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1.  Thermally Driven Stability of Octadecylphosphonic Acid Thin Films Grown on SS316L 
Scanning  2010;32(5):304-311.
Stainless steel 316L is widely used as a biomedical implant material; however, there is concern about the corrosion of metallic implants in the physiological environment. The corrosion process can cause mechanical failure due to resulting cracks and cavities in the implant. Alkyl phosphonic acid forms a thin film by self-assembly on the stainless steel surface and this report conclusively shows that thermal treatment of the octadecylphosphonic acid (ODPA) film greatly enhances the stability of the ODPA molecules on the substrate surface. AFM images taken from the modified substrates revealed that thermally treated films remain intact after methanol, THF and water flushes while untreated films suffer substantial loss. Water contact angles also show that the hydrophobicity of thermally treated films does not diminish after being incubated in a dynamic flow of water for a three hour period while the untreated film becomes increasingly hydrophilic due to loss of ODPA. IR spectra taken of both treated and untreated films after water and THF flushes show that the remaining film retains its initial crystallinity. A model is suggested to explain the stability of ODPA film enhanced by thermal treatment. An ODPA molecule is physisorbed to the surface weakly by hydrogen bonding. Heating drives away water molecules leading to the formation of strong monodentate or mixed mono/bi-dentate bonds of ODPA molecule to the surface.
doi:10.1002/sca.20192
PMCID: PMC2962881  PMID: 20648546
Octadecylphosphonic acid; Stainless steel (SS316L); biomaterials; self-assembly; stability; contact angles; atomic force microscopy (AFM); IR spectroscopy
2.  Effect of Cell Moisture on the Thermal Inactivation Rate of Bacterial Spores 
Applied Microbiology  1968;16(8):1240-1244.
Thermal inactivation rates were determined for two strains of Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores after equilibration to various relative humidity (RH) levels. In these tests, small thin stainless-steel squares were each inoculated with a drop of spore suspension and equilibrated to 11, 33, or 85% RH. Following equilibration, the squares were placed on a hot plate preheated to 108, 125, 136, 164, or 192 C for various exposure times and then assayed for surviving organisms. The results revealed that spores of the A strain of B. subtilis were least resistant if preequilibrated to 11% RH and most resistant if preequilibrated to 85% RH. The same trend was obtained at all temperatures except 192 C, at which, no difference was noted, probably because the rapid kill time approaches the heat-up time of the stainless-steel square. The B strain of B. subtilis spores showed an opposite RH effect; that is, the cells preequilibrated to 11% RH were the most resistant. Because the two strains of spores were grown on different media, further studies were conducted at 136 C after subculturing the cells on different media. When the B strain was subcultured on the A strain medium, the pattern was reversed; the cells preequilibrated to low RH were then least resistant. Although it was not possible to reverse these cells to the original pattern by subculturing on the original B strain medium again, the pattern was altered to the point that there was no significant difference in heat resistance of these cells regardless of the preequilibration RH. The same result was obtained when the A strain was grown on the B strain medium; that is, the thermal resistance could not be reversed, but it was altered from the point where the low RH equilibrated cells were least resistant initially to the point where there was no significant difference in any of the cells regardless of what RH was used for preequilibration. The thermal resistance of spores seemed to be dependent on (i) the medium on which the spores are grown, (ii) the RH on which they are exposed before heating, and (iii) some genetic characteristic of the cell.
Images
PMCID: PMC547626  PMID: 4970894
3.  Direct observation of Lomer-Cottrell Locks during strain hardening in nanocrystalline nickel by in situ TEM 
Scientific Reports  2013;3:1061.
Strain hardening capability is critical for metallic materials to achieve high ductility during plastic deformation. A majority of nanocrystalline metals, however, have inherently low work hardening capability with few exceptions. Interpretations on work hardening mechanisms in nanocrystalline metals are still controversial due to the lack of in situ experimental evidence. Here we report, by using an in situ transmission electron microscope nanoindentation tool, the direct observation of dynamic work hardening event in nanocrystalline nickel. During strain hardening stage, abundant Lomer-Cottrell (L-C) locks formed both within nanograins and against twin boundaries. Two major mechanisms were identified during interactions between L-C locks and twin boundaries. Quantitative nanoindentation experiments recorded show an increase of yield strength from 1.64 to 2.29 GPa during multiple loading-unloading cycles. This study provides both the evidence to explain the roots of work hardening at small length scales and the insight for future design of ductile nanocrystalline metals.
doi:10.1038/srep01061
PMCID: PMC3544074  PMID: 23320142
4.  In Situ Measurement of the Junction Temperature of Light Emitting Diodes Using a Flexible Micro Temperature Sensor 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2009;9(7):5068-5075.
