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1.  Acceptability and outcomes of the Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy (PEG) tube placement- patients' and care givers' perspectives 
BMC Gastroenterology  2006;6:37.
Background
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube has now become a preferred option for the long-term nutritional support device for patients with dysphagia. There is a considerable debate about the health issues related to the quality of life of these patients. Our aim of the study was to assess the outcome and perspectives of patients/care givers, about the acceptability of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement.
Methods
This descriptive analytic study conducted in patients, who have undergone percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement during January 1998 till December 2004. Medical records of these patients were evaluated for their demographic characteristics, underlying diagnosis, indications and complications. Telephonic interviews were conducted till March 2005, on a pre-tested questionnaire to address psychological, social and physical performance status, of the health related quality of life issues.
Results
A total of 191 patients' medical records were reviewed, 120 (63%) were males, and mean age was 63 years. Early complication was infection at PEG tube site in 6 (3%) patients. In follow up over 365 ± 149 days, late complications (occurring 72 hours later) were infection at PEG tube site in 29 (15 %) patient and dislodgment/blockage of the tube in 26 (13.6%). Interviews were possible with 126 patients/caretakers. Karnofsky Performance Score of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 was found in 13(10%), 18(14%), 21(17%), 29(23%) and 45(36%) with p-value < 0.001. Regarding the social and psychological aspects; 76(60%) would like to have the PEG tube again if required, 105(83 %) felt ease in feeding, and 76(60%) felt that PEG-tube helped in prolonging the survival. Regarding negative opinions; 49(39 %) felt that the feeding was too frequent, 45(36 %) felt apprehensive about dependency for feeding and 62(49%) were concerned about an increase in the cost of care.
Conclusion
PEG-tube placement was found to be relatively free from serious immediate and long- term complications. Majority of caregivers and patient felt that PEG-tube helped in feeding and prolonging the survival. Studies are needed to assess the real benefit in terms of actual nutritional gain and quality of life in such patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-6-37
PMCID: PMC1676010  PMID: 17125502
2.  Gastrostomy tube placement by radiological versus endoscopic methods in an acute care setting: A retrospective review of frequency, indications, complications and outcomes 
OBJECTIVES:
To describe the current practice of placing gastrostomy tubes (endoscopic and radiological), patient characteristics, indications for enteral support, complications and outcomes over a 13-month period, and explore factors that influenced complications and outcomes. Second, to provide Canadian data regarding feeding tube placement because no current literature reflecting these practices for Canadian hospitals is available.
METHODS:
Retrospective chart reviews were conducted. Patients who had initial percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) or percutaneous radiological gastrostomy (PRG) tubes inserted for nutritional purposes were included in the study.
RESULTS:
A total of 136 charts which included 30 PEG and 44 PRG procedures were reviewed. The PRG group was older than the PEG group (mean [± SD] age 68±19 years versus 55±21 years, respectively; P=0.008). Patients in PEG group had longer lengths of hospital stay and more intensive care unit admissions than the PRG group (P=0.029). The main reason for tube insertion was dysphagia/aspiration (PEG [60%] and PRG [77%]). Minor complications were comparable between the two groups (P=0.678). There were three cases of major complications overall. More subjects in the PRG group died (18%) while in hospital than in the PEG group (3%) (P=0.055). No procedure-related deaths occured in either group.
CONCLUSIONS:
Both methods of tube insertion provided a safe route for nutrition delivery despite a significant cost differential with PEGs costing 44% more than PRGs. Characteristics such as age, presence of ascites and severity of disease influenced the method of insertion despite the lack of current guidelines. Overall, the present study provides new descriptive data in a Canadian context.
PMCID: PMC2694590  PMID: 19214286
Feeding tubes; Gastrostomy; Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy; Percutaneous radiological gastrostomy
3.  A Simple and Safe Minimally Invasive Technique for Laparoscopic Gastrostomy 
Described is a 2-port laparoscopic technique for the placement of a gastric feeding tube in patients who may not be candidates for endoscopic PEG tube insertion.
Introduction:
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is the procedure of choice in the nutritional management of patients requiring gastrostomies. However, PEG tubes are not always feasible. The aim of the present study was to determine the feasibility, complications, and adequacy of feeding support of a novel laparoscopic gastrostomy technique in adults where PEG tubes were neither feasible nor safe.
Methods:
A retrospective chart review of patients who underwent a laparoscopic gastrostomy from August 2007 to July 2008 was performed. Demographic and outcome data were abstracted.
