This study aimed to determine the clinicopathological features and treatment sensitivity of elderly breast cancer patients in China. The clinical data of 594 elderly breast cancer patients of 70 or more years of age were collected and compared to those of 657 patients of less than 70 years of age to analyze whether breast cancer in the elderly is different and whether the difference affected outcome. The median age was 75.2 years in the elderly patients and 49.8 years in the young patients. Age of menarche, parous status and body mass index were similar in the two groups. A higher frequency of steroid receptor-positive rate, a lower expression of HER-2 and p53, less axillary node-positive rate and earlier tumor stage were found in patients of 70 years or older. The 5-year relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) was 77 and 82% in the elderly and 86 and 93% in the young patients, respectively. Patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive or lymph node (LN)-negative cancers showed a more favorable outcome in the elderly patients. RFS and OS were increased in elderly patients who underwent endocrine therapy or omitted chemotherapy. Breast cancer in the elderly had more favorable tumor features, using estrogen receptor and lymph node status as prognostic factors. It was therefore concluded that adjuvant endocrine therapy may benefit elderly patients, while chemotherapy may not.
breast cancer; elderly patients; prognostic factor; survival
The study is to explore the histopathological features and the molecular marker expression of young women with breast cancers.
The pathological data of 367 cases of female breast cancer patients were retrospectively analyzed, focusing on the analysis of young breast cancer incidence trends and the clinical and pathological features.
Compared with elderly breast cancer patients, young women with breast cancers had larger tumor sizes, higher histological grades, and lymph node metastasis rates. The majority of patients were in the PTNM III stage, with the clinical and pathological features of strong invasiveness. The positive expression rate of the BRCA1 protein in the young group was higher than that in the old group. BRCA1 expression was positively correlated with the PTNM stage and axillary lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05).
The ectopic expression of BRCA1 is associated with the genesis, progression, and prognosis of young breast cancer patients.
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:
BRCA1; WWOX; Gene detection
C-reactive protein (CRP) is inversely related to prognosis in many cancers, however, no studies regarding the predictive value of CRP in small cell carcinoma of the esophagus (SCCE) are available. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of preoperative CRP in patients with SCCE.
From January 2001 to December 2010, a retrospective analysis of 43 consecutive patients with SCCE was conducted. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the prognostic parameters.
In our study, elevated CRP levels (>10 mg/L) were found in 16 patients (37.2%). CRP levels were significantly higher in patients with deeply invasive tumors (P = 0.018) and those associated with nodal metastasis (P = 0.018). Patients with CRP ≤10 mg/L had a significantly better overall survival than patients with CRP >10 mg/L (25.9% vs 6.3%, P = 0.004). Multivariate analyses showed that CRP was a significant predictor for overall survival. CRP >10 mg/L had a hazard ratio of 2.756 (95% confidence interval: 1.115–6.813, P = 0.028) for overall survival.
Preoperative CRP is an independent predictive factor for long-term survival in patients with SCCE.
C-reactive protein; esophageal cancer; small cell carcinoma; survival
Triple receptor-negative (TRN) breast cancer is associated with high risk of recurrence and poor prognosis. The present study assessed the clinicopathologic characteristics and ultrasound (US) features of TRN breast cancers.
Pathological and biological data were reviewed for 558 breast cancer patients treated at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, between January 2003 and December 2009. The patients were separated into TRN breast cancer and non-TRN breast cancer groups, based on the results of immunohistochemical prognostic panels. Clinical and pathologic features were compared for the two groups. US features, including shape, orientation, margins, boundaries, echo patterns, posterior acoustic features, surrounding tissues, and microcalcifications, were determined for 41 TRN patients and 189 non-TRN controls (ER+/PR+/HER2-).
Of 558 cases, 58 (10.4%) had the TRN phenotype. Four hundred and thirty-four cases (77.8%) were invasive ductal carcinomas. TRN cancer was significantly associated with specific characteristics of tumor size, nuclear grade, histologic grade, venous invasion, and lymphatic invasion. With respect to US features, TRN cancers were more likely to have an oval shape, a circumscribed margin, and marked hypoechogenicity.
