Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder characterized by recurrent infections of the respiratory tract associated with abnormal function of motile cilia. Approximately half of PCD patients also have alterations in the left-right organization of internal organ positioning including situs inversus and situs ambiguous (Kartagener’s Syndrome, KS). Here we identify an uncharacterized coiled-coil domain containing protein (CCDC40) essential for correct left-right patterning in mouse, zebrafish and humans. Ccdc40 is expressed in tissues that contain motile cilia and mutation of Ccdc40 results in cilia with reduced ranges of motility. Importantly, we demonstrate that CCDC40 deficiency causes a novel PCD variant characterized by misplacement of central pair microtubules and defective axonemal assembly of inner dynein arms (IDAs) and dynein regulator complexes (DRCs). CCDC40 localizes to motile cilia and the apical cytoplasm and is responsible for axonemal recruitment of CCDC39, which is also mutated in a similar PCD variant.
Cilia are essential for fertilization, respiratory clearance, cerebrospinal fluid circulation, and to establish laterality1. Cilia motility defects cause Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD, MIM 242650), a disorder affecting 1:15-30,000 births. Cilia motility requires the assembly of multisubunit dynein arms that drive cilia bending2. Despite progress in understanding the genetic basis of PCD, mutations remain to be identified for several PCD linked loci3. Here we show that the zebrafish cilia paralysis mutant schmalhanstn222 (smh) mutant encodes the coiled-coil domain containing 103 protein (Ccdc103), a foxj1a regulated gene. Screening 146 unrelated PCD families identified patients in six families with reduced outer dynein arms, carrying mutations in CCDC103. Dynein arm assembly in smh mutant zebrafish was rescued by wild-type but not mutant human CCDC103. Chlamydomonas Ccdc103 functions as a tightly bound, axoneme-associated protein. The results identify Ccdc103 as a novel dynein arm attachment factor that when mutated causes Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia.
Cilia/flagella are highly conserved organelles that play diverse roles in cell motility and sensing extracellular signals. Motility defects in cilia/flagella often result in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). However, the mechanisms underlying cilia formation and function, and in particular the cytoplasmic assembly of dyneins that power ciliary motility, are only poorly understood. Here we report a novel gene, kintoun (ktu), involved in this cytoplasmic process. This gene was first identified in a medaka mutant, and found to be mutated in PCD patients from two affected families as well as in the pf13 mutant of Chlamydomonas. In the absence of Ktu/PF13, both outer and inner dynein arms are missing or defective in the axoneme, leading to a loss of motility. Biochemical and immunohistochemical studies show that Ktu/PF13 is one of the long-sought proteins involved in pre-assembly of dynein arm complexes in the cytoplasm before intraflagellar transport loads them for the ciliary compartment.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a severe inherited disorder characterised by chronic respiratory disease, male infertility, and, in ∼50% of affected individuals, a left‐right asymmetry defect called situs inversus. PCD is caused by defects in substructures of the ciliary and flagellar axoneme, most commonly loss of the outer dynein arms. Although PCD is believed to involve mutations in many genes, only three have been identified.
To facilitate discovery of new PCD genes, we have used database searching and analysis to systematically identify the human homologues of proteins associated with the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii outer dynein arm, the best characterised outer arm of any species.
We find that 12 out of 14 known Chlamydomonas outer arm subunits have one or more likely orthologues in humans. The results predict a total of 24 human genes likely to encode outer dynein arm subunits and associated proteins possibly necessary for outer arm assembly, plus 12 additional closely related human genes likely to encode inner dynein arm subunits.
These genes, which have been located on the human chromosomes for easy comparison with known or suspected PCD loci, are excellent candidates for screening for disease‐causing mutations in PCD patients with outer and/or inner dynein arm defects.