Results:
Fourteen patients underwent laparoscopic gastrostomy. Nine had obstructing head/neck cancer, 2 had severe head trauma, and one was morbidly obese. Nine patients had previous abdominal surgery. The mean operative time was 29.8 minutes (±7.2). There were no conversions to open gastrostomy. Two ports (5mm and 10mm) were used in the majority of patients (78.5%). No major complications were observed. The mean follow-up was 3.1 months (range, 2 to 8).
Conclusion:
This innovative 2-port laparoscopic technique for gastrostomy tube placement is safe and effective. It allows for the quick, accurate, and safe insertion of the feeding tube under direct visualization and avoids open techniques in patients where PEG tubes are not feasible.
doi:10.4293/108680810X12674612014626
PMCID: PMC3021287  PMID: 20529529
Laparoscopy; Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy
4.  Effect of pH and Antibiotics on Microbial Overgrowth in the Stomachs and Duodena of Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Feeding 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2005;43(7):3059-3065.
Enteral nutrition via a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube is often part of management in patients with dysphagia due to neurological or oropharyngeal disease. Gastrostomy placement can affect normal innate defense mechanisms in the upper gut, resulting in bacterial overgrowth. In this study microbiological investigations were done with gastric and duodenal aspirates from 20 patients undergoing PEG tube placement and PEG tubes from 10 patients undergoing tube replacement. Aspirate and PEG tube microbiotas were assessed by using viable counts and selective solid media followed by aerobic and anaerobic incubation to assess cell viabilities. The antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the isolates were determined by the disk diffusion method, and gas chromatography was used to study the bacterial metabolic products in the aspirates. The aspirates and PEG tubes contained mainly streptococci, staphylococci, lactobacilli, yeasts, and enterobacteria. Enterococci were detected only in PEG tube biofilms and not in aspirates. Gastric pH affected the composition of the aspirate microbiotas but not the total microbial counts. Staphylococci, Escherichia coli, and Candida spp. were isolated only from antibiotic-treated patients, despite the sensitivities of the bacteria to the agents used. Antibiotic treatment had no effect on the incidence of infection or the length of hospital stay in these patients.
doi:10.1128/JCM.43.7.3059-3065.2005
PMCID: PMC1169167  PMID: 16000416
5.  Single endoscopist-performed percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement 
AIM: To investigate whether single endoscopist-performed percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is safe and to compare the complications of PEG with those reported in the literature.
METHODS: Patients who underwent PEG placement between June 2001 and August 2011 at the Baskent University Alanya Teaching and Research Center were evaluated retrospectively. Patients whose PEG was placed for the first time by a single endoscopist were enrolled in the study. PEG was performed using the pull method. All of the patients were evaluated for their indications for PEG, major and minor complications resulting from PEG, nutritional status, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the use of antibiotic treatment or antibiotic prophylaxis prior to PEG. Comorbidities, rates, time and reasons for mortality were also evaluated. The reasons for PEG removal and PEG duration were also investigated.
RESULTS: Sixty-two patients underwent the PEG procedure for the first time during this study. Eight patients who underwent PEG placement by 2 endoscopists were not enrolled in the study. A total of 54 patients were investigated. The patients’ mean age was 69.9 years. The most common indication for PEG was cerebral infarct, which occurred in approximately two-thirds of the patients. The mean albumin level was 3.04 ± 0.7 g/dL, and 76.2% of the patients’ albumin levels were below the normal values. The mean CRP level was high in 90.6% of patients prior to the procedure. Approximately two-thirds of the patients received antibiotics for either prophylaxis or treatment for infections prior to the PEG procedure. Mortality was not related to the procedure in any of the patients. Buried bumper syndrome was the only major complication, and it occurred in the third year. In such case, the PEG was removed and a new PEG tube was placed via surgery. Eight patients (15.1%) experienced minor complications, 6 (11.1%) of which were wound infections. All wound infections except one recovered with antibiotic treatment. Two patients had bleeding from the PEG site, one was resolved with primary suturing and the other with fresh frozen plasma transfusion.
CONCLUSION: The incidence of major and minor complications is in keeping with literature. This finding may be noteworthy, especially in developing countries.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i26.4172
PMCID: PMC3710419  PMID: 23864780
Gastrostomy; Gastric feeding tube; Enteral nutrition; Enteral feeding; Endoscopy; Gastrointestinal
6.  Usefulness of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for supportive therapy of advanced aerodigestive cancer 
Aerodigestive cancer, like esophageal cancer or head and neck cancer, is well known to have a poor prognosis. It is often diagnosed in the late stages, with dysphagia being the major symptom. Insufficient nutrition and lack of stimulation of the intestinal mucosa may worsen immune compromise due to toxic side effects. A poor nutritional status is a significant prognostic factor for increased mortality. Therefore, it is most important to optimize enteral nutrition in patients with aerodigestive cancer before and during treatment, as well as during palliative treatment. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) may be useful for nutritional support. However, PEG tube placement is limited by digestive tract stenosis and is an invasive endoscopic procedure with a risk of complications. There are three PEG techniques. The pull/push and introducer methods have been established as standard techniques for PEG tube placement. The modified introducer method, namely the direct method, allows for direct placement of a larger button-bumper-type catheter device. PEG tube placement using the introducer method or the direct method may be a much safer alternative than the pull/push method. PEG may be recommended in patients with aerodigestive cancer because of the improved complication rate.
