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1.  Diagnostic reference levels in intraoral dental radiography in Korea 
Imaging Science in Dentistry  2012;42(4):237-242.
Purpose
The objectives of this study were to survey the radiographic exposure parameters, to measure the patient doses for intraoral dental radiography nationwide, and thus to establish the diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in intraoral dental X-ray examination in Korea.
Materials and Methods
One hundred two intraoral dental radiographic machines from all regions of South Korea were selected for this study. Radiographic exposure parameters, size of hospital, type of image receptor system, installation duration of machine, and type of dental X-ray machine were documented. Patient entrance doses (PED) and dose-area products (DAP) were measured three times at the end of the exit cone of the X-ray unit with a DAP meter (DIAMENTOR M4-KDK, PTW, Freiburg, Germany) for adult mandibular molar intraoral dental radiography, and corrections were made for room temperature and pressure. Measured PED and DAP were averaged and compared according to the size of hospital, type of image receptor system, installation duration, and type of dental X-ray machine.
Results
The mean exposure parameters were 62.6 kVp, 7.9 mA, and 0.5 second for adult mandibular molar intraoral dental radiography. The mean patient dose was 2.11 mGy (PED) and 59.4 mGycm2 (DAP) and the third quartile one 3.07 mGy (PED) and 87.4 mGycm2 (DAP). Doses at university dental hospitals were lower than those at dental clinics (p<0.05). Doses of digital radiography (DR) type were lower than those of film-based type (p<0.05).
Conclusion
We recommend 3.1 mGy (PED), 87.4 mGycm2 (DAP) as the DRLs in adult mandibular molar intraoral dental radiography in Korea.
doi:10.5624/isd.2012.42.4.237
PMCID: PMC3534178  PMID: 23301210
Radiation Protection; Radiation Dosage; Radiography, Dental
2.  Radiation Dose to Newborns in Neonatal Intensive Care Units 
Iranian Journal of Radiology  2012;9(3):145-149.
Background
With the increase of X-ray use for medical diagnostic purposes, knowing the given doses is necessary in patients for comparison with reference levels. The concept of reference doses or diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) has been developed as a practical aid in the optimization of patient protection in diagnostic radiology.
Objectives
To assess the radiation doses to neonates from diagnostic radiography (chest and abdomen). This study has been carried out in the neonatal intensive care unit of a province in Iran.
Patients and Methods
Entrance surface dose (ESD) was measured directly with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The population included 195 neonates admitted for a diagnostic radiography, in eight NICUs of different hospital types.
Results
The mean ESD for chest and abdomen examinations were 76.3 µGy and 61.5 µGy, respectively. DRLs for neonate in NICUs of the province were 88 µGy for chest and 98 µGy for abdomen examinations that were slightly higher than other studies. Risk of death due to radiation cancer incidence of abdomens examination was equal to 1.88 × 10 -6 for male and 4.43 × 10 -6 for female. For chest X-ray, it was equal to 2.54 × 10 -6 for male and 1.17 × 10 -5 for female patients.
Conclusion
DRLs for neonates in our province were slightly higher than values reported by other studies such as European national diagnostic reference levels and the NRPB reference dose. The main reason was related to using a high mAs and a low kVp applied in most departments and also a low focus film distance (FFD). Probably lack of collimation also affected some exams in the NICUs.
doi:10.5812/iranjradiol.8065
PMCID: PMC3522370  PMID: 23329980
Intensive Care Units; Neonatal; Radiation Dosimetry
3.  Adult patient radiation doses from non-cardiac CT examinations: a review of published results 
The British Journal of Radiology  2011;84(1000):293-303.
Objectives
CT is a valuable tool in diagnostic radiology but it is also associated with higher patient radiation doses compared with planar radiography. The aim of this article is to review patient dose for the most common types of CT examinations reported during the past 19 years.
Methods
Reported dosimetric quantities were compared with the European diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). Effective doses were assessed with respect to the publication year and scanner technology (i.e. single-slice vs multislice).
Results
Considerable variation of reported values among studies was attributed to variations in both examination protocol and scanner design. Median weighted CT dose index (CTDIw) and dose length product (DLP) are below the proposed DRLs; however, for individual studies the DRLs are exceeded. Median reported effective doses for the most frequent CT examinations were: head, 1.9 mSv (0.3–8.2 mSv); chest, 7.5 mSv (0.3–26.0 mSv); abdomen, 7.9 mSv (1.4–31.2 mSv); and pelvis, 7.6 mSv (2.5–36.5 mSv).
