The objectives of this study were to survey the radiographic exposure parameters, to measure the patient doses for intraoral dental radiography nationwide, and thus to establish the diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in intraoral dental X-ray examination in Korea.
Materials and Methods
One hundred two intraoral dental radiographic machines from all regions of South Korea were selected for this study. Radiographic exposure parameters, size of hospital, type of image receptor system, installation duration of machine, and type of dental X-ray machine were documented. Patient entrance doses (PED) and dose-area products (DAP) were measured three times at the end of the exit cone of the X-ray unit with a DAP meter (DIAMENTOR M4-KDK, PTW, Freiburg, Germany) for adult mandibular molar intraoral dental radiography, and corrections were made for room temperature and pressure. Measured PED and DAP were averaged and compared according to the size of hospital, type of image receptor system, installation duration, and type of dental X-ray machine.
The mean exposure parameters were 62.6 kVp, 7.9 mA, and 0.5 second for adult mandibular molar intraoral dental radiography. The mean patient dose was 2.11 mGy (PED) and 59.4 mGycm2 (DAP) and the third quartile one 3.07 mGy (PED) and 87.4 mGycm2 (DAP). Doses at university dental hospitals were lower than those at dental clinics (p<0.05). Doses of digital radiography (DR) type were lower than those of film-based type (p<0.05).
We recommend 3.1 mGy (PED), 87.4 mGycm2 (DAP) as the DRLs in adult mandibular molar intraoral dental radiography in Korea.
Radiation Protection; Radiation Dosage; Radiography, Dental
With the increase of X-ray use for medical diagnostic purposes, knowing the given doses is necessary in patients for comparison with reference levels. The concept of reference doses or diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) has been developed as a practical aid in the optimization of patient protection in diagnostic radiology.
To assess the radiation doses to neonates from diagnostic radiography (chest and abdomen). This study has been carried out in the neonatal intensive care unit of a province in Iran.
Patients and Methods
Entrance surface dose (ESD) was measured directly with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The population included 195 neonates admitted for a diagnostic radiography, in eight NICUs of different hospital types.
The mean ESD for chest and abdomen examinations were 76.3 µGy and 61.5 µGy, respectively. DRLs for neonate in NICUs of the province were 88 µGy for chest and 98 µGy for abdomen examinations that were slightly higher than other studies. Risk of death due to radiation cancer incidence of abdomens examination was equal to 1.88 × 10 -6 for male and 4.43 × 10 -6 for female. For chest X-ray, it was equal to 2.54 × 10 -6 for male and 1.17 × 10 -5 for female patients.
DRLs for neonates in our province were slightly higher than values reported by other studies such as European national diagnostic reference levels and the NRPB reference dose. The main reason was related to using a high mAs and a low kVp applied in most departments and also a low focus film distance (FFD). Probably lack of collimation also affected some exams in the NICUs.
Intensive Care Units; Neonatal; Radiation Dosimetry
CT is a valuable tool in diagnostic radiology but it is also associated with higher patient radiation doses compared with planar radiography. The aim of this article is to review patient dose for the most common types of CT examinations reported during the past 19 years.
Reported dosimetric quantities were compared with the European diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). Effective doses were assessed with respect to the publication year and scanner technology (i.e. single-slice vs multislice).
Considerable variation of reported values among studies was attributed to variations in both examination protocol and scanner design. Median weighted CT dose index (CTDIw) and dose length product (DLP) are below the proposed DRLs; however, for individual studies the DRLs are exceeded. Median reported effective doses for the most frequent CT examinations were: head, 1.9 mSv (0.3–8.2 mSv); chest, 7.5 mSv (0.3–26.0 mSv); abdomen, 7.9 mSv (1.4–31.2 mSv); and pelvis, 7.6 mSv (2.5–36.5 mSv).
The introduction of mechanisms for dose reduction resulted in significantly lower patient effective doses for CT examinations of the head, chest and abdomen reported by studies published after 1995. Owing to the limited number of studies reporting patient doses for multislice CT examinations the statistical power to detect differences with single-slice scanners is not yet adequate.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate DNA damage (micronucleus) and cellular death (pyknosis, karyolysis and karyorrhexis) in exfoliated buccal mucosa cells from individuals following radiography.