Tumor characteristics were different between TRN and non-TRN breast cancers, although US cannot differentiate the subtype of breast cancers TRN cancer tend to show somewhat different US morphology.
Breast neoplasms; Hormone receptor; Pathology; Ultrasouography
This study investigated the expression and clinicopathological significance of CD9 in gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Immunohistochemistry staining for CD9 was performed on tumor tissues from 74 GIST patients. The correlation with clinicopathological features, risk classification and prognosis was analyzed. CD9-positive staining comprised 59.5% (44/74) of the GIST patients. The CD9-positive expression rate of the sample was significantly associated with diameter (P = 0.028), mitotic counts (P = 0.035), risk classification (P = 0.018) and three-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) (P < 0.001). Cox proportional hazards regression (HR = 0.352; P = 0.015) showed that CD9 is an independent factor for post-operative RFS. The subgroup analysis showed that CD9 expression in gastric stromal tumor (GST) is significantly associated with diameter (P = 0.031), risk classification (P = 0.023) and three-year RFS (P = 0.001). The Cox proportional hazards regression (HR = 0.104; P = 0.006) also showed that CD9 is an independent factor for RFS of GST. However, CD9 expression does not have a statistically significant correlation with clinicopathological features, risk classification, and prognosis in non-GST. In conclusion, CD9 expression in GIST appears to be associated with the recurrence and/or metastasis of GIST patients, especially in GST, which may indicate the important role of CD9 in the malignant biological behavior and prognosis of GST.
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors; Gastric Stromal Tumor; CD9; Immunohistochemistry; Prognosis
AIM: To investigate the expression of Erythropoietin (Epo) and its receptor (EpoR) in gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) and the correlation with angiogenesis and clinicopathological features.
METHODS: The expressions of Epo, EpoR and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), as well as microvessel density were evaluated in 172 GAC biopsies by immunohistochemical staining. The correlations between these parameters and patient’s clinicopathological features were analyzed statistically.
RESULTS: The proportion of Epo and EpoR alterations in GAC was higher than that in adjacent normal mucosa (P = 0.035 and 0.030). Epo high-expression was associated with EpoR high-expression, Lauren type, extensive lymph node metastasis and advanced stage of GAC (P = 0.018, 0.018, 0.004 and 0), while EpoR expression was linked with older age, World Health Organization type, extensive lymph node metastasis and advanced stage (P = 0.001, 0.013, 0.008 and 0.001). VEGF high expression was significantly correlated with EpoR low-expression, Lauren type, extensive lymph node metastasis and advanced stage (P = 0.001, 0.001, 0.001 and 0.007). The expression of Epo or EpoR was associated with microvessel density (P = 0.004 and 0.046). On multivariate analysis, only lymph node metastasis, abnormal Epo expression and tumor nodes metastases stage were independently associated with survival. In addition, a strong association with the immunohistochemical expression of EpoR and the angiogenic protein, VEGF, was noted.
CONCLUSION: Increased expression of Epo and EpoR may play a significant role in the carcinogenesis, angiogenesis and progression of GAC. Epo may be an independent prognostic factor.
Erythropoietin; Erythropoietin receptor; Gastric adenocarcinoma; Immunohistochemistry; Prognosis
Triple-negative breast cancer is a subtype of breast cancer with aggressive tumor behavior and distinct disease etiology. Due to the lack of an effective targeted medicine, treatment options for triple-negative breast cancer are few and recurrence rates are high. Although various multi-gene prognostic markers have been proposed for the prediction of breast cancer outcome, most of them were proven clinically useful only for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers. Reliable identification of triple-negative patients with a favorable prognosis is not yet possible.
