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1.  Exquisite Sensitivity of TP53 Mutant and Basal Breast Cancers to a Dose-Dense Epirubicin−Cyclophosphamide Regimen 
PLoS Medicine  2007;4(3):e90.
Background
In breast cancers, only a minority of patients fully benefit from the different chemotherapy regimens currently in use. Identification of markers that could predict the response to a particular regimen would thus be critically important for patient care. In cell lines or animal models, tumor protein p53 (TP53) plays a critical role in modulating the response to genotoxic drugs. TP53 is activated in response to DNA damage and triggers either apoptosis or cell-cycle arrest, which have opposite effects on cell fate. Yet, studies linking TP53 status and chemotherapy response have so far failed to unambiguously establish this paradigm in patients. Breast cancers with a TP53 mutation were repeatedly shown to have a poor outcome, but whether this reflects poor response to treatment or greater intrinsic aggressiveness of the tumor is unknown.
Methods and Findings
In this study we analyzed 80 noninflammatory breast cancers treated by frontline (neoadjuvant) chemotherapy. Tumor diagnoses were performed on pretreatment biopsies, and the patients then received six cycles of a dose-dense regimen of 75 mg/m2 epirubicin and 1,200 mg/m2 cyclophosphamide, given every 14 days. After completion of chemotherapy, all patients underwent mastectomies, thus allowing for a reliable assessment of chemotherapy response. The pretreatment biopsy samples were used to determine the TP53 status through a highly efficient yeast functional assay and to perform RNA profiling. All 15 complete responses occurred among the 28 TP53-mutant tumors. Furthermore, among the TP53-mutant tumors, nine out of ten of the highly aggressive basal subtypes (defined by basal cytokeratin [KRT] immunohistochemical staining) experienced complete pathological responses, and only TP53 status and basal subtype were independent predictors of a complete response. Expression analysis identified many mutant TP53-associated genes, including CDC20, TTK, CDKN2A, and the stem cell gene PROM1, but failed to identify a transcriptional profile associated with complete responses among TP53 mutant tumors. In patients with unresponsive tumors, mutant TP53 status predicted significantly shorter overall survival. The 15 patients with responsive TP53-mutant tumors, however, had a favorable outcome, suggesting that this chemotherapy regimen can overcome the poor prognosis generally associated with mutant TP53 status.
Conclusions
This study demonstrates that, in noninflammatory breast cancers, TP53 status is a key predictive factor for response to this dose-dense epirubicin–cyclophosphamide regimen and further suggests that the basal subtype is exquisitely sensitive to this association. Given the well-established predictive value of complete responses for long-term survival and the poor prognosis of basal and TP53-mutant tumors treated with other regimens, this chemotherapy could be particularly suited for breast cancer patients with a mutant TP53, particularly those with basal features.
Hugues de The and colleagues report thatTP53 status is a predictive factor for responsiveness in breast cancers to a dose-dense epirubicin-cyclophosphamide chemotherapy regimen, and suggests that this regimen might be well suited for patientsTP53 mutant tumors.
Editors' Summary
Background.
One woman in eight will develop breast cancer during her life. As with other cancers, breast cancer arises when cells accumulate genetic changes (mutations) that allow them to grow uncontrollably and to move around the body. These altered cells are called malignant cells. The normal human breast contains several types of cell, any of which can become malignant. In addition, there is more than one route to malignancy—different sets of genes can be mutated. As a result, breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that cannot be cured with a single type of treatment. Ideally, oncologists would like to know before they start treating a patient which therapeutic approach is going to be successful for that individual. Recently, researchers have begun to identify molecular changes that might eventually allow oncologists to make such rational treatment decisions. For example, laboratory studies in cell lines or animals indicate that the status of a gene called TP53 determines the chemotherapy agents (drugs that preferentially kill rapidly dividing cancer cells) to which cells respond. p53, the protein encoded by TP53, is a tumor suppressor. That is, in normal cells it prevents unregulated growth by controlling the expression of proteins involved in cell division and cell death. Consequently, p53 is often inactivated during cancer development.
Why Was This Study Done?
Although laboratory studies have linked TP53 status to chemotherapy responses, little is known about this relationship in human breast cancers. The clinical studies that have investigated whether TP53 status affects chemotherapy responses have generally found that patients whose tumors contain mutant TP53 have a poorer response to therapy and/or a shorter survival time than those whose tumors contain normal TP53. In this study, the researchers have asked whether TP53 status affects tumor responses to a dose-intense chemotherapy regimen (frequent, high doses of drugs) given to women with advanced noninflammatory breast cancer before surgery. This type of treatment is called neoadjuvant chemotherapy and is used to shrink tumors before surgery.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers collected breast tumor samples from 80 women before starting six fortnightly cycles of chemotherapy with epirubicin and cyclophosphamide. After this, each woman had her affected breast removed and examined to see whether the chemotherapy had killed the tumor cells. The researchers determined which original tumor samples contained mutated TP53 and used a technique called microarray expression profiling to document gene expression patterns in them. Overall, 28 tumors contained mutated TP53. Strikingly, all 15 tumors that responded completely to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (no tumor cells detectable in the breast tissue after chemotherapy) contained mutated TP53. Nine of these responsive tumors were basal-cell–like breast tumors, a particularly aggressive type of breast cancer; only one basal-cell–like, TP53-mutated tumor did not respond to chemotherapy. Patients whose tumors were unresponsive to the neoadjuvant chemotherapy but contained mutated TP53 tended to die sooner than those whose tumors contained normal TP53 or those with chemotherapy-responsive TP53-mutated tumors. Finally, expression profiling identified changes in the expression of many p53-regulated genes, but did not identify an expression profile in the TP53-mutated tumors unique to those that responded to chemotherapy.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings indicate that noninflammatory breast tumors containing mutant TP53—in particular, basal-cell–like tumors—are very sensitive to dose-dense epirubicin and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy. Intensive regimens of this type have rarely been used in previous studies, which might explain the apparent contradiction between these results and the generally poor response to chemotherapy of TP53-mutated breast tumors. More tumors now need to be examined to confirm the association between complete response, TP53 status and basal-cell–like tumors. In addition, although complete tumor responses generally predict good overall survival, longer survival studies than those reported here are needed to show that the tumor response to this particular neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen translates into improved overall survival. If the present results can be confirmed and extended, dose-dense neoadjuvant chemotherapy with epirubicin and cyclophosphamide could considerably improve the outlook for patients with aggressive TP53-mutant, basal-cell–like breast tumors.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0040090.
The US National Cancer Institute provides patient and physician information on breast cancer and general information on understanding cancer
Cancer Research UK offers patient information on cancer and breast cancer
The MedlinePlus encyclopedia has pages on breast cancer
Emory University's CancerQuest discusses the biology of cancer, including the role of tumor suppressor proteins
Wikipedia has pages on p53 (note that Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia that anyone can edit)
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040090
PMCID: PMC1831731  PMID: 17388661
2.  Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR Imaging in a Phase Ⅱ Study on Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Combining Rh-Endostatin with Docetaxel and Epirubicin for Locally Advanced Breast Cancer 
Background: Anti-angiogenesis is a promising therapeutic strategy for locally advanced breast cancer. We performed this phase II trial to evaluate the anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor effect of rh-endostatin combined with docetaxel and epirubicin in patients with locally advanced breast cancer by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in 70 previously untreated locally advanced breast cancer patients.
