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1.  Diagnostic criteria for CADASIL in the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-II): are they appropriate? 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2010;11(3):181-186.
We reviewed the characteristics of headache in patients with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), to verify the appropriateness of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition (ICHD-II) criteria. Available data were found through Medline/PubMed using the keyword “cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL)”. The search was restricted to studies published in English in the years between 1993 and 2008. We excluded studies that did not report original data on CADASIL and information regarding the presence of headache. We found 34 studies reporting data on 749 patients overall; 387 (51.7%) patients had headache. According to the authors’ definition, 356 (92%) patients were reported as having migraine and 31 (8%) as having headache. Of the 356 patients who were defined as migraineurs, 125 (35.1%) had migraine with aura, 7 (2%) migraine without aura, 156 (43.8%) unspecified migraine and 68 (19.1%) had more than one type of migraine. Among the 31 patients reported as suffering from headache, the headache was not further detailed in 18 (58.1%) patients; it was defined as chronic in 6 (19.3%), as resembling migraine with aura in 4 (12.9%), as resembling migraine without aura in 2 (6.5%) and as tension type in 1 (3.2%) patient. In patients with CADASIL, the headache was usually referred to as migraine and mostly as migraine with aura. However, this referral is formally incorrect since the diagnostic criteria for any type of migraine in the ICHD-II require that the disturbance is not attributed to another disorder. For this reason, we suggest updating the ICHD-II in relation to CADASIL. Our suggestion is to insert a new category referred to as Headache attributed to genetic disorder including Headache attributed to CADASIL.
doi:10.1007/s10194-010-0203-6
PMCID: PMC3451909  PMID: 20224942
Migraine; Headache; CADASIL; International Classification of Headache Disorders
2.  Brief migraine episodes in children and adolescents-a modification to International Headache Society pediatric migraine (without aura) diagnostic criteria 
SpringerPlus  2013;2:77.
The international Headache Society (I H S) diagnostic criteria (International classification of headache disorders edition 2- ICHD 2) for headache in children and adults improved the accuracy of migraine diagnoses. However many short duration headaches in children, receive an atypical migraine diagnosis. This study is to diagnose children and adolescents who presented with such atypical migraines of less than one hour duration. 1402 children and adolescents aged 5 to 15 years who presented with recurrent brief activity affected head pain, were studied. Known and common migraine triggers and family history of migraine were recorded in all. All the children studied had moderate to severe headache lasting 5 to 45 minutes which forced them motionless during the attacks (thus fulfilling 2 diagnostic pain features). At least one of the ICHD2 pediatric migraine diagnostic symptoms (nausea / vomiting / photophobia / phonophobia) were present in all. Two additional features were diagnostic of brief migraines in all of them- one of the parents or siblings was a migrainer and one of the common migraine triggers as a precipitating factor. This study concludes that if duration of head pain is less than one hour ,two additional features to be included to diagnose definitive migraine in children and adolescents - one migraine parent or sibling and one of the migraine triggers precipitating the head pain.
doi:10.1186/2193-1801-2-77
PMCID: PMC3602609  PMID: 23526480
Brief migraines; ICHD2; Modification; Common migraine triggers family history
3.  One-year prevalence and the impact of migraine and tension-type headache in Turkey: a nationwide home-based study in adults 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2012;13(2):147-157.
Several studies have shown that the prevalence of migraine and tension-type headache (TTH) varied between different geographical regions. Therefore, there is a need of a nationwide prevalence study for headache in our country, located between Asia and Europe. This nationwide study was designed to estimate the 1-year prevalence of migraine and TTH and analyse the clinical features, the impact as well as the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the participant households in Turkey. We planned to investigate 6,000 representative households in 21 cities of Turkey; and a total of 5,323 households (response rate of 89%) aged between 18 and 65 years were examined for headache by 33 trained physicians at home on the basis of the diagnostic criteria of the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-II). The electronically registered questionnaire was based on the headache features, the associated symptoms, demographic and socio-economic situation and history. Of 5,323 participants (48.8% women; mean age 35.9 ± 12 years) 44.6% reported recurrent headaches during the last 1 year and 871 were diagnosed with migraine at a prevalence rate of 16.4% (8.5% in men and 24.6% in women), whereas only 270 were diagnosed with TTH at a prevalence rate of 5.1% (5.7% in men and 4.5% in women). The 1-year prevalence of probable migraine was 12.4% and probable TTH was 9.5% additionally. The rate of migraine with aura among migraineurs was 21.5%. The prevalence of migraine was highest among 35–40-year-old women while there were no differences in age groups among men and in TTH overall. More than 2/3 of migraineurs had ever consulted a physician whereas only 1/3 of patients with TTH had ever consulted a physician. For women, the migraine prevalence was higher among the ones with a lower income, while among men, it did not show any change by income. Migraine prevalence was lower in those with a lower educational status compared to those with a high educational status. Chronic daily headache was present in 3.3% and the prevalence of medication overuse headache was 2.1% in our population. There was an important impact of migraine with a monthly frequency of 5.9 ± 6, and an attack duration of 35.1 ± 72 h, but only 4.9% were on prophylactic treatment. The one-year prevalence of migraine estimated as 16.4% was similar or even higher than world-wide reported migraine prevalence figures and identical to a previous nation-wide study conducted in 1998, whereas the TTH prevalence was much lower using the same methodology with the ICHD-II criteria.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0414-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0414-5
PMCID: PMC3274583  PMID: 22246025
Prevalence of migraine; Prevalence of tension-type headache; Migraine; Tension-type headache; Headache
4.  One-year prevalence and the impact of migraine and tension-type headache in Turkey: a nationwide home-based study in adults 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2012;13(2):147-157.
Several studies have shown that the prevalence of migraine and tension-type headache (TTH) varied between different geographical regions. Therefore, there is a need of a nationwide prevalence study for headache in our country, located between Asia and Europe. This nationwide study was designed to estimate the 1-year prevalence of migraine and TTH and analyse the clinical features, the impact as well as the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the participant households in Turkey. We planned to investigate 6,000 representative households in 21 cities of Turkey; and a total of 5,323 households (response rate of 89%) aged between 18 and 65 years were examined for headache by 33 trained physicians at home on the basis of the diagnostic criteria of the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-II). The electronically registered questionnaire was based on the headache features, the associated symptoms, demographic and socio-economic situation and history. Of 5,323 participants (48.8% women; mean age 35.9 ± 12 years) 44.6% reported recurrent headaches during the last 1 year and 871 were diagnosed with migraine at a prevalence rate of 16.4% (8.5% in men and 24.6% in women), whereas only 270 were diagnosed with TTH at a prevalence rate of 5.1% (5.7% in men and 4.5% in women). The 1-year prevalence of probable migraine was 12.4% and probable TTH was 9.5% additionally. The rate of migraine with aura among migraineurs was 21.5%. The prevalence of migraine was highest among 35–40-year-old women while there were no differences in age groups among men and in TTH overall. More than 2/3 of migraineurs had ever consulted a physician whereas only 1/3 of patients with TTH had ever consulted a physician. For women, the migraine prevalence was higher among the ones with a lower income, while among men, it did not show any change by income. Migraine prevalence was lower in those with a lower educational status compared to those with a high educational status. Chronic daily headache was present in 3.3% and the prevalence of medication overuse headache was 2.1% in our population. There was an important impact of migraine with a monthly frequency of 5.9 ± 6, and an attack duration of 35.1 ± 72 h, but only 4.9% were on prophylactic treatment. The one-year prevalence of migraine estimated as 16.4% was similar or even higher than world-wide reported migraine prevalence figures and identical to a previous nation-wide study conducted in 1998, whereas the TTH prevalence was much lower using the same methodology with the ICHD-II criteria.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0414-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0414-5
PMCID: PMC3274583  PMID: 22246025
Prevalence of migraine; Prevalence of tension-type headache; Migraine; Tension-type headache; Headache
5.  Comparison of oxidative stress among migraineurs, tension-type headache subjects, and a control group 
Background:
A primary headache, particularly migraine, is associated with oxidative stress during the attack. However, data regarding the interictal state in migraineurs and in those with tension-type headache (TTH) is limited.