doi:10.4291/wjgp.v4.i4.119
PMCID: PMC3829456  PMID: 24244880
Aerodigestive cancer; Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy; Direct method; Introducer method; Pull/push method; Complications
7.  General Paediatric Surgical Provision of Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy in a District General Hospital – A 12-Year Experience 
INTRODUCTION
A small, but significant, number of children require long-term nutritional support. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of providing a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) service for children in a district general hospital and to raise awareness of the suitability of the procedure to be performed on paediatric surgery lists in similar hospitals across the UK.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
A multidisciplinary paediatric nutrition team was established and all children accepted for PEG insertion between 1995 and 2007 were entered onto a database prospectively and are included in this study. PEG tubes were inserted by the standard pull-through technique under general anaesthetic.
RESULTS
A total of 172 procedures were performed in 76 children. The median age at first tube insertion was 3 years (range, 0.5–18 years). Length of follow-up ranged from 1 month to 12.6 years. Fifty-eight children (76%) had a neurological abnormality, the commonest being cerebral palsy. All but one procedure were performed successfully, of which 63 (37%) were new insertions, 99 change of tube, 4 changed from surgical gastrostomy and 6 from PEG to button gastrostomy. The median hospital stay was 2 days (range, 2–7 days) for new insertions and 1 day for tube changes. There were 10 (6%) early complications within 30 days, the commonest being peritubal infection (6). The 39 late complications included 16 peritubal infection/granulomata, 9 ‘buried bumpers’, 4 worsening of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, 2 gastrocolic fistulae, 3 gastrocutaneous fistulae and 4 tubal migration. There was no mortality.
CONCLUSIONS
We have demonstrated that paediatric PEG procedures and continuing management by a supporting team can be successfully and efficiently provided in the district general hospital. It should be possible for the majority of similar hospitals to provide local access and increase the availability of PEG feeding for children.
doi:10.1308/003588409X391749
PMCID: PMC2758436  PMID: 19344554
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy; PEG; Children enteral feeding; Paediatric surgery
8.  Investigation and prediction of enteral nutrition problems after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy 
AIM: To investigate and predict enteral nutrition problems after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG).
METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data for 252 out of 285 patients who underwent PEG at our hospital from 1999 to 2008. Enteral nutrition problems after PEG were defined as: (1) patients who required ≥ 1 mo after surgery to switch to complete enteral nutrition, or who required additional parenteral alimentation continuously; or (2) patients who abandoned switching to enteral nutrition using the gastrostoma and employed other nutritional methods. We attempted to identify the predictors of problem cases by using a logistic regression analysis that examined the patients’ backgrounds and the specific causes that led to their problems.
RESULTS: Mean age of the patients was 75 years, and in general, their body weight was low and their overall condition was markedly poor. Blood testing revealed that patients tended to be anemic and malnourished. A total of 44 patients (17.5%) were diagnosed as having enteral nutrition problems after PEG. Major causes of the problems included pneumonia, acute enterocolitis (often Clostridium difficile-related), paralytic ileus and biliary tract infection. A multivariate analysis identified the following independent predictors for problem cases: (1) enteral nutrition before gastrectomy (a risk reduction factor); (2) presence of esophageal hiatal hernia; (3) past history of paralytic ileus; and (4) presence of chronic renal dysfunction.
CONCLUSION: Enteral nutrition problems after PEG occurred at a comparatively high rate. Patient background analysis elucidated four predictive factors for the problem cases.
doi:10.3748/wjg.15.1367
PMCID: PMC2658839  PMID: 19294767
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy; Enteral nutrition; Complication, Risk factor; Predictor
9.  Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy, Duodenostomy and Jejunostomy 
Although enteral feeding by nasal gastric tube is popular for the patients who have a swallowing disability and require long-term nutritional support, but have intact gut, this tube sometimes causes aspiration pneumonia or esophageal ulcer. For these patients, conventional techniques for performance of a feeding gastrostomy made by surgical laparotomy have been used so far. However, these patients are frequently poor anesthetic and operative risks. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) which can be accomplished with local anesthesia and without the necessity for laparotomy has become popular in the clinical treatment for these patients. PEG was performed in 31 cases, percutaneous endoscopic duodenostomy (PED) in 1 case, and percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy (PEJ) in 2 cases. All patients were successfully placed, and no major complication and few minor complications (9%) were experienced in this procedure. After this procedure, some patients could discharge their sputa easily and their pneumonia subsided. PED and PEJ for the patients who had previously received gastrostomy could also be done successfully with great care. Our experience suggests that PEG, PED, and PEJ are rapid, safe, and useful procedures for the patients who have poor anesthetic or poor operative risks.
