PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (497454)

Clipboard (0)
None

Related Articles

1.  Personality traits in chronic daily headache patients with and without psychiatric comorbidity: an observational study in a tertiary care headache center 
Background
Previous studies suggest that patients with Chronic Daily Headache (CDH) have higher levels of anxiety and depressive disorders than patients with episodic migraine or tension-type headache. However, no study has considered the presence of psychiatric comorbidity in the analysis of personality traits. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity and specific personality traits in CDH patients, exploring if specific personality traits are associated to headache itself or to the psychiatric comorbidity associated with headache.
Methods
An observational, cross-sectional study. Ninety-four CDH patients with and without medication overuse were included in the study and assessed by clinical psychiatric interview and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) as diagnostic tools. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) were afterwards administered. Patients with and without psychiatric comorbidity were compared. Further analyses were made by splitting the whole group according to the headache diagnosis and the presence or not of medication overuse.
Results
Psychiatric comorbidity was detected in 44 patients (46.8%) (group A) and was absent in the remaining 50 patients (53.2%) (group B). Mood and anxiety disorders were the most frequently diagnosed (43.6%).
In the overall group, mean scores of MMPI-2 showed a high level in the so-called neurotic triad; in particular the mean score in the Hypochondriasis subscale was in the pathologic area (73.55 ± 13.59), while Depression and Hysteria scores were moderate but not severe (62.53 and 61.61, respectively). In content scales, score in Health Concern was also high (66.73).
Group A presented higher scores compared to Group B in the following MMPI-2 subscales: Hypochondriasis (p = .036), Depression (p = .032), Hysteria (p < .0001), Hypomania (p = .030). Group B had a high score only in the Hypochondriasis subscale. No significant differences were found between chronic migraine (CM)-probable CM (pCM) plus probable medication overuse headache (pMOH) and chronic tension-type headache (CTTH)-probable CTTH (pCTTH) plus pMOH patients or between patients with and without drug overuse.
Conclusions
The so-called “Neurotic Profile” reached clinical level only in CDH patients with psychiatric comorbidity while a high concern about their general health status was a common feature in all CDH patients.
doi:10.1186/1129-2377-14-22
PMCID: PMC3620450  PMID: 23566048
Chronic daily headache; Medication overuse headache; Psychiatric comorbidity; MMPI-2
2.  The importance of anxiety and depression as factors in chronicization of primary headaches 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2000;1(Suppl 1):S45-S48.
A multicenter study was carried out in 10 Italian headache centers to investigate the prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients with chronic daily headache(CDH). The study investigated 219 patients (171 F; 48 M) including 53 cases of chronic tension-type headache (CTTH), 99 cases of CTTH+ migraine and 67 cases of transformed migraine (TM). The type of headache diagnosed at the beginning was episodic tension-type headache (ETTH, n=32), ETTH + migraine (n=2), CDH ab initio (n=22), migraine with/without aura (n=151), not classifiable migraine (n=7) and not classifiable headache (n=3). The assessment of anxiety and depression was carried out using a Zung self-rating scale for anxiety (Zung A) and for depression (Zung D). The results show that anxiety and depression levels, in each group, were related to sex (F>M). Anxiety, but not depression, was related to the length of chronicization process. Anxiety and depression did not correlate with type of headache at onset, with ongoing headache or, surprisingly, with the abuse of anti-inflammatory drugs. These data suggest the chronicization is a biological and psychological trait.
doi:10.1007/s101940070025
PMCID: PMC3611803
Key words Chronic daily headache; Anxiety; Depression; Overuse of analgesics; Zung scale
3.  Primary headaches in patients with generalized anxiety disorder 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2011;12-12(3):331-338.