This investigation aimed to fabricate a flexible micro resistive temperature sensor to measure the junction temperature of a light emitting diode (LED). The junction temperature is typically measured using a thermal resistance measurement approach. This approach is limited in that no standard regulates the timing of data capture. This work presents a micro temperature sensor that can measure temperature stably and continuously, and has the advantages of being lightweight and able to monitor junction temperatures in real time. Micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) technologies are employed to minimize the size of a temperature sensor that is constructed on a stainless steel foil substrate (SS-304 with 30 μm thickness). A flexible micro resistive temperature sensor can be fixed between the LED chip and the frame. The junction temperature of the LED can be measured from the linear relationship between the temperature and the resistance. The sensitivity of the micro temperature sensor is 0.059 ± 0.004 Ω/°C. The temperature of the commercial CREE® EZ1000 chip is 119.97 °C when it is thermally stable, as measured using the micro temperature sensor; however, it was 126.9 °C, when measured by thermal resistance measurement. The micro temperature sensor can be used to replace thermal resistance measurement and performs reliably.
doi:10.3390/s90705068
PMCID: PMC3274131  PMID: 22346688
LED; junction temperature; MEMS; flexible micro temperature sensor
5.  Viscoelastic properties of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis mono‐microbial biofilms 
Microbial biotechnology  2009;2(6):634-641.
Summary
The viscoelastic properties of mono‐microbial biofilms produced by ocular and reference staphylococcal strains were investigated. The microorganisms were characterized for their haemolytic activity and agr typing and the biofilms, grown on stainless steel surface under static conditions, were analysed by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy. Static and dynamic rheometric tests were carried out to determine the steady‐flow viscosity and the elastic and viscous moduli. The analysed biofilms showed the typical time‐dependent behaviour of viscoelastic materials with considerable elasticity and mechanical stability except for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 biofilm which showed a very fragile structure. In particular, S. aureus 6ME biofilm was more compact than other staphylococcal biofilms studied with a yield stress ranging between 2 and 3 Pa. The data obtained in this work could represent a starting point for developing new therapeutic strategies against biofilm‐associated infections, such as improving the drug effect by associating an antimicrobial agent with a biofilm viscoelasticity modifier.
doi:10.1111/j.1751-7915.2009.00120.x
PMCID: PMC3815319  PMID: 21255298
6.  Fabrication of a Flexible Micro Temperature Sensor for Micro Reformer Applications 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2011;11(4):3706-3716.
Micro reformers still face obstacles in minimizing their size, decreasing the concentration of CO, conversion efficiency and the feasibility of integrated fabrication with fuel cells. By using a micro temperature sensor fabricated on a stainless steel-based micro reformer, this work attempts to measure the inner temperature and increase the conversion efficiency. Micro temperature sensors on a stainless steel substrate are fabricated using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and then placed separately inside the micro reformer. Micro temperature sensors are characterized by their higher accuracy and sensitivity than those of a conventional thermocouple. To the best of our knowledge, micro temperature sensors have not been embedded before in micro reformers and commercial products, therefore, this work presents a novel approach to integrating micro temperature sensors in a stainless steel-based micro reformer in order to evaluate inner local temperature distributions and enhance reformer performance.
doi:10.3390/s110403706
PMCID: PMC3231302  PMID: 22163817
MEMS; flexible micro temperature sensor; micro reformer
7.  Sensor Fabrication Method for in Situ Temperature and Humidity Monitoring of Light Emitting Diodes 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2010;10(4):3363-3372.