Methods: The study population was randomly assigned to neoadjuvant chemotherapy with docetaxel and epirubicin (neoadjuvant chemotherapy group) or neoadjuvant chemotherapy combining rh-endostatin with docetaxel and epirubicin (neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin group). The anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor effects of both regimens were evaluated by serial dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and microvessel density measurements after final surgery.
Results: The results suggested a higher clinical objective response (90.9% vs. 67.7%, P = 0.021) and greater reductions in tumor size (67.2% vs. 55.9%, P = 0.000), Ki-67 proliferation index (32.79% vs. 12.47%, P = 0.000), tumor signal enhanced ratio (64% vs. 48%, P = 0.018), and Ktrans (67% vs. 39%, P = 0.026) in neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin group than those in neoadjuvant chemotherapy group. In addition, the microvessel density value in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin group was significantly lower than in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group (18.67 ± 6.53 vs. 36.05 ± 9.64, P = 0.000). Moreover, the microvessel density value was significantly correlated with Ktrans after neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin treatment (r=0.88, P = 0.00).
Conclusions: The neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin treatment significantly repressed angiogenesis in locally advanced breast cancer and synergistically enhanced the anti-tumor effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Serial dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging data including reductions in tumor size and Ktrans, could provide non-invasive evaluation for chemotherapeutic efficacy and, consequently, optimization of individual chemotherapy for locally advanced breast cancer patients.
doi:10.7150/ijms.5123
PMCID: PMC3547207  PMID: 23329881
breast cancer; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; rh-endostatin; microvessel density; dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging
3.  Preoperative/Neoadjuvant Therapy in Pancreatic Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Response and Resection Percentages 
PLoS Medicine  2010;7(4):e1000267.
Jörg Kleef and colleagues systematically reviewed studies on neoadjuvant therapy and tumor response, toxicity, resection, and survival percentages in pancreatic cancer and suggest that patients with locally nonresectable tumors should be included in neoadjuvant protocols.
Background
Pancreatic cancer has an extremely poor prognosis and prolonged survival is achieved only by resection with macroscopic tumor clearance. There is a strong rationale for a neoadjuvant approach, since a relevant percentage of pancreatic cancer patients present with non-metastatic but locally advanced disease and microscopic incomplete resections are common. The objective of the present analysis was to systematically review studies concerning the effects of neoadjuvant therapy on tumor response, toxicity, resection, and survival percentages in pancreatic cancer.
Methods and Findings
Trials were identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1966 to December 2009 as well as through reference lists of articles and proceedings of major meetings. Retrospective and prospective studies analyzing neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy of pancreatic cancer patients, followed by re-staging, and surgical exploration/resection were included. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Pooled relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using random-effects models. Primary outcome measures were proportions of tumor response categories and percentages of exploration and resection. A total of 111 studies (n = 4,394) including 56 phase I–II trials were analyzed. A median of 31 (interquartile range [IQR] 19–46) patients per study were included. Studies were subdivided into surveys considering initially resectable tumors (group 1) and initially non-resectable (borderline resectable/unresectable) tumors (group 2). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was given in 96.4% of the studies with the main agents gemcitabine, 5-FU (and oral analogues), mitomycin C, and platinum compounds. Neoadjuvant radiotherapy was applied in 93.7% of the studies with doses ranging from 24 to 63 Gy. Averaged complete/partial response probabilities were 3.6% (95% CI 2%–5.5%)/30.6% (95% CI 20.7%–41.4%) and 4.8% (95% CI 3.5%–6.4%)/30.2% (95% CI 24.5%–36.3%) for groups 1 and 2, respectively; whereas progressive disease fraction was estimated to 20.9% (95% CI 16.9%–25.3%) and 20.8% (95% CI 14.5%–27.8%). In group 1, resectability was estimated to 73.6% (95% CI 65.9%–80.6%) compared to 33.2% (95% CI 25.8%–41.1%) in group 2. Higher resection-associated morbidity and mortality rates were observed in group 2 versus group 1 (26.7%, 95% CI 20.7%–33.3% versus 39.1%, 95% CI 29.5%–49.1%; and 3.9%, 95% CI 2.2%–6% versus 7.1%, 95% CI 5.1%–9.5%). Combination chemotherapies resulted in higher estimated response and resection probabilities for patients with initially non-resectable tumors (“non-resectable tumor patients”) compared to monotherapy. Estimated median survival following resection was 23.3 (range 12–54) mo for group 1 and 20.5 (range 9–62) mo for group 2 patients.
Conclusions
In patients with initially resectable tumors (“resectable tumor patients”), resection frequencies and survival after neoadjuvant therapy are similar to those of patients with primarily resected tumors and adjuvant therapy. Approximately one-third of initially staged non-resectable tumor patients would be expected to have resectable tumors following neoadjuvant therapy, with comparable survival as initially resectable tumor patients. Thus, patients with locally non-resectable tumors should be included in neoadjuvant protocols and subsequently re-evaluated for resection.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. It begins when a cell in the pancreas (an organ lying behind the stomach that produces digestive enzymes and hormones such as insulin that controls blood sugar levels) acquires genetic changes that allow it to grow uncontrollably and, sometimes, to spread around the body (metastasize). Because pancreatic cancer rarely causes any symptoms early in its development, it is locally advanced in more than a third of patients and has already metastasized in another half of patients by the time it is diagnosed. Consequently, on average, people die within 5–8 months of a diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. At present, the only chance for cure is surgical removal (resection) of the tumor, part of the pancreas, and other nearby digestive organs. This procedure—the Whipple procedure—is only possible in the fifth of patients whose tumor is found when it is small enough to be resectable, and even in these patients, the cure rate associated with surgery is less than 25%, although radiotherapy or chemotherapy after surgery (adjuvant therapy) can be beneficial.
Why Was This Study Done?
For patients whose tumor has metastasized, palliative chemotherapy to slow down tumor growth and to minimize pain is the only treatment option. But, for the many patients whose disease is locally advanced and unresectable at diagnosis, experts think that “neoadjuvant” therapy might be helpful. Neoadjuvant therapy—chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy given before surgery—aims to convert unresectable tumors into resectable tumors by shrinking the visible tumor and removing cancer cells that cannot be seen with the naked eye. Randomized phase III trials—studies in which groups of patients are randomly assigned to different interventions and specific outcomes measured—are the best way to determine whether an intervention has any clinical benefits, but no randomized phase III trials of neoadjuvant therapy for unresectable pancreatic cancer have been undertaken. Therefore, in this systematic review (a study that uses predefined criteria to identify all the research on a given topic) and meta-analysis (a statistical method for combining the results of several studies), the researchers analyze data from other types of studies to investigate whether neoadjuvant therapy for pancreatic cancer provides any clinical benefits.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
In their systematic review, the researchers identified 111 studies involving 4,394 patients in which the effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy on tumor response, tumor resectability, and patient survival had been investigated. They subdivided the studies into two groups: group 1 studies included patients whose tumors were considered resectable on preoperative examination, and group 2 studies included patients whose tumors were borderline resectable or unresectable. In their meta-analysis, the researchers found that similar percentages of the tumors in both groups responded to neoadjuvant therapy by shrinking or regressing and that about a fifth of the tumors in each group grew larger or metastasized during neoadjuvant therapy. In the group 1 studies, three-quarters of the tumors were resectable after neoadjuvant therapy (a decrease in the proportion of tumors that could be treated surgically) whereas in the group 2 studies, a third of the tumors were resectable after neoadjuvant therapy (an increase in the proportion of tumors that could be treated surgically). After resection, the average survival time for group 1 patients was 23.3 months, a similar survival time to that seen in patients treated with surgery and adjuvant therapy. The average survival time for group 2 patients after resection was 20.5 months.