Objectives:
(1) To assess the oxidative stress in migraineurs and TTH subjects in between the episodes and (2) to see if there is a difference in the degree of oxidative stress in the different subtypes of migraine and TTH.
Materials and Methods:
Fifty migraineurs, 50 patients with TTH, and 50 control subjects were included in this study after screening for the exclusion criteria. Diagnosis of headache was made according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-2 criteria. A venous blood sample was collected from the antecubital vein at least 3 days after the last attack of headache. The sample was centrifuged immediately and the plasma was stored at –70°C. The ferric reducing activity of plasma (FRAP) and the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were assessed using colorimetric methods. Statistical analysis was done with the help of SPSS for Windows, v 11.0. One way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey test, independent sample t test, univariate regression, and multivariate regression analysis were done as indicated.
Results:
Migraineurs had higher values of MDA and FRAP than the subjects in the other two groups (P<0.001). No difference was observed between the TTH group and the control group. FRAP levels were significantly higher in subjects who had mixed migraine (migraine with aura and without aura) as compared to those with only migraine without aura (mean difference 196.1; 95% CI = 27.3 to 364.9; P = 0.01). Similarly, oxidative stress was significantly higher in patients with episodic TTH as compared to those with chronic TTH (FRAP t = 3.16; P = 0.003 and MDA t = 2.75; P = 0.008).
Conclusions:
This study suggests that oxidative stress continues even between headache episodes in migraineurs but not in those with TTH. This could probably be consequent to the different pathophysiological mechanisms of TTH and migraine.
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.56316
PMCID: PMC2824933  PMID: 20174497
Migraine; tension type headache; oxidative stress; ferric reducing activity of plasma; malondialdehyde
6.  Sensitivity and specificity of the new international diagnostic criteria for migraine with aura 
Objectives: Since 1998, migraine with aura (MA) has been diagnosed according to the operational diagnostic criteria of the International Headache Society (ICHD-1). Here we present the data underlying the new criteria for MA in the ICHD-2 classification.
Methods: Sensitivity of the new criteria was tested in patients with MA and specificity in patients with reversible non-aura visual disturbances. The diagnoses in both groups of patients were made in a validated semistructured physician-conducted interview. We tested five sets of criteria for sensitivity and specificity comparing with the diagnosis according to the ICHD-1 in 200 patients and the selected set of criteria in 274 additional patients.
Results: Four sets of criteria had sensitivity/specificity of 46%/100%, 71%/100%, 62%/95%, and 99%/76%. Sensitivity of the selected set of criteria was 84% (95% CI 79% to 90%) and specificity 97% (95% CI 95% to 99%). According to these criteria at least two of the following should be fulfilled: homonymous visual or unilateral sensory symptoms; at least one aura symptom develops gradually over ⩾5 minutes and/or different symptoms occur in succession over ⩾5 minutes; each symptom lasts ⩾5 and ⩽60 minutes. In the additional sample sensitivity of the selected criteria was 90% (95% CI 86% to 94%) and specificity 96% (95% CI 91% to 100%).
Conclusions: The diagnostic criteria for MA selected for ICHD-2 had high sensitivity and specificity. The ICHD-2 criteria are more operational and probably delineate a more homogeneous sample of patients than the ICHD-1. The ICHD-2 for MA is intended equally for research and clinical practice and can be used at different levels of specialisation.
doi:10.1136/jnnp.2004.037853
PMCID: PMC1739500  PMID: 15654035
7.  Validation of a guideline-based decision support system for the diagnosis of primary headache disorders based on ICHD-3 beta 
Background
China may have the largest population of headache sufferers and therefore the most serious burden of disease worldwide. However, the rate of diagnosis for headache disorders is extremely low, possibly due to the relative complexity of headache subtypes and diagnostic criteria. The use of computerized clinical decision support systems (CDSS) seems to be a better choice to solve this problem.
Methods
We developed a headache CDSS based on ICHD-3 beta and validated it in a prospective study that included 543 headache patients from the International Headache Center at the Chinese PLA General hospital, Beijing, China.
Results
We found that the CDSS correctly recognized 159/160 (99.4%) of migraine without aura, 36/36 (100%) of migraine with aura, 20/21 (95.2%) of chronic migraine, and 37/59 (62.7%) of probable migraine. This system also correctly identified 157/180 (87.2%) of patients with tension-type headache (TTH), of which infrequent episodic TTH was diagnosed in 12/13 (92.3%), frequent episodic TTH was diagnosed in 99/101 (98.0%), chronic TTH in 18/20 (90.0%), and probable TTH in 28/46 (60.9%). The correct diagnostic rates of cluster headache and new daily persistent headache (NDPH) were 90.0% and 100%, respectively. In addition, the system recognized 32/32 (100%) of patients with medication overuse headache.
Conclusions
With high diagnostic accuracy for most of the primary and some types of secondary headaches, this system can be expected to help general practitioners at primary hospitals improve diagnostic accuracy and thereby reduce the burden of headache in China.
doi:10.1186/1129-2377-15-40
PMCID: PMC4074417  PMID: 24934331
Headache; Computer-assisted diagnosis; Clinical decision support; ICHD-3 beta; SAGE
8.  Anatomical Alterations of the Visual Motion Processing Network in Migraine with and without Aura 
PLoS Medicine  2006;3(10):e402.
Background
Patients suffering from migraine with aura (MWA) and migraine without aura (MWoA) show abnormalities in visual motion perception during and between attacks. Whether this represents the consequences of structural changes in motion-processing networks in migraineurs is unknown. Moreover, the diagnosis of migraine relies on patient's history, and finding differences in the brain of migraineurs might help to contribute to basic research aimed at better understanding the pathophysiology of migraine.
Methods and Findings
To investigate a common potential anatomical basis for these disturbances, we used high-resolution cortical thickness measurement and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine the motion-processing network in 24 migraine patients (12 with MWA and 12 MWoA) and 15 age-matched healthy controls (HCs). We found increased cortical thickness of motion-processing visual areas MT+ and V3A in migraineurs compared to HCs. Cortical thickness increases were accompanied by abnormalities of the subjacent white matter. In addition, DTI revealed that migraineurs have alterations in superior colliculus and the lateral geniculate nucleus, which are also involved in visual processing.
Conclusions
A structural abnormality in the network of motion-processing areas could account for, or be the result of, the cortical hyperexcitability observed in migraineurs. The finding in patients with both MWA and MWoA of thickness abnormalities in area V3A, previously described as a source in spreading changes involved in visual aura, raises the question as to whether a “silent” cortical spreading depression develops as well in MWoA. In addition, these experimental data may provide clinicians and researchers with a noninvasively acquirable migraine biomarker.