In this work micro temperature and humidity sensors are fabricated to measure the junction temperature and humidity of light emitting diodes (LED). The junction temperature is frequently measured using thermal resistance measurement technology. The weakness of this method is that the timing of data capture is not regulated by any standard. This investigation develops a device that can stably and continually measure temperature and humidity. The device is light-weight and can monitor junction temperature and humidity in real time. Using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), this study minimizes the size of the micro temperature and humidity sensors, which are constructed on a stainless steel foil substrate (40 μm-thick SS-304). The micro temperature and humidity sensors can be fixed between the LED chip and frame. The sensitivities of the micro temperature and humidity sensors are 0.06 ± 0.005 (Ω/°C) and 0.033 pF/%RH, respectively.
doi:10.3390/s100403363
PMCID: PMC3274224  PMID: 22319303
LED; MEMS; flexible micro temperature; humidity sensors
8.  Assessment of hydrophobicity and roughness of stainless steel adhered by an isolate of Bacillus cereus from a dairy plant 
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology  2010;41(4):984-992.
The interaction between the surface of stainless steel and Bacillus cereus was studied in terms of the characteristics of interfacial interaction determined from the measurement of the contact angle of the surface of B. cereus and stainless steel in the presence or absence of B. cereus adherence. The microtopographies and the roughness of the surface of stainless steel and stainless steel adhered by B. cereus were evaluated with the help of atomic force microscopy and perfilometry. The strain of B. cereus studied was considered hydrophilic, whereas the stainless steel was considered hydrophobic. The adhesion was not thermodynamically favorable (ΔGadhesion > 0) between the stainless steel and the strain of B. cereus studied. Thus, the interaction between them was not favored by the thermodynamic aspect of adhesion. There was no difference (p > 0.05) in the roughness of the surfaces of stainless steel adhered by B. cereus when analyzed by atomic force microscope and perfilometry.
doi:10.1590/S1517-838220100004000017
PMCID: PMC3769772  PMID: 24031578
hydrophobicity; roughness; Bacillus cereus; dairy plant; adhesion
9.  Shear Stress, Temperature, and Inoculation Concentration Influence the Adhesion of Water-Stressed Helicobacter pylori to Stainless Steel 304 and Polypropylene 
Although molecular techniques have identified Helicobacter pylori in drinking water-associated biofilms, there is a lack of studies reporting what factors affect the attachment of the bacterium to plumbing materials. Therefore, the adhesion of H. pylori suspended in distilled water to stainless steel 304 (SS304) coupons placed on tissue culture plates subjected to different environmental conditions was monitored. The extent of adhesion was evaluated for different water exposure times, using epifluorescence microscopy to count total cell numbers. High shear stresses—estimated through computational fluid dynamics—negatively influenced the adhesion of H. pylori to the substrata (P < 0.001), a result that was confirmed in similar experiments with polypropylene (P < 0.05). However, the temperature and inoculation concentration appeared to have no effect on adhesion (P > 0.05). After 2 hours, H. pylori cells appeared to be isolated on the surface of SS304 and were able to form small aggregates with longer exposure times. However, the formation of a three-dimensional structure was only very rarely observed. This study suggests that the detection of the pathogen in well water described by other authors can be related to the increased ability of H. pylori to integrate into biofilms under conditions of low shear stress. It will also allow a more rational selection of locations to perform molecular or plate culture analysis for the detection of H. pylori in drinking water-associated biofilms.
doi:10.1128/AEM.72.4.2936-2941.2006
PMCID: PMC1449073  PMID: 16598000
10.  The Effect of Temperature Gradients on Stress Development During Cryopreservation via Vitrification 
Cell preservation technology  2007;5(2):104-115.
This study addresses the problem of thermal stress development in bulky specimens during cryopreservation via vitrification (vitreous means glassy in Latin). While this study is a part of an ongoing effort to associate the developing mechanical stress with the relevant physical properties of the cryopreserved media and to its the thermal history, the current paper focuses exclusively on the role of temperature gradients. Temperature gradients arise due to the high cooling rates necessary to facilitate vitrification; the resulting non-uniform temperature distribution leads to differential thermal strain, possibly resulting in cracking. The cooling rate is assumed constant on the outer surface in this study, and the material properties are assumed constant. It is demonstrated that under these assumptions, mechanical stress develops only when the temperature distribution in the specimen approaches thermal equilibrium at a cryogenic storage temperature. It is shown that the maximum possible stresses for a given cooling rate can be computed with a simple thermo-elastic analysis; these stresses are associated with cooling to sufficiently low temperatures and are independent of the variation of viscosity with temperature. Analytic estimates for these stresses are obtained for several idealized shapes, while finite element analysis is used to determine stresses for geometries used in cryopreservation practice. Stresses that develop under a wider range of storage temperatures are also studied with finite element analysis, and the results are summarized with suitable normalizations. It is found that no stresses arise if cooling ceases above the set-temperature, which defines the transition from viscous-dominated to elastic-dominated behavior; the set-temperature is determined principally by the dependency of viscosity upon temperature. Strategies for rapidly reaching low temperatures and avoiding high stresses are inferred from the results.