Chlamydomonas; cilia; dynein; flagella; immotile cilia syndrome; Kartagener's syndrome; primary ciliary dyskinesia
Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) most often arises from loss of the dynein motors that power ciliary beating. Here we show that PF22/DNAAF3, a previously uncharacterized protein, is essential for the preassembly of dyneins into complexes prior to their transport into cilia. We identified loss-of-function mutations in the human DNAAF3 gene in patients from families with situs inversus and defects in assembly of inner and outer dynein arms. Zebrafish dnaaf3 knockdown likewise disrupts dynein arm assembly and ciliary motility, causing PCD phenotypes including hydrocephalus and laterality malformations. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii PF22 is exclusively cytoplasmic, and a null mutant fails to assemble outer and some inner dynein arms. Altered abundance of dynein subunits in mutant cytoplasm suggests PF22/DNAAF3 acts at a similar stage to other preassembly proteins, PF13/KTU and ODA7/LRRC50, in the dynein preassembly pathway. These results support the existence of a conserved multi-step pathway for cytoplasmic formation of assembly-competent ciliary dynein complexes.
Kartagener syndrome; primary ciliary dyskinesia; Chlamydomonas; flagella; dynein assembly; zebrafish
Cilia are hair-like structures extending from the cell membrane, perform diverse biological functions. Primary defects in the structure and function of sensory and motile cilia result in multiple ciliopathies. The most prominent genetic abnormality involving motile cilia is primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) or Kartageners syndrome. PCD is a rare, usually autosomal recessive, genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by sino-pulmonary disease, laterality defects and male infertility. One of the important components of cilia is the Dynein. Ciliary ultrastructural defects are identified in approximately 90% of PCD patients and involve the outer dynein arms, inner dynein arms, or both. Diagnosing PCD is challenging and requires a compatible clinical phenotype together with tests such as ciliary ultrastructural analysis, immunofluorescent staining, ciliary beat assessment, and/or nasal nitric oxide measurements. Increased understanding of the pathogenesis will aid in better diagnosis and treatment of PCD. The aim of the article is to present the basic defect involved in the etiology of this interesting syndrome.
Ciliopathy; Situs Inversus; Laterality defect; Primary ciliary dyskinesia; Axoneme
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare (1/20,000), multisystem disease with a complex phenotype caused by the impaired motility of cilia/flagella, usually related to ultrastructural defects of these organelles. Mutations in genes encoding radial spoke head (RSPH) proteins, elements of the ciliary ultrastructure, have been recently described. However, the relative involvement of RSPH genes in PCD pathogenesis remained unknown, due to a small number of PCD families examined for mutations in these genes. The purpose of this study was to estimate the involvement of RSPH4A and RSPH9 in PCD pathogenesis among East Europeans (West Slavs), and to shed more light on ultrastructural ciliary defects caused by mutations in these genes. The coding sequences of RSPH4A and RSPH9 were screened in PCD patients from 184 families, using single strand conformational polymorphism analysis and sequencing. Two previously described (Q109X; R490X) and two new RSPH4A mutations (W356X; IVS3_2–5del), in/around exons 1 and 3, were identified; no mutations were found in RSPH9. We estimate that mutations in RSPH4A, but not in RSPH9, are responsible for 2–3% of cases in the East European PCD population (4% in PCD families without situs inversus; 11% in families preselected for microtubular defects). Analysis of the SNP-haplotype background provided insight into the ancestry of repetitively found mutations (Q109X; R490X; IVS3_2–5del), but further studies involving other PCD cohorts are required to elucidate whether these mutations are specific for Slavic people or spread among other European populations. Ultrastructural defects associated with the mutations were analyzed in the transmission electron microscope images; almost half of the ciliary cross-sections examined in patients with RSPH4A mutations had the microtubule transposition phenotype (9+0 and 8+1 pattern). While microtubule transposition was a prevalent ultrastructural defect in cilia from patients with RSPH4A mutations, similar defects were also observed in PCD patients with mutations in other genes.