Clinicopathological information and microarray data from 157 invasive breast carcinomas were collected at National Taiwan University Hospital from 1995 to 2008. Gene expression data of 51 triple-negative and 106 luminal breast cancers were generated by oligonucleotide microarrays. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed that the majority (94%) of triple-negative breast cancers were tightly clustered together carrying strong basal-like characteristics. A 45-gene prognostic signature giving 98% predictive accuracy in distant recurrence of our triple-negative patients was determined using the receiver operating characteristic analysis and leave-one-out cross validation. External validation of the prognostic signature in an independent microarray dataset of 59 early-stage triple-negative patients also obtained statistical significance (hazard ratio 2.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04–5.06, Cox P = 0.04), outperforming five other published breast cancer prognostic signatures. The 45-gene signature identified in this study revealed that TGF-β signaling of immune/inflammatory regulation may play an important role in distant metastatic invasion of triple-negative breast cancer.
Gene expression data and recurrence information of triple-negative breast cancer were collected and analyzed in this study. A novel set of 45-gene signature was found to be statistically predictive in disease recurrence of triple-negative breast cancer. The 45-gene signature, if further validated, may be a clinically useful tool in risk assessment of distant recurrence for early-stage triple-negative patients.
The incidence of breast cancer in young women (age < 35) is low. The biology of the disease in this age group is poorly understood, and there are conflicting data regarding the prognosis for these women compared to older patients.
We retrospectively analyzed 2040 consecutive primary invasive breast cancer patients who underwent surgical procedures at our institution between 1990 and 1999. The younger age group was defined as patients aged <35 years at the time of diagnosis. The clinicopathological characteristics and treatment outcomes were compared between younger and older age groups.
A total of 256 (12.5%) patients were aged <35. There was a significantly higher incidence of nuclear grade 3 and medullary histological-type tumors in younger patients compared to older patients. Axillary lymph node status, T stage, histological grade, c-erbB2 expression and estrogen receptor status did not differ significantly between the two age groups. Younger patients had a greater probability of recurrence and death at all time periods. Although there was no significant difference in disease-free survival between the two age groups in lymph node-negative patients, the younger group showed worse prognosis among lymph node-positive patients (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, young age remained a significant predictor of recurrence (p = 0.010).
Young age (<35) is an independent risk factor for relapse in operable breast cancer patients.
The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of step-serial sectioning (SSS) combined with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining in detecting micrometastasis of internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLNs).
Patients and Methods
135 IMLNs from 88 breast cancer patients were re-examined by SSS, combined with either H&E or IHC staining of the biomarkers cytokeratin-19 and epithelial membrane antigen.
Of the 135 IMLNs, 6 nodes from 5 cases displayed 1 or more micrometastases. Histological grade and lymphovascular invasion status were significantly correlated with micrometastasis in the IMLNs (p = 0.018 and 0.001, respectively). Of the 6 nodes positive for micrometastasis, 1 node was detected by both H&E and IHC staining. The remaining 5 nodes from 4 cases showed evident tumor cells only by IHC staining. Finally 8 of the 83 patients (9.64%) without IMLN metastasis showed distant metastasis, while 2 of the 5 patients (40%) with IMLN metastasis showed distant metastasis within 28 months of operation.
SSS combined with H&E and IHC staining is more efficient in detecting micrometastasis than classic routine single-slice H&E only.
Breast cancer; Internal mammary nodes; Micrometastasis; Step-serial sectioning
α-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing gastric cancer is a rare tumor with high rates of liver metastasis and a poor prognosis. Many studies have been performed but there have been no comprehensive investigations of the clinicopathological and prognosis.
Materials and Methods
Six hundred ninety four patients with gastric cancer who underwent a curative gastric resection in Hanyang University Hospital from February 2001 to December 2008 were evaluated retrospectively after excluding active or chronic hepatits, liver cirrhosis and preoperative distant metastasis. Among them, thirty five patients had an elevated serum level of AFP (>7 ng/ml) preoperatively. The clinicopathological features of AFP-producing gastric cancer were analyzed.
There was poorer differentiation, a higher incidence of lymph node metastasis, more marked lymphatic and vascular invasion in the AFP-positive group than in the AFP-negative group. The 5-year survival rate of the AFP-positive group was significantly poorer than that in the AFP-negative group (66% vs. 80%, P=0.002). A significantly higher incidence of liver metastasis was observed in the AFP-positive group than in the AFP-negative group (14.3% vs. 3.6%, P=0.002) with a shorter median time period from the operation to the metachronous liver metastasis (3.7 months vs. 14.1 months, P=0.043). Multivariate survival analysis revealed the depth of invasion, degree of lymph node metastasis and AFP-positivity to be the independent prognostic factors.