What Do These Findings Mean?
The finding that the average survival time after neoadjuvant therapy and surgery in patients whose tumor was judged resectable before neoadjuvant therapy was similar to that of patients treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy after surgery suggests that for patients with resectable tumors, neoadjuvant therapy will not provide any clinical benefit. By contrast, the finding that a third of patients initially judged unresectable were able to undergo resection after neoadjuvant therapy and then had a similar survival rate to patients judged resectable before neoadjuvant treatment strongly suggests that patients presenting with locally advanced/unresectable tumors should be offered neoadjuvant therapy and then re-evaluated for resection. Randomized trials are now needed to confirm this finding and to determine the optimum neoadjuvant therapy for this group of patients.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000267.
The US National Cancer Institute provides information for patients and health professionals about all aspects of pancreatic cancer (in English and Spanish), including a booklet for patients
The American Cancer Society also provides detailed information about pancreatic cancer
The UK National Health Service and Cancer Research UK include information for patients on pancreatic cancer on their Web sites
MedlinePlus provides links to further resources on pancreatic cancer (in English and Spanish)
Pancreatica.org, PancreaticDuct.org, and the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network give more information to pancreatic cancer patients, their families, and caregivers
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000267
PMCID: PMC2857873  PMID: 20422030
4.  Clinical Efficacy of Including Capecitabine in Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(1):e53403.
Background
Capecitabine has proven effective as a chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer. Though several Phase II/III studies of capecitabine as neoadjuvant chemotherapy have been conducted, the results still remain inconsistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to obtain more precise understanding of the role of capecitabine in neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer patients.
Methods
The electronic database PubMed and online abstracts from ASCO and SABCS were searched to identify randomized clinical trials comparing neoadjuvant chemotherapy with or without capecitabine in early/operable breast cancer patients without distant metastasis. Risk ratios were used to estimate the association between capecitabine in neoadjuvant chemotherapy and various efficacy outcomes. Fixed- or random-effect models were adopted to pool data in RevMan 5.1.
Results
Five studies were included in the meta-analysis. Neoadjuvant use of capecitabine with anthracycline and/or taxane based therapy was not associated with significant improvement in clinical outcomes including: pathologic complete response in breast (pCR; RR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.87–1.40, p = 0.43), pCR in breast tumor and nodes (tnpCR RR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.83–1.18, p = 0.90), overall response rate (ORR; RR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.94–1.07, p = 0.93), or breast-conserving surgery (BCS; RR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.93–1.04, p = 0.49).
Conclusions
Neoadjuvant treatment of breast cancer involving capecitabine did not significantly improve pCR, tnpCR, BCS or ORR. Thus adding capecitabine to neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimes is unlikely to improve outcomes in breast cancer patients without distant metastasis. Further research is required to establish the condition that capecitabine may be useful in breast cancer neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053403
PMCID: PMC3536736  PMID: 23301067
5.  Impact of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy on Wound Complications after Breast Surgery 
Surgery  2012;152(3):382-388.
Background
Use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer is increasing. The objective was to examine risk of post-operative wound complications in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer.
Methods
Patients undergoing breast surgery from 2005–2010 were selected from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Patients were included if pre-operative diagnosis suggested malignancy and an axillary procedure was performed. A stepwise multivariable regression analysis of predictors of post-operative wound complications, overall and stratified by breast surgery type, was performed. Our primary variable of interest was receipt of neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Results
Of 44,533 patients, 4.5% received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Wound complications were infrequent with or without neoadjuvant chemotherapy (3.4% vs. 3.1%, p= 0.4). Smoking, functional dependence, obesity, diabetes, hypertension and mastectomy were associated with wound complications. No association with neoadjuvant chemotherapy was seen (OR 1.01 [CI 0.78–1.32]). However, a trend towards increased complications in neoadjuvant patients undergoing mastectomy with immediate reconstruction (OR 1.58 [CI 0.98–2.58]) was observed.
Conclusion
Breast post-operative wound complications are infrequent and not associated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. However, given the trend towards increased complications in patients undergoing mastectomy with immediate reconstruction, neoadjuvant chemotherapy should be one of many factors considered when making multidisciplinary treatment decisions.
doi:10.1016/j.surg.2012.05.001
PMCID: PMC3432709  PMID: 22739071
breast cancer; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; post-operative complications; wound infection
6.  Extending neoadjuvant care through multi-disciplinary collaboration: proceedings from the fourth annual meeting of the Canadian Consortium for Locally Advanced Breast Cancer 
Current Oncology  2012;19(2):106-114.
The use of systemic therapy before surgery (“neoadjuvant therapy”) is the standard of care for the treatment of locally advanced and nonoperable breast cancer. The advantages of neoadjuvant therapy include improved rates of breast-conserving surgery, the possibility of early measurement of response, and potentially improved outcomes for certain subgroups of high-risk patients. The use of neoadjuvant therapy in operable breast cancer is increasing, although there are no clear guidelines in Canada to help guide patient selection and management.
Multidisciplinary experts in the diagnosis and treatment of locally advanced breast cancer (labc) converged at the fourth annual meeting of the Canadian Consortium for LABC (colab) to further their goals of improved standards for neoadjuvant care and clinical research through education and collaboration. Canadian clinical researchers were joined by Dr. Michael Untch of the Helios Hospital Berlin–Buch—representing the German neoadjuvant treatment groups German Gynecologic Oncology Working Group (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynakologische Onkologie) and German Breast Group—to discuss the advancement of research in the neoadjuvant setting and important issues of clinical care and investigator-led research. The group reached a consensus on the importance of multidisciplinary collaboration, the use of clips to mark tumour location, and core biopsy testing for the estrogen and progesterone receptors and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 at the time of diagnosis. Other initiatives—including creation of a prospective database, inception of the colab Neoadjuvant Network, and development of a clinical survey to evaluate current practice—continue to further the colab mandate of transforming the neoadjuvant treatment landscape in Canada.
doi:10.3747/co.19.1045
PMCID: PMC3320223
Breast neoplasms; cancer treatment; clinical research; translational research; neoadjuvant therapy; surgery; radiation oncology; pathology
7.  Expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is associated with expression of hypoxia-inducible factors 1 and 2 alpha and predicts prognosis in locally advanced breast cancer 
Clinics  2013;68(5):592-598.