Rationale: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by recurrent infections of the airways and situs inversus in half of the affected offspring. The most frequent genetic defects comprise recessive mutations of DNAH5 and DNAI1, which encode outer dynein arm (ODA) components. Diagnosis of PCD usually relies on electron microscopy, which is technically demanding and sometimes difficult to interpret. Methods: Using specific antibodies, we determined the subcellular localization of the ODA heavy chains DNAH5 and DNAH9 in human respiratory epithelial and sperm cells of patients with PCD and control subjects by high-resolution immunofluorescence imaging. We also assessed cilia and sperm tail function by high-speed video microscopy. Results: In normal ciliated airway epithelium, DNAH5 and DNAH9 show a specific regional distribution along the ciliary axoneme, indicating the existence of at least two distinct ODA types. DNAH5 was completely or only distally absent from the respiratory ciliary axoneme in patients with PCD with DNAH5− (n = 3) or DNAI1− (n = 1) mutations, respectively, and instead accumulated at the microtubule-organizing centers. In contrast to respiratory cilia, sperm tails from a patient with DNAH5 mutations had normal ODA heavy chain distribution, suggesting different modes of ODA generation in these cell types. Blinded investigation of a large cohort of patients with PCD and control subjects identified DNAH5 mislocalization in all patients diagnosed with ODA defects by electron microscopy (n = 16). Cilia with complete axonemal DNAH5 deficiency were immotile, whereas cilia with distal DNAH5 deficiency showed residual motility. Conclusions: Immunofluorescence staining can detect ODA defects, which will possibly aid PCD diagnosis.
fluorescent antibody technique; genetics; respiratory tract diseases
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) results from ciliary dysfunction and is commonly characterized by sinusitis, male infertility, hydrocephalus, and situs inversus. Mice homozygous for the nm1054 mutation develop phenotypes associated with PCD. On certain genetic backgrounds, homozygous mutants die perinatally from severe hydrocephalus, while mice on other backgrounds have an accumulation of mucus in the sinus cavity and male infertility. Mutant sperm lack mature flagella, while respiratory epithelial cilia are present but beat at a slower frequency than wild-type cilia. Transgenic rescue demonstrates that the PCD in nm1054 mutants results from the loss of a single gene encoding the novel primary ciliary dyskinesia protein 1 (Pcdp1). The Pcdp1 gene is expressed in spermatogenic cells and motile ciliated epithelial cells. Immunohistochemistry shows that Pcdp1 protein localizes to sperm flagella and the cilia of respiratory epithelial cells and brain ependymal cells in both mice and humans. This study demonstrates that Pcdp1 plays an important role in ciliary and flagellar biogenesis and motility, making the nm1054 mutant a useful model for studying the molecular genetics and pathogenesis of PCD.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetic disorder caused by ciliary immotility/dysmotility due to ultrastructural defects of the cilia. Kartagener syndrome (KS), a subtype of PCD, is characterised by situs inversus accompanying the typical PCD symptoms of bronchiectasis and chronic sinusitis. In most cases, PCD is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait, but its genetic basis is unclear due to extensive genetic heterogeneity.
In a genome‐wide search for PCD loci performed in 52 KS families and in 18 PCD families with no situs inversus present (CDO, ciliary dysfunction‐only), the maximal pairwise LOD score of 3.36 with D15S205 in the KS families indicated linkage of a KS locus to the long arm of chromosome 15. In the follow‐up study, 65 additional microsatellite markers encompassing D15S205 were analysed.
A maximal pairwise LOD score of 4.34 was observed with D15S154, further supporting linkage of the KS, but not the CDO, families to 15q24–25. Analysis of heterogeneity and haplotypes suggested linkage to this region in 60% of KS families.
Reinforced by the results of multipoint linkage, our analyses indicate that a major KS locus is localised within a 3.5 cM region on 15q, between D15S973 and D15S1037.
gene mapping; immotile cilia syndrome; primary ciliary dyskinesia; situs inversus
Rationale: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare, usually autosomal recessive, genetic disorder characterized by ciliary dysfunction, sino-pulmonary disease, and situs inversus. Disease-causing mutations have been reported in DNAI1 and DNAH5 encoding outer dynein arm (ODA) proteins of cilia.