AFP-producing gastric cancers have an aggressive behavior with a high metastatic potential to the liver. In addition, their clinicopathological features are quite different from the more common AFP-negative gastric cancer.
Stomach neoplasms; Alpha-fetoproteins; Liver metastasis; Prognosis
Understanding the molecular factors that distinguish inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) from non-IBC is important for IBC diagnosis. We reviewed the records of 48 IBC patients and 64 non-IBC patients from Egypt. We determined RhoC expression and tumor emboli and their relationship to demographic and reproductive characteristics. Compared with non-IBC patients, IBC patients had significantly lower parity (P = 0.018) and fewer palpable tumors (P < 0.0001). IBC tumors showed RhoC overexpression more frequently than non-IBC tumors (87% vs. 17%, respectively) (P < 0.0001). Tumor emboli were significantly more frequent in IBC tumors than non-IBC tumors (Mean ± SD: 14.1 ± 14.0 vs. 7.0 ± 12.9, respectively) (P < 0.0001). This study illustrates that RhoC overexpression and tumor emboli are more frequent in tumors of IBC relative to non-IBC from Egypt. Future studies should focus on relating epidemiologic factors to molecular features of IBC in this population.
Inflammatory breast cancer; Tumor emboli; RhoC; Egypt; Developing countries
Luminal-type breast cancer has a good prognosis compared to other types, such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and triple negative types. Luminal-type breast cancer is classified into luminal A and B, according to the proliferation index. We investigated the clinicopathological factors that affect the prognosis of the luminal-type subgroups.
We reviewed the medical records and the pathologic reports of 159 luminal-type breast cancer patients who were treated between February 2005 and November 2007. We divided luminal-type breast cancer into luminal A and B, according to Ki-67 (cutoff value, 14%) and analyzed the clinicopathologic factors, such as age at diagnosis, intensity score of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, histologic grade, and Bcl-2. Moreover, we compared the disease-free survival (DFS) of each group.
In the univariate analysis, age (p=0.004), tumor size (p=0.010), lymph node metastasis (p=0.001), and Bcl-2 (p=0.002) were statistically significant factors in luminal-type breast cancer. In the multivariate analysis, lymph node (p=0.049) and Bcl-2 (p=0.034) were significant relevant factors in luminal-type breast cancer. In the subgroup analysis, the increased Bcl-2 (cutoff value, 33%) was related with a longer DFS in the luminal B group (p=0.004).
In our study, luminal A breast cancer showed a longer DFS than luminal B breast cancer, further, Bcl-2 may be a potent prognostic factor in luminal-type breast cancer.
Bcl-2; Breast neoplasms; Prognosis
Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) is rare. Its clinicopathologic features and prognosis are uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathologic characteristics and outcomes in comparison with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC).
Materials and Methods
We reviewed the data of 29 patients with MBC and 4,851 patients with IDC, who received surgery at Yonsei University Severance Hospital between 1980 and 2008. Various clinicopathologic features, recurrence free, and overall survival were investigated and compared to each other.
Stage IV cases at diagnosis were more common in MBC (10.3%) than in IDC (0.9%). The incidence rates of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) were significantly higher in MBC (84.0%) than in IDC (20.1%). Larger tumors (>2 cm) and lower tendency of axillary metastasis were frequently observed in MBC. Only one of 24 preoperative core needle biopsies (CNB) correctly diagnosed MBC. There was no significant difference in survival between the two groups.
MBC was characterized by a higher incidence of TNBC, larger tumor size, and lower tendency of axillary metastasis, and was difficult to diagnose with CNB. Although the incidence of stage IV disease at diagnosis was higher in MBC, the survival rates of stage I-III were comparable to those of IDC.
