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1.  Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland 
Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is an uncommon tumor, highly aggressive. About 200 cases have been reported in the English literature. Pathomorphologically, these tumors showed great similarities to ductal carcinoma of the female breast, which is why they described this tumor as “salivary duct carcinoma.” The authors describe a new case of salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland. We present the case of a 50-year-old patient with progressive facial paralysis. The MRI examination of the head showed two ill-defined formations. A malignant tumor was strongly suspected, so that a total left parotidectomy with excision of the adjacent facial nerve and left lymph node dissection was performed. Microscopic examination concluded to a salivary duct carcinoma of the left parotid gland negative with Her2/neu antibody with lymph node metastasis. There were no recurrences or metastases within 3 years of follow-up. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is a rare tumor with an aggressive behavior. This is due to its propensity to infiltrate distant organs. The diagnosis is based on microscopic examination. Treatment modalities are non-consensual, but some authors advocate the necessity of aggressive approach, especially in tumors negative with Heur2/neu antibody. This is due to the fact that the overexpression of this antigen was reported to be associated with a poor prognosis.
doi:10.4103/0973-029X.92992
PMCID: PMC3303509  PMID: 22434951
Parotid gland; salivary duct carcinoma; treatment
2.  Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the parotid metastasizing to liver: case report 
BMC Cancer  2004;4:41.
Background
Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a rare malignant parotid tumor. Metastasis can occur even a decade or more after initial treatment of the primary.
Case presentation
We report a 60 year old female patient who presented with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the parotid gland. She underwent a total conservative parotidectomy followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. While on follow up, patient developed multiple liver metastases which manifested three years later. Patient lived for another two years before she died of her disease.
Conclusions
Although distant metastases of adenoid cystic carcinoma develop frequently, isolated metastasis to liver is unusual. Even after manifestation of distant metastasis, patients can be expected to live for a number of years. Palliative chemotherapy can be considered in symptomatic cases while the usefulness of metastatectomy is controversial.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-4-41
PMCID: PMC509249  PMID: 15285782
3.  Metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma to the parotid gland: Case report and review of the literature 
INTRODUCTION
Hepatocellular carcinoma, the most frequent primary hepatic tumor, metastasizes in more than 50% of cases. However, parotid gland metastatic HCCs are very uncommon. We report a patient in whom the finding of a left parotid mass revealed metastatic HCC.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A thirty-six-year-old male presented with a round palpable left neck mass that persisted for 3 months. He had received right hemihepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Preoperative evaluation revealed a benign tumor of the parotid gland. We performed superficial parotidectomy. Metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma of the parotid gland was diagnosed.
DISCUSSION
Although HCC metastases to the oral cavity have been reported, to date, only 4 cases HCC metastasis to the parotid gland have been reported. Although clinicians and cytopathologists alike both agree that salivary gland fine needle aspiration biopies (FNABs) are highly useful and safe diagnostic alternatives to biopsies and resections, we believe that in specific clinical situations, awareness of potential diagnostic pitfalls in salivary gland FNAB is a necessary part of the microscopic interpretations of these lesions.
CONCLUSION
Although rare, since HCC can metastasize to the parotid gland, high suspicion should be maintained in a patient presenting with a parotid mass with a history of HCC. In addition, since potential diagnostic pitfalls in salivary gland fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies exist, incisional or excisional biopsy may be necessary for definite diagnosis of metastatic HCC to the parotid gland.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2012.08.018
PMCID: PMC3537927  PMID: 23123420
HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; FNA, fine-needle aspiration; Metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma; Parotid gland; Fine-needle aspiration
4.  Isolated late metastasis from testicular seminoma presenting as a parotid gland mass: case report and review of the literature 
Current Oncology  2013;20(4):e354-e358.