Objectives: We analyzed DNAI1 to identify disease-causing mutations in PCD and to determine if the previously reported IVS1+2_3insT (219+3insT) mutation represents a “founder” or “hot spot” mutation.
Methods: Patients with PCD from 179 unrelated families were studied. Exclusion mapping showed no linkage to DNAI1 for 13 families; the entire coding region was sequenced in a patient from the remaining 166 families. Reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed on nasal epithelial RNA in 14 families.
Results: Mutations in DNAI1 including 12 novel mutations were identified in 16 of 179 (9%) families; 14 harbored biallelic mutations. Deep intronic splice mutations were not identified by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence of mutations in families with defined ODA defect was 13%; no mutations were found in patients without a defined ODA defect. The previously reported IVS1+2_3insT mutation accounted for 57% (17/30) of mutant alleles, and marker analysis indicates a common founder for this mutation. Seven mutations occurred in three exons (13, 16, and 17); taken together with previous reports, these three exons are emerging as mutation clusters harboring 29% (12/42) of mutant alleles.
Conclusions: A total of 10% of patients with PCD are estimated to harbor mutations in DNAI1; most occur as a common founder IVS1+2_3insT or in exons 13, 16, and 17. This information is useful for establishing a clinical molecular genetic test for PCD.
cilia; dynein; dextrocardia; Kartagener syndrome; mutation
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare genetically induced disorder of cilia inducing mainly respiratory diseases. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of ciliary ultrastructure is classically used for diagnosis. We report our experience of TEM investigations in a large series of patients.
TEM analysis performed of 742 biopsies from patients with suspected PCD was reviewed retrospectively. Ultrastructural defects were analysized further in 125 cases with changes typical for PCD.
In 18.1% of patients diagnosis of PCD was made because of morphological alterations, in 68.2% secondary changes were seen. In 13.7% material was not feasible for analysis. Mostly defects of dynein arms were detected in PCD (96.8%). In particular defects of the inner arms (51.2%) and combined dynein defects (37.6%) were found. Total loss of dynein arms was dominant. Only in 3.2% deficiencies of central structures were found alone. Associated situs inversus or dextracardia was reported clinically in 21.4%.
TEM analysis is possible in most patients and a useful tool for diagnosis of PCD. Functional and genetic analysis should be done additionally. Registers should be installed to collect all available informations and push further research.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) results from defects in motile cilia function. Mice homozygous for the mutation big giant head (bgh) have several abnormalities commonly associated with PCD, including hydrocephalus, male infertility, and sinusitis. In the present study, we use a variety of histopathological and cell biological techniques to characterize the bgh phenotype, and we identify the bgh mutation using a positional cloning approach. Histopathological, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopic analyses demonstrate that the male infertility results from shortened flagella and disorganized axonemal and accessory structures in elongating spermatids and mature sperm. In addition, there is a reduced number of elongating spermatids during spermatogenesis and mature sperm in the epididymis. Histological analyses show that the hydrocephalus is characterized by severe dilatation of the lateral ventricles and that bgh sinuses have an accumulation of mucus infiltrated by neutrophils. In contrast to the sperm phenotype, electron microscopy demonstrates that mutant respiratory epithelial cilia are ultrastructurally normal, but video microscopic analysis shows that their beat frequency is lower than that of wild-type cilia. Through a positional cloning approach, we identified two sequence variants in the gene encoding sperm flagellar protein 2 (SPEF2), which has been postulated to play an important role in spermatogenesis and flagellar assembly. A causative nonsense mutation was validated by Western blot analysis, strongly suggesting that the bgh phenotype results from the loss of SPEF2 function. Taken together, the data in this study demonstrate that SPEF2 is required for cilia function and identify a new genetic cause of PCD in mice.