Lateral and frontal cephalometric X-ray and panoramic dental X-rays were taken of a total of 18 healthy patients (6 male and 12 female) referred for orthodontic therapy. Exfoliated oral mucosa cells were collected immediately before X-ray exposure and after 10 days.
The results revealed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) in the frequency micronucleated oral mucosa cells after X-ray exposure. However, X-ray was able to increase other nuclear alterations closely related to cytotoxicity, such as karyorrhexis, pyknosis and karyolysis.
Data indicated that exposure to certain radiography may not be a factor in inducing chromosomal damage, but it does promote cytotoxicity.
buccal mucosa cells; radiographic documentation; micronucleus test
Different target-filter combinations in computed radiography have different impacts on the dose and image quality in digital radiography. This study aims to evaluate the mean glandular dose (MGD) and modulation transfer function (MTF) of various target-filter combinations by investigating the signal intensities of X-ray beams.
General Electric (GE) Senographe DMR Plus mammography unit was used for MGD and MTF evaluation. The measured MGD was compared with the dose reference level (DRL), whereas the MTF was evaluated using ImageJ 1.46o software. A modified Mammography Accreditation Phantom RMI 156 was exposed using different target-filter combinations of molybdenum-molybdenum (Mo-Mo), molybdenum-rhodium (Mo-Rh) and rhodium-rhodium (Rh-Rh) at two different tube voltages, 26 kV and 32 kV with 50 mAs.
In the MGD evaluations, all target-filters gave an MGD value of < 1.5 mGy. The one-way ANOVA test showed a highly significant interaction between the MGD and the kilovoltage and target-filter material used (26 kV: F (2,12) = 49,234, P = 0.001;32 kV: F (2,12) = 89,972, P = 0.001). A Tukey post-hoc test revealed that the MGD for 26 kV and 32 kV was highly affected by the target-filter combinations. The test of homogeneity of variances indicates that the MGD varies significantly for 26 kV and 32 kV images (0.045 and 0.030 (P < 0.05), respectively). However, the one-way ANOVA for the MTF shows that no significant difference exists between the target-filter combinations used with 26 kV and 32 kV images either in parallel or perpendicular to the chest wall side F (2,189) = 0.26, P > 0.05).
Higher tube voltage and atomic number target-filter yield higher MGD values. However, the MTF is independent of the X-ray energy and the type of target-filter combinations used.
mean glandular dose (MGD); modulation transfer function (MTF); computed radiography; spatial resolution; image processing
The science of cephalometry has been invaluable for guiding orthodontic diagnosis, treatment planning, and outcomes tracking. Though software packages easily calculate most cephalometric measurements, the ability to exchange cephalometric data between software packages is poorly developed. Hindering this effort is the lack of an agreed-upon standard for electronic exchange of cephalometric measurements. Unlike more technological issues, the problem of creating such a standard is one of formalizing decisions already established through historical precedent. Solving this problem will require education, cooperation, and consensus in order to reap the potential improvements to patient care, dental education, and research. The first step in overcoming these remaining issues is awareness. This article reviews those factors that place cephalometric measurements in an excellent position for standardization, outlines those decisions that must be made in order to realize the goal of electronic exchange of cephalometric information, and describes some of the options for these decisions as well as some advantages and disadvantages of each.
cephalometry; dental informatics; information science; information systems; medical informatics; terminology; controlled vocabulary
The purpose of this review is to evaluate the possibility of panoramic radiography as a national oral examination tool.
Materials and Methods
This report was carried out by review of the literatures.
Panoramic radiography has sufficient diagnostic accuracy in dental caries, periodontal diseases, and other lesions. Also, the effective dose of panoramic radiography is lower than traditional full-mouth periapical radiography.
Panoramic radiography will improve the efficacy of dental examination in national oral examination. However, more studies are required to evaluate the benefit, financial cost, and operation time and also to make selection criteria and quality management program.
Radiography, Panoramic; Mass Screening; Outcome and Process Assessment; Radiation Dosage
To propose Irish CT diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) by collecting radiation doses for the most commonly performed CT examinations.