doi:10.1155/DTE.1.37
PMCID: PMC2362464  PMID: 18493339
10.  Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) — An useful ‘surgical’ measure 
Eight patients were studied to evaluate the efficacy of a surgeonled percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). Three patients underwent PEG at the time of elective surgery (carcinoma larynx-2, carcinoma tonsil-1), two underwent placements during emergency surgery for neck trauma (blunt injury-1, penetrating injury-1) and three for palliation (recurrent tongue carcinoma-1, recurrent epilaryngeal carcinoma-1, metastatic neck nodes-1). For patients undergoing intraoperative PEG, the operative time was prolonged by an average of 12 minutes. There were no major procedural or feedingrelated complications in any of the patients. Individual subjective tolerability was good in all patients. A surgeonled PEG is a simple and safe means of combining all the advantages of enteral nutrition with none of the disadvantages of nasogastric tube feeding in emergency, elective head and neck operations and in palliation. The procedure merits wider use in head and neck surgery units in India.
doi:10.1007/BF03050827
PMCID: PMC3450417  PMID: 23120301
percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy; head and neck surgery; nutrition
11.  PERCUTANEOUS ENDOSCOPIC GASTROSTOMY (PEG): RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF A 7-YEAR CLINICAL EXPERIENCE 
Acta Informatica Medica  2012;20(4):235-237.
Aims:
Since its description in 1980, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy has become the modality of choice for providing enteral access to patients who require long-term enteral nutrition. This study aimed to evaluate current indications and complications associated with PEG feeding.
Methods:
We conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients who referred to our endoscopic unit of the Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology of the Medical Center University of Sarajevo for PEG tube placement over a period of 7 years. Medical records of 359 patients dealing with PEG tube placement were reviewed to assess indications, technical success, complications and the need for repeat procedures.
Results:
The indications for enteral feeding tube placement were malignancy in 44% (n=158), of which 61% (n=97) patients were suffering of head and neck cancer and 39% (n=61) of other malignancy. Central nervous disease was the indication in 48.7 % (n=175) of patients. Cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) accounted for 20% (n=73), head injury for 16% (n=59) and cerebral palsy for 11% (n=38). In 6.13% (n=22) of patients minor complications occur which included wound infection (0.8%), inadvertent PEG removal (2.5%) and tube blockage (1.1%). 11 patients experienced major complications including hemorrhage, tube migration and perforation. There were no deaths related to PEG procedure placement and the overall 30-day mortality rate due to primary disease was 15.8%. Oral feeding was resumed in 23% of the patients and the tube was removed subsequently after 6 -12 months.
Conclusions:
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is a save and minimally invasive endoscopic procedure associated with a low morbidity (9.2%) rate, easy to follow-up and to replace when blockage occurs. Over a seven-year period we noticed an increase of 63% in PEG placement at our department.
doi:10.5455/aim.2012.20.235-237
PMCID: PMC3558284  PMID: 23378689
PEG; enteral nutrition; tube feeding.
12.  Endoscopic gastrostomy, nasojejunal and oral feeding comparison in aspiration pneumonia patients 
Background:
Aspiration pneumonia is a potentially preventable illness requiring attention to small details of patient care. The type, management, and care of feeding should be carried out properly.
Materials and Methods:
This is a prospective clinical study of enteral feeding on patients admitted to hospital with aspiration pneumonia. The known enteral nutritional methods, advantages, and disadvantages were told to the patient or proxy. If they didn’t accept Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), nasojejunal tube (NJT) was advised. If they denied all of the procedures, oral feeding education was given. A total of 94 patients were enrolled to the study, 29 of them accepted PEG, 42 preferred NJT, and 23 preferred oral route.
Results:
A total of 94 patients with a mean age of 77.84, standard deviation 10.784; 95% confidence interval (CI) 75.63-80.03 were enrolled to the study of which 27 (28.7%) patients had a history of aspiration pneumonia. Oral feeding was prominently preferred for patients nursed by a relative (15; 65.2% of Oral feeding group and 16% of total) or a caregiver (7; 30.4% of Oral feeding group and 7.4% of total) while only 1 (4.3% of Oral feeding group and 1.1% of total) with a health-care worker (P = 0.001). Overall re-aspiration rates at the 6th month were 58%, 78%, 91% in EG, NJT, oral groups, respectively. Sixth months’ survival rates of the different feeding groups were not significantly divergent from each other. History of aspiration was also found to be a significant contributor of mortality.