Sperm flagellar protein 2 is required for spermatogenesis and regulation of ciliary motility in mice.
cilia; flagella; genetics; hydrocephalus; male infertility; primary ciliary dyskinesia; sinusitis; SPEF2; spermatogenesis
All motile somatic cilia, including those of the human respiratory tract, are similar in ultrastructure in that they consist of an axenome of 9 + 2 microtubules surrounded by a specialized extension of the cell membrane. The axonemal elements provide the ciliary motor, which is powered by ATP hydrolysis. In respiratory cilia, mutants occur where axonemal assembly is aberrant such that the doublet attachments known as arms (Afzelius and co-workers) or spokes (Sturgess) have been shown to be missing. These mutant cilia are apparently nonmotile. In model cilia, the arms are composed of dynein, a class of ATPase isoenzymes and associated polypeptides characterized byGibbons and colleagues. In negative stain preparations of arms, three subunits can be seen. In the presence of ATP, dynein functions with a set polarity to form transient cross-bridges that cause the microtubule doublets of the axoneme to slide relative to one another. After brief trypsin treatment, the axonemal microtubules slide almost completely apart with the arms of doublet n pushing doublet n + 1 in a tipward direction. To produce ciliary beating in vivo, sliding is carefully controlled and coordinated, in part probably by the spoke system. The ciliary membrane is responsible for maintaining the appropriate levels of ATP, Mg2+, and Ca2+, and Ca2+ (ca. 10(-7) M) around the axoneme. The beat of certain cilia--e.g., L cilia of mussel gills--can be arrested by increasing axonemal Ca2+ concentration, for example, in the presence of the ionophore A23187 and high external Ca2+. Although the net results of changes in axonemal Ca2+ concentration are not always complete stoppage of beat or of sliding, this ion is also part of the general behavioral control of ciliary motility.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal recessive, rare, genetically heterogeneous condition characterized by oto-sino-pulmonary disease together with situs abnormalities (Kartagener syndrome) owing to abnormal ciliary structure and function. Most patients are currently diagnosed with PCD based on the presence of defective ciliary ultrastructure. However, diagnosis often remains challenging due to variability in the clinical phenotype and ciliary ultrastructural changes. Some patients with PCD have normal ciliary ultrastructure, which further confounds the diagnosis. A genetic test for PCD exists but is of limited value because it investigates only a limited number of mutations in only two genes. The genetics of PCD is complicated owing to the complexity of axonemal structure that is highly conserved through evolution, which is comprised of multiple proteins. Identifying a PCD-causing gene is challenging due to locus and allelic heterogeneity. Despite genetic heterogeneity, multiple tools have been used, and there are 11 known PCD-causing genes. All of these genes combined explain approximately 50% of PCD cases; hence, more genes need to be identified. This review briefly describes the current knowledge regarding the genetics of PCD and focuses on the methodologies used to identify novel PCD-causing genes, including a candidate gene approach using model organisms, next-generation massively parallel sequencing techniques, and the use of genetically isolated populations. In conclusion, we demonstrate the multipronged approach that is necessary to circumvent challenges due to genetic heterogeneity to uncover genetic causes of PCD.
cilia; dynein; Kartagener syndrome; dextrocardia; heterotaxy
Although the pathophysiological defect in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD; Siewert's / Kartagener's syndrome) is now well characterised, there are few studies of the impact of the condition upon health function, particularly in later life. This study assesses the health impact of the condition in a large group of patients. In addition, it assesses the similarity in age of diagnosis, symptoms and problems of those with situs inversus (PCD-SI) and those with situs solitus (PCD-SS).
Postal questionnaire sent to members of the UK Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Family Support Group. The questionnaire contained the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and the SF-36 questionnaire for assessing health status.
93 questionnaires were returned, representing a 66% response rate. Replies were received from similar numbers of PCD-SI and PCD-SS. Individuals with PCD-SI did not show a significant tendency to be diagnosed earlier, and neither did they show any difference in their symptoms, or the relationship of symptoms to age. Respiratory symptoms were fairly constant up until the age of about 25, after which there was a slow increase in symptoms, and a decline in health status, patients over the age of 40 being about one and a half standard deviations below the mean on the physical component score of the PCS. Patients diagnosed earlier in life, and hence who had received more treatment for their condition, had better scores on the SGRQ Impact and Activity scores.