Breast neoplasms; metaplasia; survival; triple negative breast cancer
The clinicopathological features of gastric cancer (GC) differ between younger and older patients, and it is thought that younger patients have a worse prognosis than older patients due to delayed diagnosis and more aggressive tumor behavior. These characteristics, however, remain controversial. A total of 3,818 patients with pathologically confirmed primary gastric adenocarcinoma were treated at our institution. We analyzed the difference in demographic and clinicopathological characteristics between 169 young [≤40 years of age, younger group (YG)] and 3,649 older [>40 years of age, older group (OG)] GC patients. There was a significantly higher proportion of females in the YG compared with the OG (53.3 and 31.0%, respectively; P<0.0001). The 5-year overall survival of the YG was significantly lower compared to that of the OG (59.7 and 65.9%, respectively; P=0.049). However, YG patients with curative resection had a similar 5-year survival rate to OG patients with curative resection (88.0 and 85.8%, respectively; P=0.547). Female patients in the YG showed a significantly lower survival rate than males in the YG (44.3 and 73.1%, respectively; P=0.0002). Multivariate analyses revealed that macroscopic type, depth of invasion, peritoneal metastasis, distant metastasis and curative resection were independent prognostic factors for the YG with GC. Young GC patients who undergo curative resection do not have a worse prognosis than older patients. Early diagnosis is important in successfully carrying out a curative resection and offering a better prognosis, particularly in females.
gastric cancer; prognosis; young; elderly
Several studies have shown a positive association between body mass index (BMI) and the
development of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women; however,
the associations between BMI groups and molecular subtypes have yet to be well defined
in premenopausal breast cancer patients.
A total of 2465 female breast cancer patients diagnosed at our institution were
recruited for this study. Clinicopathologic information (including age, body height and
weight, as well as tumor subtypes and stages) was collected; analyses of these
characteristics and the associations between them were performed.
A total of 1951 cases were included in the study. The mean age was 47.3 years, the
majority of patients were of normal weight, premenopausal, had stage 2 cancer, and did
not present with positive nodes. The prevalence of the luminal A, luminal B, human
epidermal growth factor receptor 2+, and triple-negative subtypes were
57.8%, 11.6%, 6.1%, and 24.5%, respectively. There were
significant differences in the clinicopathologic features among BMI groups in
premenopausal patients. The case-only odds ratio (OR) analysis revealed that normal
weight patients tended to have luminal B cancer (OR = 1.4, P
= 0.206), and overweight and obese patients tended to have triple-negative
cancer in premenopausal patients (OR = 2.8, OR = 3.7, respectively;
P < 0.001).
In Chinese women, breast cancer came with these characteristics: young mean age
(premenopause), luminal A subtype, and the majority of them were within a normal weight
range. In premenopausal patients, underweight patients tended to have luminal A, lower
human epidermal growth factor receptor 2+ expression, stage 1 and no positive
node cancer. However, overweight and obese patients tended to have a triple-negative,
stage 3, and lymph node metastatic cancer.
breast cancer; body mass index; molecular subtype; Chinese
Curative surgery for patients with advanced or even early gastric cancer can be defined as resection of the stomach and dissection of the first and second level lymph nodes, including the greater omentum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short- and long- term outcomes of partial omentectomy (PO) as compared with complete omentectomy (CO).
Materials and Methods
Seventeen consecutive open distal gastrectomies with POs were initially performed between February and July in 2006. The patients' clinicopathologic data and post-operative outcomes were retrospectively compared with 20 patients who underwent open distal gastrectomies with COs for early gastric cancer in 2005.
The operation time in PO group was significantly shorter than that in CO group (142.4 minutes vs. 165.0 minutes, p=0.018). The serum albumin concentration on the first post-operative day in PO group was significantly higher than CO group (3.8 g/dL vs. 3.5 g/dL, p=0.018). Three postoperative minor complications were successfully managed with conservative treatment. Median follow-up period between PO and CO was 38.1 and 37.7 months. All patients were alive without recurrence until December 30, 2009.
PO during open radical distal gastrectomy can be considered a more useful procedure than CO for treating early gastric cancer. To document the long-term technical and oncologic safety of this procedure, a large-scale prospective randomized trial will be needed.