A pilot study investigated the most frequent CT examinations. 40 CT sites were then asked to complete a survey booklet to allow the recording of CT parameters for each of 9 CT examinations during a 12-week period. Dose data [CT volume index (CTDIvol) and dose–length product (DLP)] on a minimum of 10 average-sized patients in each category were recorded to calculate a mean site CTDIvol and DLP value. The rounded 75th percentile was used to calculate a DRL for each site and the country by compiling all results. Results are compared with international DRL data.
Data were collected for 3305 patients. 30 sites responded with data for 34 scanners, representing 54% of the national total. All equipment had multislice capability (2–128 slices). DRLs are proposed using CTDIvol (mGy) and DLP (mGy cm) for CT head (66/58 and 940, respectively), sinuses (16 and 210, respectively), cervical spine (19 and 420, respectively), thorax (9/11 and 390, respectively), high resolution CT (7 and 280, respectively), CT pulmonary angiography (13 and 430, respectively), multiphase abdomen (13 and 1120, respectively), routine abdomen/pelvis (12 and 600, respectively) and trunk examinations (10/12 and 850, respectively). These values are lower than current DRLs and comparable to other international studies. Wide variations in mean doses are noted across sites.
Baseline figures for Irish CT DRLs are provided on the most frequently performed CT examinations. The variations in dose between CT departments as well as between identical scanners suggest a large potential for optimisation of examinations.
Factors that may reduce the dose of radiation, from diagnostic and therapeutic x-ray procedures, to the patient and to the occupational and non-occupational worker are outlined. Suitable basic radiation measuring apparatus is described. It is recommended that, in diagnostic radiography, relatively high kilovoltage, proper cones, collimation and adequate filtration be used. Some specific recommendations are made concerning fluoroscopic, photoroentgen and portable x-ray examinations. Film monitoring of personnel is advisable. Examples are given of protective devices to lessen the dosage to the occupational worker. It is the responsibility of the radiologist or physician in charge to ensure that the x-ray equipment is safe to operate and the radiation dose to the patient is kept to a minimum. The roentgen output for all radiographic examinations should be known by the responsible user.
The present study was aimed at development of the cephalometric norms for orthognathic surgery for the population of eastern Uttar Pradesh in North India. Settings and design: This study was conducted at a dental college.
Materials and Methods:
The study sample consisted of 50 males and 50 females. Each lateral cephalogram was taken in occlusion and subsequently traced. All reference points, landmarks, and measurements were made according to cephalometrics for orthognathic surgery (COGS) system.
Statistical analysis used:
The statistical analysis involved calculation of mean and standard deviation for each of the 23 parameters assessed for each subject. The data was subsequently compared with COGS study by using Normal (Z) test.
The norms were derived for the purvanchal population of North India and these were found to be quite distinct compared to those obtained from COGS study with respect to specific parameters.
Male subjects indicated greater prominence of chin relative to the face, decreased posterior divergence, infraeruption of upper and lower molar as well as lower incisors, decreased total effective length of the maxilla, tendency towards Class III occlusion, and procumbent lower incisors. Female subjects, however, indicated increased anterior cranial base length, greater prominence of chin relative to the face, prognathic maxilla and mandible, increased middle third facial height, infraerupted lower incisors, increased mandibular body length, and procumbent lower incisors.
Cephalometric norms; COGS System; North India; purvanchal
Daytime running lights (DRLs) are a safety feature intended to reduce crashes by increasing the contrast between vehicles and the background.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an association between vehicles in the USA being equipped with DRLs and crash rates.
This was a retrospective study using the Minnesota Department of Transportation (MNDOT) Crash Database from 1995 to 2002. Crash reports included in the analyses were limited to accidents involving vehicles 1995 or newer (DRLs not available on prior models) and limited to ideal conditions: (1) daylight, (2) optimal visibility, and (3) dry road surface. The vehicle identification number (VIN) was used to determine the make, model, and year. This information was cross-referenced with a National Highway Traffic Safety Administration table of manufacturer listed DRL conditions to determine vehicle DRL status. Crude crash rates for vehicles were calculated relative to the number of all registered vehicles in Minnesota in 2004, for models 1995–2002. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (CI) for the rates were constructed assuming a Poisson error distribution.