PCD is a chronic condition which has a progressively greater impact on health in the second half of life, producing significant morbidity and restriction of life style. Early diagnosis, and hence earlier treatment, may improve symptoms and the impact of the condition.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia; Respiratory function; St George's Respiratory Questionnaire; SF-36 questionnaire; situs inversus
Cryo–electron tomography of Chlamydomonas flagella reveals previously uncharacterized features of the radial spokes, including structural heterogeneity and direct interactions with dyneins and between the spoke heads. A “radial spoke 3 stand-in” occupies what would be the site of a third spoke in organisms with spoke triplets.
Radial spokes (RSs) play an essential role in the regulation of axonemal dynein activity and thus of ciliary and flagellar motility. However, few details are known about the complexes involved. Using cryo–electron tomography and subtomogram averaging, we visualized the three-dimensional structure of the radial spokes in Chlamydomonas flagella in unprecedented detail. Unlike many other species, Chlamydomonas has only two spokes per axonemal repeat, RS1 and RS2. Our data revealed previously uncharacterized features, including two-pronged spoke bases that facilitate docking to the doublet microtubules, and that inner dyneins connect directly to the spokes. Structures of wild type and the headless spoke mutant pf17 were compared to define the morphology and boundaries of the head, including a direct RS1-to-RS2 interaction. Although the overall structures of the spokes are very similar, we also observed some differences, corroborating recent findings about heterogeneity in the docking of RS1 and RS2. In place of a third radial spoke we found an uncharacterized, shorter electron density named “radial spoke 3 stand-in,” which structurally bears no resemblance to RS1 and RS2 and is unaltered in the pf17 mutant. These findings demonstrate that radial spokes are heterogeneous in structure and may play functionally distinct roles in axoneme regulation.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare disease classically transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait and characterised by recurrent airway infections due to abnormal ciliary structure and function. To date, only two autosomal genes, DNAI1 and DNAH5 encoding axonemal dynein chains, have been shown to cause PCD with defective outer dynein arms. Here, we investigated one non‐consanguineous family in which a woman with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) gave birth to two boys with a complex phenotype combining PCD, discovered in early childhood and characterised by partial dynein arm defects, and RP that occurred secondarily. The family history prompted us to search for an X linked gene that could account for both conditions.
We found perfect segregation of the disease phenotype with RP3 associated markers (Xp21.1). Analysis of the retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator gene (RPGR) located at this locus revealed a mutation (631_IVS6+9del) in the two boys and their mother. As shown by study of RPGR transcripts expressed in nasal epithelial cells, this intragenic deletion, which leads to activation of a cryptic donor splice site, predicts a severely truncated protein.
These data provide the first clear demonstration of X linked transmission of PCD. This unusual mode of inheritance of PCD in patients with particular phenotypic features (that is, partial dynein arm defects and association with RP), which should modify the current management of families affected by PCD or RP, unveils the importance of RPGR in the proper development of both respiratory ciliary structures and connecting cilia of photoreceptors.
cilia; retinitis pigmentosa; RPGR; X linked primary ciliary dyskinesia
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder associated with ciliary defects and situs inversus totalis, the complete mirror image reversal of internal organ situs (positioning). A variable incidence of heterotaxy, or irregular organ situs, also has been reported in PCD patients, but it is not known whether this is elicited by the PCD-causing genetic lesion. We studied a mouse model of PCD with a recessive mutation in Dnahc5, a dynein gene commonly mutated in PCD. Analysis of homozygous mutant embryos from 18 litters yielded 25% with normal organ situs, 35% with situs inversus totalis, and 40% with heterotaxy. Embryos with heterotaxy had complex structural heart defects that included discordant atrioventricular and ventricular outflow situs and atrial/pulmonary isomerisms. Variable combinations of a distinct set of cardiovascular anomalies were observed, including superior-inferior ventricles, great artery alignment defects, and interrupted inferior vena cava with azygos continuation. The surprisingly high incidence of heterotaxy led us to evaluate the diagnosis of PCD. PCD was confirmed by EM, which revealed missing outer dynein arms in the respiratory cilia. Ciliary dyskinesia was observed by videomicroscopy. These findings show that Dnahc5 is required for the specification of left-right asymmetry and suggest that the PCD-causing Dnahc5 mutation may also be associated with heterotaxy.
