was performed in 8 patients. In the TACE group, only 34 patients (31.8%) were recorded as having complete remission after primary TACE. Seventy-two patients (67.3%) were retreated with repeated TACE combined with other therapies. In patients who underwent surgical resection, the 16 patients who did not have cirrhosis had higher 5-year OS and disease-free survival rates than the 20 patients who had cirrhosis (80.8% vs 25.5% 5-year OS rate, P = 0.006; 22.2% vs 0% 5-year disease-free survival rate, P = 0.048). Surgical resection in the 20 patients who had cirrhosis did not provide any survival benefit when compared with TACE (25.5% vs 24.7% 5-year OS rate, P = 0.225). Twenty-nine of the 36 patients who underwent surgical resection experienced recurrence. Of the patients with cirrhosis, 80% (16/20) were within the Milan criteria at the time of recurrence after resection.
CONCLUSION: Among patients with two or three HCCs, no radiologic vascular invasion, and tumor diameters ≤ 5 cm, surgical resection is recommended only in those without cirrhosis.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Hepatectomy; Liver transplantation; Chemoembolization; Cirrhosis
An inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is an uncommon, benign lesion characterized by the mesenchymal proliferation and infiltration of inflammatory cells composed primarily of lymphocytes and plasma cells. A percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an effective and safe therapeutic modality used for the management of liver malignancies. Here we report, for the first time, a case of IMT as a complication of RFA for hepatocellular carcinoma in a 61-year-old man with a Child's class A hepatitis B-related liver cirrhosis. Gastrohepatic fistula formation was pathologically proven and associated with the RFA. Such a longstanding inflammation of the fistula might have been a possible cause of the development of IMT in this case.
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor; Radiofrequency ablation, complication
Most cholecystocutaneous fistulas are postoperative complications of liver and biliary tract surgery or trauma. External biliary fistulas rarely occur spontaneously as a result of intrahepatic abscess (pyogenic or parasitic), necrosis or perforation of the gallbladder, or other inflammatory process involving the biliary tree. A cholecystocutaneous fistula as a presentation of an underlying cancer arising from the gall bladder is an extremely uncommon finding. Over the past 50 years fewer than 20 cases of spontaneous cholecystocutaneous fistulas have been described in the medical literature but so far there has been no published report of a cholecystocutaneous fistula arising from adenocarcinoma of gall bladder. We here report a case of a patient presenting with spontaneous cholecystocutaneous fistula from cancer of gall bladder.
Cholecystocutaneous fistula; Gall bladder adenocarcinoma; Chemotherapy
Experiences with seven cases of gallbladder perforation managed in Kingston, Jamaica, at the District of Columbia General Hospital, and other Howard University affiliated hospitals are presented. The results of a review of 197 consecutive biliary operations at DC General Hospital for occurrence of this entity are presented.
Gallbladder perforation is a complication of cholecystitis in 1 to 4 percent of cases. Niemeier1 classified this complication in three types in 1934, and currently these are described as type 1—free perforation, type 2—perforation with abscess, and type 3—chronic perforation with cholecysto-enteric fistula.
The gallbladder may, in extremely unusual occurrences, perforate into the biliary tree itself with significant operative implications, and therefore Niemeier's classification can be modified to include cholecystobiliary fistuale formation as type 4. Seven case reports manifesting all four types of perforation are presented, representing the spectrum of current treatment and diagnostic options.
The purpose of this study was to assess the technical feasibility and local efficacy of biplane fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Our retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board and informed consent was waived. 18 patients with 19 HCCs (mean 2.5 cm diameter; range 2–4.2 cm) were treated with percutaneous RF ablation combined with TACE. After segmental TACE, 18 (95%) of 19 HCCs were visible on fluoroscopy. Shortly (median 2 days; range 1–4 days) after TACE, percutaneous RF ablation was performed under real-time biplane fluoroscopic guidance. We evaluated major complications, rate of technical success at immediate post-RF ablation CT images and local tumour progression at follow-up CT images.