Partial omentectomy; gastric cancer; post-operative outcome; comparative study
Using the comprehensive approach to selecting polymorphisms to date, we sought to examine whether recurrence in colorectal cancer was associated with inherited variation in three genes involved in DNA repair and cell proliferation. Three polymorphisms, which are excision repair cross-complementation 1 (ERCC1), xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), were assessed in 257 postoperative stage II/III CRC patients with 5-fluorouracial chemotherapy in Taiwan. In addition, the correlations between genetic polymorphisms and patients’ clinicopathological features were investigated. Genotypes of XPD codon751 A/A and ERCC1 codon118 T/T were associated with regional recurrence in a statistically significant way (p = 0.018). Patients who carried XPD AA and ERCC1 TT genotypes demonstrated a significantly greater regional recurrence risk (OR = 5.625, 95% CI, 1.557–20.32). Inherited variation in XPD and ERCC1 was associated with outcome in patients with colorectal cancer in Taiwan. As the significant association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms has not been studied previously in colorectal cancer, these findings suggest novel sites of variation, in part explaining the range of treatment responses seen in this disease.
genetic polymorphism; XPD; ERCC1; colorectal cancer; regional recurrence
To determine the clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of gastric cancer in
young patients, a total of 1985 gastric cancer patients who had undergone gastrectomy at
our hospital were reviewed. The male-to-female ratio was significantly lower in the young
patients than in either the middle-aged (P < 0.0001) or elderly
patients (P < 0.0001). Undifferentiated carcinoma was observed more
frequently in the young patients compared with either the middle-aged (P
< 0.0001) or elderly patients (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, peritoneal
metastasis was observed more frequently in the young patients than in either the
middle-aged (P < 0.005) or elderly patients (P <
0.005). Five-year survival rates were 61.0, 73.6 and 68.1% in the young, middle-aged and
elderly patients, respectively. The prognosis of the middle-aged patients was
significantly better than that of either the young or the elderly patients
(P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that age was an
independent prognostic factor. Peritoneal recurrence was more frequently observed in the
young patients than either the middle-aged or the elderly patients (P
< 0.05). Gastric cancer in young patients has unique characteristics, namely, a
predominance of female patients and a high frequency of undifferentiated cancer and
peritoneal metastasis and recurrence.
age; gastric cancer; prognosis
Breast cancer research and treatment by different subtypes is an inevitable trend. We investigated the clinicopathologic features and outcomes of different breast cancer subtypes in Southern China. A total of 5809 patients with invasive ductal carcinomas were identified. Immunohistochemical (IHC) markers for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), Her2/neu, and Ki-67 proliferation index were used to classify cases into five molecular subtypes. Clinicopathologic characteristics and survival rates were analyzed retrospectively. Of all patients, 31.1% were luminal A subtype, 30.4% luminal B (high Ki-67), 13.1% luminal B (Her2/neu+), 9.0% Her2/neu and 16.5% triple negative subtype. Luminal B (high Ki-67) presented primarily in premenopausal patients with the lowest average age (43.0 years). Her2/neu positive tumors were more closely associated with aggressive features including increased tumor size, positive lymph node status and lymphvascular invasion (LVI). Triple negative subtype was characterized by poorer histologic grade. Her2/neu positive cases had presented the worst 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Multivariate analyses of OS and DFS suggested that there were different negative prognostic factors for the five subtypes. The benefit of the cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil (5FU) (CMF) regimen was equal to that of anthracycline-based and Taxane-based regimens for patients with luminal A subtype and triple negative subtype, but inferior to anthracycline-based and Taxane-based regimens for those with two luminal B subtypes and Her2/neu subtype. The prognostic significance of traditional markers may differ among subtypes. This study revealed the distinct clinicopathologic characteristics, systemic therapy benefits, prognostic factors and survival rate among different breast cancer subtypes.
Molecular classification of breast cancer is an important prognostic factor. The distribution of molecular subtypes of breast cancer and their prognostic value has not been well documented in Asians.