OBJECTIVE:
To analyze the expression of hypoxia-inducible factors (hypoxia-inducible factor 1A and hypoxia-inducible factor 2A) and aldehyde dehydrogenase proteins in patients with locally advanced breast carcinoma who were subjected to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
METHODS:
We included 90 patients with histologically confirmed stage II and III breast carcinoma who were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy between 2000 and 2005. Immunohistochemistry for aldehyde dehydrogenase, hypoxia-inducible factor 1A, and hypoxia-inducible factor 2A was performed before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We analyzed the influence of clinical and pathological features on clinical and pathological response, disease-free survival, and overall survival.
RESULTS:
An objective clinical response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy was observed in 80% of patients, with 12% showing a complete pathological response. Among all clinical and pathological parameters, only the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1A was associated with a pathological response. A positive association was found between expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase and that of hypoxia-inducible factor 1A before and after chemotherapy. Aldehyde dehydrogenase expression was associated with expression of hypoxia inducible-factor 2A in tumors after neoadjuvant treatment. In a univariate analysis, prognosis was influenced by age, pathological response, metastasis to axillary lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor 2, and the presence of aldehyde dehydrogenase-positive cells within the primary tumor after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In a multivariate analysis, only age and the presence of aldehyde dehydrogenase-positive cells after chemotherapy were associated with reduced overall survival.
CONCLUSION:
The presence of aldehyde dehydrogenase-positive cells within the residual tumor after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is associated with an increase in the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 2A and with poor prognosis in patients with locally advanced breast cancer.
doi:10.6061/clinics/2013(05)03
PMCID: PMC3654340  PMID: 23778413
Breast Cancer; Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy; Prognostic Factors
8.  Impact of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy on Breast Reconstruction 
Cancer  2011;117(13):2833-2841.
BACKGROUND
With advances in oncologic treatment, cosmesis after mastectomy has assumed a pivotal role in patient and provider decision making. Multiple studies have confirmed the safety of both chemotherapy before breast surgery and immediate reconstruction. Little has been written about the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on decisions about reconstruction.
METHODS
The authors identified 665 patients with stage I through III breast cancer who received chemotherapy and underwent mastectomy at Dana-Farber/Brigham & Women’s Cancer Center from 1997 to 2007. By using multivariate logistic regression, reconstruction rates were compared between patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (n = 180) and patients who underwent mastectomy before chemotherapy (n = 485). The rate of postoperative complications after mastectomy was determined for patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy compared with those who did not.
RESULTS
Reconstruction was performed immediately in 44% of patients who did not receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy but in only 23% of those who did. Twenty-one percent of neoadjuvant chemotherapy recipients and 14% of adjuvant-only chemotherapy recipients underwent delayed reconstruction. After controlling for age, receipt of radiotherapy, and disease stage, neoadjuvant recipients were less likely to undergo immediate reconstruction (odds ratio [OR], 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37, 0.87) but were no more likely to undergo delayed reconstruction (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.75, 2.20). Surgical complications occurred in 30% of neoadjuvant chemotherapy recipients and in 31% of adjuvant chemotherapy recipients.
CONCLUSIONS
The current results suggest that patients who receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy are less likely to undergo immediate reconstruction and are no more likely to undergo delayed reconstruction than patients who undergo surgery before they receive chemotherapy.
doi:10.1002/cncr.25872
PMCID: PMC3164976  PMID: 21264833
neoadjuvant chemotherapy; breast reconstruction; breast cancer; mastectomy; postoperative complications
9.  HER-2, p53, p21 and hormonal receptors proteins expression as predictive factors of response and prognosis in locally advanced breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant docetaxel plus epirubicin combination 
BMC Cancer  2007;7:36.
Background
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been considered the standard care in locally advanced breast cancer. However, about 20% of the patients do not benefit from this clinical treatment and, predictive factors of response were not defined yet. This study was designed to evaluate the importance of biological markers to predict response and prognosis in stage II and III breast cancer patients treated with taxane and anthracycline combination as neoadjuvant setting.
Methods
Sixty patients received preoperative docetaxel (75 mg/m2) in combination with epirubicin (50 mg/m2) in i.v. infusion in D1 every 3 weeks after incisional biopsy. They received adjuvant chemotherapy with CMF or FEC, attaining axillary status following definitive breast surgery. Clinical and pathologic response rates were measured after preoperative therapy. We evaluated the response rate to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and the prognostic significance of clinicopathological and immunohistochemical parameters (ER, PR, p51, p21 and HER-2 protein expression). The median patient age was 50.5 years with a median follow up time 48 months after the time of diagnosis.
Results
Preoperative treatment achieved clinical response in 76.6% of patients and complete pathologic response in 5%. The clinical, pathological and immunohistochemical parameters were not able to predict response to therapy and, only HER2 protein overexpression was associated with a decrease in disease free and overall survival (P = 0.0007 and P = 0.003) as shown by multivariate analysis.
Conclusion
Immunohistochemical phenotypes were not able to predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Clinical response is inversely correlated with a risk of death in patients submitted to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and HER2 overexpression is the major prognostic factor in stage II and III breast cancer patients treated with a neoadjuvant docetaxel and epirubicin combination.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-7-36
PMCID: PMC1820790  PMID: 17324279
10.  Safety of Minimally Invasive Esophagectomy (MIE) After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy and as Primary Resection at a Non-University Tertiary Care Center (NUTCC) 
Introduction:
Minimally invasive techniques for esophagectomy have improved patient outcomes while maintaining oncologic principles. Neoadjuvant therapy can provide sufficient tumor downstaging such that more patients are able to undergo R0 resection. The aim of this study was to assess the role of MIE in patients who undergo neoadjuvant therapy at a non-university tertiary care center (NUTCC).
Methods:
MIE by combined thoracoscopic and laparoscopic approaches performed cooperatively by two surgeons between September 2005 and August 2008 were reviewed. The patients were studied as two groups, one group that received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (group A) and the other receiving no neoadjuvant therapy (group B). Preoperative, intraoperative, postoperative, and histopathologic data were evaluated.
Results:
Thirty one (31) patients underwent minimally invasive esophagectomy for esophageal malignancies. Of these, 58% (18 patients) received neoadjuvant therapy; in the neoadjuvant therapy group, 61% of patients were preoperative stage IIA, 11% were stage IIB, and 28% were stage III. The median operating time was 286 minutes in the neoadjuvant group and 266 minutes in the non-neoadjuvant group. Median estimated blood loss (EBL) in the two groups was 300 mL (range, 100–700 mL) and 263 mL (range, 150–600 mL), respectively. Six (6) patients from the neoadjuvant group and only 2 from the non-neoadjuvant group received intraoperative transfusions. Extension to a mini-celiotomy was required in 2 of the neoadjuvant patients and none of the non-neoadjuvant patients. The median length of hospital stay (LOS) was 12 days (range, 8–22 d) and 11 days (range, 8–54 d) in the two groups, respectively. There was no mortality reported in the series and no evidence of anastomotic leak in either group. The rate of major morbidity was 67% vs. 54% in the neoadjuvant vs. non-neoadjuvant groups. Complete pathologic response (CR) on final histopathology was achieved in 6/18 patients (33%) receiving neoadjuvant therapy. Three patients had positive margins, all from the neoadjuvant group.
