Endothelial chemokines are instrumental for integrin-mediated lymphocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration (TEM). By dissecting how chemokines trigger lymphocyte integrins to support shear-resistant motility on and across cytokine-stimulated endothelial barriers, we found a critical role for high-affinity (HA) LFA-1 integrin in lymphocyte crawling on activated endothelium. Endothelial-presented chemokines triggered HA-LFA-1 and adhesive filopodia at numerous submicron dots scattered underneath crawling lymphocytes. Shear forces applied to endothelial-bound lymphocytes dramatically enhanced filopodia density underneath crawling lymphocytes. A fraction of the adhesive filopodia invaded the endothelial cells prior to and during TEM and extended large subluminal leading edge containing dots of HA-LFA-1 occupied by subluminal ICAM-1. Memory T cells generated more frequent invasive filopodia and transmigrated more rapidly than their naive counterparts. We propose that shear forces exerted on HA-LFA-1 trigger adhesive and invasive filopodia at apical endothelial surfaces and thereby promote lymphocyte crawling and probing for TEM sites.
Cancer metastasis is a multistep process involving many types of cell-cell interactions, but little is known about the adhesive interactions and signaling events during extravasation of cancer cells. Transendothelial migration of cancer cells was investigated using an in vitro assay, in which melanoma cells were seeded on top of a monolayer of endothelial cells. Attachment of melanoma cells on the endothelium induced a twofold increase in N-cadherin expression in melanoma cells and the redistribution of N-cadherin to the heterotypic contacts. Transendothelial migration was inhibited when N-cadherin expression was repressed by antisense RNA, indicating a key role played by N-cadherin. Whereas N-cadherin and β-catenin colocalized in the contact regions between melanoma cells and endothelial cells during the initial stages of attachment, β-catenin disappeared from the heterotypic contacts during transmigration of melanoma cells. Immunolocalization and immunoprecipitation studies indicate that N-cadherin became tyrosine-phosphorylated, resulting in the dissociation of β-catenin from these contact regions. Concomitantly, an increase in the nuclear level of β-catenin occurred in melanoma cells, together with a sixfold increase in β-catenin-dependent transcription. Transendothelial migration was compromised in cells expressing a dominant-negative form of β-catenin, thus supporting a regulatory role of β-catenin signaling in this process.
Hematogenous dissemination of melanoma is a life-threatening complication of this malignant tumor. Here, we identified Junctional Adhesion Molecule-C (JAM-C) as a novel player in melanoma metastasis to the lung. JAM-C expression was identified in human and murine melanoma cell lines, in human malignant melanoma, as well as in metastatic melanoma including melanoma lung metastasis. JAM-C expressed on both murine B16 melanoma cells as well as on endothelial cells, promoted the transendothelial migration of the melanoma cells. We generated mice with inactivation of JAM-C. JAM-C−/− mice as well as endothelial-specific JAM-C-deficient mice displayed significantly decreased B16 melanoma cell metastasis to the lung, whereas treatment of mice with soluble JAM-C prevented melanoma lung metastasis. Together, JAM-C represents a novel therapeutic target for melanoma metastasis.
Metastasis is associated with poor prognosis for melanoma. The formation of metastases is a multi-step process, in which cancer cells can subsequently acquire the potential to intravasate into the blood or lymph vessels, disseminate through the circulation, extravasate through the endothelium and invade the connective tissue. There is increasing evidence that chemokines have a pivotal role in the dissemination and establishment of melanoma metastasis.
We isolated melanoma cells from melanoma metastasis and performed different migration assays and transendothelial resistance measurements of endothelial monolayers co-cultured with melanoma cells, in order to monitor barrier function and diapedesis and confirmed these results by confocal microscopy.
We observed that tumour endothelial cells (ECs) secrete high levels of CXCL9 in all, and CXCL10 in most melanoma metastases. Migration studies revealed that low concentrations of these chemokines induce chemotaxis, whereas high concentrations induce spontaneous migration of melanoma cells (chemokinesis/chemorepulsion) and the disruption of the endothelial barrier, resulting in an accelerated transendothelial migration (TEM). Addition of anti-CXCL9 or anti-CXCR3 antibodies to the co-cultures delayed the TEM of melanoma cells.
Our data represent novel mechanisms by which tumour cells in melanoma metastases might use the chemokine-expressing endothelium to leave the tumour and eventually to form additional metastases at distinct sites.