A total of 2,791 breast cancer patients recruited for a population-based cohort study were evaluated for molecular subtypes of breast cancer by immunohistochemical assays. Data on clinicopathological characteristics were confirmed by centralized pathology review. The average follow-up of the patients was 53.4 months. Overall and disease-free survival by molecular subtypes of breast cancer were evaluated.
The prevalence of the luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and triple-negative subtypes were 48.6%, 16.7%, 13.7%, and 12.9%, respectively. The luminal A subtype was more likely to be diagnosed in older women (P = 0.03) and had a stronger correlation with favorable clinicopathological factors (smaller tumor size, lower histologic grade, and earlier TNM stage) than the triple-negative or HER2 subtypes. Women with triple-negative breast cancer had a higher frequency of family history of breast cancer than women with other subtypes (P = 0.048). The 5-year overall/disease-free survival percentages for the luminal A, luminal B, HER2, and triple-negative subtypes were 92.9%/88.6%, 88.6%/85.1%, 83.2%/79.1%, and 80.7%/76.0%, respectively. A similar pattern was observed in multivariate analyses. Immunotherapy was associated with improved overall and disease-free survival for luminal A breast cancer, but reduced disease-free survival (HR = 2.21, 95% CI, 1.09-4.48) for the HER2 subtype of breast cancer.
The triple-negative and HER2 subtypes were associated with poorer outcomes compared with the luminal A subtype among these Chinese women. The HER2 subtype was more prevalent in this Chinese population compared with Western populations, suggesting the importance of standardized HER2 detection and anti-HER2 therapy to potentially benefit a high proportion of breast cancer patients in China.
Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) with radiotherapy has become a standard treatment for early stage breast cancer, since the installation of NSABP B-06. One of the serious problems in BCS is that of local recurrence. There are many risk factors for local recurrence, such as large tumor size, multiple tumors, axillary lymph node involvement, young age, high nuclear grade, and so on. The aim of this study is to identify patients with a higher risk of local recurrence of breast cancer.
Between January 2002 and December 2006, 447 patients with breast cancer, and who had undergone BCS with immediate breast reconstruction, were enrolled in the study. The follow-up period was 5 years from the time of operation and we analyzed local recurrence, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). The analysis included various clinicopathological factors such as age, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormone therapy, pathologic characteristics, and margin status. Statistical analysis was performed with log-rank test and Kaplan-Meier method. The p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.
The mean follow-up period was 88 months and local recurrence of breast cancer occurred only in 16 cases (3.6%). The actual 5-year DFS, and OS rates were 90.6% and 93.3%, respectively. For the local recurrence of breast cancer, positive margin status, multiple margin positivity, conversed margin cases, T/N stages showed statistical significance in univariate analysis. However, only multiple margin positivity was identified as an independent risk factor for local recurrence in multivariate analysis.
When the multiple margin positivity is diagnosed on intraoperative frozen biopsy, surgeons should consider a much wider excision of the breast and a more aggressive management.
Breast neoplasms; Local neoplasm recurrence; Segmental mastectomy
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), a subtype distinguished by negative immunohistochemical assays for expression of the estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER/PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2(HER2) represents 15% of all breast cancers. Patients with TNBC generally experience a more aggressive clinical course with increased risk of disease progression and poorer overall survival. Furthermore, this subtype accounts for a disproportionate number of disease-related mortality in part due to its aggressive natural history and our lack of effective targeted agents beyond conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. In this paper, we will review the epidemiology, risk factors, prognosis, and the molecular and clinicopathologic features that distinguish TNBC from other subtypes of breast cancer. In addition, we will examine the available data for the use of cytotoxic chemotherapy in the treatment of TNBC in both the neoadjuvant and adjuvant setting and explore the ongoing development of newer targeted agents.
Vitamin D deficiency may be an indicator of poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer before surgery. We investigated the association between serum vitamin D concentration and breast cancer prognosis according to intrinsic cancer subtypes.