During 1995–2002, there were 184,637 vehicles (1995 or newer) with identifiable VINs involved in accidents which occurred under the specified test conditions. Of these vehicles, 37,909 were determined to have standard DRLs and 146,728 were determined to be models without DRLs (including those listed as DRL optional). The crash rate among vehicles without standard DRLs was 1.73 (95% CI: 1.71–1.75) times higher than the rate for vehicles with standard DRLs. The rate ratio was also significant for fatal vehicle crash rates 1.48 (95% CI: 1.23–1.76).
Minnesota vehicles equipped with DRLs were associated with a statistically significant lower crash rate compared to vehicles without DRLs from 1995 to 2002.
Daytime running lights; Crashes; Motor vehicle accidents; Headlights; Automobile
The aim of this study was to assess general dental practitioners' knowledge of dental radiography and radiation protection in order to alert the Belgian authorities and dental professional societies. Prior to attending a postgraduate course on intraoral radiology, general dental practitioners in Flanders, Belgium, were asked to fill in a questionnaire regarding the radiological equipment and the techniques they used for intraoral radiography. The availability and type of dental panoramic equipment were also assessed. A total of 374 questionnaires were available for this study. 15% of the attendants used radiographic equipment that was more than 27 years old and 43% reported equipment that operated with a clockwork timer. 32% and 75% respectively had no idea what the kV or mA settings were on their intraoral equipment. 5% were unaware which cone geometry or geometric technique (paralleling or bisecting angle technique) they were using. 81% claimed to be using a short cone technique. 47% did not know what collimation meant, whereas 40% stated that they were using circular collimation. 38% used digital intraoral image detectors (63% were photostimulable storage phosphorplate (PSPP)), but 16% were not sure about the type of sensor they were using (PSPP or solid-state sensors). 61% also had dental panoramic equipment available, 25% of which was digital (10% charge coupled device (CCD) and 15% PSPP). These results clearly indicate the need for continued education on this subject. The latter is an important signal to Belgian authorities and dental professional societies.
general practitioners; knowledge; radiology; radiation protection
Orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning require careful evaluation of the patient’s cephalometric values and comparison to known population cephalometric means or norms. Despite the availability of several published studies on Saudi cephalometric norms, Caucasian norms are still referred to when Saudi patients are treated. To reach a consensus between these studies and to establish more accurately cephalometric norms for Saudis, a meta-analysis of the relevant literature was performed. Electronic database (PubMed), Saudi Dental Journal and Master theses were searched for studies reporting cephalometric values of normal male and female Saudi adults with numerical data and 8 studies with a total sample size of 485 met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis with results from these studies was completed. The combined mean estimates and SD of common cephalometric measurements were calculated. The data included in this comprehensive meta-analysis were compared with Caucasian norms and results indicated that Saudis have distinct cephalometric features. Saudis tend to have slightly more convex profiles and more proclined incisors than the Caucasians. These findings confirm the previously published results and should serve as more accurate reference values that were drawn from a large sample size.
Cephalometric; Norms; Meta-analysis; Saudi
The quantitative aspects of radiation doses to critical organs can help the dental professionals to take the necessary radiation protective measures as deemed necessary and can help the general public to allay radiation exposure fear in dental radiography, if any. Our study determines the surface radiation dose to thyroid and gonads in full-mouth intraoral periapical (IOPA) and maxillary occlusal radiography.
Materials and Methods:
A total number of 120 subjects participated in the study. The surface radiation dose was estimated to the thyroid gland and the gonads in full-mouth IOPA radiography using 10 IOPA (E speed films) and in maxillary occlusal radiography. The measurements were calculated using a digital pocket dosimeter (PD-4507).
The average dose at the thyroid gland level during full-mouth intraoral and maxillary occlusal radiography was estimated to be 10.93 mRads (1.093 × 10-2 mGy) and 0.4 mRads (4.0 × 10-2 mGy), respectively. The average surface radiation dose at the gonadal region during a full mouth intraoral and maxillary occlusal radiography was estimated to be 1.5 mRads (1.5 × 10-2 mGy) and 0.15 mRads (1.5 × 10-3 mGy), respectively.