Conclusions:
MIE can be safely performed after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Pathologic CR can be achieved with a preoperative approach in 33% of patients with esophageal cancer. MIE should be considered as safe as open resection after preoperative treatment.
PMCID: PMC3047022
11.  Neoadjuvant Treatment in Patients with HER2-Positive Breast Cancer 
ISRN Oncology  2013;2013:362467.
Approximately 20%–25% of patients with breast cancer demonstrate amplification of the human epidermal receptor type 2 (HER2) gene, resulting in an overexpression of the HER2 receptor. This overexpression is associated with aggressive disease, relatively poor prognosis, and worse clinical outcomes. Neoadjuvant therapy is the standard treatment in patients with locally advanced, inflammatory, or inoperable primary breast cancer. It is generally used to downstage the tumors and therefore to improve surgical options including breast-conserving surgery rather than mastectomy. It has been confirmed that patients with pathological complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant treatment have better disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Neoadjuvant treatment can also serve as in vivo test of sensitivity to the used therapeutic regimen. The preferred neoadjuvant approach to patients with HER2-positive breast cancer is a sequential anthracycline-taxane-based chemotherapy in combination with trastuzumab. Addition of other anti-HER2 agents has increased pCR rate up to 75% and will probably become a new therapeutic direction. In the first part of this paper, we summarize the information about HER2-positive breast cancer, the various treatment possibilities, and the results of the major neoadjuvant trials. The second part focuses on the data concerning the importance of pCR and the potential risk of cardiotoxicity associated with this treatment.
doi:10.1155/2013/362467
PMCID: PMC3676960  PMID: 23762609
12.  Serum biomarker profiles and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced breast cancer 
Introduction
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has become the standard of care for the diverse population of women diagnosed with locally advanced breast cancer. Serum biomarker levels are increasingly being investigated for their ability to predict therapy response and aid in the development of individualized treatment regimens. Multianalyte profiles may offer greater predictive power for neoadjuvant treatment response than the individual biomarkers currently in use.
Methods
Serum samples were collected from 44 patients enrolled in a phase I–II, open-label study of liposomal doxorubicin and paclitaxel in combination with whole breast hyperthermia for the neoadjuvant treatment of locally advanced breast cancer (stage IIB or stage III). Samples were collected prior to each of four rounds of treatment and prior to definitive surgery. Samples were assayed by Luminex assay for 55 serum biomarkers, including cancer antigens, growth/angiogenic factors, apoptosis-related molecules, metastasis-related molecules, adhesion molecules, adipokines, cytokines, chemokines, hormones, and other proteins.
Results
Biomarker levels were compared retrospectively with clinical and pathologic treatment responses. Univariate analysis of the data identified several groups of biomarkers that differed significantly among treatment outcome groups early in the course of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed multibiomarker panels that could differentiate between treatment response groups with high sensitivity and specificity.
Conclusion
We demonstrate here that serum biomarker profiles may offer predictive power concerning treatment response and outcome in the neoadjuvant setting. The continued development of these findings will be of considerable clinical utility in the design of treatment regimens for individual breast cancer patients.
Trial registration
#NCT00346229.
doi:10.1186/bcr2096
PMCID: PMC2481492  PMID: 18474099
13.  T-bet expression in intratumoral lymphoid structures after neoadjuvant trastuzumab plus docetaxel for HER2-overexpressing breast carcinoma predicts survival 
British Journal of Cancer  2011;105(3):366-371.
Background:
In HER2-overexpressing breast cancer, accumulating preclinical evidences suggest that some chemotherapies, like trastuzumab, but also taxanes, are able to trigger a T helper 1 (Th1) anticancer immune response that contribute to treatment success. T helper 1 immune response is characterised by the expression of the transcription factor T-bet in CD4 T lymphocytes. We hypothesised that the presence of such T cells in the tumour immune infiltrates following neoadjuvant chemotherapy would predict patient survival.
Methods:
In a series of 102 consecutive HER2-overexpressing breast cancer patients treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy incorporating antracyclines or taxane and trastuzumab, we studied by immunohistochemistry the peritumoral lymphoid infiltration by T-bet+ lymphocytes before and after chemotherapy in both treatment groups. Kaplan–Meier analysis and Cox modelling were used to assess relapse-free survival (RFS).
Results:
Fifty-eight patients have been treated with trastuzumab–taxane and 44 patients with anthracyclines-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The presence of T-bet+ lymphocytes in peritumoral lymphoid structures after chemotherapy was significantly more frequent in patients treated with trastuzumab–taxane (P=0.0008). After a median follow-up of 40 months, the presence of T-bet+ lymphocytes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy confers significantly better RFS (log-rank test P=0.011) only in patients treated with trastuzumab–taxane. In this population, multivariate Cox regression model showed that only the presence of T-bet+ lymphocytes in peritumoral lymphoid structures after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was independently associated with improved RFS (P=0.04).
Conclusion:
These findings indicate that the tumour infiltration by T-bet+ Th1 lymphocytes following neoadjuvant trastuzumab–taxane may represent a new independent prognostic factor of improved outcome in HER2-overexpressing breast carcinoma.
doi:10.1038/bjc.2011.261
PMCID: PMC3172914  PMID: 21750556
T-bet; breast cancer; HER2; trastuzumab; docetaxel
14.  Does neoadjuvant chemotherapy increase breast conservation in operable breast cancer: an Egyptian experience 
ecancermedicalscience  2009;3:104.
Introduction:
The role of adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer is well established, as are its indications. Likewise, the role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer is well established. The use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in operable breast cancer has only recently become of interest to researchers.
Patients and methods:
This study included 34 cases of operable breast cancer that were given four cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the form of FEC100 then subjected to surgery. The surgery done was either breast conserving surgery or modified radical mastectomy. All patients completed the treatment regimen and no patients were excluded from the study. All surgical specimens were studied pathologically for chemotherapy effect.
Results:
An overall objective response was observed in 70.6% of the patients. Seven patients (20.6%) experienced a clinical complete response (cCR), 17 patients (50.0%) had partial response, nine patients (26.5%) had no change of their disease and only one patient had disease progression. Of the seven patients who had a cCR, only four patients (11.8%) had pathologic complete response (pCR), while pCR for the whole group was 14.7%(5/34). Tumour size of more than 2 cm was observed in 28 patients (82.4%) at time of presentation, while tumour size of 2 cm or less was seen in six patients (17.6%) only. After completion of the course of chemotherapy, 23 patients (67.6%) were observed to have tumours of 2 cm or less that allowed for less extensive resections. Twenty-three patients underwent breast conservative surgery (67.6%) while modified radical mastectomy was performed in 11 patients (32.4%).