Conclusion:
In aspiration pneumonia patients’ long-term survival rates of the different feeding groups were not significantly divergent from each other.
PMCID: PMC3908533  PMID: 24523803
Aspiration pneumonia; emergency department; enteral feeding; mid arm circumference; nasojejunal tube; nutrition; oral feeding; percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy
13.  Laparoscopy-assisted percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy enables enteral nutrition even in patients with distorted anatomy 
AIM: To analyzed whether laparoscopy-assisted percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) could be a valuable option for patients with complicated anatomy.
METHODS: A retrospective analysis of twelve patients (seven females, five males; six children, six young adults; mean age 19.2 years) with cerebral palsy, spastic quadriparesis, severe kyphoscoliosis and interposed organs and who required enteral nutrition (EN) due to starvation was performed. For all patients, standard PEG placement was impossible due to distorted anatomy. All the patients qualified for the laparoscopy-assisted PEG procedure.
RESULTS: In all twelve patients, the laparoscopy-assisted PEG was successful, and EN was introduced four to six hours after the PEG placement. There were no complications in the perioperative period, either technical or metabolic. All the patients were discharged from the hospital and were then effectively fed using bolus methods.
CONCLUSION: Laparoscopy-assisted PEG should become the method of choice for gastrostomy tube placement and subsequent EN if PEG placement cannot be performed safely.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i43.7696
PMCID: PMC3837268  PMID: 24282357
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy; Laparoscopy-assisted percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy; Severe kyphosis; Malnutrition; Interposed organs
14.  Elemental Diets May Reduce the Risk of Aspiration Pneumonia in Bedridden Gastrostomy-Fed Patients 
OBJECTIVES:
Our clinical experience suggested that elemental diets were associated with a reduction in aspiration pneumonia among bedridden patients with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). We compared the effects of elemental and standard liquid diets on the risk of clinical aspiration pneumonia and gastric emptying in bedridden patients receiving PEG feedings.
METHODS:
Study 1: consecutive bedridden PEG patients received elemental diets or standard liquid diets in the same fashion. The frequency of defecation, diet aspirated from the trachea, and aspiration pneumonia during hospitalization were prospectively recorded. Study 2: a randomized, crossover trial using elemental or standard liquid diets containing 13C sodium acetate as a tracer given to bedridden PEG patients who had experienced aspiration pneumonia. 13C breath tests were performed to estimate gastric emptying.
RESULTS:
Study 1: 127 patients were enrolled, 60 with elemental and 67 with standard liquid diets. The diet was aspirated from the trachea in none (0%) with the elemental diet vs. 8 (11.9%) with standard liquid diets (P=0.0057); aspiration pneumonia developed none with the elemental diet vs. 5 (7.5%) with standard liquid diets (P=0.031) (number needed to treat 14, 95% confidence interval 7–85). Study 2: 19 patients were enrolled. The elemental diet was associated with a significant increase in the 10, 30 or 50% emptying (excretion) time (P<0.001) and increased the area under the curve (% dose/h) compared with the standard liquid diet (P<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS:
Elemental diets were associated with more rapid gastric empting and fewer episodes of aspiration than standard liquid diets in bedridden PEG patients. They may be preferred for bedridden PEG patients especially who have experienced aspiration pneumonia. Properly performed randomized-controlled trials are needed to prove this potential benefit.
doi:10.1038/ajg.2013.10
PMCID: PMC3647233  PMID: 23399554
15.  Practice Parameter update: The care of the patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Drug, nutritional, and respiratory therapies (an evidence-based review) 
Neurology  2009;73(15):1218-1226.
Objective:
To systematically review evidence bearing on the management of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
Methods:
The authors analyzed studies from 1998 to 2007 to update the 1999 practice parameter. Topics covered in this section include slowing disease progression, nutrition, and respiratory management for patients with ALS.
Results:
The authors identified 8 Class I studies, 5 Class II studies, and 43 Class III studies in ALS. Important treatments are available for patients with ALS that are underutilized. Noninvasive ventilation (NIV), percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), and riluzole are particularly important and have the best evidence. More studies are needed to examine the best tests of respiratory function in ALS, as well as the optimal time for starting PEG, the impact of PEG on quality of life and survival, and the effect of vitamins and supplements on ALS.