doi:10.1089/cpt.2007.9994
PMCID: PMC2180391  PMID: 18185851
Vitrification; Solidification; Solid Mechanics; Thermal Stress; Set-Temperature
11.  Perfluorocarbon thin films and polymer brushes on stainless steel 316L for control of interfacial properties 
Perfluorocarbon thin films and polymer brushes were formed on stainless steel 316L (SS316L) to control the surface properties of the metal oxide. Substrates modified with the films were characterized using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), contact angle analysis, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Perfluorooctadecanoic acid (PFOA) was used to form thin films by self-assembly on the surface of SS316L. Polypentafluorostyrene (PFS) polymer brushes were formed by surface initiated polymerization using SAMs of 16-phosphonohexadecanoic acid (COOH-PA) as the base. PFOA and PFS were effective in significantly reducing the surface energy and thus the interfacial wetting properties of SS316L. The SS316L control exhibited a surface energy of 38 mN/m compared to PFOA and PFS modifications, which had surface energies of 22 and 24 mN/m, respectively. PFOA thin films were more effective in reducing the surface energy of the SS316L compared to PFS polymer brushes. This is attributed to the ordered PFOA film presenting aligned CF3 terminal groups. However, PFS polymer brushes were more effective in providing corrosion protection. These low energy surfaces could be used to provide a hydrophobic barrier that inhibits corrosion of the SS316L metal oxide surface.
doi:10.1021/la200792t
PMCID: PMC3126892  PMID: 21631123
stainless steel 316L; fluorine; thin films; surface initiated polymerization; low surface energy
12.  Crack-Tip Strain Field Mapping and the Toughness of Metallic Glasses 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e83289.
We have used high-energy x-ray scattering to map the strain fields around crack tips in fracture specimens of a bulk metallic glass under load at room temperature and below. From the measured strain fields we can calculate the components of the stress tensor as a function of position and determine the size and shape of the plastic process zone around the crack tip. Specimens tested at room temperature develop substantial plastic zones and achieve high stress intensities () prior to fracture. Specimens tested at cryogenic temperatures fail at reduced but still substantial stress intensities () and show only limited evidence of crack-tip plasticity. We propose that the difference in behavior is associated with changes in the flow stress and elastic constants, which influence the number density of shear bands in the plastic zone and thus the strain required to initiate fracture on an individual band. A secondary effect is a change in the triaxial state of stress around the crack tip due to the temperature dependence of Poisson's ratio. It is likely that this ability to map elastic strains on the microscale will be useful in other contexts, although interpreting shifts in the position of the scattering peaks in amorphous materials in terms of elastic strains must be done with caution.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083289
PMCID: PMC3873938  PMID: 24386172
13.  Mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite single crystals from nanoindentation data 
In this paper we compute elasto-plastic properties of hydroxyapatite single crystals from nanindentation data using a two-step algorithm. In the first step the yield stress is obtained using hardness and Young’s modulus data, followed by the computation of the flow parameters. The computational approach is first validated with data from existing literature. It is observed that hydroxyapatite single crystals exhibit anisotropic mechanical response with a lower yield stress along the [1010] crystallographic direction compared to the [0001] direction. Both work hardening rate and work hardening exponent are found to be higher for indentation along the [0001] crystallographic direction. The stress-strain curves extracted here could be used for developing constitutive models for hydroxyapatite single crystals.
doi:10.1016/j.jmbbm.2010.11.001
PMCID: PMC3123525  PMID: 21262492
14.  Strength, Hardening, and Failure Observed by In Situ TEM Tensile Testing** 
Advanced Engineering Materials  2012;14(11):960-967.