Conclusion
The introduction of mechanisms for dose reduction resulted in significantly lower patient effective doses for CT examinations of the head, chest and abdomen reported by studies published after 1995. Owing to the limited number of studies reporting patient doses for multislice CT examinations the statistical power to detect differences with single-slice scanners is not yet adequate.
doi:10.1259/bjr/69070614
PMCID: PMC3473464  PMID: 21266399
4.  Mutagenicity and cytotoxicity assessment in patients undergoing orthodontic radiographs 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2010;39(7):437-440.
Objectives
The aim of the present study was to evaluate DNA damage (micronucleus) and cellular death (pyknosis, karyolysis and karyorrhexis) in exfoliated buccal mucosa cells from individuals following radiography.
Methods
Lateral and frontal cephalometric X-ray and panoramic dental X-rays were taken of a total of 18 healthy patients (6 male and 12 female) referred for orthodontic therapy. Exfoliated oral mucosa cells were collected immediately before X-ray exposure and after 10 days.
Results
The results revealed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) in the frequency micronucleated oral mucosa cells after X-ray exposure. However, X-ray was able to increase other nuclear alterations closely related to cytotoxicity, such as karyorrhexis, pyknosis and karyolysis.
Conclusions
Data indicated that exposure to certain radiography may not be a factor in inducing chromosomal damage, but it does promote cytotoxicity.
doi:10.1259/dmfr/24791952
PMCID: PMC3520189  PMID: 20841462
buccal mucosa cells; radiographic documentation; micronucleus test
5.  Evaluation of Mean Glandular Dose and Modulation Transfer Function for Different Tube Potentials and Target-Filter Combinations in Computed Radiography Mammography 
Background:
Different target-filter combinations in computed radiography have different impacts on the dose and image quality in digital radiography. This study aims to evaluate the mean glandular dose (MGD) and modulation transfer function (MTF) of various target-filter combinations by investigating the signal intensities of X-ray beams.
Methods:
General Electric (GE) Senographe DMR Plus mammography unit was used for MGD and MTF evaluation. The measured MGD was compared with the dose reference level (DRL), whereas the MTF was evaluated using ImageJ 1.46o software. A modified Mammography Accreditation Phantom RMI 156 was exposed using different target-filter combinations of molybdenum-molybdenum (Mo-Mo), molybdenum-rhodium (Mo-Rh) and rhodium-rhodium (Rh-Rh) at two different tube voltages, 26 kV and 32 kV with 50 mAs.
Results:
In the MGD evaluations, all target-filters gave an MGD value of < 1.5 mGy. The one-way ANOVA test showed a highly significant interaction between the MGD and the kilovoltage and target-filter material used (26 kV: F (2,12) = 49,234, P = 0.001;32 kV: F (2,12) = 89,972, P = 0.001). A Tukey post-hoc test revealed that the MGD for 26 kV and 32 kV was highly affected by the target-filter combinations. The test of homogeneity of variances indicates that the MGD varies significantly for 26 kV and 32 kV images (0.045 and 0.030 (P < 0.05), respectively). However, the one-way ANOVA for the MTF shows that no significant difference exists between the target-filter combinations used with 26 kV and 32 kV images either in parallel or perpendicular to the chest wall side F (2,189) = 0.26, P > 0.05).
Conclusion:
Higher tube voltage and atomic number target-filter yield higher MGD values. However, the MTF is independent of the X-ray energy and the type of target-filter combinations used.
PMCID: PMC3743978  PMID: 23966821
mean glandular dose (MGD); modulation transfer function (MTF); computed radiography; spatial resolution; image processing
6.  Assessment of panoramic radiography as a national oral examination tool: review of the literature 
Purpose
The purpose of this review is to evaluate the possibility of panoramic radiography as a national oral examination tool.
Materials and Methods
This report was carried out by review of the literatures.
Results
Panoramic radiography has sufficient diagnostic accuracy in dental caries, periodontal diseases, and other lesions. Also, the effective dose of panoramic radiography is lower than traditional full-mouth periapical radiography.
Conclusion
Panoramic radiography will improve the efficacy of dental examination in national oral examination. However, more studies are required to evaluate the benefit, financial cost, and operation time and also to make selection criteria and quality management program.
doi:10.5624/isd.2011.41.1.1
PMCID: PMC3174459  PMID: 21977466
Radiography, Panoramic; Mass Screening; Outcome and Process Assessment; Radiation Dosage
7.  Establishment of CT diagnostic reference levels in Ireland 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1018):1390-1397.
Objective
To propose Irish CT diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) by collecting radiation doses for the most commonly performed CT examinations.