Conclusion:
The use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in operable breast cancer in this study was associated with tumour and axillary downstaging, which increased the proportion of cases undergoing breast conservation, with acceptable side effects and reasonable cost. During the limited follow-up time of this study no loco regional recurrences were recorded and one distant treatment failure was recorded. Its impact if any on overall or disease-free survival was not addressed in this study. Larger multi-centre randomized studies with a long follow-up are needed to compare the overall and disease-free survival benefit of this treatment modality, especially in different subtypes stratified by pathological response.
doi:10.3332/ecancer.2008.104
PMCID: PMC3223990  PMID: 22275993
15.  High Expression of Class III β-Tubulin Predicts Good Response to Neoadjuvant Taxane and Doxorubicin/Cyclophosphamide-Based Chemotherapy in Estrogen Receptor–Negative Breast Cancer 
Clinical breast cancer  2012;13(2):103-108.
Class III β-tubulin (βIII-tubulin) has been associated with tumor response to taxane-based therapies in breast cancer. However its role in the neoadjuvant setting has not been explored. We evaluated βIII-tubulin expression by immunohistochemistry in 44 patients, and found high expression associated with good pathologic response in estrogen receptor–negative (ER−) breast cancers. Our results give strong reason to consider βIII-tubulin as a predictive biomarker for neoadjuvant chemotherapy response.
Background
Expression of class III β–tubulin (βIII-tubulin) correlates with tumor progression and resistance to taxane-based therapies for several human malignancies including breast cancer. However its predictive value in a neoadjuvant setting in breast cancer remains unexplored. The objective of this explorative study was to determine whether βIII-tubulin expression in breast cancer correlated with pathologic characteristics and whether its expression was predictive of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Patients and Methods
We determined βIII-tubulin expression in 85 breast cancers, including 41 localized breast cancers treated with primary surgery and 44 treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy before surgery. βIII-tubulin expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical methods and was correlated with pathologic characteristics and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy using residual cancer burden (RCB) score.
Results
High βIII-tubulin expression was significantly associated with poorly differentiated high-grade breast cancers (P = .003) but not with tumor size, estrogen receptor (ER) status, or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)/neu overexpression. In ER− tumors treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, high βIII-tubulin expression was associated with a significantly greater likelihood of achieving a good pathologic response to chemotherapy as reflected by lower RCB scores (P = .021).
Conclusion
This study reveals differential βIII-tubulin expression in breast cancers of different histologic grades, hormone receptors, and HER2/neu status. It also suggests a potential role for βIII-tubulin as a predictive biomarker for response in neoadjuvant chemotherapy for ER− breast cancer, which has not been previously reported. These data provide a strong rationale for considering βIII-tubulin status and further validation of this marker in a large study.
doi:10.1016/j.clbc.2012.11.003
PMCID: PMC4039021  PMID: 23218766
Breast cancer; Chemotherapy; Class III β-tubulin; Neoadjuvant; Predictive biomarker
16.  Letrozole in the neoadjuvant setting: the P024 trial 
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment  2007;105(Suppl 1):33-43.
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy trials have consistently reported lower response rates in hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer when compared with HR− cases. Preoperative endocrine therapy has therefore become a logical alternative and has gained considerable momentum from the finding that aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are more effective than tamoxifen for HR+ breast cancer in both the neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings. The most convincing neoadjuvant trial to demonstrate the superiority of an AI versus tamoxifen was the P024 study, a large multinational double-blind trial in postmenopausal women with HR+ breast cancer ineligible for breast-conserving surgery. The overall response rate (ORR) was 55% for letrozole and 36% for tamoxifen (P < 0.001). Significantly more letrozole-treated patients underwent breast-conserving surgery (45 vs. 35%, respectively; P = 0.022). In addition, ORR was significantly higher with letrozole than tamoxifen in the human epidermal growth factor receptor HER1/HER2+ subgroup (P = 0.0004). The clinical efficacy of letrozole in HER2+ breast cancer was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis and was found to be comparable to that of HER2− cases (ORR 71% in both subsets). Biomarker studies confirmed the superiority of letrozole in centrally assessed estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) tumors and found a strong relationship with the degree of ER positivity for both agents. Interestingly, letrozole was effective even in marginally ER+ tumors and, unlike tamoxifen, consistently reduced the expression from estrogen-regulated genes (progesterone receptor and trefoil factor 1). Furthermore, when analyzed by Ki67 immunohistochemistry, letrozole was significantly more effective than tamoxifen in reducing tumor proliferation (P = 0.0009). Thus, neoadjuvant letrozole is safe and superior to tamoxifen in the treatment of postmenopausal women with HR+ locally advanced breast cancer.
doi:10.1007/s10549-007-9701-x
PMCID: PMC2001223  PMID: 17912634
Neoadjuvant therapy; Aromatase inhibitor; Breast cancer; Endocrine therapy; Letrozole; Postmenopausal; Tamoxifen
17.  Study of Tumour Cellularity in Locally Advanced Breast Carcinoma on Neo-Adjuvant Chemotherapy 
Background: Breast cancer is the most common invasive malignancy which occurs in women worldwide. The advent of neoadjuvant chemotherapy has radically changed the management of locally advanced breast cancer and a complete response is reported to significantly improve disease free survival. Traditionally, clinical response is assessed on basis of tumour size. In this study, an attempt was made to check whether tumour cellularity could be a better prognostic factor and also to check as to what impact the correlation of tumour size with cellularity had on the response assessment in locally advanced breast cancer patients.
Materials and Methods: Thirty seven patients with locally advanced breast cancer, who were treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy during the period of December 2008 to May 2009, were selected for the study and from their case records, tumour size, clinical response and demographic details were gathered. Tumour cellularity was assessed prior to chemotherapy in core needle biopsy sections and it was matched with that seen in subsequent mastectomy specimens. Tumour size and cellularity were then correlated with the different treatment response groups and they were statistically analyzed by using the SPSS, version 13.0 software.
Results: After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the tumour size and cellularity were found to be significantly reduced in breast carcinomas (p<0.05, paired t-test). The relative changes in cellularity which were seen were highly variable between individual patients and different clinical response groups, particularly in the partial response and no response categories. The product of cellularity and size dramatically changed the distribution of residual tumour pathology, thus causing a shift towards a complete response.
Conclusion: The current study showed that the product of tumour size and cellularity may be a better prognostic indicator of clinical response in patients with neoadjuvant chemotherapy treated locally advanced breast cancer and that it would enable a new definition for clinical response in the future.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/7594.4283
PMCID: PMC4064915  PMID: 24959451
Tumour cellularity; Locally advanced breast cancer; Neoadjuvant chemotherapy
18.  Role of neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy in the treatment of breast cancer: a review of clinical trials 
The clinical benefits of endocrine therapy for patients with hormonosensitive breast cancer are well established. For many years, 5 years of tamoxifen was the gold standard of adjuvant treatment. The recent development of new endocrine agents provides physicians with a more effective therapeutic approach. Nevertheless, the success of neoadjuvant endocrine therapy is much more recent and less reported in the literature. This article reviews the studies published about neoadjuvant endocrine treatment (tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors). According to the literature, neoadjuvant endocrine therapy seems to be effective. In contrast to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, neoadjuvant endocrine therapy is well tolerated, with very few patients having to discontinue the treatment because of side effects. It does not constitute a standard treatment but could have potential for elderly women with operable, hormonosensitive, well differentiated and slowly progressing (SBR I) tumor or for patients with lobular MSBR 1 carcinoma (low chemosensitivity). The newer generation of aromatase inhibitors (letrozole, anastrozole, exemestane) appears to be more active (in terms of overall response rates and conservative surgery rate) than tamoxifen. Patients with an estrogen receptor Allred score of 6 and over are more likely to respond and gain a clinical benefit. The optimal duration of neoadjuvant therapy has not yet been investigated in detail. These preliminary results should be confirmed by further studies.