Major complication was not observed in any patients. Technical success was achieved for all 18 visible HCCs. During the follow-up period (median 20 months; range 5–30 months), no local tumour progression was found.
Biplane fluoroscopy-guided RF ablation combined with TACE is technically feasible and effective for treatment of HCC.
We retrospectively evaluated the effect of transpulmonary radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of liver tumours on the lung.
16 patients (10 males and 6 females; mean age, 65.2 years) with 16 liver tumours (mean diameter 1.5 cm) underwent transpulmonary RFA under CT fluoroscopic guidance. The tumours were either hepatocellular carcinoma (n=14) or liver metastasis (n=12). All 16 liver tumours were undetectable with ultrasonography. The pulmonary function values at 3 months after transpulmonary RFA were compared with baseline (i.e. values before RFA).
In 8 of 16 sessions, minor pulmonary complications occurred, including small pneumothorax (n=8) and small pleural effusion (n=1). In two sessions, major pulmonary complications occurred, including pneumothorax requiring a chest tube (n=2). These chest tubes were removed at 4 and 6 days, and these patients were discharged 7 and 10 days after RFA, respectively, without any sequelae. The pulmonary function values we evaluated were forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0) and vital capacity (VC). The mean values of FEV1.0 before and 3 months after RFA were 2.55 l and 2.59 l, respectively; the mean values of VC before and 3 months after RFA were 3.20 l and 3.27 l, respectively. These pulmonary values did not show any significant worsening (p=0.393 and 0.255 for FEV1.0 and VC, respectively).
There was no significant lung injury causing a fatal or intractable complication after transpulmonary RFA of liver tumours.
Background and aims: Percutaneous tumour ablation (PTA), such as ethanol injection and radiofrequency ablation, is now recognised as a primary treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although PTA is a relatively safe procedure, it can cause biliary obstruction as a rare complication. As patients with cirrhosis undergoing surgery or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography/sphincterotomy have a high mortality rate from bleeding, we adopted the use of endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation (EPBD) in these patients and now report the results. We retrospectively analysed the incidence of biliary obstruction after PTA and the efficacy of treatment with EPBD.
Patients and methods: A total of 1043 patients with HCC were treated by PTA, of whom 538 were treated with transarterial embolisation with up to eight years of follow up.
Results: There were 17 (1.6%) cases of hilar obstruction due to tumour progression and 35 (3.4%) cases of extrahepatic obstruction. Apart from the expected causes of biliary obstruction (haemobilia n = 11, gallstones n = 11, and three miscellaneous causes), we found that 10 patients had obstruction due to biliary casts. This is the first description of biliary casts after percutaneous tumour ablation therapy. Extrahepatic biliary obstruction by procedure related haemobilia occurred within three days of PTA while other causes occurred between 0 and 17 (average 4.9) months. Biliary casts occurred more frequently after ethanol injection than after radiofrequency ablation. EPBD successfully dissipated biliary obstruction in 33 of 35 cases, while two died due to hepatic failure despite successful drainage.
Conclusions: Extrahepatic biliary obstruction is an uncommon complication after PTA for HCC, and can be safely and effectively treated with EPBD, despite impaired liver function.
biliary cast; haemobilia; choledocholithiasis; endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation; percutaneous ethanol injection therapy
Current options for the treatment of the early-stage HCC conforming to the Milan criteria consist of liver transplantation, hepatic resection (HR), transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) .Whether HR or RFA is the better treatment for early HCC has long been debated. The aim of our paper is to compare the therapeutic effects of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and hepatic resection (HR) in the treatment of early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Controlled trials evaluating the efficacy between RFA and HR for the treatment of early-stage HCC published before June 2013 were searched electronically using MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE databases. Using inclusion and exclusion criteria, two randomized controlled trials and 10 nonrandomized controlled trials were included in the meta- analysis. The results showed that the 3,5-year overall survival rates and 1,3,5 disease-free survival rates were significantly lower after RFA than after HR. However, complications after treatment were less common and the length of hospital stay was significantly shorter after RFA. Additionally, there was no significant difference in the 1-year overall survival rate between RFA and HR. The conclusions of the results show that the difference in the short-term effectiveness of RFA and HR in the treatment of small HCC is not notable, but the long-term efficacy of HR is better than that of RFA. However, HR is associated with more complications and a longer hospital stay.