Methods
A pilot study investigated the most frequent CT examinations. 40 CT sites were then asked to complete a survey booklet to allow the recording of CT parameters for each of 9 CT examinations during a 12-week period. Dose data [CT volume index (CTDIvol) and dose–length product (DLP)] on a minimum of 10 average-sized patients in each category were recorded to calculate a mean site CTDIvol and DLP value. The rounded 75th percentile was used to calculate a DRL for each site and the country by compiling all results. Results are compared with international DRL data.
Results
Data were collected for 3305 patients. 30 sites responded with data for 34 scanners, representing 54% of the national total. All equipment had multislice capability (2–128 slices). DRLs are proposed using CTDIvol (mGy) and DLP (mGy cm) for CT head (66/58 and 940, respectively), sinuses (16 and 210, respectively), cervical spine (19 and 420, respectively), thorax (9/11 and 390, respectively), high resolution CT (7 and 280, respectively), CT pulmonary angiography (13 and 430, respectively), multiphase abdomen (13 and 1120, respectively), routine abdomen/pelvis (12 and 600, respectively) and trunk examinations (10/12 and 850, respectively). These values are lower than current DRLs and comparable to other international studies. Wide variations in mean doses are noted across sites.
Conclusions
Baseline figures for Irish CT DRLs are provided on the most frequently performed CT examinations. The variations in dose between CT departments as well as between identical scanners suggest a large potential for optimisation of examinations.
doi:10.1259/bjr/15839549
PMCID: PMC3474022  PMID: 22595497
8.  Radiation Protection in Canada 
Factors that may reduce the dose of radiation, from diagnostic and therapeutic x-ray procedures, to the patient and to the occupational and non-occupational worker are outlined. Suitable basic radiation measuring apparatus is described. It is recommended that, in diagnostic radiography, relatively high kilovoltage, proper cones, collimation and adequate filtration be used. Some specific recommendations are made concerning fluoroscopic, photoroentgen and portable x-ray examinations. Film monitoring of personnel is advisable. Examples are given of protective devices to lessen the dosage to the occupational worker. It is the responsibility of the radiologist or physician in charge to ensure that the x-ray equipment is safe to operate and the radiation dose to the patient is kept to a minimum. The roentgen output for all radiographic examinations should be known by the responsible user.
Images
PMCID: PMC1927953  PMID: 14199820
9.  Assessment of paediatric CT dose indicators for the purpose of optimisation 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1019):1488-1498.
Objectives
To establish local diagnostic reference levels (LDRLs) at the Royal Children's Hospital (RCH) Melbourne, Parkville, Australia, for typical paediatric CT examinations and compare these with international diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) to benchmark local practice. In addition, the aim was to develop a method of analysing local scan parameters to enable identification of areas for optimisation.
Methods
A retrospective audit of patient records for paediatric CT brain, chest and abdomen/pelvis examinations was undertaken. Demographic information, examination parameters and dose indicators—volumetric CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose–length product (DLP)—were collected for 220 patients. LDRLs were derived from mean survey values and the effective dose was estimated from DLP values. The normalised CTDIvol values, mAs values and scan length were analysed to better identify parameters that could be optimised.
Results
The LDRLs across all age categories were 18–45 mGy (CTDIvol) and 250–700 mGy cm (DLP) for brain examinations; 3–23 mGy (CTDIvol) and 100–800 mGy cm (DLP) for chest examinations; and 4–15 mGy (CTDIvol) and 150–750 mGy cm (DLP) for abdomen/pelvis examinations. Effective dose estimates were 1.0–1.6 mSv, 1.8–13.0 mSv and 2.5–10.0 mSv for brain, chest and abdomen/pelvis examinations, respectively.
Conclusion
The RCH mean CTDIvol and DLP values are similar to or lower than international DRLs. Use of low-kilovoltage protocols for body imaging in younger patients reduced the dose considerably. There exists potential for optimisation in reducing body scan lengths and justifying the selection of reference mAs values. The assessment method used here proved useful for identifying specific parameters for optimisation.
Advances in knowledge
Assessment of individual CT parameters in addition to comparison with DRLs enables identification of specific areas for CT optimisation.