Parotid metastases from non–head-and-neck cancers are rare and may represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. A late metastasis to the parotid gland from a seminoma is an unusual manifestation of disease. A 45-year-old man with a history of testicular seminoma 5 years earlier presented with a rapidly progressing parotid mass. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a space-occupying lesion at the angle of the right jaw. The mass was infiltrating into the parotid gland and into the parapharyngeal space. A primary parotid neoplasm was suspected, and panendoscopy combined with open biopsy was performed. Histology examination confirmed a seminoma metastatic to the parotid gland, and comparison with the primary tumour showed identical histology. The patient received chemotherapy for recurrent seminoma in accordance with the pei (cisplatin, etoposide, ifosfamide) protocol. After 4 courses of chemotherapy, salvage radical parotidectomy with removal of all suspicious residual tumour tissue was performed.
This case illustrates the difficulties that may be encountered in the differential diagnosis of parotid gland masses and underlines the necessity for a detailed clinical history and for strong interdisciplinary collaboration between oncologists and pathologists to correctly diagnose cases with such unusual presentations.
doi:10.3747/co.20.1489
PMCID: PMC3728065  PMID: 23904775
Seminoma; parotid gland; late metastasis
5.  Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection within a Warthin Tumor: A Case Report and Literature Review 
Context:
The co-existence of tuberculosis and a Warthin tumor in the parotid gland is extremely rare.
Case Report:
A 46-year-old male presented with a mass in the left parotid region of 6-month duration. The patient's history was only remarkable for a facial swelling, night sweats and a 38.5 C° fever. A 2 × 3-cm mobile, non-tender, mass with a smooth surface was palpated on left parotid tail. CT examination showed a well-defined 30 mm in diameter tumor mass in the left superficial lobe of the parotid gland. A superficial parotidectomy was performed. The final pathological diagnosis of the parotidectomy specimen was reported as a Warthin tumor and epitheloid granulomas with caseification necrosis. Purified protein derivative (PPD) was 30 mm in enduration. Two weeks after the antituberculosis treatment fever declined to normal values and night sweats decreased.
Conclusion:
Tuberculosis can also be seen in parotid tumors which can coexist or mimic pleomorphic adenoma, Warthin tumor.
doi:10.4103/1947-2714.120801
PMCID: PMC3842706  PMID: 24350077
Tuberculosis; Warthin tumor; Parotid gland
6.  Extended parotidectomy 
Summary
Malignant tumours of the parotid gland represent a group of relatively rare lesions. The medical records of 363 patients with parotid swelling treated between 1974 and 2003 at the “G. Ferreri” Department of Otorhinolaryngology, “La Sapienza” University in Rome were retrospectively analysed. Clinical presentation, pre-operative investigations, surgical procedure, histopathology report, post-operative complications, and the oncological results of 19 patients who underwent extended radical parotidectomy for malignant neoplasm of the parotid gland are discussed. Extended radical parotidectomy, reserved for neoplasms in an advanced stage, involves the removal of the entire parotid gland, with sacrifice of the facial nerve and the resection en bloc of the adjacent structures affected by neoplastic infiltration, such as the temporal bone, the mandibular bone, the skin, blood vessels and nerves. In addition to this surgical treatment, a cycle of adjuvant radiotherapy is also necessary. The overall rate of survival at 10 years depends mainly on the histological characteristics of the tumour, and, in this series, is reported to be approximately 58%. These data indicate that total extended radical parotidectomy combined with post-operative radiotherapy, represents the best therapeutic approach with regard both to quality of life and life expectancy, in patients with an advanced stage of malignant neoplasm of the parotid gland.
PMCID: PMC2639865  PMID: 16450772
Parotid gland; Malignant tumours; Treatment; Extended parotidectomy
7.  Features of a giant cell tumour of the parotid gland: A case report 
Oncology Letters  2013;6(3):829-832.
A giant cell tumour (GCT) is a benign tumour that commonly arises in the distal end of the long bones. Extraosseous GCTs have been reported in a number of organs, but it is rare for a GCT to present in the parotid gland. Therefore, primary GCTs of the parotid gland (GCTPs) are extremely rare. Although GCTPs have been identified as benign soft-tissue tumours, they have a highly malignant potential and poor prognosis. In the present case, we report a 58-year-old male patient presenting with non-tender mass over the left preauricular area for 11 months. The final pathology report revealed a rare case of a GCTP that was treated by parotidectomy and adjuvant radiation therapy. The patient had no recurrence after 2 years of follow-up.
doi:10.3892/ol.2013.1462
PMCID: PMC3788856  PMID: 24137419
giant cell tumour; parotid gland tumours
8.  Lipomatous hemangiopericytoma (adipocytic variant of solitary fibrous tumor) of the parotid gland: A case report and review of the literature 
Oncology Letters  2013;6(5):1380-1382.