...The limbs on the right side are stronger. [The] cause may be ... [that] ... motion, and abilities of moving, are somewhat holpen from the liver, which lieth on the right side. (Sir Francis Bacon, Sylva sylvarum (1627).)Fifty per cent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) (also known as immotile cilia syndrome or Siewert-Kartagener syndrome) have situs inversus, which is thought to result from absent nodal ciliary rotation and failure of normal symmetry breaking. In a study of 88 people with PCD, only 15.2% of 46 individuals with situs inversus, and 14.3% of 42 individuals with situs solitus, were left handed. Because cerebral lateralization is therefore still present, the nodal cilia cannot be the primary mechanism responsible for symmetry breaking in the vertebrate body. Intriguingly, one behavioural lateralization, wearing a wrist-watch on the right wrist, did correlate with situs inversus.
Rationale: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is characterized by recurrent airway infections and randomization of left–right body asymmetry. To date, autosomal recessive mutations have only been identified in a small number of patients involving DNAI1 and DNAH5, which encode outer dynein arm components.
Methods: We screened 109 white PCD families originating from Europe and North America for presence of DNAH5 mutations by haplotype analyses and/or sequencing.
Results: Haplotype analyses excluded linkage in 26 families. In 30 PCD families, we identified 33 novel (12 nonsense, 8 frameshift, 5 splicing, and 8 missense mutations) and two known DNAH5 mutations. We observed clustering of mutations within five exons harboring 27 mutant alleles (52%) of the 52 detected mutant alleles. Interestingly, 6 (32%) of 19 PCD families with DNAH5 mutations from North America carry the novel founder mutation 10815delT. Electron microscopic analyses in 22 patients with PCD with mutations invariably detected outer dynein arm ciliary defects. High-resolution immunofluorescence imaging of respiratory epithelial cells from eight patients with DNAH5 mutations showed mislocalization of mutant DNAH5 and accumulation at the microtubule organizing centers. Mutant DNAH5 was absent throughout the ciliary axoneme in seven patients and remained detectable in the proximal ciliary axoneme in one patient carrying compound heterozygous splicing mutations at the 3′-end (IVS75-2A>T, IVS76+5G>A). In a preselected subpopulation with documented outer dynein arm defects (n = 47), DNAH5 mutations were identified in 53% of patients.
Conclusions: DNAH5 is frequently mutated in patients with PCD exhibiting outer dynein arm defects and mutations cluster in five exons.
cilia; DNAH5; outer dynein arm; primary ciliary dyskinesia
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii hydin is a central pair protein required for flagellar motility, and mice with Hydin defects develop lethal hydrocephalus. To determine if defects in Hydin cause hydrocephalus through a mechanism involving cilia, we compared the morphology, ultrastructure, and activity of cilia in wild-type and hydin mutant mice strains. The length and density of cilia in the brains of mutant animals is normal. The ciliary axoneme is normal with respect to the 9 + 2 microtubules, dynein arms, and radial spokes but one of the two central microtubules lacks a specific projection. The hydin mutant cilia are unable to bend normally, ciliary beat frequency is reduced, and the cilia tend to stall. As a result, these cilia are incapable of generating fluid flow. Similar defects are observed for cilia in trachea. We conclude that hydrocephalus in hydin mutants is caused by a central pair defect impairing ciliary motility and fluid transport in the brain.