PMCID: PMC2840558  PMID: 20360896
aromatase inhibitors; breast cancer; endocrine therapy; neoadjuvant; tamoxifen
19.  Comparison of neoadjuvant adriamycin and docetaxel versus adriamycin, cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel in patients with operable breast cancer 
Purpose
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is the standard treatment for patients with locally advanced breast cancer and is increasingly considered for patients with operable disease. Recently, as many clinical trials have demonstrated favorable outcomes of anthracycline-taxane based regimen, this approach has been widely used in the neoadjuvant setting.
Methods
We compared women who received adriamycine and docetaxel (AD) with adriamycin, cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel (AC-T) as neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The AD group was scheduled for six cycles of AD (50 mg/m2 and 75 mg/m2, respectively) at a 3-week interval. The AC-T group was scheduled for four cycles of adriamycin and cyclophosphamide (50 mg/m2 and 500 mg/m2, respectively) followed by four cycles of paclitaxel (175 mg/m2) at a 3-week interval.
Results
The responses of chemotherapy were equivalent (overall response rate [AD, 75.7% vs. AC-T, 80.9%; P = 0.566], pathologic complete response [pCR] rate [breast and axilla: AD, 10.8% vs. AC-T, 12.8%; P = 1.000; breast only: AD, 18.9% vs. AC-T, 14.9%, P = 0.623], breast conserving surgery rate [P = 0.487], and breast conserving surgery conversion rate [P = 0.562]). The pCR rate in the breast was higher in the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive cases (HER2 positive 33.3% vs. negative 10%, P = 0.002). Although nonhematologic toxicities were comparable, hematologic toxicities were more severe in the AD group. Most women in the AD group suffered from grade 3/4 neutropenia (P < 0.001) and neutropenic fever (P < 0.001).
Conclusion
Tumor responses were not different in various variables between the two groups. However, AC-T was a more tolerable regimen than AD in patients with breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.1.7
PMCID: PMC3699689  PMID: 23833754
Breast neoplasms; Neoadjuvant therapy
20.  HER2 and ESR1 mRNA expression levels and response to neoadjuvant trastuzumab plus chemotherapy in patients with primary breast cancer 
Introduction
Recent data suggest that benefit from trastuzumab and chemotherapy might be related to expression of HER2 and estrogen receptor (ESR1). Therefore, we investigated HER2 and ESR1 mRNA levels in core biopsies of HER2-positive breast carcinomas from patients treated within the neoadjuvant GeparQuattro trial.
Methods
HER2 levels were centrally analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), silver in situ hybridization (SISH) and qRT-PCR in 217 pretherapeutic formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) core biopsies. All tumors had been HER2-positive by local pathology and had been treated with neoadjuvant trastuzumab/ chemotherapy in GeparQuattro.
Results
Only 73% of the tumors (158 of 217) were centrally HER2-positive (cHER2-positive) by IHC/SISH, with cHER2-positive tumors showing a significantly higher pCR rate (46.8% vs. 20.3%, P <0.0005). HER2 status by qRT-PCR showed a concordance of 88.5% with the central IHC/SISH status, with a low pCR rate in those tumors that were HER2-negative by mRNA analysis (21.1% vs. 49.6%, P <0.0005). The level of HER2 mRNA expression was linked to response rate in ESR1-positive tumors, but not in ESR1-negative tumors. HER2 mRNA expression was significantly associated with pCR in the HER2-positive/ESR1-positive tumors (P = 0.004), but not in HER2-positive/ESR1-negative tumors.
Conclusions
Only patients with cHER2-positive tumors - irrespective of the method used - have an increased pCR rate with trastuzumab plus chemotherapy. In patients with cHER2-negative tumors the pCR rate is comparable to the pCR rate in the non-trastuzumab treated HER-negative population. Response to trastuzumab is correlated to HER2 mRNA levels only in ESR1-positive tumors. This study adds further evidence to the different biology of both subsets within the HER2-positive group.
Introduction The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is the prototype of a predictive biomarker for targeted treatment [1-8]. International initiatives have established the combination of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization as the current gold standard [9,10]. As an additional approach determination of HER2 mRNA expression is technically feasible in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue [11-13]. Crosstalk between the estrogen receptor (ER) and the HER2 pathway has been suggested based on cell culture and animal models [14]. Consequently, the 2011 St Gallen panel has pointed out that HER2-positive tumors should be divided into two groups based on expression of the ER [15].
A retrospective analysis of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) B31 study has suggested that mRNA levels of HER2 and ESR1 might be relevant for the degree of benefit from adjuvant trastuzumab. By subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot (STEPP) analysis in ER-positive tumors, benefit from trastuzumab was shown to be restricted to those with higher levels of HER2 mRNA (S Paik, personal communication, results summarized in [15]).
In our study we evaluated this hypothesis in the neoadjuvant setting in a cohort of 217 patients from the neoadjuvant GeparQuattro trial [5]. All patients had been HER2- positive by local pathology assessment and had received 24 to 36 weeks of neoadjuvant trastuzumab plus an anthracycline/taxane-based chemotherapy. For central evaluation we used three different methods, HER2 IHC, and HER2 silver in situ hybridization (SISH), as well as measurement of HER2 mRNA by quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR [11].
The primary objective of this analysis was to investigate if pathological complete response (pCR) rate in HER2-positive breast cancer would depend on the level of HER2 mRNA expression, with a separate analysis for HR-positive and -negative tumors. Central evaluation of the HER2 status showed that 27% of the tumors with HER2 overexpression by local pathology were HER2-negative. This enabled us to compare response rates in patients with HER2-positive and -negative tumors as a secondary objective.
doi:10.1186/bcr3384
PMCID: PMC3672694  PMID: 23391338
21.  Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Is Associated with Improved Survival Compared with Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients with Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Only after Complete Pathologic Response 
Annals of surgical oncology  2011;19(1):253-258.
Introduction
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer that is known to be chemosensitive. In patients with TNBC, we sought to compare survival outcomes between patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy, with and without complete pathologic response (pCR), and those receiving adjuvant chemotherapy.
Methods
We performed a retrospective chart review and identified 385 patients with stage I–III TNBC who were treated with neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy between 2000 and 2008. Patients were divided according to receipt of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with pCR, neoadjuvant chemotherapy without pCR, and adjuvant chemotherapy. Data were compared using Fisher’s exact test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Kaplan–Meier curves were generated.
Results
Of 385 patients, 151 (39%) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 234 (61%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. Twenty-six (17%) of those patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy had pCR. After controlling for covariates associated with survival in unadjusted tests, patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy with residual tumor had significantly worse survival compared with patients receiving adjuvant therapy [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.51, P = 0.007] and a trend towards worse survival compared with patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy with pCR (HR = 0.19, P = 0.10).