A structural abnormality in the network of motion-processing areas could account for, or be the result of, the cortical hyperexcitability seen in people who have migraine.
Editors' Summary
Background.
Migraine is a disabling brain disorder that affects more than one in ten people during their lifetimes. It is characterized by severe, recurrent headaches, often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and light sensitivity. In some migraineurs (people who have migraines), the headaches are preceded by neurological disturbances known as “aura.” These usually affect vision, causing illusions of flashing lights, zig-zag lines, or blind spots. There are many triggers for migraine attacks—including some foods, stress, and bright lights—and every migraineur has to learn what triggers his or her attacks. There is no cure for migraine, although over-the-counter painkillers can ease the symptoms and doctors can prescribe stronger remedies or drugs to reduce the frequency of attacks. Exactly what causes migraine is unclear but scientists think that, for some reason, the brains of migraineurs are hyperexcitable. That is, some nerve cells in their brains overreact when they receive electrical messages from the body. This triggers a local disturbance of brain function called “cortical spreading depression,” which, in turn, causes aura, headache, and the other symptoms of migraine.
Why Was This Study Done?
Researchers need to know more about what causes migraine to find better treatments. One clue comes from the observation that motion perception is abnormal in migraineurs, even between attacks—they can be very sensitive to visually induced motion sickness, for example. Another clue is that aura are usually visual. So could brain regions that process visual information be abnormal in people who have migraines? In this study, the researchers investigated the structure of the motion processing parts of the brain in people who have migraine with aura, in people who have migraine without aura, and in unaffected individuals to see whether there were any differences that might help them understand migraine.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers used two forms of magnetic resonance imaging—a noninvasive way to produce pictures of internal organs—to examine the brains of migraineurs (when they weren't having a migraine) and healthy controls. They concentrated on two brain regions involved in motion processing known as the MT+ and V3A areas and first measured the cortical thickness of these areas—the cortex is the wrinkled layer of gray matter on the outside of the brain that processes information sent from the body. They found that the cortical thickness was increased in both of these areas in migraineurs when compared to healthy controls. There was no difference in cortical thickness between migraineurs who had aura and those who did not, but the area of cortical thickening in V3A corresponded to the source of cortical spreading depression previously identified in a person who had migraine with aura. The researchers also found differences between the white matter (the part of the brain that transfers information between different regions of the gray matter) immediately below the V3A and MT+ areas in the migraineurs and the controls but again not between the two groups of migraineurs.
What Do These Findings Mean?
This study provides new information about migraine. First, it identifies structural changes in the brains of people who have migraines. Until now, it has been thought that abnormal brain function causes migraine but that migraineurs have a normal brain structure. The observed structural differences might either account for or be caused by the hyperexcitability that triggers migraines. Because migraine runs in families, examining the brains of children of migraineurs as they grow up might indicate which of these options is correct, although it is possible that abnormalities in brain areas not examined here actually trigger migraines. Second, the study addresses a controversial question about migraine: Is migraine with aura the same as migraine without aura? The similar brain changes in both types of migraine suggest that they are one disorder. Third, the abnormalities in areas MT+ and V3A could help to explain why migraineurs have problems with visual processing even in between attacks. Finally, this study suggests that it might be possible to develop a noninvasive test to help doctors diagnose migraine.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030402.
The MedlinePlus encyclopedia has several pages on migraine
The US National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke offers patient information on migraine and other headaches
The NHS Direct Online contains patient information on migraine from the UK National Health Service
MAGNUM provides information from The US National Migraine Association
The Migraine Trust is a UK charity that supports research and provides support for patients
The Migraine Aura Foundation is a site about aura that includes a section on art and aura
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030402
PMCID: PMC1609120  PMID: 17048979
9.  Chronic migraine classification: current knowledge and future perspectives 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2011;12(6):585-592.
In the field of so-called chronic daily headache, it is not easy for migraine that worsens progressively until it becomes daily or almost daily to find a precise and universally recognized place within the current international headache classification systems. In line with the 2006 revision of the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-2R), the current prevailing opinion is that this headache type should be named chronic migraine (CM) and be characterized by the presence of at least 15 days of headache per month for at least 3 consecutive months, with headache having the same clinical features of migraine without aura for at least 8 of those 15 days. Based on much evidence, though, a CM with the above characteristics appears to be a heterogeneous entity and the obvious risk is that its definition may be extended to include a variety of different clinical entities. A proposal is advanced to consider CM a subtype of migraine without aura that is characterized by a high frequency of attacks (10–20 days of headache per month for at least 3 months) and is distinct from transformed migraine (TM), which in turn should be included in the classification as a complication of migraine. Therefore, CM should be removed from its current coding position in the ICHD-2 and be replaced by TM, which has more restrictive diagnostic criteria (at least 20 days of headache per month for at least 1 year, with no more than 5 consecutive days free of symptoms; same clinical features of migraine without aura for at least 10 of those 20 days).
doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0393-6
PMCID: PMC3208036  PMID: 22028184
Chronic migraine; Transformed migraine; Chronic daily headache; Chronic headache; Headache; Migraine
10.  Chronic migraine classification: current knowledge and future perspectives 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2011;12(6):585-592.
In the field of so-called chronic daily headache, it is not easy for migraine that worsens progressively until it becomes daily or almost daily to find a precise and universally recognized place within the current international headache classification systems. In line with the 2006 revision of the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-2R), the current prevailing opinion is that this headache type should be named chronic migraine (CM) and be characterized by the presence of at least 15 days of headache per month for at least 3 consecutive months, with headache having the same clinical features of migraine without aura for at least 8 of those 15 days. Based on much evidence, though, a CM with the above characteristics appears to be a heterogeneous entity and the obvious risk is that its definition may be extended to include a variety of different clinical entities. A proposal is advanced to consider CM a subtype of migraine without aura that is characterized by a high frequency of attacks (10–20 days of headache per month for at least 3 months) and is distinct from transformed migraine (TM), which in turn should be included in the classification as a complication of migraine. Therefore, CM should be removed from its current coding position in the ICHD-2 and be replaced by TM, which has more restrictive diagnostic criteria (at least 20 days of headache per month for at least 1 year, with no more than 5 consecutive days free of symptoms; same clinical features of migraine without aura for at least 10 of those 20 days).
doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0393-6
PMCID: PMC3208036  PMID: 22028184
Chronic migraine; Transformed migraine; Chronic daily headache; Chronic headache; Headache; Migraine
11.  Selectivity in Genetic Association with Sub-classified Migraine in Women 
PLoS Genetics  2014;10(5):e1004366.