CXCL9; fugetaxis; transendothelial migration; endothelial monolayer breakdown
The leukocyte integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and its endothelial ligand intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 play an important role in transmigration as demonstrated by in vivo and in vitro models of inflammation. Despite the prominent role, little is known concerning the distribution and dynamic behavior of these adhesion molecules during leukocyte transmigration. Therefore, we examined the spatial and temporal distribution of LFA-1 on neutrophils actively transmigrating tumor necrosis factor-α–activated human umbilical vein endothelial monolayers under shear flow. Upon neutrophil arrest, LFA-1 was evenly distributed. However, once neutrophils initiated transmigration, LFA-1 rapidly redistributed to form a ringlike cluster at the neutrophil–endothelial junctional interface through which transmigration occurred. As transmigration was completed, LFA-1 redistributed to the neutrophil uropod. Endothelial ICAM-1 and JAM-A both colocalized with the ringlike LFA-1 cluster. Further analysis of PMA-stimulated neutrophils, which increase mobility of LFA-1, showed a rapid redistribution of LFA-1 and ICAM-1, but not endothelial JAM-A. Thus, endothelial JAM-A does not appear to contribute to adhesion or transmigration in this system. This is the first demonstration that neutrophil LFA-1 rapidly redistributes to form a ringlike structure that coclusters with endothelial ICAM-1 as the neutrophil transmigrates.
inflammation; diapedesis; integrins; adhesion molecules; imaging
Recent studies suggest that some T and B lymphocyte cell lines bind to the integrin lymphocyte function-associated molecule 1 (LFA-1) chiefly through a pathway independent of its two known counter-receptors, intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs)-1 and -2. A monoclonal antibody (mAb) was raised that, in combination with blocking mAb to ICAM-1 and ICAM-2, can completely inhibit binding of these cell lines to purified LFA-1. This third ligand, designated ICAM-3 based on its functional relatedness to ICAM-1 and -2, is a highly glycosylated protein of 124,000 Mr. It is well expressed on all leukocytes and absent from endothelial cells. In assays of adhesion of resting lymphocytes to purified LFA-1, ICAM-3 is by far the most functionally important ICAM, implying an important role for ICAM-3 in the generation of immune responses.
Adhesion molecules are important for leukocyte endothelial attachment and migration to sites of inflammation. The LFA-1 (CD11a and CD18) integrin molecule is constitutively expressed on the T-cell surface. Following T-cell activation, a rapid conformational change of LFA-1 to an “adhesive” state occurs, allowing LFA-1 binding to intracellular cell adhesion molecule type 1 (ICAM-1)-expressing targets, such as antigen-presenting cells. For this study, a rapid flow cytometry method for the quantitation of LFA-1-adhesive T cells following activation was developed. Purified ICAM-1 was bound to 4.5-μm-diameter beads. Following peripheral blood mononuclear cell activation culture (phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin), the cells were incubated with the ICAM-1 beads, which allowed attachment to occur. The T cell-bead complexes were then resolved from unbound T cells by flow cytometry. Multicolor analysis allowed a complete phenotypic analysis of the adhesive T-cell subsets. Experimental controls indicated that the T cell-bead attachment was LFA-1 and ICAM-1 specific. Very little binding between unactivated T cells and ICAM beads or between activated T cells and plain beads was observed. The kinetics of the response was extremely rapid, with nearly maximal numbers of adhesive T cells observed following 5 min of activation. Scanning electron microscopy analysis was used to characterize legitimate bead-cell binding. By using multicolor cytometry, the responding adhesive T-cell population was usually identified as a distinct subset of T cells with the following phenotype: CD3+ CD4+ or CD8+ CD19− CD16− CD45RO+ CD62L+ CD27+ CD57−. A rapid and simple method for the scoring of LFA-1-adhesive T cells was developed and may have significant utility for immune function studies.
Adhesion to and subsequent extravasation through the endothelial lining of blood vessels is critical for tumor cells to establish metastases. Recent studies have indicated that polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) may enhance melanoma adhesion to the endothelium (EC) and subsequent extravasation under dynamic flow conditions. However, little is known about hydrodynamics involved in the tumor microenvironment within the microcirculation. In this study, effects of hydrodynamic flow on regulating melanoma cell adhesion to the EC have been investigated. Results indicate that under flow conditions, interactions between melanoma cells and the EC are distinctly different from PMN-EC interactions. Without expressions of surface integrins or sialylated molecules, most melanoma cells that express a high-level of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) are not able to effectively adhere to the inflamed EC by themselves. Binding of melanoma cells and PMNs through ICAM-1 on melanoma cells and β2 integrins on PMNs has been shown to enhance melanoma cell arrest on the EC. Although PMN tethering on the EC is regulated by both the shear rate and shear stress, melanoma cell adhesion to the EC and subsequent extravasation via tethering PMN on the EC is predominantly regulated by shear rate, which partly is due to the shear-rate-dependent PMN-melanoma aggregation in shear flow. These findings provide a rationale and mechanistic basis for understanding of leukocyte-tumor cell interactions under flow conditions during tumor cell extravasation and metastasis.
Shear flow; Neutrophil; β2 integrins; ICAM-1; Melanoma metastasis
Tumor metastasis involves many stage-specific adhesive
interactions. The expression of several cell adhesion molecules,
notably the integrin αvβ3, has been
associated with the metastatic potential of tumor cells. In this study,
we used a novel in vitro assay to examine the role of
αvβ3 in the transmigration of melanoma
cells through a monolayer of human lung microvascular endothelial
cells. Confocal microscopy revealed the presence of the
integrin αvβ3 on melanoma membrane
protrusions and pseudopods penetrating the endothelial junction.