Our results suggest that although the radiation exposure doses to critical organs namely thyroid and gonads is within the safe limits still precautionary measures for these organs are advocated.
Gonads; intraoral radiography; radiation dose; thyroid
Several efforts have been made to completely automate cephalometric analysis by automatic landmark search. However, accuracy obtained was worse than manual identification in every study. The analogue-to-digital conversion of X-ray has been claimed to be the main problem. Therefore the aim of this investigation was to evaluate the accuracy of the Cellular Neural Networks approach for automatic location of cephalometric landmarks on softcopy of direct digital cephalometric X-rays. Forty-one, direct-digital lateral cephalometric radiographs were obtained by a Siemens Orthophos DS Ceph and were used in this study and 10 landmarks (N, A Point, Ba, Po, Pt, B Point, Pg, PM, UIE, LIE) were the object of automatic landmark identification. The mean errors and standard deviations from the best estimate of cephalometric points were calculated for each landmark. Differences in the mean errors of automatic and manual landmarking were compared with a 1-way analysis of variance. The analyses indicated that the differences were very small, and they were found at most within 0.59 mm. Furthermore, only few of these differences were statistically significant, but differences were so small to be in most instances clinically meaningless. Therefore the use of X-ray files with respect to scanned X-ray improved landmark accuracy of automatic detection. Investigations on softcopy of digital cephalometric X-rays, to search more landmarks in order to enable a complete automatic cephalometric analysis, are strongly encouraged.
The diagnosis of caries lesions is still a matter of concern in dentistry. The diagnosis of dental caries by digital radiography has a number of advantages over conventional radiography; however, this method has not been explored fully in the field of paediatric dentistry. This in vitro research evaluated the accuracy of direct digital radiography compared with visual inspection and conventional radiography in the diagnosis of occlusal caries lesions in primary molars.
50 molars were selected and evaluated under standardized conditions by 2 previously calibrated examiners according to 3 diagnostic methods (visual inspection, conventional radiography and direct digital radiography). Direct digital radiographs were obtained with the Dixi3 system (Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland) and the conventional radiographs with InSight film (Kodak Eastman Co., Rochester, NY). The images were scored and a reference standard was obtained histologically. The interexaminer reliability was calculated using Cohen's kappa test and the specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of the methods were calculated.
Examiner reliability was good. For lesions limited to the enamel, visual inspection showed significantly higher sensitivity and accuracy than both radiographic methods, but no significant difference was found in specificity. For teeth with dentinal caries, no significant differences were found for any parameter when comparing visual and radiographic evaluation.
Although less accurate than the visual method for detecting caries lesions confined to the enamel, the direct digital radiographic method is as effective as conventional radiographic examination and visual inspection of primary teeth with occlusal caries when the dentine is involved.
direct digital radiography; conventional radiography; dental caries; primary teeth
The surface doses to patients during chest, abdomen and pelvis radiography were measured over a period of 3 years, during which time computed radiography (CR) and digital radiography (DR) systems were introduced to replace film–screen systems. For film–screen and CR the surface doses were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters. For DR the surface doses were calculated from the dose–area product (DAP) meter readings. Measurements were made for each type of examination and detector type on 10 average-size patients. Measurements were made immediately after the new systems were introduced, and subsequently as adjustments were made to optimize dose and image quality. Published diagnostic reference levels were used as target values in this optimization. Initially, CR doses were the same as or higher than for film–screen, and the doses were lower for DR compared to film–screen. Subsequent clinical experience with the systems led to changes in the technique used for chest examinations both for CR and for DR. For CR, it was possible to change the algorithm and decrease the dose to one quarter of the initial value with acceptable image quality. For DR, it was decided to reduce noise by increasing the dose by a factor of two. No changes were made to abdomen or pelvic imaging techniques for either CR or DR. The final patient surface doses using CR were similar to published diagnostic reference doses; for DR, all patient doses were less than published reference levels.