We present in situ transmission electron microscope tensile tests on focused ion beam fabricated single and multiple slip oriented Cu tensile samples with thicknesses in the range of 100–200 nm. Both crystal orientations fail by localized shear. While failure occurs after a few percent plastic strain and limited hardening in the single slip case, the multiple slip samples exhibit extended homogenous deformation and necking due to the activation of multiple dislocation sources in conjunction with significant hardening. The hardening behavior at 1% plastic strain is even more pronounced compared to compression samples of the same orientation due to the absence of sample taper and the interface to the compression platen. Moreover, we show for the first time that the strain rate sensitivity of such FIB prepared samples is an order of magnitude higher than that of bulk Cu.
doi:10.1002/adem.201200031
PMCID: PMC3573867  PMID: 23447712
15.  Study on cerium-doped nano-TiO2 coatings for corrosion protection of 316 L stainless steel 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2012;7(1):227.
Many methods have been reported on improving the photogenerated cathodic protection of nano-TiO2 coatings for metals. In this work, nano-TiO2 coatings doped with cerium nitrate have been developed by sol–gel method for corrosion protection of 316 L stainless steel. Surface morphology, structure, and properties of the prepared coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The corrosion protection performance of the prepared coatings was evaluated in 3 wt% NaCl solution by using electrochemical techniques in the presence and absence of simulated sunlight illumination. The results indicated that the 1.2% Ce-TiO2 coating with three layers exhibited an excellent photogenerated cathodic protection under illumination attributed to the higher separation efficiency of electron–hole pairs and higher photoelectric conversion efficiency. The results also showed that after doping with an appropriate concentration of cerium nitrate, the anti-corrosion performance of the TiO2 coating was improved even without irradiation due to the self-healing property of cerium ions.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-227
PMCID: PMC3432000  PMID: 22515192
Nano-TiO2 coating; Cerium ion doping; Corrosion protection
16.  Strain-specific functional and numerical responses are required to evaluate impacts on predator–prey dynamics 
The ISME Journal  2012;7(2):405-416.
We use strains recently collected from the field to establish cultures; then, through laboratory studies we investigate how among strain variation in protozoan ingestion and growth rates influences population dynamics and intraspecific competition. We focused on the impact of changing temperature because of its well-established effects on protozoan rates and its ecological relevance, from daily fluctuations to climate change. We show, first, that there is considerable inter-strain variability in thermal sensitivity of maximum growth rate, revealing distinct differences among multiple strains of our model species Oxyrrhis marina. We then intensively examined two representative strains that exhibit distinctly different thermal responses and parameterised the influence of temperature on their functional and numerical responses. Finally, we assessed how these responses alter predator–prey population dynamics. We do this first considering a standard approach, which assumes that functional and numerical responses are directly coupled, and then compare these results with a novel framework that incorporates both functional and numerical responses in a fully parameterised model. We conclude that: (i) including functional diversity of protozoa at the sub-species level will alter model predictions and (ii) including directly measured, independent functional and numerical responses in a model can provide a more realistic account of predator–prey dynamics.
doi:10.1038/ismej.2012.117
PMCID: PMC3555124  PMID: 23151643
functional response; numerical response; model protozoa; Oxyrrhis marina; temperature
17.  Constitutive Law and Flow Mechanism in Diamond Deformation 
Scientific Reports  2012;2:876.
Constitutive laws and crystal plasticity in diamond deformation have been the subjects of substantial interest since synthetic diamond was made in 1950's. To date, however, little is known quantitatively regarding its brittle-ductile properties and yield strength at high temperatures. Here we report, for the first time, the strain-stress constitutive relations and experimental demonstration of deformation mechanisms under confined high pressure. The deformation at room temperature is essentially brittle, cataclastic, and mostly accommodated by fracturing on {111} plane with no plastic yielding at uniaxial strains up to 15%. At elevated temperatures of 1000°C and 1200°C diamond crystals exhibit significant ductile flow with corresponding yield strength of 7.9 and 6.3 GPa, indicating that diamond starts to weaken when temperature is over 1000°C. At high temperature the plastic deformation and ductile flow is meditated by the <110>{111} dislocation glide and a very active {111} micro-twinning.