Radial spokes are ubiquitous components of motile cilia and flagella and play an essential role in transmitting signals that regulate the activity of the dynein motors, and thus ciliary and flagellar motility. In some organisms the 96 nm axonemal repeat unit contains only a pair of two spokes, RS1 and RS2, while most organisms have spoke triplets with an additional spoke RS3. The spoke pair in Chlamydomonas flagella has been well characterized, while spoke triplets have received less attention. Here, we used cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging to visualize the 3D structure of spoke triplets in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (sea urchin) sperm flagella in unprecedented detail. Only small differences were observed between RS1 and RS2, but the structure of RS3 was surprisingly unique and structurally different from the other two spokes. We observed novel doublet specific features that connect RS2, RS3 and the nexin-dynein regulatory complex, three key ciliary and flagellar structures. The distribution of these doublet specific structures suggests that they could be important for establishing the asymmetry of dynein activity required for the oscillatory movement of cilia and flagella. Surprisingly, a comparison with other organisms demonstrated both that this considerable radial spoke heterogeneity is conserved and that organisms with radial spoke pairs contain the basal part of RS3. This conserved radial spoke heterogeneity may also reflect functional differences between the spokes and their involvement in regulating ciliary and flagellar motility.
cryo-electron tomography; axoneme; radial spoke triplet; RS3; RS3S
The haploid germ cell-specific Tektin-t protein is a member of the Tektin family of proteins that form filaments in flagellar, ciliary, and axonemal microtubules. To investigate the physiological role of Tektin-t, we generated mice with a mutation in the tektin-t gene. The homozygous mutant males were infertile, while the females were fully fertile. Sperm morphology and function were abnormal, with frequent bending of the sperm flagella and marked defects in motility. In vitro fertilization assays showed that the defective spermatozoa were able to fertilize eggs. Electron microscopic examination showed that the dynein inner arm structure was disrupted in the sperm flagella of tektin-t-deficient mice. Furthermore, homozygous mutant mice had functionally defective tracheal cilia, as evidenced by altered dynein arm morphology. These results indicate that Tektin-t participates in dynein inner arm formation or attachment and that the loss of Tektin-t results in impaired motility of both flagella and cilia. Therefore, the tektin-t gene is one of the causal genes for immotile-cilium syndrome/primary ciliary dyskinesia.
The ultrastructure of normal human cilia and flagella was examined and quantitatively assessed to determine the normal variations in the structure of the axoneme. Ciliated respiratory epithelial cells and spermatozoa from 10 normal, nonsmoking male volunteers who had normal semen parameters were fixed for electron microscopy. Tannic acid and MgSO4 were included during fixation to enhance, in particular, axonemal components. In 75 axonemal cross sections per sample, the number of outer doublet and central singlet microtubules, outer and inner dynein arms, and radial spokes were recorded. Statistical analysis of the results showed a marked reduction, from the expected value of nine, in the numbers of inner dynein arms (mean +/- SE, cilia, 5.31 +/- 0.13; sperm, 5.38 +/- 0.16) and radial spokes (cilia, 4.95 +/- 0.22; sperm, 5.80 +/- 0.19). The ideal axoneme with all its structural components was seen in only 0.13% of cilia and 0.80% of sperm tails. Significantly more doublet microtubules (P less than 0.05) and less central microtubules (P less than 0.01) and radial spokes (P less than 0.01) were seen in cilia than in sperm tail axonemes. Between subjects there was little variation in the mean number of a structure seen per axoneme. However, within each sample, the variation was considerably higher, particularly for the inner and outer dynein arms and radial spokes. The doublet microtubules had significantly greater standard deviations in the sperm tails compared with the cilia (P less than 0.01), and furthermore, a significantly greater number of sperm tails compared with cilia showed the incorrect number of doublet microtubules (P less than 0.02). In one semen sample, with normal semen analysis, 20% of the sperm tails showed incorrect numbers of doublet microtubules, ranging from 12 + 2 to 5 + 2 compared with only 1.3% in cilia from this subject. This study has demonstrated that the ideal axoneme is rarely seen even in normal samples, probably because of the technical difficulties in resolution and visualization, and stresses the need for thorough documentation of axonemal ultrastructure. This work provides a normal data base for comparison with patients who have chronic respiratory disease and suspected infertility.