doi:10.1259/bjr/28015185
PMCID: PMC3500792  PMID: 22844033
10.  Establishment of diagnostic reference levels in computed tomography for select procedures in Pudhuchery, India 
Computed tomography (CT) scanner under operating conditions has become a major source of human exposure to diagnostic X-rays. In this context, weighed CT dose index (CTDIw), volumetric CT dose index (CTDIv), and dose length product (DLP) are important parameter to assess procedures in CT imaging as surrogate dose quantities for patient dose optimization. The current work aims to estimate the existing dose level of CT scanner for head, chest, and abdomen procedures in Pudhuchery in south India and establish dose reference level (DRL) for the region. The study was carried out for six CT scanners in six different radiology departments using 100 mm long pencil ionization chamber and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom. From each CT scanner, data pertaining to patient and machine details were collected for 50 head, 50 chest, and 50 abdomen procedures performed over a period of 1 year. The experimental work was carried out using the machine operating parameters used during the procedures. Initially, dose received in the phantom at the center and periphery was measured by five point method. Using these values CTDIw, CTDIv, and DLP were calculated. The DRL is established based on the third quartile value of CTDIv and DLP which is 32 mGy and 925 mGy.cm for head, 12 mGy and 456 mGy.cm for chest, and 16 mGy and 482 mGy.cm for abdomen procedures. These values are well below European Commission Dose Reference Level (EC DRL) and comparable with the third quartile value reported for Tamil Nadu region in India. The present study is the first of its kind to determine the DRL for scanners operating in the Pudhuchery region. Similar studies in other regions of India are necessary in order to establish a National Dose Reference Level.
doi:10.4103/0971-6203.125509
PMCID: PMC3931229  PMID: 24600173
Computed tomography; CTDIw; CTDIv; dose length product; dose reference level; pencil ionization chamber; polymethylmethacrylate phantom
11.  Cephalometric norms for orthognathic surgery for North India (Eastern Uttar Pradesh) 
Aim:
The present study was aimed at development of the cephalometric norms for orthognathic surgery for the population of eastern Uttar Pradesh in North India. Settings and design: This study was conducted at a dental college.
Materials and Methods:
The study sample consisted of 50 males and 50 females. Each lateral cephalogram was taken in occlusion and subsequently traced. All reference points, landmarks, and measurements were made according to cephalometrics for orthognathic surgery (COGS) system.
Statistical analysis used:
The statistical analysis involved calculation of mean and standard deviation for each of the 23 parameters assessed for each subject. The data was subsequently compared with COGS study by using Normal (Z) test.
Results:
The norms were derived for the purvanchal population of North India and these were found to be quite distinct compared to those obtained from COGS study with respect to specific parameters.
Conclusion:
Male subjects indicated greater prominence of chin relative to the face, decreased posterior divergence, infraeruption of upper and lower molar as well as lower incisors, decreased total effective length of the maxilla, tendency towards Class III occlusion, and procumbent lower incisors. Female subjects, however, indicated increased anterior cranial base length, greater prominence of chin relative to the face, prognathic maxilla and mandible, increased middle third facial height, infraerupted lower incisors, increased mandibular body length, and procumbent lower incisors.
doi:10.4103/0975-5950.85851
PMCID: PMC3304227  PMID: 22442607
Cephalometric norms; COGS System; North India; purvanchal
12.  Daytime running lights in the USA: what is the impact on vehicle crashes in Minnesota? 
Background
Daytime running lights (DRLs) are a safety feature intended to reduce crashes by increasing the contrast between vehicles and the background.
Aims
The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an association between vehicles in the USA being equipped with DRLs and crash rates.
Methods
This was a retrospective study using the Minnesota Department of Transportation (MNDOT) Crash Database from 1995 to 2002. Crash reports included in the analyses were limited to accidents involving vehicles 1995 or newer (DRLs not available on prior models) and limited to ideal conditions: (1) daylight, (2) optimal visibility, and (3) dry road surface. The vehicle identification number (VIN) was used to determine the make, model, and year. This information was cross-referenced with a National Highway Traffic Safety Administration table of manufacturer listed DRL conditions to determine vehicle DRL status. Crude crash rates for vehicles were calculated relative to the number of all registered vehicles in Minnesota in 2004, for models 1995–2002. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (CI) for the rates were constructed assuming a Poisson error distribution.
Results
During 1995–2002, there were 184,637 vehicles (1995 or newer) with identifiable VINs involved in accidents which occurred under the specified test conditions. Of these vehicles, 37,909 were determined to have standard DRLs and 146,728 were determined to be models without DRLs (including those listed as DRL optional). The crash rate among vehicles without standard DRLs was 1.73 (95% CI: 1.71–1.75) times higher than the rate for vehicles with standard DRLs. The rate ratio was also significant for fatal vehicle crash rates 1.48 (95% CI: 1.23–1.76).
Conclusion
Minnesota vehicles equipped with DRLs were associated with a statistically significant lower crash rate compared to vehicles without DRLs from 1995 to 2002.
doi:10.1007/s12245-009-0151-6
PMCID: PMC2850978  PMID: 20414380
Daytime running lights; Crashes; Motor vehicle accidents; Headlights; Automobile
13.  Flemish general dental practitioners' knowledge of dental radiology 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2010;39(2):113-118.