Computed radiography; digital radiography; optimization; patient dose
To determine cephalometrically the mechanism of the treatment effects of non-extraction and multiloop edgewise archwire (MEAW) technique on postpeak Class II Division 1 patients.
In this retrospective study, 16 postpeak Class II Division 1 patients successfully corrected using a non-extraction and MEAW technique were cephalometrically evaluated and compared with 16 matched control subjects treated using an extraction technique. Using CorelDRAW® software, standardized digital cephalograms pre- and post-active treatments were traced and a reference grid was set up. The superimpositions were based on the cranial base, the mandibular and the maxilla regions,and skeletal and dental changes were measured. Changes following treatment were evaluated using the paired-sample t-test. Student's t-test for unpaired samples was used to assess the differences in changes between the MEAW and the extraction control groups.
The correction of the molar relationships comprised 54% skeletal change (mainly the advancement of the mandible) and 46% dental change. Correction of the anterior teeth relationships comprised 30% skeletal change and 70% dental change.
The MEAW technique can produce the desired vertical and sagittal movement of the tooth segment and then effectively stimulate mandibular advancement by utilizing the residual growth potential of the condyle.
cephalometry; Class II Division 1 malocclusion; mandibular advancement; multiloop edgewise archwire (MEAW); non-extraction; postpeak stage
The objective of this study was to assess the reliability of three-dimensional (3D) cephalometric approaches by comparing this method with authenticated traditional two-dimensional (2D) cephalometry in angular cephalometric measurements.
CT images and lateral cephalometric radiographs of ten patients (five women, five men) were used in this study. Raw CT data of the patients were converted to 3D images with a 3D simulation program (Mimics 9.0, Leuven, Belgium). Lateral cephalometric radiographs were used manually for 2D measurements. The comparisons of the two methods were made using 14 cephalometric angular measurements. The Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test (α _ 0.05) was used to determine the difference between the two methods. To assess the intra- and interobserver reproducibility, two sets of recordings made by each observer, in each modality were used. Dahlberg's formula was used to determine the intraobserver reproducibility, and the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test (α _ 0.05) was used to assess the interobserver reproducibility.
The method errors of both observers ranged from 0.35° to 0.65°. In addition, there were no significant differences between the measurements of the two observers (P > 0.05). However, comparison of 2D and 3D parameters showed significant differences in U1-NA and U1-SN measurements (P < 0.05).
The 3D angular cephalometric analysis is a fairly reliable method, like the traditional 2D cephalometric analysis. Currently, the 3D system is likely to be more suitable for the diagnosis of cases with complex orthodontic anomalies. However, with the decrease in radiation exposure and costs in the future, 3D cephalometrics can be a suitable alternative method to 2D cephalometry.
cephalometric measurements; computed tomography; three-dimensional cephalometry
A study was carried out to investigate the rationale that use of a thyroid collar (TC) in cephalometric radiography hampers the diagnostic and descriptive quality of lateral cephalogram.
A randomized observer blinded study was designed. The study consisted of two groups. The first group data were retrieved from the oral radiology archival system having lateral cephalogram without a TC. The second group was selected from the oral radiology department of patients where lateral cephalogram was taken using a TC. Lateral cephalogram was taken on direct digital system, the Kodak 9000 unit (Eastman Kodak, Rochester, NY). 2 observers blinded about the aim of the study were appointed to identify 15 sets of landmarks on the lateral cephalogram. Interobserver variance was also analysed for the study.
50 lateral cephalograms in each group were studied. Out of 15 sets of landmarks, 12 were identified consistent with the TC group. Three landmarks, namely the hyoid bone, second cervical vertebra and third cervical vertebra could not be identified on the TC group. There was no significant difference in the interobserver markings on lateral cephalogram.
TCs do mask a few landmarks on the lateral cephalogram. These landmarks are mainly used for analysis of skeletal maturity index (SMI). Lead TCs are probably the most convenient and easily available means to protect the thyroid from unwanted radiation while taking lateral cephalogram. It is therefore encouraged to use a TC during routine cephalometric radiography where SMI information is not needed.
radiation protection; cephalometric radiography; thyroid collar; orthodontics
X-ray exposure should be clinically justified and each exposure should be expected to give patients benefits. Since dental radiographic examination is one of the most frequent radiological procedures, radiation hazard becomes an important public health concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitude of Korean dentists about radiation safety and use of criteria for selecting the frequency and type of radiographic examinations.