Migraine can be sub-classified not only according to presence of migraine aura (MA) or absence of migraine aura (MO), but also by additional features accompanying migraine attacks, e.g. photophobia, phonophobia, nausea, etc. all of which are formally recognized by the International Classification of Headache Disorders. It remains unclear how aura status and the other migraine features may be related to underlying migraine pathophysiology. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 12 independent loci at which single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with migraine. Using a likelihood framework, we explored the selective association of these SNPs with migraine, sub-classified according to aura status and the other features in a large population-based cohort of women including 3,003 active migraineurs and 18,108 free of migraine. Five loci met stringent significance for association with migraine, among which four were selective for sub-classified migraine, including rs11172113 (LRP1) for MO. The number of loci associated with migraine increased to 11 at suggestive significance thresholds, including five additional selective associations for MO but none for MA. No two SNPs showed similar patterns of selective association with migraine characteristics. At one extreme, SNPs rs6790925 (near TGFBR2) and rs2274316 (MEF2D) were not associated with migraine overall, MA, or MO but were selective for migraine sub-classified by the presence of one or more of the additional migraine features. In contrast, SNP rs7577262 (TRPM8) was associated with migraine overall and showed little or no selectivity for any of the migraine characteristics. The results emphasize the multivalent nature of migraine pathophysiology and suggest that a complete understanding of the genetic influence on migraine may benefit from analyses that stratify migraine according to both aura status and the additional diagnostic features used for clinical characterization of migraine.
Author Summary
Migraine is among the most common and debilitating neurological disorders. Diagnostic criteria for migraine recognize a variety of symptoms including a primary dichotomous classification for the presence or absence of aura, typically a visual disturbance phenomenon, as well as others such as sensitivity to light or sound, and nausea, etc. We explored whether any of 12 recently discovered genetic variants associated with common migraine might have selective association for migraine sub-classified by aura status or nine additional migraine features in a population of middle-aged women including 3,003 migraineurs and 18,180 non-migraineurs. Five of the 12 genetic variants met the most stringent significance criterion for association with migraine, among which four had selective association with sub-classified migraine, including one that was selective for migraine without aura. At suggestive significance, all of the remaining genetic variants were selective for sub-classifications of migraine although no two variants showed the same pattern of selectivity. The selectivity patterns suggest very different contributions to migraine pathophysiology among the 12 loci and their implicated genes. Further, the results suggest that future discovery efforts for new migraine susceptibility loci would benefit by considering associations with sub-classified migraine toward the ultimate goals of more specific diagnosis and personalized treatment.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004366
PMCID: PMC4031047  PMID: 24852292
12.  Probable medications overuse headaches: validation of a brief easy-to-use screening tool in a headache centre 
Background
To validate a rapid questionnaire as a screening tool, because application of the diagnostic revised criteria of the ICHD-II for medication overuse headache (MOH) requires experience for the physician and is time-consuming.
Methods
ICHD-II criteria for probable MOH (pMOH) were transformed in questions formulated in such a way that they could be self-administered, easily understood, and quickly filled out. We compared this questionnaire to the gold standard: the diagnosis made by headache specialists, based on the the ICHD-II criteria. Patients who were consulting for pMOH or migraine for the first time were consecutively included. As validity indicators, we calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the items.
Results
Seventy-nine patients were screened, 77 included, 2 female patients excluded. Forty-two patients have been considered as suffering from pMOH, 35 patients suffered from migraine without medication overuse. The association of the question “do you take a treatment for attacks more than 10 days per month” and the question “is this intake on a regular basis?” had a sensitivity of 95.2% and a specificity of 80%.
Conclusion
This screening tool can detect pMOH with a sensitivity that could be of interest to screen patients in clinical practice and to pre-include patients for research as epidemiological studies.
doi:10.1186/1129-2377-14-81
PMCID: PMC3850931  PMID: 24088386
Medications overuse headaches; Screening tool; Validation; Questionnaire; Sensitivity; Specificity
13.  Neuroimaging for the Evaluation of Chronic Headaches 
Executive Summary
Objective
The objectives of this evidence based review are:
i) To determine the effectiveness of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in the evaluation of persons with a chronic headache and a normal neurological examination.
ii) To determine the comparative effectiveness of CT and MRI scans for detecting significant intracranial abnormalities in persons with chronic headache and a normal neurological exam.
iii) To determine the budget impact of CT and MRI scans for persons with a chronic headache and a normal neurological exam.
Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population
Headaches disorders are generally classified as either primary or secondary with further sub-classifications into specific headache types. Primary headaches are those not caused by a disease or medical condition and include i) tension-type headache, ii) migraine, iii) cluster headache and, iv) other primary headaches, such as hemicrania continua and new daily persistent headache. Secondary headaches include those headaches caused by an underlying medical condition. While primary headaches disorders are far more frequent than secondary headache disorders, there is an urge to carry out neuroimaging studies (CT and/or MRI scans) out of fear of missing uncommon secondary causes and often to relieve patient anxiety.
Tension type headaches are the most common primary headache disorder and migraines are the most common severe primary headache disorder. Cluster headaches are a type of trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia and are less common than migraines and tension type headaches. Chronic headaches are defined as headaches present for at least 3 months and lasting greater than or equal to 15 days per month. The International Classification of Headache Disorders states that for most secondary headaches the characteristics of the headache are poorly described in the literature and for those headache disorders where it is well described there are few diagnostically important features.
The global prevalence of headache in general in the adult population is estimated at 46%, for tension-type headache it is 42% and 11% for migraine headache. The estimated prevalence of cluster headaches is 0.1% or 1 in 1000 persons. The prevalence of chronic daily headache is estimated at 3%.
Neuroimaging
Computed Tomography
Computed tomography (CT) is a medical imaging technique used to aid diagnosis and to guide interventional and therapeutic procedures. It allows rapid acquisition of high-resolution three-dimensional images, providing radiologists and other physicians with cross-sectional views of a person’s anatomy. CT scanning poses risk of radiation exposure. The radiation exposure from a conventional CT scanner may emit effective doses of 2-4mSv for a typical head CT.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used to aid diagnosis but unlike CT it does not use ionizing radiation. Instead, it uses a strong magnetic field to image a person’s anatomy. Compared to CT, MRI can provide increased contrast between the soft tissues of the body. Because of the persistent magnetic field, extra care is required in the magnetic resonance environment to ensure that injury or harm does not come to any personnel while in the environment.
Research Questions
What is the effectiveness of CT and MRI scanning in the evaluation of persons with a chronic headache and a normal neurological examination?
What is the comparative effectiveness of CT and MRI scanning for detecting significant intracranial abnormality in persons with chronic headache and a normal neurological exam?
What is the budget impact of CT and MRI scans for persons with a chronic headache and a normal neurological exam.
Research Methods
Literature Search
Search Strategy
A literature search was performed on February 18, 2010 using OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and the International Agency for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) for studies published from January, 2005 to February, 2010. Abstracts were reviewed by a single reviewer and, for those studies meeting the eligibility criteria full-text articles were obtained. Reference lists were also examined for any additional relevant studies not identified through the search. Articles with an unknown eligibility were reviewed with a second clinical epidemiologist and then a group of epidemiologists until consensus was established.
Inclusion Criteria
Systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, observational studies
Outpatient adult population with chronic headache and normal neurological exam
Studies reporting likelihood ratio of clinical variables for a significant intracranial abnormality
English language studies
2005-present
Exclusion Criteria
Studies which report outcomes for persons with seizures, focal symptoms, recent/new onset headache, change in presentation, thunderclap headache, and headache due to trauma
Persons with abnormal neurological examination
Case reports
Outcomes of Interest
Primary Outcome
Probability for intracranial abnormality
Secondary Outcome
Patient relief from anxiety
System service use
System costs
Detection rates for significant abnormalities in MRI and CT scans
Summary of Findings
Effectiveness
One systematic review, 1 small RCT, and 1 observational study met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The systematic review completed by Detsky, et al. reported the likelihood ratios of specific clinical variables to predict significant intracranial abnormalities. The RCT completed by Howard et al., evaluated whether neuroimaging persons with chronic headache increased or reduced patient anxiety. The prospective observational study by Sempere et al., provided evidence for the pre-test probability of intracranial abnormalities in persons with chronic headache as well as minimal data on the comparative effectiveness of CT and MRI to detect intracranial abnormalities.