Although anxiety disorders and headaches are comorbid conditions, there have been no studies evaluating the prevalence of primary headaches in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The aim of this study was to analyze the lifetime prevalence of primary headaches in individuals with and without GAD. A total of 60 individuals were evaluated: 30 GAD patients and 30 controls without mental disorders. Psychiatric assessments and primary headache diagnoses were made using structured interviews. Among the GAD patients, the most common diagnosis was migraine, which was significantly more prevalent among the GAD patients than among the controls, as were episodic migraine, chronic daily headache and aura. Tension-type headache was equally common in both groups. Primary headaches in general were significantly more common and more severe in GAD patients than in controls. In anxiety disorder patients, particularly those with GAD, accurate diagnosis of primary headache can improve patient management and clinical outcomes.
doi:10.1007/s10194-010-0290-4
PMCID: PMC3094648  PMID: 21298316
Migraine; Anxiety disorders; Generalized anxiety disorder; Comorbidity
4.  Primary headaches in patients with generalized anxiety disorder 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2011;12(3):331-338.
Although anxiety disorders and headaches are comorbid conditions, there have been no studies evaluating the prevalence of primary headaches in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The aim of this study was to analyze the lifetime prevalence of primary headaches in individuals with and without GAD. A total of 60 individuals were evaluated: 30 GAD patients and 30 controls without mental disorders. Psychiatric assessments and primary headache diagnoses were made using structured interviews. Among the GAD patients, the most common diagnosis was migraine, which was significantly more prevalent among the GAD patients than among the controls, as were episodic migraine, chronic daily headache and aura. Tension-type headache was equally common in both groups. Primary headaches in general were significantly more common and more severe in GAD patients than in controls. In anxiety disorder patients, particularly those with GAD, accurate diagnosis of primary headache can improve patient management and clinical outcomes.
doi:10.1007/s10194-010-0290-4
PMCID: PMC3094648  PMID: 21298316
Migraine; Anxiety disorders; Generalized anxiety disorder; Comorbidity
5.  Clinical and descriptive analysis of chronic daily headaches 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2000;1(Suppl 1):S27-S31.
With an ad hoc, previously validated clinical record, we analysed the headache characteristics in 245 patients (F, 78.4%, M, 21,6%; mean age, 43.1±12.9 years) affected by chronic daily headache (CDH) attending 9 Italian headache centers. Migraine without aura was the episodic headache preceding CDH in 72.3% of the cases. We divided CDH into 3 categories: chronic tension-type headache (CTTH), chronic coexisting migraine and tension-type headache (CCMTTH), and chronic migraine (CM). CCMTTH accounted for 46.5% of the cases, followed by CM (30.2%) and CTTH (23.3%). Female prevalence was more marked in CCMTTH and CM groups, in which episodic headache started earlier. Migraine without aura was the episodic headache preceding CDH not only in most cases of CCMTTH (83.0%) and CM (91.9%), but also in 25% of CTTH patients.
Analgesics misuse (abuse of weak analgesics and/or combination drugs in almost all the cases) prevailed among CCMTTH (61%) and CM (89%) patients with respect to CTTH patients (37%).
doi:10.1007/s101940070022
PMCID: PMC3611800
Key words Chronic daily headache; Chronic tension-type headache; Chronic coexisting migraine and tension-type headache; Chronic migraine
6.  An Observational Study on the Association between Migraines and Tension Type Headaches in Patients Diagnosed with Metabolic Syndrome 
ISRN Neurology  2013;2013:147065.
Background. Our aim was to investigate the association between migraine, tension type headache, and metabolic syndrome. Methods. Presence of tension type headache and migraine was investigated in 120 patients diagnosed as metabolic syndrome. The severity of the headache was recorded according to the visual analog scale. Results. Mean age of the patients was 54.41 ± 11.60 years (range, 29–84 yrs). Diagnoses of tension type headache and migraine without aura were made for 39 (32.5%) and 18 (15%) patients, respectively. Mean age of migraine patients was significantly lower relative to the patients with tension type headache and no headache. Incidence of hypertriglyceridemia was significantly higher in migraine patients when compared with cases tension type headache and without headache. In the tension type headache group, requirement for analgesics decreased as HDL cholesterol levels increased, while need for analgesic drugs increased in line with higher diastolic blood pressures. In the migraine group duration of headache was found to be prolonged with decreasing HDL cholesterol levels. Conclusion. In patients presenting with headache, its association with metabolic syndrome should be considered, and the patients should be especially observed with respect to response to analgesic and the presence of hypertension and hyperlipidemia.
doi:10.1155/2013/147065
PMCID: PMC3654231  PMID: 23691357
7.  Anger and emotional distress in patients with migraine and tension–type headache 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2005;6(5):392-399.