Materials and Methods
The study included 267 Korean dentists. Five questions related to radiation safety were asked of each of them. These questions were about factors associated with radiation protection of patients and operators including the use of radiographic selection criteria for intraoral radiographic procedures.
The frequency of prescription of routine radiographic examination (an example is a panoramic radiograph for screening process for occult disease) was 34.1%, while that of selective radiography was 64.0%. Dentists' discussion of radiation risk and benefit with patients was infrequent. More than half of the operators held the image receptor by themselves during intraoral radiographic examinations. Lead apron/thyroid collars for patient protection were used by fewer than 22% of dental offices. Rectangular collimation was utilized by fewer than 15% of dental offices.
The majority of Korean dentists in the study did not practice radiation protection procedures which would be required to minimize exposure to unnecessary radiation for patients and dental professionals. Mandatory continuing professional education in radiation safety and development of Korean radiographic selection criteria is recommended.
Dentists; Attitude; Patient Selection; Radiography
Prior to the introduction of the 2006 NHS dental contract in England and Wales, general dental practitioners (GDPs) were responsible for the provision of out-of-hours (OOH) emergency dental services (EDS); however there was great national variation in service provision. Under the contractual arrangements introduced 1st April 2006, local commissioning agencies became formally responsible for the provision of out-of-hours emergency dental services. This study aimed to examine patients' use of an out-of-hours emergency dental service and to determine whether the introduction of the 2006 national NHS dental contract had resulted in a change in service use, with a view to informing future planning and commissioning of care.
A questionnaire was administered to people attending the out-of-hours emergency dental service at two inner city London hospitals over two time periods; four weeks before and six months after the introduction of the dental contract in April 2006. The questionnaire explored: reasons for attending; dental registration status and attendance; method of access; knowledge and use of NHS Direct; satisfaction with the service; future preferences for access and use of out-of-hours dental services. Data were compared to determine any impact of the new contract on how and why people accessed the emergency dental service.
The response rate was 73% of attendees with 981 respondents for the first time period and 546 for the second. There were no significant differences between the two time periods in the gender, age, ethnic distribution or main language of service users accessing the service. Overall, the main dental problem was toothache (72%) and the main reason for choosing this service was due to the inability to access another emergency dental service (42%). Significantly fewer service users attended the out-of-hours emergency dental service during the second period because they could not get an appointment with their own dentist (p = 0.002 from 28% to 20%) and significantly more service users in the second period felt the emergency dental service was easier to get to than their own dentist (P = 0.003 from 8% to 14%). Service users found out about the service from multiple sources, of which family and friends were the most common source (30%). In the second period fewer service users were obtaining information about the service from dental receptionists (P = 0.002 from 14% to 9%) and increased use of NHS Direct for a dental problem was reported (P = 0.002 from 16% to 22%) along with more service users being referred to the service by NHS Direct (P = 0.02 from 19% to 24%). The most common preference for future emergency dental care was face-to-face with a dentist (79%).
This study has provided an insight into how and why people use an out-of-hours emergency dental service and has helped to guide future commissioning of these services. Overall, the service was being used in much the same way both before and after the 2006 dental contract. Significantly more use was being made of NHS Direct after April 2006; however, informal information networks such as friends and family remain an important source of information about accessing emergency dental services.