Recommendations:
Riluzole should be offered to slow disease progression (Level A). PEG should be considered to stabilize weight and to prolong survival in patients with ALS (Level B). NIV should be considered to treat respiratory insufficiency in order to lengthen survival (Level B), and may be considered to slow the decline of forced vital capacity (Level C) and improve quality of life (Level C). Early initiation of NIV may increase compliance (Level C), and insufflation/exsufflation may be considered to help clear secretions (Level C).
GLOSSARY
= American Academy of Neurology;
= amyotrophic lateral sclerosis;
= forced vital capacity;
= high frequency chest wall oscillation;
= mechanical insufflation/exsufflation;
= maximal inspiratory pressure;
= noninvasive ventilation;
= peak cough expiratory flow;
= transdiaphragmatic pressure;
= percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy;
= quality of life;
= radiologically inserted device;
= sniff nasal pressure;
= tracheostomy invasive ventilation.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181bc0141
PMCID: PMC2764727  PMID: 19822872
16.  Colojejunal Fistula Resulting from a D-PEJ Feeding Tube 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2008;2(2):208-213.
Numerous procedures have been developed to provide adequate enteral nutrition to patients with gastrointestinal disorders. Previously, operative placement of a feeding gastrostomy or jejunostomy tube was the accepted means of gaining chronic enteral access. However, improved technology and experience with endoscopic techniques have quickly replaced primary operative placement of enteral access. Direct percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy (D-PEJ) is a procedure that was designed to deliver enteral feeding solutions for patients with proximal disease after unsatisfactory results from percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes with jejunal extensions (PEG-J). As with any procedure, it is associated with complications. We present the first reported case of a colojejunal fistula resulting from a D-PEJ placement. While D-PEJ has been shown to be relatively safe, complications related to the inherent limitations of the procedure need to be considered when the patient experiences unusual post-procedure symptoms and worked up appropriately.
doi:10.1159/000136018
PMCID: PMC3075145  PMID: 21490890
Colojejunal fistula; Complications; D-PEJ; Feeding tube
17.  Novel approach to antibiotic prophylaxis in percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG): randomised controlled trial 
Objective To evaluate a new and simpler strategy of antibiotic prophylaxis in percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG).
Design Single centre, two arm, randomised, controlled, double blind clinical trial.
Setting Endoscopy unit in Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, between 3 June 2005 and 31 October 2009.
Participants 234 patients with an indication for PEG who gave informed consent to participate.
Intervention A single 20 ml dose of the oral solution of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim (also known as co-trimoxazole or Bactrim; F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland) deposited in the PEG catheter immediately after insertion. The control group received standard prophylaxis consisting of a single intravenous dose of 1.5 g cefuroxime (Zinacef; GlaxoSmithKline, London) administered before insertion of the PEG tube.
Main outcome measure Primary outcome was the occurrence of clinically evident wound infection within 14 days after insertion of the PEG catheter. Secondary outcomes were positive bacterial culture and blood tests (highly sensitive C reactive protein and white blood cell count). All randomised patients were included in an intention to treat analysis.
Results Of the 234 patients included in this study, 116 were randomly assigned to co-trimoxazole and 118 to cefuroxime. At follow-up 7-14 days after insertion of the PEG catheter, wound infection was found in 10 (8.6%) patients in the co-trimoxazole group and 14 (11.9%) in the cefuroxime group, which corresponds to a percentage point difference of −3.3% (95% confidence interval −10.9% to 4.5%). The per protocol analysis, which comprised 100 patients in each group, gave similar results—10% and 13% infection in the co-trimoxazole and cefuroxime groups, respectively (percentage point difference −3.0%, 95% CI −11.8% to 5.8%). Both these analyses indicate non-inferiority of co-trimoxazole compared with cefuroxime because the upper bounds of the confidence intervals are lower than the pre-determined non-inferiority margin of 15%. Analyses of the secondary outcomes supported this finding.
Conclusion 20 ml of co-trimoxazole solution deposited in a newly inserted PEG catheter is at least as effective as cefuroxime prophylaxis given intravenously before PEG at preventing wound infections in patients undergoing PEG.
Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN18677736.
doi:10.1136/bmj.c3115
PMCID: PMC2896486  PMID: 20601414
18.  Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in elderly patients. 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  1991;67(786):371-373.
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) was performed on 28 elderly patients (mean age 82 years) who were dysphagic and intolerant of naso-gastric feeding. Twenty-six patients were recovering from a stroke; the interval between the onset of stroke and PEG averaged 63 days. The procedure was successful and well tolerated by all patients. Nineteen (68%) still had a functioning PEG a median of 14 weeks after placement. One patient whose swallowing recovered had the tube removed 6 months after its insertion. Seven patients (25%) subsequently died from their underlying disease, a mean of 92 days following PEG. There was one procedure-related death from peritonitis. PEG is a useful alternative to surgical gastrostomy in selected elderly patients with dysphagia who are intolerant of naso-gastric feeding.