The current study presents the first case of a lipomatous hemangiopericytoma (LHPC) developing in the parotid gland in a 33-year-old male. The patient presented with a 4-year history of a progressively growing painless and fixed mass in the left paratid gland region. The patient underwent radical parotidectomy and was followed-up for 12 months without any evidence of metastasis or recurrence. LHPC, a controversial rare HPC variant, is histologically characterized by a varying admixture of hemangiopericytomatous vasculature and the presence of mature adipocytes. To date, 51 cases of LHPC have been documented in the literature. Although the boundary between HPC and solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) has become increasingly blurred, neither of these variant growth patterns has previously been recognized in the parotid gland.
doi:10.3892/ol.2013.1538
PMCID: PMC3813809  PMID: 24179528
parotid gland; lipomatous hemangiopericytoma; hemangiopericytoma; solitary fibrous tumor; immunohistochemistry
9.  Primary parotid gland lymphoma: a case report 
Introduction
Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas are the most common lymphomas of the salivary glands. The benign lymphoepithelial lesion is also a lymphoproliferative disease that develops in the parotid gland. In the present case report, we describe one case of benign lymphoepithelial lesion with a subsequent low transformation to grade mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma appearing as a cystic mass in the parotid gland.
Case presentation
A 78-year-old Caucasian female smoker was referred to our clinic with a non-tender left facial swelling that had been present for approximately three years. The patient underwent resection of the left parotid gland with preservation of the left facial nerve through a preauricular incision. The pathology report was consistent with a low-grade marginal-zone B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma) following benign lymphoepithelial lesion of the gland.
Conclusions
Salivary gland mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic or bilateral salivary gland lesions. Parotidectomy is recommended in order to treat the tumor and to ensure histological diagnosis for further follow-up planning. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy should be considered in association with surgery in disseminated forms or after removal.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-5-380
PMCID: PMC3170354  PMID: 21843311
10.  Oncocytic carcinoma of the parotid gland with late cervical lymph node metastases: a case report 
Introduction
Oncocytic carcinoma is a rare proliferation of cytomorphologically malignant oncocytes mainly found in glandular tissue, accounting for 0.5% of all epithelial salivary gland malignancies and 0.18% of all epithelial salivary gland tumors.
Case presentation
We report a case of oncocytic carcinoma arising in the parotid gland of a 65-year-old Caucasian man. Our patient initially underwent left superficial parotidectomy, including the removal of the mass. A close follow-up was made, and four years after first surgery cervical lymph node metastases were confirmed. Therefore, a complete parotidectomy and radical neck dissections were performed. There were no complications and no sign of recurrence after six months of follow-up.
Conclusion
Oncocytic carcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy in the salivary glands. Prophylactic neck dissection may be indicated for tumors larger than 2 cm in diameter (our patient's tumor was 2.5 cm at its greatest diameter). The clinical course of our patient, with the appearance of cervical lymph node metastases after four years of follow-up, supports this approach. Further investigation of the prognosis and correct treatment of patients with oncocytic carcinoma are required as more cases are reported.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-5-11
PMCID: PMC3031237  PMID: 21241488
11.  Metastatic Parotid Myoepithelial Carcinoma in a 7-Year-Old Boy 
Case Reports in Pediatrics  2012;2012:212746.