The objective was to evaluate the prevalence and the characteristics of anger and emotional distress in migraine and tension– type headache patients. Two hundred and one headache patients attending the Headache Center of the University of Turin were selected for the study and divided into 5 groups: (1) migraine, (2) episodic tension–type headache, (3) chronic tension–type headache, (4) migraine associated with episodic tension–type headache and (5) migraine associated with chronic tension–type headache. A group of 45 healthy subjects served as controls. All the subjects completed the State–Trait Anger Expression Inventory, the Beck's Depression Inventory and the Cognitive Behavioral Assessment. Anger control was significantly lower in all headache patients (p<0.05) except in migraineurs. Patients with migraine and tension–type headache showed a significantly higher level of angry temperament and angry reaction (p<0.05). In addition, chronic tension–type headache and migraine associated with tension–type headache patients reported a higher level of anxiety (p<0.05), depression (p<0.001), phobias (p<0.001) and obsessive–compulsive symptoms (p<0.01), emotional liability (p<0.001) and psychophysiological disorders (p<0.001). Our study shows that chronic tension–type headache and migraine associated with tension–type headache patients present a significant impairment of anger control and suggests a connection between anger and the duration of headache experience.
doi:10.1007/s10194-005-0240-8
PMCID: PMC3452065  PMID: 16362712
Migraine; Tension–type headache; Anger; Depression
8.  Migraine aura without headache compared to migraine with aura in patients with affective disorders 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2005;6(5):378-386.
The characteristics of psychiatric comorbidity in migraine have been studied in migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO). Little information is available concerning patients with migraine aura without headache. In a study of 201 patients with major affective disorders (DSM–IV) we have described the clinical characteristics of patients with these three sub–types of migraine (IHS criteria) and compared the MA and migraine aura without headache groups. Compared to patients having MA (n=57), the group with migraine aura without headache (n=18) had a higher age of onset of migraine (28.5 vs. 19.2, p=0.001), significantly lower prevalences of affective temperaments (28% vs. 56%, p=0.036), suicide attempts (17% vs. 53%, p=0.013) and Raynaud’s syndrome (0% vs. 25%, p=0.017). These results indicate that there seem to be differences in the clinical characteristics found in patients with migraine with aura when compared to those having the migraine subtype without a headache phase. This may convey new information concerning the comorbid expression of migraine and affective disorders or concerning the processes that differentiates the migraine types with and without a subsequent pain attack.
doi:10.1007/s10194-005-0236-4
PMCID: PMC3452069  PMID: 16362710
Affective disorders; Affective temperaments; Migraine; Suicide attempt; Raynaud's syndrome
9.  Physical and psychological correlates of primary headache in young adulthood: A 26 year longitudinal study 
Objectives: To determine if physical and/or psychological risk factors could differentiate between subtypes of primary headache (migraine, tension-type headache (TTH), and coexisting migraine and TTH (combined)) among members of a longitudinal birth cohort study.
Methods: At age 26, the headache status of members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (DMHDS) was determined using International Headache Society criteria. Headache history and potential physical and psychological correlates of headache were assessed. These factors included perinatal problems and injuries sustained to age 26; and behavioural, personality, and psychiatric disorders assessed between ages 5 to 21.
Results: The 1 year prevalences for migraine, TTH, and combined headache at the age of 26 were 7.2%, 11.1%, and 4.3%, respectively. Migraine was related to maternal headache, anxiety symptoms in childhood, anxiety disorders during adolescence and young adulthood, and the stress reactivity personality trait at the age of 18. TTH was significantly associated with neck or back injury in childhood (before the age of 13). Combined headache was related to maternal headache and anxiety disorder at 18 and 21 only among women with a childhood history of headache. Headache status at the age of 26 was unrelated to a history of perinatal complication, neurological disorder, or mild traumatic head injury.