Outcome 1: Pre-test Probability.
The pre-test probability is usually related to the prevalence of the disease and can be adjusted depending on the characteristics of the population. The study by Sempere et al. determined the pre-test probability (prevalence) of significant intracranial abnormalities in persons with chronic headaches defined as headache experienced for at least a 4 week duration with a normal neurological exam. There is a pre-test probability of 0.9% (95% CI 0.5, 1.4) in persons with chronic headache and normal neurological exam. The highest pre-test probability of 5 found in persons with cluster headaches. The second highest, that of 3.7, was reported in persons with indeterminate type headache. There was a 0.75% rate of incidental findings.
Likelihood ratios for detecting a significant abnormality
Clinical findings from the history and physical may be used as screening test to predict abnormalities on neuroimaging. The extent to which the clinical variable may be a good predictive variable can be captured by reporting its likelihood ratio. The likelihood ratio provides an estimate of how much a test result will change the odds of having a disease or condition. The positive likelihood ratio (LR+) tells you how much the odds of having the disease increases when a test is positive. The negative likelihood ratio (LR-) tells you how much the odds of having the disease decreases when the test is negative.
Detsky et al., determined the likelihood ratio for specific clinical variable from 11 studies. There were 4 clinical variables with both statistically significant positive and negative likelihood ratios. These included: abnormal neurological exam (LR+ 5.3, LR- 0.72), undefined headache (LR+ 3.8, LR- 0.66), headache aggravated by exertion or valsalva (LR+ 2.3, LR- 0.70), and headache with vomiting (LR+ 1.8, and LR- 0.47). There were two clinical variables with a statistically significant positive likelihood ratio and non significant negative likelihood ratio. These included: cluster-type headache (LR+ 11, LR- 0.95), and headache with aura (LR+ 12.9, LR- 0.52). Finally, there were 8 clinical variables with both statistically non significant positive and negative likelihood ratios. These included: headache with focal symptoms, new onset headache, quick onset headache, worsening headache, male gender, headache with nausea, increased headache severity, and migraine type headache.
Outcome 2: Relief from Anxiety
Howard et al. completed an RCT of 150 persons to determine if neuroimaging for headaches was anxiolytic or anxiogenic. Persons were randomized to receiving either an MRI scan or no scan for investigation of their headache. The study population was stratified into those persons with a Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS) > 11 (the high anxiety and depression group) and those < 11 (the low anxiety and depression) so that there were 4 groups:
Group 1: High anxiety and depression, no scan group
Group 2: High anxiety and depression, scan group
Group 3: Low anxiety and depression, no scan group
Group 4: Low anxiety and depression, scan group
Anxiety
There was no evidence for any overall reduction in anxiety at 1 year as measured by a visual analogue scale of ‘level of worry’ when analysed by whether the person received a scan or not. Similarly, there was no interaction between anxiety and depression status and whether a scan was offered or not on patient anxiety. Anxiety did not decrease at 1 year to any statistically significant degree in the high anxiety and depression group (HADS positive) compared with the low anxiety and depression group (HADS negative).
There are serious methodological limitations in this study design which may have contributed to these negative results. First, when considering the comparison of ‘scan’ vs. ‘no scan’ groups, 12 people (16%) in the ‘no scan group’ actually received a scan within the follow up year. If indeed scanning does reduce anxiety then this contamination of the ‘no scan’ group may have reduced the effect between the groups results resulting in a non significant difference in anxiety scores between the ‘scanned’ and the ‘no scan’ group. Second, there was an inadequate sample size at 1 year follow up in each of the 4 groups which may have contributed to a Type II statistical error (missing a difference when one may exist) when comparing scan vs. no scan by anxiety and depression status. Therefore, based on the results and study limitations it is inconclusive as to whether scanning reduces anxiety.
Outcome 3: System Services
Howard et al., considered services used and system costs a secondary outcome. These were determined by examining primary care case notes at 1 year for consultation rates, symptoms, further investigations, and contact with secondary and tertiary care.
System Services
The authors report that the use of neurologist and psychiatrist services was significantly higher for those persons not offered as scan, regardless of their anxiety and depression status (P<0.001 for neurologist, and P=0.033 for psychiatrist)
Outcome 4: System Costs
System Costs
There was evidence of statistically significantly lower system costs if persons with high levels of anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale score >11) were provided with a scan (P=0.03 including inpatient costs, and 0.047 excluding inpatient costs).
Comparative Effectiveness of CT and MRI Scans
One study reported the detection rate for significant intracranial abnormalities using CT and MRI. In a cohort of 1876 persons with a non acute headache defined as any type of headache that had begun at least 4 weeks before enrolment Sempere et al. reported that the detection rate was 19/1432 (1.3%) using CT and 4/444 (0.9%) using MRI. Of 119 normal CT scans 2 (1.7%) had significant intracranial abnormality on MRI. The 2 cases were a small meningioma, and an acoustic neurinoma.
Summary
The evidence presented can be summarized as follows:
Pre-test Probability
Based on the results by Sempere et al., there is a low pre-test probability for intracranial abnormalities in persons with chronic headaches and a normal neurological exam (defined as headaches experiences for a minimum of 4 weeks). The Grade quality of evidence supporting this outcome is very low.
Likelihood Ratios
Based on the systematic review by Detsky et al., there is a statistically significant positive and negative likelihood ratio for the following clinical variables: abnormal neurological exam, undefined headache, headache aggravated by exertion or valsalva, headache with vomiting. Grade quality of evidence supporting this outcome is very low.
Based on the systematic review by Detsky et al. there is a statistically significant positive likelihood ratio but non statistically significant negative likelihood ratio for the following clinical variables: cluster headache and headache with aura. The Grade quality of evidence supporting this outcome is very low.
Based on the systematic review by Detsky et al., there is a non significant positive and negative likelihood ratio for the following clinical variables: headache with focal symptoms, new onset headache, quick onset headache, worsening headache, male gender, headache with nausea, increased headache severity, migraine type headache. The Grade quality of evidence supporting this outcome is very low.
Relief from Anxiety
Based on the RCT by Howard et al., it is inconclusive whether neuroimaging scans in persons with a chronic headache are anxiolytic. The Grade quality of evidence supporting this outcome is low.
System Services
Based on the RCT by Howard et al. scanning persons with chronic headache regardless of their anxiety and/or depression level reduces service use. The Grade quality of evidence is low.
System Costs
Based on the RCT by Howard et al., scanning persons with a score greater than 11 on the High Anxiety and Depression Scale reduces system costs. The Grade quality of evidence is moderate.
Comparative Effectiveness of CT and MRI Scans
There is sparse evidence to determine the relative effectiveness of CT compared with MRI scanning for the detection of intracranial abnormalities. The Grade quality of evidence supporting this is very low.