Myoepithelial carcinoma is a rare malignancy of the parotid gland that is usually seen in adults. We report the first case in children of myoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid gland with massive invasion of the facial nerve and metastasis to cervical lymph nodes. Due to its rarity, the treatment and the clinical course of this tumor are not well defined yet. We performed a total parotidectomy, a modified neck dissection, and a postoperative radiotherapy in 7-year-old boy. Sparing of the facial nerve was impossible; it was sacrificed and grafted with a sural nerve. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of a parotid gland carcinoma and immunohistochemical markers showed that the tumor cells express cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratin 7, smooth muscle actin, P63, CEA, and S100. This pattern of immunostaining is consistent with the diagnosis of myoepithelial carcinoma. On the postoperative tenth month he presented with a pulmonary and lumbar vertebra metastasis.
doi:10.1155/2012/212746
PMCID: PMC3449109  PMID: 23008793
12.  Late Simultaneous Metastasis of Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Submandibular and Thyroid Glands Seven Years after Radical Nephrectomy 
Background. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metastasis to the salivary glands is extremely rare. Most cases reported previously have involved the parotid gland and only six cases involving the submandibular gland exist in the current literature. Metastasis of RCC to thyroid gland is also rare but appears to be more common than to salivary glands. Methods and Results. We present the first case of simultaneous metastasis to the submandibular and thyroid glands from clear cell RCC in a 61-year-old woman who presented seven years after the primary treatment. The submandibular and thyroid glands were excised completely with preservation of the marginal mandibular and recurrent laryngeal nerves, respectively. Conclusion. Metastatic disease should always be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients who present with painless salivary or thyroid gland swelling with a previous history of RCC. If metastatic disease is confined only to these glands, prompt surgical excision can be curative.
doi:10.1155/2010/698014
PMCID: PMC2913808  PMID: 20706636
13.  Acinic cell carcinoma in pregnancy: a case report and review of the literature 
Introduction
We report an observational study on the etiology and recurrence of acinic cell carcinoma of the parotid gland that seemed to be related to pregnancy. The medical literature has never reported such an association; therefore, our case report is probably the first to mention this observation.
Case presentation
This report is of a 25-year-old Arabic female patient from the United Arab Emirates, who, during her first pregnancy, developed acinic cell carcinoma of the right parotid gland that was managed with surgical excision in the form of superficial parotidectomy. During her second pregnancy, which occurred four years later, she had a recurrence of the same malignant neoplasm associated with ipsilateral malignant cervical lymphadenopathy. The patient was managed with total parotidectomy and neck dissection, as well as postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy. Our observation on this particular case of acinic cell carcinoma is that the initial onset of her neoplasm was during her first pregnancy, and the recurrence of the same malignant disease was during a subsequent pregnancy. This chronologic association raised our suspicion that there might be a possible etiologic effect of pregnancy or its associated hormonal or physiologic changes or both on the pathogenesis or etiology of acinic cell carcinoma.
Conclusion
Some association might exist between pregnancy and the pathogenesis or etiology of acinic cell carcinoma.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-5-91
PMCID: PMC3058089  PMID: 21375732
14.  Primary parotid tuberculosis mimicking parotid neoplasm: a case report 
Introduction
Tuberculosis of the parotid gland is a rare clinical entity which causes some difficulties in diagnosis because of the similarities in presentation to that of a neoplasm. Diagnosis mainly relies in the treating physician having a high index of suspicion. The diagnosis is generally overlooked by otolaryngologists and most cases are undergoing unnecessary surgery.
Case presentation
A 20-year-old male presented with a mass in the right parotid region. The mass had been present for one year. Physical examination revealed a mobile, non-tender mass occupying the superficial lobe of the right parotid gland. Radiologic investigations revealed a well-defined, solid, mass lesion located in the posterior part of the superficial lobe of the right parotid gland. A provisional diagnosis of a neoplasm of the parotid gland was made and a right superficial parotidectomy was performed. Histopathologic examination of the specimen was reported as tuberculosis of the parotid gland. The patient was commenced on antitubercular chemotherapy.
Conclusion
Although rare, tuberculosis should be kept in mind and considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with a solitary tumor in the parotid gland in order to avoid unnecessary surgery.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-2-62
PMCID: PMC2267472  PMID: 18302769
15.  THE MRI FINDINGS OF IRIS METASTASIS IN PATIENTS WITH BREAST CANCER 
Acta Informatica Medica  2012;20(4):259-260.