The aim of this study was to assess general dental practitioners' knowledge of dental radiography and radiation protection in order to alert the Belgian authorities and dental professional societies. Prior to attending a postgraduate course on intraoral radiology, general dental practitioners in Flanders, Belgium, were asked to fill in a questionnaire regarding the radiological equipment and the techniques they used for intraoral radiography. The availability and type of dental panoramic equipment were also assessed. A total of 374 questionnaires were available for this study. 15% of the attendants used radiographic equipment that was more than 27 years old and 43% reported equipment that operated with a clockwork timer. 32% and 75% respectively had no idea what the kV or mA settings were on their intraoral equipment. 5% were unaware which cone geometry or geometric technique (paralleling or bisecting angle technique) they were using. 81% claimed to be using a short cone technique. 47% did not know what collimation meant, whereas 40% stated that they were using circular collimation. 38% used digital intraoral image detectors (63% were photostimulable storage phosphorplate (PSPP)), but 16% were not sure about the type of sensor they were using (PSPP or solid-state sensors). 61% also had dental panoramic equipment available, 25% of which was digital (10% charge coupled device (CCD) and 15% PSPP). These results clearly indicate the need for continued education on this subject. The latter is an important signal to Belgian authorities and dental professional societies.
doi:10.1259/dmfr/52763613
PMCID: PMC3520200  PMID: 20100924
general practitioners; knowledge; radiology; radiation protection
14.  Validity of 2D lateral cephalometry in orthodontics: a systematic review 
Progress in Orthodontics  2013;14(1):31.
Lateral cephalometric radiography is commonly used as a standard tool in orthodontic assessment and treatment planning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the available scientific literature and existing evidence for the validation of using lateral cephalometric imaging for orthodontic treatment planning. The secondary objective was to determine the accuracy and reliability of this technique. We did not attempt to evaluate the value of this radiographic technique for other purposes. A literature search was performed using specific keywords on electronic databases: Ovid MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science. Two reviewers selected relevant articles, corresponding to predetermined inclusion criteria. The electronic search was followed by a hand search of the reference lists of relevant papers. Two reviewers assessed the level of evidence of relevant publications as high, moderate or low. Based on this, the evidence grade for diagnostic efficacy was rated as strong, moderately strong, limited or insufficient. The initial search revealed 784 articles listed in MEDLINE (Ovid), 1,034 in Scopus and 264 articles in the Web of Science. Only 17 articles met the inclusion criteria and were selected for qualitative synthesis. Results showed seven studies on the role of cephalometry in orthodontic treatment planning, eight concerning cephalometric measurements and landmark identification and two on cephalometric analysis. It is surprising that, notwithstanding the 968 articles published in peer-reviewed journals, scientific evidence on the usefulness of this radiographic technique in orthodontics is still lacking, with contradictory results. More rigorous research on a larger study population should be performed to achieve full evidence on this topic.
doi:10.1186/2196-1042-14-31
PMCID: PMC3882109  PMID: 24325757
Cephalometry; Orthodontics; Systematic review; Reliability; Validity
15.  Lateral cephalometric norms for Saudi adults: A meta-analysis 
The Saudi Dental Journal  2010;23(1):3-7.
Orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning require careful evaluation of the patient’s cephalometric values and comparison to known population cephalometric means or norms. Despite the availability of several published studies on Saudi cephalometric norms, Caucasian norms are still referred to when Saudi patients are treated. To reach a consensus between these studies and to establish more accurately cephalometric norms for Saudis, a meta-analysis of the relevant literature was performed. Electronic database (PubMed), Saudi Dental Journal and Master theses were searched for studies reporting cephalometric values of normal male and female Saudi adults with numerical data and 8 studies with a total sample size of 485 met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis with results from these studies was completed. The combined mean estimates and SD of common cephalometric measurements were calculated. The data included in this comprehensive meta-analysis were compared with Caucasian norms and results indicated that Saudis have distinct cephalometric features. Saudis tend to have slightly more convex profiles and more proclined incisors than the Caucasians. These findings confirm the previously published results and should serve as more accurate reference values that were drawn from a large sample size.