doi:10.1038/srep00876
PMCID: PMC3500768  PMID: 23166859
18.  Fiber optic micro sensor for the measurement of tendon forces 
A fiber optic sensor developed for the measurement of tendon forces was designed, numerically modeled, fabricated, and experimentally evaluated. The sensor incorporated fiber Bragg gratings and micro-fabricated stainless steel housings. A fiber Bragg grating is an optical device that is spectrally sensitive to axial strain. Stainless steel housings were designed to convert radial forces applied to the housing into axial forces that could be sensed by the fiber Bragg grating. The metal housings were fabricated by several methods including laser micromachining, swaging, and hydroforming. Designs are presented that allow for simultaneous temperature and force measurements as well as for simultaneous resolution of multi-axis forces.
The sensor was experimentally evaluated by hydrostatic loading and in vitro testing. A commercial hydraulic burst tester was used to provide uniform pressures on the sensor in order to establish the linearity, repeatability, and accuracy characteristics of the sensor. The in vitro experiments were performed in excised tendon and in a dynamic gait simulator to simulate biological conditions. In both experimental conditions, the sensor was found to be a sensitive and reliable method for acquiring minimally invasive measurements of soft tissue forces. Our results suggest that this sensor will prove useful in a variety of biomechanical measurements.
doi:10.1186/1475-925X-11-77
PMCID: PMC3494611  PMID: 23033868
Fiber Bragg grating sensor; Tendon forces
19.  In vitro study on the feasibility of magnetic stent hyperthermia for the treatment of cardiovascular restenosis 
Thermal treatment or hyperthermia has received considerable attention in recent years due to its high efficiency, safety and relatively few side-effects. In this study, we investigated whether it was possible to utilize targeted thermal or instent thermal treatments for the treatment of restenosis following percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) through magnetic stent hyperthermia (MSH). A 316L stainless steel stent and rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were used in the present study, in which the inductive heating characteristics of the stent under alternative magnetic field (AMF) exposure, as well as the effect of MSH on the proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression of the rabbit VSMCs, were evaluated. The results demonstrated that 316L stainless steel coronary stents possess ideal inductive heating characteristics under 300 kHz AMF exposure. The heating properties were shown to be affected by the field intensity of the AMF, as well as the orientation the stent axis. MSH had a significant effect on the proliferation and apoptosis of VSMCs, and the effect was temperature-dependent. While a mild temperature of 43°C demonstrated negligible effects on the growth of VSMCs, MSH treatment above 47°C effectively inhibited the VSMC proliferation and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, a 47°C treatment exhibited a significant and long-term inhibitory effect on VSMC migration. The results strongly suggested that MSH may be potentially applied in the clinic as an alternative approach for the prevention and treatment of restenosis.
doi:10.3892/etm.2013.1177
PMCID: PMC3786833  PMID: 24137187
magnetic stent hyperthermia; percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty; restenosis; vascular smooth muscle cells; alternative magnetic field
20.  Validated stability indicating liquid chromatographic determination of ebastine in pharmaceuticals after pre column derivatization: Application to tablets and content uniformity testing 
An accurate, simple, sensitive and selective reversed phase liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of ebastine in its pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed method depends on the complexation ability of the studied drug with Zn2+ ions. Reversed phase chromatography was conducted using an ODS C18 (150 × 4.6 mm id) stainless steel column at ambient temperature with UV-detection at 260 nm. A mobile phase containing 0.025%w/v Zn2+ in a mixture of (acetonitril/methanol; 1/4) and Britton Robinson buffer (65:35, v/v) adjusted to pH 4.2, has been used for the determination of ebastine at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The calibration curve was rectilinear over the concentration range of 0.3 - 6.0 μg/ml with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.13 μg/ml, and quantification limit (LOQ) of 0.26 μg/ml. The proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of ebastine in its dosage forms, the obtained results were favorably compared with those obtained by a comparison method. Furthermore, content uniformity testing of the studied pharmaceutical formulations was also conducted. The composition of the complex as well as its stability constant was also investigated. Moreover, the proposed method was found to be a stability indicating one and was utilized to investigate the kinetics of alkaline and ultraviolet induced degradation of the drug. The first-order rate constant and half life of the degradation products were calculated.
doi:10.1186/1752-153X-5-24
PMCID: PMC3113337  PMID: 21554731
21.  Viscosity of cryoprotective agents near glass transition: a new device, technique, and data on DMSO, DP6, and VS55 
Experimental mechanics  2009;49(5):663-672.