Economic Analysis
Ontario Perspective
Volumes for neuroimaging of the head i.e. CT and MRI scans, from the Ontario Health Insurance Plan (OHIP) data set were used to investigate trends in the province for Fiscal Years (FY) 2004-2009.
Assumptions were made in order to investigate neuroimaging of the head for the indication of headache. From the literature, 27% of all CT and 13% of all MRI scans for the head were assumed to include an indication of headache. From that same retrospective chart review and personal communication with the author 16% of CT scans and 4% of MRI scans for the head were for the sole indication of headache. From the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (MOHLTC) wait times data, 73% of all CT and 93% of all MRI scans in the province, irrespective of indication were outpatient procedures.
The expenditure for each FY reflects the volume for that year and since volumes have increased in the past 6 FYs, the expenditure has also increased with a pay-out reaching 3.0M and 2.8M for CT and MRI services of the head respectively for the indication of headache and a pay-out reaching 1.8M and 0.9M for CT and MRI services of the head respectively for the indication of headache only in FY 08/09.
Cost per Abnormal Finding
The yield of abnormal finding for a CT and MRI scan of the head for the indication of headache only is 2% and 5% respectively. Based on these yield a high-level estimate of the cost per abnormal finding with neuroimaging of the head for headache only can be calculated for each FY. In FY 08/09 there were 37,434 CT and 16,197 MRI scans of the head for headache only. These volumes would generate a yield of abnormal finding of 749 and 910 with a CT scan and MRI scan respectively. The expenditure for FY 08/09 was 1.8M and 0.9M for CT and MRI services respectively. Therefore the cost per abnormal finding would be $2,409 for CT and $957 for MRI. These cost per abnormal finding estimates were limited because they did not factor in comparators or the consequences associated with an abnormal reading or FNs. The estimates only consider the cost of the neuroimaging procedure and the yield of abnormal finding with the respective procedure.
PMCID: PMC3377587  PMID: 23074404
14.  Agreement of Self-Reported Migraine with ICHD-II Criteria in the Women’s Health Study 
Migraine is a common headache disorder that is increasingly being evaluated in population-based studies. The American Migraine Study II and the Women’s Health Study (WHS) have successfully used “modified” International Classification of Headache Disorders - I (ICHD-I) criteria to classify patients. Investigating agreement of self-reported migraine in large epidemiological studies with the criteria of the revised version (ICHD-II) is sparse. We have investigated 1,675 women with self-reported migraine participating in the WHS, who provided additional information on a detailed migraine questionnaire, which allowed us to apply all ICHD-II criteria. In this sub-cohort we confirmed self-reported migraine in over 87% of women when applying the ICHD-II criteria for migraine (71.5%) and probable migraine without aura (16.2 %). In conclusion, there is excellent agreement between self-reported migraine and ICHD-II based migraine classification in the WHS. In addition, questionnaire-based migraine assessment according to full ICHD-II criteria in large population-based studies is feasible.
doi:10.1111/j.1468-2982.2008.01835.x
PMCID: PMC2742765  PMID: 19735535
migraine; epidemiology; questionnaire; ICHD-I; ICHD-II
15.  Headache Symptoms in Pediatric Sickle Cell Patients 
Summary
The purposes of this study were to determine the characteristics of headaches in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and to assess the relationship between headache symptoms and children’s physical and emotional status. A detailed headache questionnaire using International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-2) criteria was mailed to a cohort (n = 50) of children with SCD, ages 9 to 17 years. Respondents also completed measures of functional disability and psychological distress. Headaches had occurred over the previous 3-month period in 76.2% of the patients. Frequent headaches were common, occurring greater than once a week in 31.2% of children. Average pain severity was reported as moderate on a 0-to-10 scale (mean = 5.8). Duration of headaches ranged from 30 minutes to several days, with a mean of 5 hours. Based on ICHD-2 criteria, 43.8% of children had headache symptoms consistent with migraines, 6.2% with migraine with aura, and 50.0% with tension-type headaches. Children with symptoms of migraine had significantly greater functional disability compared with children with symptoms of tension-type headaches (P < 0.01). Further studies to determine the characteristics and determinants of headaches experienced in SCD patients will help maximize treatment of headaches and enhance daily functioning in these patients.
PMCID: PMC1351111  PMID: 16096523
sickle cell disease; headache; migraine; children
16.  The relation of sexual function to migraine-related disability, depression and anxiety in patients with migraine 
Background
Depression and anxiety are two phenomena that affect quality of life as well as sexual function. Depression and anxiety levels are reported to be high in migraine sufferers. We aimed to understand whether sexual function in women with migraine was associated to migraine-related disability and frequency of migraine attacks, and whether this relationship was modulated by depressive and anxiety symptoms.
Methods
As migraine is more commonly seen in females, a total of 50 women with migraine were included. The diagnosis of migraine with or without aura was confirmed by two specialists in Neurology, according to the second edition of International Headache Society (IHS) International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-II) in 2004. Migraine disability assessment scale score, female sexual function index scores, Beck depression inventory score and Beck anxiety inventory scores.
Results
Mean MIDAS score was 19.3 ± 12.8, and mean number of migraine attacks per month were 4.3 ± 2.7. Mean Female Sexual Function Index score was 20.9 ± 5.9 and 90% of patients had sexual dysfunction. Sexual dysfunction was not related to MIDAS score or frequency and severity of attacks. No relationship between sexual function and anxiety was found, whereas severity of depressive symptoms was closely related to sexual function. Depressive symptoms affected all dimensions of sexual function, except for pain.
Conclusion
Sexual dysfunction seemed to be very common in our patients with migraine, while not related to migraine related disability, frequency of attacks and migraine severity or anxiety. The most important factor that predicted sexual function was depression, which was also independent of disease severity and migraine related disability. While future larger scale studies are needed to clarify the exact relationship, depressive and sexual problems should be properly addressed in all patients with migraine, regardless of disease severity or disability.
doi:10.1186/1129-2377-15-32
PMCID: PMC4046390  PMID: 24884652
Migraine; Sexual dysfunction; Migraine related disability; Depression; Anxiety
17.  The burden of headache in China: validation of diagnostic questionnaire for a population-based survey 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2011;12(2):141-146.
The objective of this study was to test the validity, in the Chinese population, of the Lifting The Burden diagnostic questionnaire for the purpose of a population-based survey of the burden of headache in China. From all regions of China, a population-based sample of 417 respondents had completed the structured questionnaire in a door-to-door survey conducted by neurologists from local hospitals calling unannounced. They were contacted for re-interview by telephone by headache specialists who were unaware of the questionnaire diagnoses. A screening question ascertained whether headache had occurred in the last year. If they had, the specialists applied their expertise and ICHD-II diagnostic criteria to make independent diagnoses which, as the gold standard, were later compared with the questionnaire diagnoses. There were 18 refusals; 399 interviews were conducted in 202 women and 197 men aged 18–65 years (mean age 44.4 ± 12.6 years). In comparison to the specialists’ diagnoses, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and Cohen’s kappa (95% CI) of the questionnaire for the diagnosis of migraine were 0.83, 0.99, 0.83, 0.99 and 0.82 (0.71–0.93), respectively; for the diagnosis of tension-type headache (TTH), they were 0.51, 0.99, 0.86, 0.92 and 0.59 (0.46–0.72), respectively. In conclusion, the questionnaire was accurate and reliable in diagnosing migraine (agreement level excellent), less so, but adequate, for TTH (sensitivity relatively low, false negative rate relatively high and agreement level fair to good). The non-specific features of TTH do not lend themselves well to diagnosis by questionnaire.
doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0336-2
PMCID: PMC3072517  PMID: 21452008
Epidemiology; Questionnaire; Headache; Migraine; Tension-type headache; Burden of headache
18.  The burden of headache in China: validation of diagnostic questionnaire for a population-based survey 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2011;12(2):141-146.