Conclusions: Migraine and TTH seem to be distinct disorders with different developmental characteristics. Combined headache may also have a distinct aetiology.
doi:10.1136/jnnp.72.1.86
PMCID: PMC1737678  PMID: 11784831
10.  Migraine management in pregnancy 
Journal of Injury and Violence Research  2012;4(3 Suppl 1): Paper No. 78.
Abstract:
Background:
Migraine and tension-type headache are primary headache disorders that occur during pregnancy. Most women with migraine improve during pregnancy. Some women have their first attack during pregnancy. Migraine can recur postpartum; it can also begin at that time. Women who have had menstrual migraine and migraine onset at menarche tend to experience no migraine during pregnancy. Not all migraines improve during pregnancy, however. Some women experience migraine for the first time during pregnancy.
Etiology:
Headaches caused by cerebral arteriovenous malformations often present as migraine with aura. Cerebral venous thrombosis (common during pregnancy and the puerperium) may manifest with migraine-like visual disturbance and headache.
Treatment:
Nondrug therapies (relaxation, sleep, massage, ice packs and biofeedback) should be tried first to treat migraine in women who are pregnant. For treatment of acute migraine attacks 1000 mg of paracetamol (acetaminophen) preferably as a suppository is considered the first choice drug treatment.
Conclusions:
Migraine has also been recently postulated as one of the major risk factors for stroke during pregnancy and the puerperium. There is thus an urgent need for prospective studies of large numbers of pregnant women to determine the real existence and extent of the risks posed by migraine during pregnancy.
Keywords:
Migraine, Pregnancy, Headache
PMCID: PMC3571604
11.  Tertiary treatment for psychiatric comorbidity in headache patients 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2005;6(4):231-233.
The presence of significant and confounding psychiatric comorbidity is greater in patients attending headache clinics than in headache patients from the general population. The frequent comorbidity of headache with generalized anxiety disorder can take advantage of the administration of benzodiazepines. With regard to depression–related headache, it’s wellknown that the antidepressive drugs can improve migraine as well as tension–type headache. Antiepileptic drugs give one more good opportunity. The recognition of a psychiatric comorbidity is mandatory for an accurate management of the patient beacause prevents the clinicians from using any drug that might be dangerous for a mysdiagnosed psychiatric disturbance and often permits to administer medications that can efficaciously control both headache and psychiatric disorders.
doi:10.1007/s10194-005-0193-y
PMCID: PMC3452014  PMID: 16362672
Anxiety; Depression; Tension type headache; Migraine
12.  Can headache impair intellectual abilities in children? An observational study 
Background
The purpose of this study was to assess the cognitive functioning of children affected by headache, pinpointing the differences in intelligence style between subjects affected by migraine without aura and subjects with tension-type headache.
Methods
The study population consisted of 147 children (mean age 10.82 ± 2.17 years) with headache, recruited from the Headache Center for Developmental Age, Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Clinic, Second University of Naples. Cognitive profiling was performed using Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children Third Edition throughout the sample. According to the International Classification of Headache Disorders II criteria for pediatric age, subjects were divided into a migraine without aura group (n = 75; 43 boys, 32 girls) and a tension-type headache group (n = 72; 49 boys, 23 girls). The results were compared with the findings obtained from a sample of 137 healthy control subjects recruited from schools in the Campania region, matched for age and gender.
Results
No difference in full intelligence quotient was found between the groups, but the children with tension-type headache had a lower verbal intelligence quotient and a higher performance intelligence quotient than the healthy controls and children with migraine. Factor analysis data showed that the children with migraine seemed to have lower perceptual organization than the children affected by tension-type headache.