PMCID: PMC2398827  PMID: 1906170
19.  Clinical implementation of a new antibiotic prophylaxis regimen for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy 
BMJ Open  2013;3(5):e003067.
Objectives
This study was undertaken to test the extent to which a new antibiotic prophylaxis regimen for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), identified as a justified and simpler alternative to conventional regimen in a randomised clinical trial, has been adopted in clinical practice.
Design
A Swedish nationwide implementation survey, conducted in February 2013, assessed the level of clinical implementation of a 20 ml dose of oral solution of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim deposited in the PEG catheter immediately after insertion. All hospitals inserting at least five PEGs annually were identified from the Swedish Patient Registry. A clinician involved in the PEG insertions at each hospital participated in a structured telephone interview addressing their routine use of antibiotic prophylaxis.
Setting
All Swedish hospitals inserting PEGs (n=60).
Participants
Representatives of PEG insertions at each of the 60 eligible hospitals participated (100% participation).
Main outcome measures
Use of routine antibiotic prophylaxis for PEG.
Results
A total of 32 (53%) of the 60 hospitals had adopted the new regimen. It was more frequently adopted in university hospitals (67%) than in community hospitals (41%). An annual total of 1813 (70%) of 2573 patients received the new regimen. Higher annual hospital volume was associated with a higher level of adoption of the new regimen (80% in the highest vs 31% in the lowest).
Conclusions
The clinical implementation of the new antibiotic prophylaxis regimen for PEG was high and rapid (70% of all patients within 3 years), particularly in large hospitals.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003067
PMCID: PMC3668416  PMID: 23793708
NUTRITION & DIETETICS; SURGERY
20.  Basic geriatric assessment does not predict in-hospital mortality after PEG placement 
BMC Geriatrics  2012;12:52.
Background
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is an established procedure for long-term nutrition. However, studies have underlined the importance of proper patient selection as mortality has been shown to be relatively high in acute illness and certain patient groups, amongst others geriatric patients. Objective of the study was to gather information about geriatric patients receiving PEG and to identify risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality after PEG placement.
Methods
All patients from the GEMIDAS database undergoing percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in acute geriatric wards from 2006 to 2010 were included in a retrospective database analysis. Data on age, gender, main diagnosis leading to hospital admission, death in hospital, care level, and legal incapacitation were extracted from the main database of the Geriatric Minimum Data Set. Self-care capacity was assessed by the Barthel index, and cognitive status was rated with the Mini Mental State Examination or subjectively judged by the clinician. Descriptive statistics and group comparisons were chosen according to data distribution and scale of measurement, logistic regression analysis was performed to examine influence of various factors on hospital mortality.
Results
A total of 1232 patients (60.4% women) with a median age of 82 years (range 60 to 99 years) were included. The mean Barthel index at admission was 9.5 ± 14.0 points. Assessment of cognitive status was available in about half of the patients (n = 664), with 20% being mildly impaired and almost 70% being moderately to severely impaired. Stroke was the most common main diagnosis (55.2%). In-hospital mortality was 12.8%. In a logistic regression analysis, old age (odds ratio (OR) 1.030, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.003-1.056), male sex (OR 1.741, 95% CI 1.216-2.493), and pneumonia (OR 2.641, 95% CI 1.457-4.792) or the diagnosis group ‘miscellaneous disease’ (OR 1.864, 95% CI 1.224-2.839) were identified as statistical risk factors for in–hospital death. Cognitive status did not have an influence on mortality (OR 0.447, CI 95% 0.248-1.650).
Conclusion
In a nationwide geriatric database, no component of the basic geriatric assessment emerged as a significant risk factor for mortality after PEG placement, emphasizing individual decision-making.
doi:10.1186/1471-2318-12-52
PMCID: PMC3489681  PMID: 22954019
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG); Mortality; Geriatric assessment
21.  Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in children 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2011;54(1):17-21.
Purpose
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) can improve nutritional status and reduce the amount of time needed to feed neurologically impaired children. We evaluated the characteristics, complications, and outcomes of neurologically impaired children treated with PEG.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the records of 32 neurologically impaired children who underwent PEG between March 2002 and August 2008 at our medical center. Forty-two PEG procedures comprising 32 PEG insertions and 10 PEG exchanges, were performed. The mean follow-up time was 12.2 (6.6) months.