The objective of this study was to test the validity, in the Chinese population, of the Lifting The Burden diagnostic questionnaire for the purpose of a population-based survey of the burden of headache in China. From all regions of China, a population-based sample of 417 respondents had completed the structured questionnaire in a door-to-door survey conducted by neurologists from local hospitals calling unannounced. They were contacted for re-interview by telephone by headache specialists who were unaware of the questionnaire diagnoses. A screening question ascertained whether headache had occurred in the last year. If they had, the specialists applied their expertise and ICHD-II diagnostic criteria to make independent diagnoses which, as the gold standard, were later compared with the questionnaire diagnoses. There were 18 refusals; 399 interviews were conducted in 202 women and 197 men aged 18–65 years (mean age 44.4 ± 12.6 years). In comparison to the specialists’ diagnoses, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and Cohen’s kappa (95% CI) of the questionnaire for the diagnosis of migraine were 0.83, 0.99, 0.83, 0.99 and 0.82 (0.71–0.93), respectively; for the diagnosis of tension-type headache (TTH), they were 0.51, 0.99, 0.86, 0.92 and 0.59 (0.46–0.72), respectively. In conclusion, the questionnaire was accurate and reliable in diagnosing migraine (agreement level excellent), less so, but adequate, for TTH (sensitivity relatively low, false negative rate relatively high and agreement level fair to good). The non-specific features of TTH do not lend themselves well to diagnosis by questionnaire.
doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0336-2
PMCID: PMC3072517  PMID: 21452008
Epidemiology; Questionnaire; Headache; Migraine; Tension-type headache; Burden of headache
19.  Association Between Intimate Partner Violence, Migraine and Probable Migraine 
Headache  2010;51(2):208-219.
Objective
Intimate partner violence (IPV) among women is a global public health problem. The association between childhood maltreatment and migraine is well established, but not the association between IPV and migraine. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relationship between type and severity of IPV and migraine in a large cohort of Peruvian women.
Methods
Women who delivered singleton infants (N=2,066) at the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal, Lima, Peru were interviewed during their post-partum hospital stay. Participants were queried about their lifetime experiences with headaches and migraine, and with physical and sexual violence. The International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-2) diagnostic criteria were used to classify participants according to their migraine status. Questions on physical and sexual violence were adapted from the protocol of Demographic Health Survey Questionnaires and Modules: Domestic Violence Module and the World Health Organization (WHO) Multi-Country Study on Violence against Women. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Subset. Logistic regression was used to estimate multivariate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Results
Compared with women without a history of violence, women with experiences of lifetime physical or sexual violence (aOR=1.44, 95% CI 1.19–1.75), physical violence only (aOR=1.36, 95% CI 1.10–1.68), sexual violence only (aOR=1.76, 95% CI 0.97–3.21) and both physical and sexual violence (aOR=1.61, 95% CI 1.12–2.31) had increased odds of any migraine after adjusting for maternal age, parity and access to basic foods. There was no gradient of increased odds of any migraine with severity of physical violence. The relationship between IPV and any migraine was strongest among women with depressive symptoms. The odds of any migraine was increased 2.25-fold (95% CI 1.75–2.28) among abused women who also had depressive symptoms compared with non-abused and non-depressed women. Associations from sensitivity analyses that segregated women according to probable migraine (ICHD-2 category 1.6.1) and migraine (ICHD-2 category 1.1) diagnoses were of similar magnitudes as those reported here for women with any migraine diagnoses. IPV, particularly sexual violence, appears to be a risk factor for migraine.
Conclusion
Our findings suggest the potential importance of considering a history of violence among migraineurs.
doi:10.1111/j.1526-4610.2010.01777.x
PMCID: PMC3662491  PMID: 20946432
20.  Agreement of self-reported physician diagnosis of migraine with international classification of headache disorders-II migraine diagnostic criteria in a cross-sectional study of pregnant women 
BMC Women's Health  2013;13:50.
Background
Migraine, a common chronic-intermittent disorder among reproductive age women, has emerged as a novel risk factor for adverse perinatal outcomes. Diagnostic reliability of self-report of physician-diagnosed migraine has not been investigated in pregnancy cohort studies. We investigated agreement of self-report of physician-diagnosed migraine with the diagnostic criteria promoted by the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-II).
Methods
The cross-sectional study was conducted among 500 women who provided information on a detailed migraine questionnaire that allowed us to apply all ICHD-II diagnostic criteria.
Results
Approximately 92% of women reporting a diagnosis of migraine had the diagnosis between the ages of 11 and 40 years (<10 years 6.8%; 11–20 years 38.8%; 21–30 years 42.7%; 31–40 years 10.7%; and >40 years 1.0%). We confirmed self-reported migraine in 81.6% of women when applying the ICHD-II criteria for definitive migraine (63.1%) and probable migraine (18.5%).
Conclusion
There is good agreement between self-reported migraine and ICHD-II-based migraine classification in this pregnancy cohort. We demonstrate the feasibility of using questionnaire-based migraine assessment according to full ICHD-II criteria in epidemiological studies of pregnant women.
doi:10.1186/1472-6874-13-50
PMCID: PMC3878724  PMID: 24330724
Migraine; Pregnancy; Diagnosis; ICHD-II; Self-report; Agreement
21.  Cranial autonomic symptoms in pediatric migraine are the rule, not the exception 
Neurology  2013;81(5):431-436.
Objective:
The presence of cranial autonomic symptoms often leads to a misdiagnosis of “sinus headache” in adult migraineurs, leading to unnecessary treatments and delaying appropriate migraine therapy. In this study, we examined the frequency of cranial autonomic symptoms in pediatric/adolescent patients with migraine.
Methods:
This cross-sectional study included all pediatric and adolescent patients with migraine evaluated by a single investigator at 4 different sites over the course of the study period.
Results:
Of 125 pediatric migraineurs, 62% had at least one cranial autonomic symptom based on current International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition (ICHD-II) criteria, and 70% based on proposed ICHD-III criteria. The majority had more than one cranial autonomic symptom and the symptoms tended to be bilateral. Age, sex, laterality of headache, presence of aura, and whether migraine was episodic vs chronic did not influence the likelihood of having cranial autonomic symptoms.
Conclusions:
In pediatric/adolescent migraine, the presence of cranial autonomic symptoms appears to be the rule rather than the exception. Clinicians should be careful to consider migraine when evaluating a child with headache and associated ocular or nasal symptoms so as to avoid giving a misdiagnosis of sinus headache.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e31829d872a
PMCID: PMC3776532  PMID: 23897870
22.  Field testing the alternative criteria for tension-type headache proposed in the third beta edition of the international classification of headache disorders: results from the Korean headache-sleep study 
Background
According to the third beta edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorder (ICHD-3 beta), the diagnostic criteria for tension-type headache (TTH) might lead to the inclusion of individuals with headaches showing migrainous features. To better define TTH, the alternative diagnostic criteria were proposed in the appendix of ICHD-3 beta. This study attempted to test the alternative criteria for diagnosis of TTH proposed in ICHD-3 beta in a population-based sample from Korea.