Conclusion
To our knowledge, studies on cognitive functioning in children affected by headache in the interictal phase are scarce, and our results suggest a new perspective in understanding of the neuropsychological aspects of young patients affected by headaches.
doi:10.2147/NDT.S36863
PMCID: PMC3490685  PMID: 23139628
childhood headache; intelligence quotient; Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children Third Edition; intelligence; migraine
13.  Serum levels of N-acetyl-aspartate in migraine and tension-type headache 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2012;13(5):389-394.
Serum levels of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) may be considered a useful marker of neuronal functioning. We aimed to measure serum NAA in cohorts of migraine and tension-type headache patients versus controls, performing correlations with main clinical features. A total of 147 migraine patients (including migraine without aura, with aura and chronic migraine), 65 tension-type headache (including chronic and frequent episodic tension-type headache) and 34 sex- and age-matched controls were selected. Serum was stored at −80 °C. Quantification of NAA was achieved by the standard addition approach and analysis was performed with liquid-chromatography–mass-spectrometry (LC/MS) technique. The NAA levels were significantly decreased in migraine group (0.065 ± 0.019 mol/L), compared with both tension-type headache patients (0.078 ± 0.016 mol/L) and controls (0.085 ± 0.013 mol/L). Control subjects were significantly different from migraine with and without aura and chronic migraine, who differed significantly from episodic and chronic tension-type headache. Migraine with aura patients showed lower NAA levels when compared to all the other headache subtypes, including migraine without aura and chronic migraine. In the migraine group, no significant correlation was found between NAA serum levels, and headache frequency, allodynia and interval from the last and the next attack. The low NAA in the serum may be a sign of neuronal dysfunction predisposing to migraine, probably based on reduced mitochondria function.
doi:10.1007/s10194-012-0448-3
PMCID: PMC3381063  PMID: 22527035
Serum N-acetyl-aspartate; Migraine; Tension-type headache
14.  Headache in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2011;12(2):227-233.
The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of and risk factors for primary headaches in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). Headache was classified in 75 patients with JME using a questionnaire, and its prevalence was correlated with the literature on the general population and clinical data. Headache was present in 47 patients. Thirty-one had migraine [20 migraine without aura (MO), 11 migraine with aura (MA)]. Fourteen patients with migraine had tension-type headache (TTH) in addition. Sixteen had only TTH. Comparison with the general population revealed a significantly higher prevalence of migraine (RR 4.4), MO (3.6), MA (7.3) and TTH (3.4) in JME. Risk factors for migraine and MO were female gender and for MA family history of migraine in first-degree relatives. Migraine and MA were associated with fairly controlled generalized tonic clonic seizures, MO with absences. Together with its strong genetic background, JME appears to be an attractive homogenous subtype of epilepsy for genetic research on migraine.
doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0332-6
PMCID: PMC3072490  PMID: 21437711
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy; Headache; Migraine; Prevalence
15.  Headache in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2011;12(2):227-233.
The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of and risk factors for primary headaches in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). Headache was classified in 75 patients with JME using a questionnaire, and its prevalence was correlated with the literature on the general population and clinical data. Headache was present in 47 patients. Thirty-one had migraine [20 migraine without aura (MO), 11 migraine with aura (MA)]. Fourteen patients with migraine had tension-type headache (TTH) in addition. Sixteen had only TTH. Comparison with the general population revealed a significantly higher prevalence of migraine (RR 4.4), MO (3.6), MA (7.3) and TTH (3.4) in JME. Risk factors for migraine and MO were female gender and for MA family history of migraine in first-degree relatives. Migraine and MA were associated with fairly controlled generalized tonic clonic seizures, MO with absences. Together with its strong genetic background, JME appears to be an attractive homogenous subtype of epilepsy for genetic research on migraine.
doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0332-6
PMCID: PMC3072490  PMID: 21437711
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy; Headache; Migraine; Prevalence
16.  Migraine: Clinical pattern and psychiatric comorbidity 
Industrial Psychiatry Journal  2012;21(1):18-21.
Background:
Migraine is a common disorder which has psychiatric sequelae.
Objective:
The objective of this study was to determine the clinical pattern and psychiatric comorbidity of migraine.