doi:10.1016/j.sdentj.2010.09.002
PMCID: PMC3770244  PMID: 24151411
Cephalometric; Norms; Meta-analysis; Saudi
16.  Image analysis and superimposition of 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography models 
Three-dimensional (3D) imaging techniques can provide valuable information to clinicians and researchers. But as we move from traditional 2-dimensional (2D) cephalometric analysis to new 3D techniques, it is often necessary to compare 2D with 3D data. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) provides simulation tools that can help bridge the gap between image types. CBCT acquisitions can be made to simulate panoramic, lateral, and posteroanterior cephalometric radioagraphs so that they can be compared with preexisting cephalometric databases. Applications of 3D imaging in orthodontics include initial diagnosis and superimpositions for assessing growth, treatment changes, and stability. Three-dimensional CBCT images show dental root inclination and torque, impacted and supernumerary tooth positions, thickness and morphology of bone at sites of mini-implants for anchorage, and osteotomy sites in surgical planning. Findings such as resorption, hyperplasic growth, displacement, shape anomalies of mandibular condyles, and morphological differences between the right and left sides emphasize the diagnostic value of computed tomography acquisitions. Furthermore, relationships of soft tissues and the airway can be assessed in 3 dimensions.
doi:10.1016/j.ajodo.2005.12.008
PMCID: PMC3586191  PMID: 16679201
17.  Evaluation of surface radiation dose to the thyroid gland and the gonads during routine full-mouth intraoral periapical and maxillary occlusal radiography 
Aim:
The quantitative aspects of radiation doses to critical organs can help the dental professionals to take the necessary radiation protective measures as deemed necessary and can help the general public to allay radiation exposure fear in dental radiography, if any. Our study determines the surface radiation dose to thyroid and gonads in full-mouth intraoral periapical (IOPA) and maxillary occlusal radiography.
Materials and Methods:
A total number of 120 subjects participated in the study. The surface radiation dose was estimated to the thyroid gland and the gonads in full-mouth IOPA radiography using 10 IOPA (E speed films) and in maxillary occlusal radiography. The measurements were calculated using a digital pocket dosimeter (PD-4507).
Results:
The average dose at the thyroid gland level during full-mouth intraoral and maxillary occlusal radiography was estimated to be 10.93 mRads (1.093 × 10-2 mGy) and 0.4 mRads (4.0 × 10-2 mGy), respectively. The average surface radiation dose at the gonadal region during a full mouth intraoral and maxillary occlusal radiography was estimated to be 1.5 mRads (1.5 × 10-2 mGy) and 0.15 mRads (1.5 × 10-3 mGy), respectively.
Conclusion:
Our results suggest that although the radiation exposure doses to critical organs namely thyroid and gonads is within the safe limits still precautionary measures for these organs are advocated.
doi:10.4103/0976-237X.68597
PMCID: PMC3220092  PMID: 22114389
Gonads; intraoral radiography; radiation dose; thyroid
18.  Optimization of Dose and Image Quality for Computed Radiography and Digital Radiography 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2006;19(2):126-131.
The surface doses to patients during chest, abdomen and pelvis radiography were measured over a period of 3 years, during which time computed radiography (CR) and digital radiography (DR) systems were introduced to replace film–screen systems. For film–screen and CR the surface doses were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters. For DR the surface doses were calculated from the dose–area product (DAP) meter readings. Measurements were made for each type of examination and detector type on 10 average-size patients. Measurements were made immediately after the new systems were introduced, and subsequently as adjustments were made to optimize dose and image quality. Published diagnostic reference levels were used as target values in this optimization. Initially, CR doses were the same as or higher than for film–screen, and the doses were lower for DR compared to film–screen. Subsequent clinical experience with the systems led to changes in the technique used for chest examinations both for CR and for DR. For CR, it was possible to change the algorithm and decrease the dose to one quarter of the initial value with acceptable image quality. For DR, it was decided to reduce noise by increasing the dose by a factor of two. No changes were made to abdomen or pelvic imaging techniques for either CR or DR. The final patient surface doses using CR were similar to published diagnostic reference doses; for DR, all patient doses were less than published reference levels.
doi:10.1007/s10278-006-9944-9
PMCID: PMC3045190  PMID: 16511674
Computed radiography; digital radiography; optimization; patient dose
19.  Accuracy of direct digital radiography for detecting occlusal caries in primary teeth compared with conventional radiography and visual inspection: an in vitro study 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2010;39(6):362-367.
Objectives
The diagnosis of caries lesions is still a matter of concern in dentistry. The diagnosis of dental caries by digital radiography has a number of advantages over conventional radiography; however, this method has not been explored fully in the field of paediatric dentistry. This in vitro research evaluated the accuracy of direct digital radiography compared with visual inspection and conventional radiography in the diagnosis of occlusal caries lesions in primary molars.
Methods
50 molars were selected and evaluated under standardized conditions by 2 previously calibrated examiners according to 3 diagnostic methods (visual inspection, conventional radiography and direct digital radiography). Direct digital radiographs were obtained with the Dixi3 system (Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland) and the conventional radiographs with InSight film (Kodak Eastman Co., Rochester, NY). The images were scored and a reference standard was obtained histologically. The interexaminer reliability was calculated using Cohen's kappa test and the specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of the methods were calculated.