Methods
We selected participants from the Korean population aged 19–69 years using stratified random sampling and evaluated them by interview using a questionnaire designed to identify headache type, headache characteristics, and psychiatric comorbidities.
Results
Of the 2,762 participants, 586 (21.3%) were diagnosed as having TTH using the standard criteria. Among these, 238 (40.6%) were also classified as having TTH using the alternative criteria. All 238 TTH subjects first diagnosed as having TTH by the alternative criteria were also classified as having TTH by the standard criteria. If the standard criteria were not applied, the remaining 348 patients were subclassified as having probable migraine (115, 19.6%) and unclassified headache (233, 39.7%). Compared with subjects diagnosed with TTH using the standard criteria, those diagnosed using the alternative criteria were less likely to demonstrate unilateral, pulsating headache, which is aggravated by movement, photophobia, phonophobia, and osmophobia.
Conclusion
Using the alternative criteria, less than half of the subjects with TTH according to the standard criteria were classified as having TTH. All the subjects with TTH by the alternative criteria were classified as having TTH by the standard criteria. This study also demonstrated that subjects diagnosed with TTH using the standard criteria could include people with headaches showing migrainous features.
doi:10.1186/1129-2377-15-28
PMCID: PMC4030019  PMID: 24884333
Classification; Criteria; Headache; Migraine; Probable migraine; Tension-type headache
23.  Application of ICHD-II Criteria in a Headache Clinic of China 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e50898.
Background
China has the huge map and the largest population in the world. Previous studies on the prevalence and classification of headaches were conducted based on the general population, however, similar studies among the Chinese outpatient population are scarce. This study aimed to analyze the characteristics of 1843 headache patients enrolled in a North China headache clinic of the General Hospital for Chinese People's Liberation Army from October 2011 to May 2012, with the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd Edition (ICHD-II).
Methods and Results
Personal interviews were carried out and a detailed questionnaire was used to collect medical records including age, sex and headache characteristics. Patients came from 28 regions of China with the median age of 40.9 (9–80) years and the female/male ratio of 1.67/1. The primary headaches (78.4%) were classified as the following: migraine (39.1%), tension-type headache (32.5%), trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (5.3%) and other primary headache (1.5%). Among the rest patients, 12.9% were secondary headaches, 5.9% were cranial neuralgias and 2.5% were unspecified or not elsewhere classified. Fourteen point nine percent (275/1843) were given an additional diagnosis of chronic daily headache, including medication-overuse headache (MOH, 49.5%), chronic tension-type headache (CTTH, 32.7%) and chronic migraine (CM, 13.5%). The visual analogue scale (VAS) score of TTH with MOH was significantly higher than that of CTTH (6.8±2.0 vs 5.6±2.0, P<0.001). The similar result was also observed in VAS score between migraine with MOH and CM (8.0±1.5 vs 7.0±1.5, P = 0.004). The peak age at onset of TTH for male and female were both in the 3rd decade of life. However, the age distribution at onset of migraine shows an obvious sex difference, i.e. the 2nd decade for females and the 1st decade for males.
Conclusions/Significance
This study revealed the characteristics of the headache clinic outpatients in a tertiary hospital of North China that migraine is the most common diagnosis. Furthermore, most headaches in this patient population can be classified using ICHD-II criteria.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050898
PMCID: PMC3519829  PMID: 23239993
24.  Craniosacral therapy for migraine: Protocol development for an exploratory controlled clinical trial 
Background
Migraine affects approximately 20% of the population. Conventional care for migraine is suboptimal; overuse of medications for the treatment of episodic migraines is a risk factor for developing chronic daily headache. The study of non-pharmaceutical approaches for prevention of migraine headaches is therefore warranted. Craniosacral therapy (CST) is a popular non-pharmacological approach to the treatment or prevention of migraine headaches for which there is limited evidence of safety and efficacy. In this paper, we describe an ongoing feasibility study to assess the safety and efficacy of CST in the treatment of migraine, using a rigorous and innovative randomized controlled study design involving low-strength static magnets (LSSM) as an attention control intervention.
Methods
The trial is designed to test the hypothesis that, compared to those receiving usual care plus a treatment with low-strength static magnets (attention-control complementary therapy), subjects receiving usual medical care plus CST will demonstrate significant improvement in: quality-of-life as measured by the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6); reduced frequency of migraine; and a perception of clinical benefit. Criteria for inclusion are either gender, age > 11, English or Spanish speaking, meeting the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) criteria for migraine with or without aura, a headache frequency of 5 to 15 per month over at least two years. After an 8 week baseline phase, eligible subjects are randomized to either CST or an attention control intervention, low strength static magnets (LSSM). To evaluate possible therapist bias, videotaped encounters are analyzed to assess for any systematic group differences in interactions with subjects.
Results
169 individuals have been screened for eligibility, of which 109 were eligible for the study. Five did not qualify during the baseline phase because of inadequate headache frequency. Nineteen have withdrawn from the study after giving consent.
Conclusion
This report endorses the feasibility of undertaking a rigorous randomized clinical trial of CST for migraine using a standardized CST protocol and an innovative control protocol developed for the study. Subjects are able and willing to complete detailed headache diaries during an 8-week baseline period, with few dropouts during the study period, indicating the acceptability of both interventions.
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00665236
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-8-28
PMCID: PMC2442042  PMID: 18541041
25.  Incidence and influence on referral of primary stabbing headache in an outpatient headache clinic 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2011;12-12(3):311-313.
Primary stabbing headache (PSH) is a pain, as brief, sharp, jabbing stabs, predominantly felt in the first division of trigeminal nerve. Population studies have shown that PSH is a common headache. However, most people suffer attacks of low frequency or intensity and seldom seek for medical assistance. There are few clinic-based studies of PSH, and its real influence as a primary cause for referral to neurology outpatient offices is to be determined. We aim to investigate the burden of PSH as main complaint in an outpatient headache clinic. We reviewed all patients with PSH (ICHD-II criteria), attended in an outpatient headache clinic in a tertiary hospital during a 2.5-year period (January 2008–June 2010). We considered demographic and nosological characteristics and if PSH was main cause of submission. 36 patients (26 females, 10 males) out of 725 (5%) were diagnosed of PSH. Mean age at onset 34.1 ± 2.9 years (range 10–72). Mean time from onset to diagnosis 68.8 ± 18.3 months. Twenty-four patients fulfilled ICHD-II criteria for other headaches (14 migraine, 6 tension-type headache, 2 hemicrania continua, 1 primary cough headache and 1 primary exertional headache). 77.7% of patients were submitted from primary care. In 14 patients (39%), PSH was main reason for submission, its intensity or frequency in 5 (35.7%) and fear of malignancy in 9 (74.3%). Only two patients of those who associated other headaches were submitted due to PSH. In conclusion, PSH is not an uncommon diagnosis in an outpatient headache office. However, and according to our data, it is not usually the main cause of submission to a headache clinic.
doi:10.1007/s10194-010-0283-3
PMCID: PMC3094672  PMID: 21210176
Primary stabbing headache; Headache clinic; Primary care

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