Materials and Methods:
100 cases of migraine seen over a period of one year were analysed to know the sociodemographic characteristics, clinical pattern and psychiatric morbidity.
Results:
Maximum patients were between 31-40 years of age group (40%), females (78.0%), married (76%) and housewives (56.0%). Family history of migraine was present in 12% cases. Average age of onset was 22 years. Unilateral and throbbing type of headache was most common. The commonest frequency was one to two per week. Migraine without aura was commonest sub-type (80%). Generalized anxiety disorder (F41.1) was the most common psychiatric disorder (34%), followed by mixed anxiety and depressive disorder (F41.2) (18%) and depressive episode (F32) (14%). In 22% cases, no psychiatric disorder could be elicited.
Conclusion:
The present study confirms that majority patients with migraine had psychiatric disorders. This needs timely detection and appropriate intervention to treat and control the migraine effectively.
doi:10.4103/0972-6748.110943
PMCID: PMC3678173  PMID: 23766573
Migraine; pattern; psychiatric comorbidity
17.  Decreasing the minimal duration of the attack to 1 hour: is this sufficient to increase the sensitivity of the ICHD-II diagnostic criteria for migraine in childhood? 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2004;5(2):131-136.
We applied the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-II) in 417 children (age range, 2–12 years) with chronic headaches attending a pediatric headache clinic. The initial diagnosis was made according to the ICHD-II while the final diagnosis was, based on the longitudinal intuitive clinical diagnosis (LICD), deemed to be the gold standard. The diagnosis of migraine without aura had a sensitivity of 52%, a specificity of 100% and a positive predictive value of 100%; for the diagnosis of migraine (at the one-digit level) these values were 87%, 100% and 100%, respectively. The ICHD-II criteria for migraine without aura have high specificity but low sensitivity in childhood, even considering the minimal duration of the attacks to be 1 hour. Other factors, such as the existence of subgroup 2.4 (probable tension-type headache), are responsible for the low sensitivity of ICHD-II criteria for the diagnosis of migraine without aura in patients of this age group.
doi:10.1007/s10194-004-0081-x
PMCID: PMC3451616
Headache classification; Migraine; Childhood; Diagnosis
18.  Personality Characteristics of Male Sufferers of Chronic Tension-Type and Cervicogenic Headache 
Background and Purpose
Chronic tension-type headache (a primary headache disorder) and cervicogenic headache (a secondary headache disorder that is attributable to upper cervical spine pathology) share similar clinical manifestations, but their associated personality traits may differ. We evaluated the personality differences between sufferers of chronic tension-type headache and cervicogenic headache.
Methods
We administered the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ) and the Zuckerman Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS) to 18 patients suffering from chronic tension-type headache, 19 suffering from cervicogenic headache, and 26 healthy volunteers. Depressive trends were measured with the Plutchik-van-Praag Depression Inventory (PVP).
Results
Compared to healthy controls, the chronic tension-type headache group scored significantly higher on ZKPQ Neuroticism-Anxiety and on the PVP, while the cervicogenic headache group scored significantly lower on SSS Thrill and Adventure Seeking. In addition, the total SSS score was significantly lower in the cervicogenic headache group than in both the chronic tension-type headache group and the healthy controls.
Conclusions
The results of this study indicate that higher scores for neuroticism-anxiety and depression were associated with chronic tension-type headache, while lower sensation-seeking scores were associated with cervicogenic headache.
doi:10.3988/jcn.2012.8.1.69
PMCID: PMC3325435  PMID: 22523516
cervicogenic headache; chronic tension-type headache; personality traits
19.  Genetics in primary headaches 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2007;8(3):190-195.
This tutorial describes different methods and results of genetic studies of primary headaches. A positive family history is imprecise, because it does not specify the number of affected, family size or relation to the proband. Nor does it include an interview of the possibly affected family members. Calculation of the familial aggregation after confirmation of the diagnosis by a physician is more precise. Compared to the general population, first-degree relatives of probands with migraine without aura, migraine with aura, chronic tension-type headache and cluster headache has a significantly increased risk of the proband’s disorder. These data are confirmed in twin studies. The primary headaches are caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. A major breakthrough was identification of 3 different genes all causing the rare autosomal dominant inherited familial hemiplegic migraine. The genes encode ion channels. So far no genes have been identified to cause the more common types of primary headaches.