BACKGROUND: Lumbar spine radiography has limited use in diagnosing the cause of acute low back pain. Consensus-based guidelines recommend that lumbar spine x-rays are not used routinely. However there have been no studies of the effect of referral for radiography at first presentation with low back pain in primary care. AIM: To compare short and long-term physical, social, and psychiatric outcomes for patients with low back pain who are referred or not referred for lumbar spine x-ray at first presentation in general practice. DESIGN OF STUDY: A randomised unblinded controlled trial with an observational arm to enable comparisons to be made with patients not recruited to the trial. SETTING: Ninety-four general practices in south London and the South Thames region. METHOD: Patients consulting their general practitioner (GP) with low back pain at first presentation were recruited to a randomised controlled trial (RCT) or to an observational group. Patients in the trial were randomly allocated to immediate referral for x-ray or to no referral. All patients were asked to complete questionnaires initially, and then at six weeks and one year after recruitment. RESULTS: Six hundred and fifty-nine patients were recruited over 26 months: 153 to the randomised trial and 506 to the observational arm. In the RCT referral for x-ray had no effect on physical functioning, pain or disability, but was associated with a small improvement in psychological wellbeing at six weeks and one year. These findings were supported by the observational study in which there were no differences between the groups in physical outcomes after adjusting for length of episode at presentation; however, those referred for x-ray had lower depression scores. CONCLUSIONS: Referral for lumbar spine radiography for first presentation of low back pain in primary care is not associated with improved physical functioning, pain or disability. The possibility of minor psychological improvement should be balanced against the high radiation dose involved.
This cross-sectional study was performed in the Dental School of Prince of Songkla University to ascertain noise exposure of dentists, dental assistants, and laboratory technicians. A noise spectral analysis was taken to illustrate the spectra of dental devices.
A noise evaluation was performed to measure the noise level at dental clinics and one dental laboratory from May to December 2010. Noise spectral data of dental devices were taken during dental practices at the dental services clinic and at the dental laboratory. A noise dosimeter was set following the Occupational Safety and Health Administration criteria and then attached to the subjects' collar to record personal noise dose exposure during working periods.
The peaks of the noise spectrum of dental instruments were at 1,000, 4,000, and 8,000 Hz which depended on the type of instrument. The differences in working areas and job positions had an influence on the level of noise exposure (p < 0.01). Noise measurement in the personal hearing zone found that the laboratory technicians were exposed to the highest impulsive noise levels (137.1 dBC). The dentists and dental assistants who worked at a pedodontic clinic had the highest percent noise dose (4.60 ± 3.59%). In the working areas, the 8-hour time-weighted average of noise levels ranged between 49.7-58.1 dBA while the noisiest working area was the dental laboratory.
Dental personnel are exposed to noise intensities lower than occupational exposure limits. Therefore, these dental personnel may not experience a noise-induced hearing loss.
Noise-induced hearing loss; Noise; Dental practice; Dental school; Dental instruments
In this article, we present GE Healthcare’s design philosophy and implementation of X-ray imaging systems with dose management for pediatric patients, as embodied in its current radiography and fluoroscopy and interventional cardiovascular X-ray product offerings. First, we present a basic framework of image quality and dose in the context of a cost–benefit trade-off, with the development of the concept of imaging dose efficiency. A set of key metrics of image quality and dose efficiency is presented, including X-ray source efficiency, detector quantum efficiency (DQE), detector dynamic range, and temporal response, with an explanation of the clinical relevance of each. Second, we present design methods for automatically selecting optimal X-ray technique parameters (kVp, mA, pulse width, and spectral filtration) in real time for various clinical applications. These methods are based on an optimization scheme where patient skin dose is minimized for a target desired image contrast-to-noise ratio. Operator display of skin dose and Dose-Area Product (DAP) is covered, as well. Third, system controls and predefined protocols available to the operator are explained in the context of dose management and the need to meet varying clinical procedure imaging demands. For example, fluoroscopic dose rate is adjustable over a range of 20:1 to adapt to different procedure requirements. Fourth, we discuss the impact of image processing techniques upon dose minimization. In particular, two such techniques, dynamic range compression through adaptive multiband spectral filtering and fluoroscopic noise reduction, are explored in some detail. Fifth, we review a list of system dose-reduction features, including automatic spectral filtration, virtual collimation, variable-rate pulsed fluoroscopic, grid and no-grid techniques, and fluoroscopic loop replay with store. In addition, we describe a new feature that automatically minimizes the patient-to-detector distance, along with an estimate of its dose reduction potential. Finally, two recently developed imaging techniques and their potential effect on dose utilization are discussed. Specifically, we discuss the dose benefits of rotational angiography and low frame rate imaging with advanced image processing in lieu of higher-dose digital subtraction.
Pediatric dose management; Fluoroscopic equipment; Technical advances