Results
Mean patient age was 9.4 (4.5) years. The main indications for PEG insertion were swallowing difficulty with GI bleeding due to nasogastric tube placement and/or the presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The overall rate of complications was 47%, with early complications evident in 25% of patients and late complications in 22%. The late complications included one gastro-colic fistula, two cases of aggravated GERD, and four instances of wound infection. Among the 15 patients with histological evidence of GERD before PEG, 13 (87%) had less severe GERD, experienced no new aspiration events, and showed increased body weight after PEG treatment.
Conclusion
PEG is a safe, effective, and relatively simple technique affording long-term enteral nutritional support in neurologically impaired children. Following PEG treatment, the body weight of most patients increased and the levels of vomiting, GI bleeding, and aspiration fell. We suggest that PEG with post-procedural observation be considered for enteral nutritional support of neurologically impaired children.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2011.54.1.17
PMCID: PMC3040361  PMID: 21359056
Gastrostomy; Child; Complication; Gastroesophageal reflux disease
22.  Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  1996;72(852):581-585.
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is now the technique of choice for patients requiring long-term enteral feeding. It is a good method for feeding patients with neurological dysphagia and can safely be kept in situ for long periods. PEG feeding requires a multidisciplinary approach, involving doctors, nurses, pharmacists, speech therapists, dieticians and carers. The insertion of a PEG, which requires two operators and two endoscopy nurses, is described in full. Feeding can commence after a few hours. Various types of feed and feed-ing patterns are described and their relative merits discussed. Although psychological problems may occur following PEG insertion, the procedure is usually well accepted by patients.
PMCID: PMC2398609  PMID: 8977937
23.  Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomies: attitudes of general practitioners and how management may be improved. 
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) has replaced surgical gastrostomy in patients requiring long-term enteral nutrition. Increasing numbers of patients are being referred for PEG placement. Concern has been raised about patient selection and subsequent follow-up of these patients in the community. We report the views of Northern Ireland GPs to PEGs and how management may be improved.
PMCID: PMC1313928  PMID: 11217626
24.  Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding in patients with cystic fibrosis 
Gut  1999;44(1):87-90.
Background—Malnutrition is a common management problem in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Various approaches to supplemental nutrition by both parenteral and enteral routes have been used. 
Aim—To analyse the efficacy and acceptability of supplemental overnight feeding using a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in patients with CF. 
Patients—53 patients with CF (43 adults; age >17 years) with severe pulmonary disease. 
Methods—The technical success and complications of PEG insertion were documented together with changes in nutritional and pulmonary status of the cohort. 
Results—PEG tubes were successfully inserted in all patients, with immediate complications (respiratory depression) in two (4%) and late complications in 13 (25%). Feeding was well tolerated by 50/51 (98%) of the cohort during a mean (SEM) follow up of 14.5 (2.1) months. The adult cohort had a significant increase in weight and body mass index at six months which was maintained at 12 months. Serum albumin concentration remained stable at six months but had fallen by 12 months, although the differences were not statistically significant. These results were reflected in the paediatric cohort. Pulmonary function in those followed up for one year had apparently stabilised, but the number of admissions to hospital over the year before and the year after PEG did not change. Half of the cohort were accepted for heart-lung/lung transplantation, the improvement in nutritional status being a prerequisite for this. 
Conclusion—Supplemental PEG tube feeding is well tolerated and results in a significant improvement in nutritional status and an apparent stabilisation of pulmonary function in severely malnourished CF patients with advanced pulmonary disease. 


Keywords: cystic fibrosis; malnutrition; enteral nutrition; percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy
PMCID: PMC1760069  PMID: 9862831
25.  Nutrition Support for Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients Treated with Chemoradiotherapy: How Often and How Long? 
ISRN Oncology  2012;2012:274739.
Background. Oral intake of many patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer (LAHNC) decrease during chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Although prophylactic percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is recommended, not a few patients complete CRT without using PEG tube. Patients and Methods. The subjects were patients with LAHNC who received CRT. We retrospectively investigated the incidence and duration of nutritional support during and after CRT, and predicting factors of nutritional support. For patients who required nutritional support, we also checked the day of initiation and the duration of nutritional support. Results. Of 53 patients, 29 patients (55%) required nutritional support during and/or after CRT. While no clear relation between requirement of nutritional support and variables including age, T stage, N stage, clinical stage and chemotherapy regimen, there could be some relationships between tumor primary sites and the requirement and duration of nutritional support. 17 (77%) of 22 patients with oropharynx cancer(OP) required nutritional support and prolonged for 4.4 months, and 11 (46%) of 24 patients with hypopharynx cancer(HP) required nutritional support and prolonged for 21.9 months. Conclusion. Nutritional support is indicated many HNC patients treated with CRT and primary sites may have some relation to its indication and duration.
doi:10.5402/2012/274739
PMCID: PMC3302119  PMID: 22518330

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