Radiofrequency ablation; Hepatic resection; Early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma; Meta-analysis
Over the past decade, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has evolved into an important therapeutical tool for the treatment of non resectable primary and secondary liver tumors. The clinical benefit of RFA is represented in several clinical studies. They underline the safety and feasibility of this new and modern concept in treating liver tumors. RFA has proven its clinical impact not only in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but also in metastatic disease such as colorectal cancer (CRC). Due to the increasing number of HCC and CRC, RFA might play an even more important role in the future. Therefore, the refinement of RFA technology is as important as the evaluation of data of prospective randomized trials that will help define guidelines for good clinical practice in RFA application in the future. The combination of hepatic resection and RFA extends the feasibility of open surgical procedures in patients with extensive tumors. Adverse effects of RFA such as biliary tract damage, liver failure and local recurrence remain an important task today but overall the long term results of RFA application in treating liver tumors are promising. Incomplete ablation of liver tumors due to insufficient technology of ablation needles, tissue cooling by the neighbouring blood vessels, large tumor masses and ablation of tumors in close vicinity to heat sensitive organs remain difficult tasks for RFA. Future solutions to overcome these limitations of RFA will include refinement of ultrasonographic guidance (accuracy of probe placement), improvements in needle technology (e.g. needles preventing charring) and intraductal cooling techniques.
Radiofrequency ablation; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Thermoablation; Colorectal cancer; Liver metastases
We report 210 cases of external biliary fistula treated in our clinics between 1970–1992. In 7 cases, fistulas were formed after iatrogenic bile duct injury, in 4 cases after exploration of common bile duct, in 4 cases due to disruption of biliary-intestinal anastomosis, and in 2 cases due to liver trauma. In 85 cases bile leak was observed after cholecystomy, in 103 cases after hydatid disease surgery, and in 4 cases after the passage of P.T.C. catheter. In one patient the appearance of the fistula was due to spontaneous discharge of a gallbladder empyema. 173 cases were managed conservatively, and 37 cases surgically.
AIM: To assess the technical safety and efficacy of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with immediate radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for large hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) (maximum diameter ≥ 5 cm).
METHODS: Individual lesions in 18 patients with HCCs (mean maximum diameter: 7.5 cm; range: 5.1-15.5 cm) were treated by TACE combined with percutaneous RFA between January 2010 and June 2012. All of the patients had previously undergone one to four cycles of TACE treatment. Regular imaging and laboratory tests were performed to evaluate the rate of technical success, technique-related complications, local-regional tumor responses, recurrence-free survival time and survival rate after treatment.
RESULTS: Technical success was achieved for all 18 visible HCCs. Complete response (CR) was observed in 17 cases, and partial response was observed in 1 case 1 mo after intervention. The CR rate was 94.4%. Local tumors were mainly characterized by coagulative necrosis. During follow-up (2-29 mo), the mean recurrence-free survival time was 16.8 ± 4.0 mo in 17 cases of CR. The estimated overall survival rate at 6, 12, and 18 mo was 100%. No major complications were observed. Levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the blood of 17 patients transiently increased on the third day after treatment (ALT 200.4 ± 63.4 U/L vs 24.7 ± 9.3 U/L, P < 0.05; AST 228.1 ± 25.4 U/L vs 32.7 ± 6.8 U/L, P < 0.05). Severe pain occurred in three patients, which was controlled with morphine and fentanyl.
CONCLUSION: TACE combined with immediate RFA is a safe and effective treatment for large solitary HCCs. Severe pain is a major side effect, but can be controlled by morphine.
Large hepatocellular carcinoma; Transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation; Radiofrequency ablation; Combination therapy; Synchronism