Conclusions
Although previous clinical trials have not demonstrated a survival difference between patients receiving neoadjuvant versus adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer, our study suggests an overall survival benefit in patients with pCR following neoadjuvant chemotherapy compared with patients receiving adjuvant therapy. It is clear that a prospective study needs to be carried out to better elucidate the timing of chemotherapy in patients with TNBC.
doi:10.1245/s10434-011-1877-y
PMCID: PMC3892697  PMID: 21725686
22.  Lactate Dehydrogenase B: A Metabolic Marker of Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer 
Purpose
Although breast cancers are known to be molecularly heterogeneous, their metabolic phenotype is less well understood and may predict response to chemotherapy. This study aimed to evaluate metabolic genes as individual predictive biomarkers in breast cancer.
Methods
mRNA microarray data from breast cancer cell lines were used to identify bimodal genes – those with highest potential for robust high/low classification in clinical assays. Metabolic function was evaluated in vitro for the highest scoring metabolic gene, lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB). Its expression was associated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy response and relapse within clinical and PAM50-derived subtypes.
Results
LDHB was highly expressed in cell lines with glycolytic, basal-like phenotypes. Stable knockdown of LDHB in cell lines reduced glycolytic dependence, linking LDHB expression directly to metabolic function. Using patient datasets, LDHB was highly expressed in basal-like cancers and could predict basal-like subtype within clinical groups (odds ratio = 21 for hormone-receptor (HR)-positive/HER2-negative; odds ratio = 10 for triple-negative). Furthermore, high LDHB predicted pathological complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for both HR-positive/HER2-negative (odds ratio = 4.1, P < .001) and triple-negative (odds ratio = 3.0, P = .003) cancers. For triple-negative tumors without pCR, high LDHB post-treatment also identified proliferative tumors with increased risk of recurrence (hazard ratio = 2.2, P = .006).
Conclusions
Expression of LDHB predicted response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy within clinical subtypes independently of standard prognostic markers and PAM50-subtyping. These observations support prospective clinical evaluation of LDHB as a predictive marker of response for breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-0623
PMCID: PMC3727144  PMID: 23697991
breast cancer; LDHB; lactate; glycolysis; Warburg
23.  Phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase alpha catalytic subunit mutation and response to neoadjuvant endocrine therapy for estrogen receptor positive breast cancer 
Background
Mutations in the alpha catalytic subunit of phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PIK3CA) occur in ~30% of ER positive breast cancers. We therefore sought to determine the impact of PIK3CA mutation on response to neoadjuvant endocrine therapy.
Methods
Exon 9 (helical domain - HD) and Exon 20 (kinase domain- KD) mutations in PIK3CA were determined samples from four neoadjuvant endocrine therapy trials. Interactions with clinical, pathological and biomarker response parameters were examined.
Results
A weak negative interaction between PIK3CA mutation status and clinical response to neoadjuvant endocrine treatment was detected (N=235 P=<0.05), but not with treatment-induced changes in Ki67-based proliferation index (N=418). Despite these findings, PIK3CA KD mutation was a favorable prognostic factor for relapse-free survival (RFS log rank P=0.02) in the P024 trial (N=153). The favorable prognostic effect was maintained in a multivariable analysis (N=125) that included the preoperative prognostic index (PEPI), an approach to predicting RFS based on post neoadjuvant endocrine therapy pathological stage, ER and Ki67 levels (HR for no PIK3CA KD mutation, 14, CI 1.9–105 P=0.01).
Conclusion
PIK3CA mutation status did not strongly interact with neoadjuvant endocrine therapy responsiveness in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. Nonetheless, as with other recent studies, a favorable interaction between PIK3CA kinase domain mutation and prognosis was detected. The mechanism for the favorable prognostic impact of PIK3CA mutation status therefore remains unexplained.
doi:10.1007/s10549-009-0575-y
PMCID: PMC2810126  PMID: 19844788
24.  The Predictive Value of Serum HER2/neu for Response to Anthracycline-Based and Trastuzumab-Based Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy 
Journal of Breast Cancer  2012;15(2):189-196.
Purpose
Little information exists about the possible influence of serum HER2/neu on response to chemotherapy. We propose that the assessment of serum HER2/neu in a pretreatment serum sample may be useful in predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Methods
All breast cancer patients were tested by immunohistochemical stain and fluorescent in situ hybridization for HER2/neu before treatment. Serum HER2/neu was twice measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay (ADVIA Centaur System) before neoadjuvant chemotherapy and before operation. The cut-off value was 10.2 mg/mL, according to the previous study. Pathologic complete response (pCR) was considered as no residual tumor or remnant ductal carcinoma in situ; partial response (PR) was a less than 50% decrease in maximal diameter in pathologic tumor size. The measurements for the changes of serum HER2/neu were defined as pretreatment HER2/neu-preoperation HER2/neu. We compared the change of serum HER2/neu between that from before chemotherapy and that after chemotherapy, the pathologic complete response and partial response, and the trastuzumab group and anthracycline group.
Results
Serum HER2/neu was decreased after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The mean of serum HER2/neu in prechemotherapy was 15.4±9.0 ng/mL, and that of postchemotherapy was 10.5±2.0 ng/mL (p=0.04). Pathologic response was correlated with the change of serum HER2/neu (PR, 11.7±2.2 ng/mL vs. pCR, 23.7±13.1 ng/mL; p=0.01). In the trastuzumab group, pCR was marginally correlated with the change of serum HER2/neu (PR, 0.8±0.84 ng/mL vs. pCR, 21.1±13.2 ng/mL; p=0.08).
Conclusion
Serum HER2/neu levels during treatment were associated with pathologic response in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy, particularly, in a trastuzumab-based regimen. The change of serum HER2/neu levels may serve in monitoring neoadjuvant therapy in HER2/neu-overexpressed breast cancer.
doi:10.4048/jbc.2012.15.2.189
PMCID: PMC3395742  PMID: 22807936
Breast neoplasms; HER2/neu; Trastuzumab
25.  Current approaches for neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer 
European journal of pharmacology  2013;717(0):58-66.
Compared to adjuvant chemotherapy, the administration of the same regimen in the neoadjuvant setting provides women with identical improvements in disease free and overall survival. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy may offer benefits to properly selected women such as broadening surgical options and enhancing the likelihood of breast conservation. Assessment of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy provides women with an individualized estimate of prognosis. For example, a woman who achieves a complete pathological response following neoadjuvant chemotherapy has a very low risk of recurrence compared to a woman with similar tumor characteristics and a large residual disease. In this review we will provide a historical perspective and discuss the aims of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in primary operable breast cancer; as well as appropriate patient selection, treatment strategies, response monitoring, and postoperative care. We will also discuss the attractiveness of this approach to study the mechanism of action of standard and novel agents, and the role of predictive biomarkers of response to treatment and outcomes.
doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2013.02.057
PMCID: PMC3758450  PMID: 23545358
Breast cancer; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; preoperative chemotherapy; primary chemotherapy; pathological complete response; biomarkers

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