The low strain-rate viscosity of glass-forming cryoprotective agents (CPAs) in the vicinity of the glass transition is studied experimentally. Data on the mechanical behavior in this regime is necessary to the long-term goal of developing planning tools for cryopreservation via vitrification (vitreous means glassy in Latin); such tools will provide guidelines for reducing thermal stress with its devastating effects. While the flow behavior of some glass-forming CPAs is well documented in the literature for the upper part of the cryogenic temperature range (where the CPA has a comparatively low viscosity), it is the flow behavior near the glass transition temperature (where the CPA behaves as nearly a solid with an extremely high viscosity) which is critical to the analysis of stress that develops in the cryopreserved material. If the elevated viscosity limits the material's ability to flow—in order to accommodate the thermal strain resulting from large temperature gradients, especially at the high cooling rates necessary to form glass—structural damage may follow. Information on the behavior of the CPA in the lower part of the cryogenic temperature range is largely unavailable. A new measurement device is presented in this study, in which a solid rod is pulled from a long narrow cup containing a CPA, producing an essentially one-dimensional and isothermal field of flow. The viscosity and relaxation time of the CPA is inferred from measurements of the resulting load on the rod when extracted at a constant velocity. The current study reports on experimental data near glass transition of 7.05M DMSO, a reference CPA solution, and the CPA cocktails VS55 and DP6.
doi:10.1007/s11340-008-9191-8
PMCID: PMC3515860  PMID: 23226839
Viscosity; Glass Transition; Cryoprotective Agents; DMSO; DP6; VS55; Experimental Study
22.  Thermal Strain Analysis of Optic Fiber Sensors 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2013;13(2):1846-1855.
An optical fiber sensor surface bonded onto a host structure and subjected to a temperature change is analytically studied in this work. The analysis is developed in order to assess the thermal behavior of an optical fiber sensor designed for measuring the strain in the host structure. For a surface bonded optical fiber sensor, the measuring sensitivity is strongly dependent on the bonding characteristics which include the protective coating, adhesive layer and the bonding length. Thermal stresses can be generated due to a mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients between the optical fiber and host structure. The optical fiber thermal strain induced by the host structure is transferred via the adhesive layer and protective coating. In this investigation, an analytical expression of the thermal strain and stress in the optical fiber is presented. The theoretical predictions are validated using the finite element method. Numerical results show that the thermal strain and stress are linearly dependent on the difference in thermal expansion coefficients between the optical fiber and host structure and independent of the thermal expansion coefficients of the adhesive and coating.
doi:10.3390/s130201846
PMCID: PMC3649389  PMID: 23385407
optic fiber sensor; thermal strain; thermal expansion coefficient
23.  Listeria monocytogenes LO28: Surface Physicochemical Properties and Ability To Form Biofilms at Different Temperatures and Growth Phases 
The surface physicochemical properties of Listeria monocytogenes LO28 under different conditions (temperature and growth phase) were determined by use of microelectrophoresis and microbial adhesion to solvents. The effect of these parameters on adhesion and biofilm formation by L. monocytogenes LO28 on hydrophilic (stainless steel) and hydrophobic (polytetrafluoroethylene [PTFE]) surfaces was assessed. The bacterial cells were always negatively charged and possessed hydrophilic surface properties, which were negatively correlated with growth temperature. The colonization of the two surfaces, monitored by scanning electron microscopy, epifluorescence microscopy, and cell enumeration, showed that the strain had a great capacity to colonize both surfaces whatever the incubation temperature. However, biofilm formation was faster on the hydrophilic substratum. After 5 days at 37 or 20°C, the biofilm structure was composed of aggregates with a three-dimensional shape, but significant detachment took place on PTFE at 37°C. At 8°C, only a bacterial monolayer was visible on stainless steel, while no growth was observed on PTFE. The growth phase of bacteria used to inoculate surfaces had a significant effect only in some cases during the first steps of biofilm formation. The surface physicochemical properties of the strain are correlated with adhesion and surface colonization.
doi:10.1128/AEM.68.2.728-737.2002
PMCID: PMC126664  PMID: 11823213
24.  Strain Hardening and Strain Softening of Reversibly Cross-linked Supramolecular Polymer Networks 
Macromolecules  2011;44(18):7478-7488.