doi:10.1007/s10194-007-0389-4
PMCID: PMC2780622  PMID: 17563838
Migraine; cluster; headache; tension-type headache; genetics; primary headache
20.  Genetics in primary headaches 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2007;8(3):190-195.
This tutorial describes different methods and results of genetic studies of primary headaches. A positive family history is imprecise, because it does not specify the number of affected, family size or relation to the proband. Nor does it include an interview of the possibly affected family members. Calculation of the familial aggregation after confirmation of the diagnosis by a physician is more precise. Compared to the general population, first-degree relatives of probands with migraine without aura, migraine with aura, chronic tension-type headache and cluster headache has a significantly increased risk of the proband’s disorder. These data are confirmed in twin studies. The primary headaches are caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. A major breakthrough was identification of 3 different genes all causing the rare autosomal dominant inherited familial hemiplegic migraine. The genes encode ion channels. So far no genes have been identified to cause the more common types of primary headaches.
doi:10.1007/s10194-007-0389-4
PMCID: PMC2780622  PMID: 17563838
Migraine; cluster; headache; tension-type headache; genetics; primary headache
21.  Familial occurrence in primary headaches 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2001;2(Suppl 1):s83-s86.
This paper reviews the literature of genetic epidemiology in primary headaches. Migraine without aura and migraine with aura are distinct disorders. Both are caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Tension–type headache. The episodic form is most likely non–genetic, while the chronic form is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Cluster headache has previously not been thought to be genetic. However, first degree relatives of cluster headache sufferers have a 14–46 fold significantly increased risk of cluster headache, compared to the general population.
doi:10.1007/s101940170016
PMCID: PMC3451813
Genetics; Migraine; Cluster headache; Tension-type headache
22.  Multidisciplinary integrated headache care: a prospective 12-month follow-up observational study 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2012;13(7):521-529.
This prospective study investigated the effectiveness of a three-tier modularized out- and inpatient multidisciplinary integrated headache care program. N = 204 patients with frequent headaches (63 migraine, 11 tension-type headache, 59 migraine + tension-type headache, 68 medication-overuse headache and 3 with other primary headaches) were enrolled. Outcome measures at baseline, 6- and 12-month follow-ups included headache frequency, Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), standardized headache diary and a medication survey. Mean reduction in headache frequency was 5.5 ± 8.5 days/month, p < 0.001 at 6 months’ follow-up and 6.9 ± 8.3 days/month, p < 0.001 after 1 year. MIDAS decreased from 53.0 ± 60.8 to 37.0 ± 52.4 points, p < 0.001 after 6 months and 34.4 ± 53.2 points, p < 0.001 at 1 year. 44.0 % patients demonstrated at baseline an increased HAD-score for anxiety and 16.7 % of patients revealed a HAD-score indicating a depression. At the end of treatment statistically significant changes could be observed for anxiety (p < 0.001) and depression (p < 0.006). The intake frequency of attack-aborting medication decreased from 10.3 ± 7.3 days/month at admission to 4.7 ± 4.1 days/month, p < 0.001 after 6 months and reached 3.8 ± 3.5 days/month, p < 0.001 after 1 year. At baseline 37.9 % of patients had experience with non-pharmacological treatments and 87.0 % at 12-month follow-up. In conclusion, an integrated headache care program was successfully established. Positive health-related outcomes could be obtained with a multidisciplinary out- and inpatient headache treatment program.