Breast cancer and lung cancer are the most common tumors that metastasize to iris. The metastasis of iris was generally diagnosed on ophthalmologic examination. In this case, we reported iris metastasis of patients with adenocarcinoma of breast cancer and MRI findings. We report a case of a 51-year-old. She was diagnosed breast cancer two years ago. After adjuvant chemotherapy, radiotherapy and trastuzumab, she was admitted to hospital with the complaints of headache on February 2012. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI ) revealed multiple brain metastasis. Whole brain radiotherapy and palliative chemotherapy were applied to the patients. In follow-up, on ophthalmological examination, there was a solid lesion on iris. The orbital MRI was performed and it revealed the thickness on iris of left eye. After diagnostic procedure final pathological rewiev reported that invasive ductal carcinom metastasis. Iris metastasis may be considered by MRI findings following: The thickness on iris and contrast enhanced lesion. This reason may be resulted that the fine niddle aspiration biopsy for diagnosis of iris metastasis is not need.
doi:10.5455/aim.2012.20.259-260
PMCID: PMC3558288  PMID: 23378695
Iris; metastasis; breast cancer; magnetic resonance.
16.  Prominent mucoid degeneration of the parotid gland in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus 
Lupus erythematosus (LE) can cause various cutaneous lesions including panniculitis (LE profundus), but salivary gland involvement has been extremely rare in patients with LE. Herein, we report the first documented case of systemic LE with prominent mucoid degeneration and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in the parotid gland. A 38-year-old Japanese male with histories of autoimmune hemolytic anemia and systemic LE presented with a swelling of the bilateral cervical region. A physical examination revealed a swelling of the bilateral parotid gland and erythema of the right cheek. A biopsy specimen of the cheek demonstrated LE profundus with mucoid material deposition in the dermis. A biopsy specimen of the parotid gland showed lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and prominent mucoid material deposition within the parotid gland as well as mild lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and hyaline fat necrosis in the perisalivary tissue. Mucoid material deposition is one of the characteristic features of LE, however, this is the first case demonstrating mucoid material deposition in the salivary gland. Moreover, albeit extremely rare, lymphoplasmacytic infiltration within the lobules of the salivary gland has also been reported in patients with LE. Therefore, it is important that both lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and mucoid material deposition must be included in the differential diagnostic considerations for salivary gland tumors in patients who had been previously diagnosed as systemic or discoid LE.
PMCID: PMC3816832  PMID: 24228125
Systemic lupus erythematosus; lupus erythematosus profundus; mucoid degeneration; parotid gland
17.  Complete Response to Trastuzumab-Based Chemotherapy in a Patient with Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-2-Positive Metastatic Salivary Duct Carcinoma ex Pleomorphic Adenoma 
Case Reports in Oncology  2013;6(3):450-455.
Introduction
Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) of the salivary glands has often a salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) component, which resembles ductal carcinoma of the breast and frequently overexpresses human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2). We report a case of metastatic CXPA with SDC component who was treated with trastuzumab-based chemotherapy and has had a durable complete response.
Case Report
A 74-year-old man was diagnosed with CXPA of the right parotid gland. The resected tumor was histologically diagnosed as CXPA with a predominant SDC component that showed strong positivity for HER2 protein and HER2 gene amplification. Multiple pulmonary metastatic lesions were detected after surgery, and combination chemotherapy with paclitaxel and trastuzumab was initiated. A complete response was confirmed after 7 treatment cycles, and no evidence of disease progression has been observed after 13 months of initiation of therapy.
Conclusions
This report suggests a potential utility of trastuzumab-based chemotherapy for HER2-positive CXPA.
doi:10.1159/000355219
PMCID: PMC3806689  PMID: 24163659
Trastuzumab; Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma; Salivary duct carcinoma; Epidermal growth factor receptor-2; Complete response
18.  Parotid fistula secondary to suppurative parotitis in a 13-year-old girl: a case report 
Introduction
The most common cause of parotid fistula is trauma, followed by malignancy, operative complications (parotidectomy or rhytidectomy) and infection. Acute suppurative parotitis can rarely produce parotid fistula. There are various treatment options available, however it is necessary to standardize the treatment according to the duration of history and the patient's general condition.