Results
Examiner reliability was good. For lesions limited to the enamel, visual inspection showed significantly higher sensitivity and accuracy than both radiographic methods, but no significant difference was found in specificity. For teeth with dentinal caries, no significant differences were found for any parameter when comparing visual and radiographic evaluation.
Conclusions
Although less accurate than the visual method for detecting caries lesions confined to the enamel, the direct digital radiographic method is as effective as conventional radiographic examination and visual inspection of primary teeth with occlusal caries when the dentine is involved.
doi:10.1259/dmfr/22865872
PMCID: PMC3520238  PMID: 20729186
direct digital radiography; conventional radiography; dental caries; primary teeth
20.  Developing a Standardized Cephalometric Vocabulary: Choices and Possible Strategies 
Journal of dental education  2008;72(9):989-997.
The science of cephalometry has been invaluable for guiding orthodontic diagnosis, treatment planning, and outcomes tracking. Though software packages easily calculate most cephalometric measurements, the ability to exchange cephalometric data between software packages is poorly developed. Hindering this effort is the lack of an agreed-upon standard for electronic exchange of cephalometric measurements. Unlike more technological issues, the problem of creating such a standard is one of formalizing decisions already established through historical precedent. Solving this problem will require education, cooperation, and consensus in order to reap the potential improvements to patient care, dental education, and research. The first step in overcoming these remaining issues is awareness. This article reviews those factors that place cephalometric measurements in an excellent position for standardization, outlines those decisions that must be made in order to realize the goal of electronic exchange of cephalometric information, and describes some of the options for these decisions as well as some advantages and disadvantages of each.
PMCID: PMC2755070  PMID: 18768441
cephalometry; dental informatics; information science; information systems; medical informatics; terminology; controlled vocabulary
21.  An Evaluation of Cellular Neural Networks for the Automatic Identification of Cephalometric Landmarks on Digital Images 
Several efforts have been made to completely automate cephalometric analysis by automatic landmark search. However, accuracy obtained was worse than manual identification in every study. The analogue-to-digital conversion of X-ray has been claimed to be the main problem. Therefore the aim of this investigation was to evaluate the accuracy of the Cellular Neural Networks approach for automatic location of cephalometric landmarks on softcopy of direct digital cephalometric X-rays. Forty-one, direct-digital lateral cephalometric radiographs were obtained by a Siemens Orthophos DS Ceph and were used in this study and 10 landmarks (N, A Point, Ba, Po, Pt, B Point, Pg, PM, UIE, LIE) were the object of automatic landmark identification. The mean errors and standard deviations from the best estimate of cephalometric points were calculated for each landmark. Differences in the mean errors of automatic and manual landmarking were compared with a 1-way analysis of variance. The analyses indicated that the differences were very small, and they were found at most within 0.59 mm. Furthermore, only few of these differences were statistically significant, but differences were so small to be in most instances clinically meaningless. Therefore the use of X-ray files with respect to scanned X-ray improved landmark accuracy of automatic detection. Investigations on softcopy of digital cephalometric X-rays, to search more landmarks in order to enable a complete automatic cephalometric analysis, are strongly encouraged.
doi:10.1155/2009/717102
PMCID: PMC2742650  PMID: 19753320
22.  Successful Treatment of Postpeak Stage Patients with Class II Division 1 Malocclusion Using Non-extraction and Multiloop Edgewise Archwire Therapy: A Report on 16 Cases 
Aim
To determine cephalometrically the mechanism of the treatment effects of non-extraction and multiloop edgewise archwire (MEAW) technique on postpeak Class II Division 1 patients.
Methodology
In this retrospective study, 16 postpeak Class II Division 1 patients successfully corrected using a non-extraction and MEAW technique were cephalometrically evaluated and compared with 16 matched control subjects treated using an extraction technique. Using CorelDRAW® software, standardized digital cephalograms pre- and post-active treatments were traced and a reference grid was set up. The superimpositions were based on the cranial base, the mandibular and the maxilla regions,and skeletal and dental changes were measured. Changes following treatment were evaluated using the paired-sample t-test. Student's t-test for unpaired samples was used to assess the differences in changes between the MEAW and the extraction control groups.
Results
The correction of the molar relationships comprised 54% skeletal change (mainly the advancement of the mandible) and 46% dental change. Correction of the anterior teeth relationships comprised 30% skeletal change and 70% dental change.