doi:10.1007/s10194-012-0469-y
PMCID: PMC3444539  PMID: 22790281
Integrated; Care; Multidisciplinary treatment program; Outcome study; Headache-related disability; Headache-related quality of life; Chronic headache
23.  Headache and cognitive profile in children: a cross-sectional controlled study 
We investigated whether children affected by tension-type headache and migraine without aura, compared with a healthy control group that was matched by age, culturally and socioeconomically display a diverse intellectual functioning and have a separate “cognitive profile”. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2006 to November 2008 at “Sapienza University” in Rome. A total of 134 children were diagnosed as being affected by either migraine without aura (93) or tension-type headache (41). On the basis of our exclusion/inclusion criteria, we enrolled 82 of these 134 children, 63 of whom were affected by migraine without aura and 19 by tension-type headache. On entry, cognitive functions were assessed in both the affected subjects and the control group by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-revised. Significant differences were found between the headache and control groups in the mean total intelligence quotient and verbal intelligence quotient scores (p < 0.001). Significant negative correlations were found between the total intelligence quotient, verbal intelligence quotient, performance intelligence quotient and the frequency of attacks (r = −0.55 and p < 0.001, r = −0.61 and p < 0.001, r = −0.29 and p < 0.01, respectively), as well as between the total intelligence quotient score and the age at headache onset (r = 0.234, p < 0.05). Our results suggest that the cognitive profile of children affected by headache should be assessed at the first child neurology outpatient observation. From a therapeutic point of view, although within a normal range, the abilities most likely to be less brilliant in such children are verbal skills.
doi:10.1007/s10194-009-0165-8
PMCID: PMC3452186  PMID: 19841863
Headache; Migraine; Cognitive profile; Intellectual performances; Psychometric tests
24.  Pure menstrual migraine with sensory aura: a case report 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2012;13(5):431-433.
Hormonal changes related to the menstrual cycle have a great impact on migraines in women. Menstrual migraine attacks are almost invariably without aura. Categorizing migraines into menstrual or non-menstrual types is one way to stratify migraines without aura according to the appendix criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. We report a peri-menopausal woman whose sensory aura exclusively heralded menstrual migraine. A 51-year-old woman had suffered from monthly episodic headaches since the age of 46. Before a headache, and within 1 h on the first day of her menstruation, she always experienced numbness in her entire left upper limb. After the sensory aura, migrainous headaches occurred with nausea and photophobia. In the postmenopausal period, she no longer had sensory aura, and her headache pattern changed and became less severe. Her physical and neurologic exams as well as electroencephalography, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and conventional angiography were all normal. She fulfilled the diagnosis of pure menstrual migraine with typical sensory aura. To our knowledge, this is the first formal case report of pure menstrual migraine with aura.
doi:10.1007/s10194-012-0450-9
PMCID: PMC3381070  PMID: 22527036
Menstrual migraine; Migraine aura; Sensory aura; Peri-menopausal
25.  Psychiatric comorbidity in patients with chronic daily headache and migraine: a selective overview including personality traits and suicide risk 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2009;10(4):283-290.
Studies on the prevalence and impact of psychiatric disorders among headache patients have yielded findings that have clarified the relationship between migraine and major affective disorders, anxiety, illicit drug abuse, nicotine dependence, and suicide attempts. Studies in both clinical and community-based settings have demonstrated an association between migraine and a number of specific psychiatric disorders. In large-scale population-based studies, persons with migraine are from 2.2 to 4.0 times more likely to have depression. In longitudinal studies, the evidence supports a bidirectional relationship between migraine and depression, with each disorder increasing the risk of the other disorder. Although a strong association has been demonstrated consistently for migraine and major depression, especially for migraine with aura, there has been less systematic research on the links between migraine and bipolar disorder. This review will focus on the way in which psychiatric disorders decrease the quality of life and result in a worse prognosis, chronicity of the disease, and a worse response to treatment. Short-term pharmaceutical care intervention improves the patients’ mental health, but it does not significantly change the number and severity of headaches. The increase in self-efficacy and mental health associated with pharmaceutical care may be instrumental in improving the long-term pharmacotherapy of patients with migraine and headache.
doi:10.1007/s10194-009-0134-2
PMCID: PMC3451744  PMID: 19554418
Psychiatric disorders; Headache; Suicide risk; Treatment

Results 1-25 (497454)