Case report
A 13-year-old Indo-Caucasian girl presented to us with a two-year history of clear watery discharge from a wound just above and behind the angle of her right jaw. A diagnosis of salivary (parotid) fistula was made based on clinical examination and investigations. The parotid fistula was successfully managed.
Conclusion
Parotid fistula secondary to suppurative parotitis is rare and difficult to manage successfully. Meticulous dissection, complete excision of the fistulous tract with closure of the parotid fascia and layered closure of the incision followed by application of a post-operative pressure bandage, anticholinergic agents and antibiotics contribute significantly to the successful management of this difficult clinical condition.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-4-249
PMCID: PMC2923174  PMID: 20687919
19.  Multiple Myopericytoma of the Face and Parotid Gland 
Archives of Plastic Surgery  2012;39(2):158-161.
Myopericytoma is a benign tumor that is composed of myoid-appearing oval to spindle-shaped cells with a concentric perivascular pattern of growth. The tumor is morphologically heterogeneous and can exhibit a broad histologic spectrum. We describe a case of multiple myopericytoma occurring in the head and neck skin region with involvement of the parotid gland where it is known to occur very rarely. A 40-year-old woman noticed multiple enlarging, painless, round-shaped masses on her left cheek. The patient had experienced a similar lesion of the same area 8 years earlier which was completely excised and the pathological diagnosis was spindle cell type myoepithelioma. On a computed tomographic image, one mass involved the superficial parotid gland and was well encapsulated. Excision of the facial masses and superficial parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation were performed. A diagnosis of myopericytoma was established in light of the immunohistochemical pattern with the histopathological findings. Over the 4-year follow-up period, there was no evidence of recurrence. As many perivascular myoid neoplasms share common morphologic features with myopericytoma, we should consider the differential diagnosis, and confirm the histological findings with appropriate immunohistochemical staining. After identifying myopericytoma, it should be treated with wide surgical excision to prevent local recurrence.
doi:10.5999/aps.2012.39.2.158
PMCID: PMC3385312  PMID: 22783517
Head and neck neoplasms; Parotid neoplasms; Parotid gland
20.  Myoepithelioma of the Parotid Gland Presenting as a Retroauricular Cutaneous nodule: A Case Report 
We are reporting a case of recurrent myoepithelioma of the parotid gland, that emerged as a cutaneous mass. She had a retroauricular subcutaneous mass with an underlying diagnosis of a cutaneous myoepithelioma, which was excised at a hospital’s Dermatology Department 2 years earlier. The tumour was observed above the platysma and it was considered as a cutaneous myoepithelioma without the parotid gland structures. She had undergone a partial parotidectomy approximately 20 years earlier. At her first visit to our department, there was no evidence of facial nerve palsy or cervical lymphadenopathy. The radiological findings showed a multinodular growing mass of the parotid gland, just beneath the retroauricular skin and a total parotidectomy was performed. It was considered that even if the cutaneous mass emerged, the relationship between the cutaneous mass and the parotid gland should be pre-surgically examined by computed tomography (CT) or Magnetic resonance image (MRI). A long-term continuous follow-up was also needed.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2013/6037.3096
PMCID: PMC3708225  PMID: 23905130
Myoepithelioma; Parotid gland; Cutaneous tumor; Retroauricular region
21.  Direct spread of thyroid follicular carcinoma to the parotid gland and the internal jugular vein: a case report 
Introduction
The parotid gland and the great cervical veins are very rarely involved in a metastatic thyroid cancer.
Case presentation
We report an interesting case of an unusual metastasis of a thyroid follicular carcinoma including the histopathological and radiological findings. A woman was seen in the otolaryngology clinic with a mass at the angle of the left side of her jaw. Clinical examination and investigations confirmed a thyroid follicular carcinoma with metastases to the parotid gland and the internal jugular vein.