Conclusion
The MEAW technique can produce the desired vertical and sagittal movement of the tooth segment and then effectively stimulate mandibular advancement by utilizing the residual growth potential of the condyle.
doi:10.4248/IJOS09019
PMCID: PMC3733599  PMID: 20690424
cephalometry; Class II Division 1 malocclusion; mandibular advancement; multiloop edgewise archwire (MEAW); non-extraction; postpeak stage
23.  The importance of radiation quality for optimisation in radiology 
Selection of the appropriate radiation quality is an important aspect of optimisation for every clinical imaging task in radiology, since it affects both image quality and patient dose. Spreadsheet calculations of attenuation and absorption have been applied to basic imaging tasks to provide an assessment of imaging performance for a selection of phosphors used in radiology systems. Contrast, which is an important component of image quality affected by radiation quality, has been assessed in terms of the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) for a variety of X-ray beams. Both CNR and patient dose fall with tube potential, and selection of the best option is a compromise that will provide an adequate level of image quality with as low a radiation dose as practicable. It is important that systems are set up to match the response of the imaging phosphor, as there are significant differences between phosphors. For example, the sensitivity of barium fluorohalides used in computed radiography declines at higher tube potentials, whereas that of gadolinium oxysulphide used in rare earth screens increases. Addition of 0.2 mm copper filters, which can reduce patient entrance surface dose by 50%, may be advantageous for many applications in radiography and fluoroscopy. The disadvantage of adding copper is that tube output levels have to be increased. Application of simple calculations of the type employed here could prove useful for investigating and assessing the implications of potential changes in X-ray beam quality prior to implementation of new techniques.
doi:10.2349/biij.3.2.e38
PMCID: PMC3097659  PMID: 21614278
Radiography; digital radiography; dose calculation; image quality; tube potential
24.  Utility of thyroid collars in cephalometric radiography 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2011;40(8):471-475.
Objective
A study was carried out to investigate the rationale that use of a thyroid collar (TC) in cephalometric radiography hampers the diagnostic and descriptive quality of lateral cephalogram.
Methods
A randomized observer blinded study was designed. The study consisted of two groups. The first group data were retrieved from the oral radiology archival system having lateral cephalogram without a TC. The second group was selected from the oral radiology department of patients where lateral cephalogram was taken using a TC. Lateral cephalogram was taken on direct digital system, the Kodak 9000 unit (Eastman Kodak, Rochester, NY). 2 observers blinded about the aim of the study were appointed to identify 15 sets of landmarks on the lateral cephalogram. Interobserver variance was also analysed for the study.
Results
50 lateral cephalograms in each group were studied. Out of 15 sets of landmarks, 12 were identified consistent with the TC group. Three landmarks, namely the hyoid bone, second cervical vertebra and third cervical vertebra could not be identified on the TC group. There was no significant difference in the interobserver markings on lateral cephalogram.
Conclusions
TCs do mask a few landmarks on the lateral cephalogram. These landmarks are mainly used for analysis of skeletal maturity index (SMI). Lead TCs are probably the most convenient and easily available means to protect the thyroid from unwanted radiation while taking lateral cephalogram. It is therefore encouraged to use a TC during routine cephalometric radiography where SMI information is not needed.
doi:10.1259/dmfr/25040799
PMCID: PMC3528159  PMID: 22065795
radiation protection; cephalometric radiography; thyroid collar; orthodontics
25.  Attitude of the Korean dentists towards radiation safety and selection criteria 
Imaging Science in Dentistry  2013;43(3):179-184.
Purpose
X-ray exposure should be clinically justified and each exposure should be expected to give patients benefits. Since dental radiographic examination is one of the most frequent radiological procedures, radiation hazard becomes an important public health concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitude of Korean dentists about radiation safety and use of criteria for selecting the frequency and type of radiographic examinations.
Materials and Methods
The study included 267 Korean dentists. Five questions related to radiation safety were asked of each of them. These questions were about factors associated with radiation protection of patients and operators including the use of radiographic selection criteria for intraoral radiographic procedures.
Results
The frequency of prescription of routine radiographic examination (an example is a panoramic radiograph for screening process for occult disease) was 34.1%, while that of selective radiography was 64.0%. Dentists' discussion of radiation risk and benefit with patients was infrequent. More than half of the operators held the image receptor by themselves during intraoral radiographic examinations. Lead apron/thyroid collars for patient protection were used by fewer than 22% of dental offices. Rectangular collimation was utilized by fewer than 15% of dental offices.
Conclusion
The majority of Korean dentists in the study did not practice radiation protection procedures which would be required to minimize exposure to unnecessary radiation for patients and dental professionals. Mandatory continuing professional education in radiation safety and development of Korean radiographic selection criteria is recommended.
doi:10.5624/isd.2013.43.3.179
PMCID: PMC3784677  PMID: 24083211
Dentists; Attitude; Patient Selection; Radiography

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