From June to December 2006, serum 25-OHD was measured in 310 Korean women with breast cancer who were treated at the Asan Medical Center, Korea. Clinicopathologic data were examined to determine the prognostic effects of serum 25-OHD. Expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2) were measured using tissue microarrays. Patients were classified with luminal A, luminal B, Her2-enriched, or basal-like subtypes of breast cancer.
Mean patient age was 48.7 years, and mean serum 25-OHD concentration was 31.4 ± 16.1 ng/ml. The 25-OHD levels were deficient (< 20 ng/ml) in 75 patients (24.2%), insufficient (20–29 ng/ml) in 95 (30.6%), and sufficient (30–150 ng/ml) in 140 (45.2%). Women with deficient 25-OHD levels were at increased risk of recurrence compared with those with sufficient vitamin D levels (P = 0.002). The 25-OHD concentration was inversely associated with prognosis of patients with cancer of the luminal A (P = 0.012) and luminal B subtypes (P = 0.023), but not with the prognosis of patients with Her2/neu-enriched (P = 0.245) or triple-negative (P = 0.879) cancer subtypes. This association remained valid after adjustment for age, tumor size, nodal status, and estrogen receptor status (hazards ratio = 3.97; 95% confidence interval = 1.77–9.61).
Vitamin D deficiency may be associated with poor outcomes in patients with luminal-type breast cancer.
To evaluate the clinicopathologic features of renal cell carcinoma in younger adults (≤40 years), we retrospectively reviewed 838 consecutive cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) occurred in a single tertiary hospital. Forty-four 44 (5.2%) cases occurred in the young adult group (24 to 40 years of age). Clinicopathologic features including tumor size, stage, histologic subtype, lymph node and distant metastasis, and overall survival were compared with that of cases occurred in older age group (>40 years). The tumor size of the young adult group were smaller (5.3 vs 5.9 cm) and presented at less advanced stages (T3/T4 tumors, 18% vs 31%) than those occurring in the older age group (>40 years of age). The incidences of chromophobe RCC (12% vs. 6%) and of collecting duct carcinoma (5% vs 0.5%) were higher in the young adult group. The rate of nodal or distant metastasis was lower in young adult group (5% vs. 8.3%). More patients underwent partial nephrectomy in younger than older age group (30% vs 19%). There was no overall survival difference at 5 years (77% vs 70%), but there was a trend for a favorable survival in young adults at 10 years (77% vs 52%). In conclusion, RCC are relatively infrequent in patients who are younger than 40 years. The tumors in this group appear to be smaller and less advanced at presentation. Chromophobe RCC and collecting duct carcinoma are more frequently seen. More patients undergo partial nephrectomy and overall long term survival appears to be more favorable.
Renal cell carcinoma; young adult; partial nephrectomy; chromophobe RCC; collecting duct carcinoma
Background. Immunohistochemical markers were often used to classify breast cancer into subtypes. The aim of this study was to estimate death and tumor progression for patients with the major subtypes of breast cancer as classified using immunohistochemical assay and to investigate the patterns of benefit from the therapies over the past years. Methods. The study population included primary, operable 199 invasive ductal breast cancer patients, with the median age of 51.1 years old. All patients underwent local and/or systemic treatments. The clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcomes were retrospectively reviewed. The expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, and Ki67 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. All patients were classified into the following categories: luminal A, luminal B, HER2 overexpression, and triple-negative subtypes.
Result. The median follow-up time was 33 months. Luminal A tumors had the lowest rate of tumor progression (0%, P = 0.006), while luminal B, HER2 over-expression, and triple-negative subtypes were associated with an increased risk of tumor progression (15.4, 19.2, 15.4%). Clinicopathological subtypes retained independent prognostic significance (P = 0.008). There were significant differences by Cox model analyzed in age, menopause, lymph node metastasis, and HER2 for the event of death and tumor progression (P < 0.05), and there were significant differences only in chemotherapy for the event, respectively (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Clinicopathological subtypes of breast cancer could robustly identify the risk of death and tumor progression and were significant in making therapeutic decision. HER2 was the important poor indicator. The chemotherapy intensity would be enhanced for patients with luminal B, especially for HER2 over-expression subgroup.