Conclusion
This is an educational case which highlights the importance of close communication between clinicians, histopathologists and radiologists to ensure that such rare cases are not missed.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-2-297
PMCID: PMC2542402  PMID: 18782440
22.  A rare case of bilateral basal cell adenomas in the parotid glands 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2008;70(1):32-34.
We report a very rare case of bilateral parotid tumors in a 55-year-old female patient who presented with left parotid mass of 7 × 7 cm size since 8 years and right parotid mass of 2.5 × 1.5 cm size since 2 years duration. Based on clinical features a provisional diagnosis of bilateral pleomorphic adenomas was made. Results of fine needle aspiration cytology of both masses were inconclusive. Bilateral superficial conservative parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation revealed bilateral encapsulated and lobulated tumors which on histopathological examination revealed bilateral basal cell adenomas in both parotid glands.
doi:10.1007/s12262-008-0007-y
PMCID: PMC3452595  PMID: 23133013
Bilateral parotid tumors; Basal cell adenoma; Parotid tumors
23.  Intraosseous adenoid cystic carcinoma of maxilla: A rare case report 
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry  2013;4(2):239-242.
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) accounts for approximately 6-10% of all salivary gland tumors. Palatal minor salivary glands, parotid, and sub-mandibular glands are usually affected. Rarely, these lesions arising intraosseously have been reported. Mandible is commonly involved than maxilla. The present case is a giant ACC involving the right maxilla. A thorough clinical and radiographic evaluation was performed to assess the involvement of surrounding vital structures along with a meticulous metastatic work-up. Computed tomography showed a giant lesion in maxilla encroaching the left nasal fossa, antrum, buccal space, and oral cavity. No metastasis was noted. Histological evaluation from multiple sites showed both cribriform and solid patterns. Radiotherapy was given as patient did not comply for surgery. Though central ACC is extremely rare, especially in maxilla, it should be included in the differentials for lesions in maxilla. A prompt diagnosis with treatment and long-term follow-up is advised in such cases.
doi:10.4103/0976-237X.114872
PMCID: PMC3757891  PMID: 24015018
Adenoid cystic carcinoma; central salivary neoplasm; cylindroma; intraosseous
24.  Solitary adrenal metastasis from invasive ductal breast cancer: an uncommon finding 
Background
Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast usually metastasizes to the lungs, liver, bones and brain. Solitary adrenal metastasis is extremely rare. Due to the rarity of this condition, the optimal treatment is unclear. We report the first case of IDC of the breast metastasizing solely to the adrenal gland after a modified radical mastectomy but having a long-term disease-free survival while treated merely by a left adrenalectomy.
Case presentation
A 64-year-old woman was found a left adrenal mass on a follow- up visit two years after taking a right modified radical mastectomy for the breast cancer. She was subsequently given a left adrenalectomy. Postoperative histopathology findings were compatible with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast. Due to the patient's refusal, no further treatments were offered after the adrenalectomy. The patient now is still alive and has no sign of relapse. Survival time after taking the right modified radical mastectomy and the left adrenalectomy is more than five years and three years, respectively.
Conclusion
This is the first case of a patient with solitary, metachronous adrenal metastasis from IDC of the breast to be reported. For patients in this condition, complete removal of metastasized organ may translate into survival benefit.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-8-7
PMCID: PMC2824745  PMID: 20105336
25.  Parotid metastasis from renal cell carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature 
Summary
Renal cell carcinoma metastasis to the parotid gland after tumour nephrectomy is extremely rare. Herewith a review of the literature on this topic is discussed and a case report is presented of a 69-year-old man affected by parotid localization of renal clear cell carcinoma with neck lymph node metastases and involvement of the masseter muscle 2 years after nephrectomy. When an otolaryngologist encounters a parotid mass, diverse differential diagnoses have to be considered. A high level of suspicion of metastatic disease from the specific primary site will help in achieving correct diagnosis and evaluation of the extension of the disease. Surgical resection, even enlarged parotidectomy with neck dissection, should be considered as a therapeutic option for exclusive location of the disease in the head and neck.
PMCID: PMC2689528  PMID: 19186459
Parotid; Malignant tumours; Metastasis; Renal cell carcinoma; Therapy

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