The large amplitude oscillatory shear behavior of metallo-supramolecular polymer networks formed by adding bis-Pd(II) cross-linkers to poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution is reported. The influence of scanning frequency, dissociation rate of cross-linkers, concentration of cross-linkers, and concentration of PVP solution on the large amplitude oscillatory shear behavior is explored. In semidilute unentangled PVP solutions, above a critical scanning frequency, strain hardening of both storage moduli and loss moduli is observed. In the semidilute entangled regime of PVP solution, however, strain softening is observed for samples with faster cross-linkers (kd ∼ 1450 s−1), whereas strain hardening is observed for samples with slower cross-linkers (kd ∼ 17 s−1). The mechanism of strain hardening is attributed primarily to a strain-induced increase in the number of elastically active chains, with possible contributions from non-Gaussian stretching of polymer chains at strains approaching network fracture. The divergent strain softening of samples with faster cross-linkers in semidilute entangled PVP solutions, relative to the strain hardening of samples with slower cross-linkers, is consistent with observed shear thinning/shear thickening behavior reported previously and is attributed to the fact that the average time that a cross-linker remains detached is too short to permit the local relaxation of polymer chain segments that is necessary for a net conversion of elastically inactive to elastically active cross-linkers. These and other observations paint a picture in which strain softening and shear thinning arise from the same set of molecular mechanisms, conceptually uniting the two nonlinear responses for this system.
doi:10.1021/ma201386t
PMCID: PMC3203206  PMID: 22043083
25.  Horizontal Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance Genes on Abiotic Touch Surfaces: Implications for Public Health 
mBio  2012;3(6):e00489-12.
ABSTRACT
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is largely responsible for increasing the incidence of antibiotic-resistant infections worldwide. While studies have focused on HGT in vivo, this work investigates whether the ability of pathogens to persist in the environment, particularly on touch surfaces, may also play an important role. Escherichia coli, virulent clone ST131, and Klebsiella pneumoniae harboring extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) blaCTX-M-15 and metallo-β-lactamase blaNDM-1, respectively, exhibited prolonged survival on stainless steel, with approximately 104 viable cells remaining from an inoculum of 107 CFU per cm2 after 1 month at 21°C. HGT of bla to an antibiotic-sensitive but azide-resistant recipient E. coli strain occurred on stainless steel dry touch surfaces and in suspension but not on dry copper. The conjugation frequency was approximately 10 to 50 times greater and occurred immediately, and resulting transconjugants were more stable with ESBL E. coli as the donor cell than with K. pneumoniae, but blaNDM-1 transfer increased with time. Transconjugants also exhibited the same resistance profile as the donor, suggesting multiple gene transfer. Rapid death, inhibition of respiration, and destruction of genomic and plasmid DNA of both pathogens occurred on copper alloys accompanied by a reduction in bla copy number. Naked E. coli DNA degraded on copper at 21°C and 37°C but slowly at 4°C, suggesting a direct role for the metal. Persistence of viable pathogenic bacteria on touch surfaces may not only increase the risk of infection transmission but may also contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance by HGT. The use of copper alloys as antimicrobial touch surfaces may help reduce infection and HGT.
IMPORTANCE
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) conferring resistance to many classes of antimicrobials has resulted in a worldwide epidemic of nosocomial and community infections caused by multidrug-resistant microorganisms, leading to suggestions that we are in effect returning to the preantibiotic era. While studies have focused on HGT in vivo, this work investigates whether the ability of pathogens to persist in the environment, particularly on touch surfaces, may also play an important role. Here we show prolonged (several-week) survival of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae on stainless steel surfaces. Plasmid-mediated HGT of β-lactamase genes to an azide-resistant recipient E. coli strain occurred when the donor and recipient cells were mixed together on stainless steel and in suspension but not on copper surfaces. In addition, rapid death of both antibiotic-resistant strains and destruction of plasmid and genomic DNA were observed on copper and copper alloy surfaces, which could be useful in the prevention of infection spread and gene transfer.
doi:10.1128/mBio.00489-12
PMCID: PMC3509412  PMID: 23188508

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