αvβ3 was also enriched in heterotypic
contacts between endothelial cells and melanoma cells. Transendothelial
migration of melanoma cells was inhibited by either a cyclic
Arg-Gly-Asp peptide or the anti-αvβ3
monoclonal antibody LM609. Although both platelet endothelial
cell adhesion molecule-1 and L1 are known to bind integrin
αvβ3, only L1 serves as a potential ligand
for αvβ3 during melanoma transendothelial
migration. Also, polyclonal antibodies against L1 partially inhibited
the transendothelial migration of melanoma cells. However, addition of
both L1 and αvβ3 antibodies did not show
additive effects, suggesting that they are components of the same
adhesion system. Together, the data suggest that interactions between
the integrin αvβ3 on melanoma cells
and L1 on endothelial cells play an important role in the
transendothelial migration of melanoma cells.
The majority of brain metastases originate from lung cancer, breast cancer and malignant melanoma. In order to reach the brain, parenchyma metastatic cells have to transmigrate through the endothelial cell layer of brain capillaries, which forms the morphological basis of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB has a dual role in brain metastasis formation: it forms a tight barrier protecting the central nervous system from entering cancer cells, but it is also actively involved in protecting metastatic cells during extravasation and proliferation in the brain. The mechanisms of interaction of cancer cells and cerebral endothelial cells are largely uncharacterized. Here, we provide a comprehensive review on our current knowledge about the role of junctional and adhesion molecules, soluble factors, proteolytic enzymes and signaling pathways mediating the attachment of tumor cells to brain endothelial cells and the transendothelial migration of metastatic cells. Since brain metastases represent a great therapeutic challenge, it is indispensable to understand the mechanisms of the interaction of tumor cells with the BBB in order to find targets of prevention of brain metastasis formation.
blood-brain barrier; cerebral endothelial cell; tight junction; paracellular transmigration; astrocyte; central nervous system; metastasis; breast cancer; lung cancer; melanoma
Intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-3, a recently described counter- receptor for the lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 integrin, appears to play an important role in the initial phase of immune response. We have previously described the involvement of ICAM-3 in the regulation of LFA-1/ICAM-1-dependent cell-cell interaction of T lymphoblasts. In this study, we further investigated the functional role of ICAM-3 in other leukocyte cell-cell interactions as well as the molecular mechanisms regulating these processes. We have found that ICAM-3 is also able to mediate LFA-1/ICAM-1-independent cell aggregation of the leukemic JM T cell line and the LFA-1/CD18-deficient HAFSA B cell line. The ICAM-3-induced cell aggregation of JM and HAFSA cells was not affected by the addition of blocking mAb specific for a number of cell adhesion molecules such as CD1 1a/CD18, ICAM-1 (CD54), CD2, LFA-3 (CD58), very late antigen alpha 4 (CD49d), and very late antigen beta 1 (CD29). Interestingly, some mAb against the leukocyte tyrosine phosphatase CD45 were able to inhibit this interaction. Moreover, they also prevented the aggregation induced on JM T cells by the proaggregatory anti-LFA-1 alpha NKI-L16 mAb. In addition, inhibitors of tyrosine kinase activity also abolished ICAM-3 and LFA-1- mediated cell aggregation. The induction of tyrosine phosphorylation through ICAM-3 and LFA-1 antigens was studied by immunofluorescence, and it was found that tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins were preferentially located at intercellular boundaries upon the induction of cell aggregation by either anti-ICAM-3 or anti-LFA-1 alpha mAb. Western blot analysis revealed that the engagement of ICAM-3 or LFA-1 with activating mAb enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of polypeptides of 125, 70, and 38 kD on JM cells. This phenomenon was inhibited by preincubation of JM cells with those anti-CD45 mAb that prevented cell aggregation. Altogether these results indicate that CD45 tyrosine phosphatase plays a relevant role in the regulation of both intracellular signaling and cell adhesion induced through ICAM-3 and beta 2 integrins.
It has been determined previously that polymorphonuclear leukocytes, or PMNs, can facilitate melanoma cell extravasation through the endothelium under shear conditions [1,2]. The interactions between melanoma cells and PMNs are mediated by the β2-integrins expressed by PMNs and intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1) expressed on melanoma cells. In this study, the kinetics of these interactions was studied using a parallel plate flow chamber. The dissociation rates were calculated under low force conditions for ICAM-1 interactions with both β2-integrins, LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) and Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18), together and separately by using functional blocking antibodies on PMNs. The kinetics of PMNs stimulated with IL-8 was also determined. It was concluded that the small number of constitutively expressed active β2-integrins on PMNs are sufficient to bind to ICAM-1 expressed on melanoma cells and that the intrinsic dissociation rate for these adhesion molecules appear to be more dependent on what method is used to determine them than on what cells express them.
Adhesion; ICAM-1; β2 integrins; Dissociation rates; Shear flow
The β2-integrin LFA-1 facilitates extravasation of monocytes (MOs) into the underlying tissues, where MOs can differentiate into dendritic cells (DCs). Although DCs express LFA-1, unlike MOs, they cannot bind to ICAM-1. We hypothesized that an altered integrin organization on the DC plasma membrane might cause this effect and investigated the relationship between membrane organization and function of LFA-1 on MOs and DCs. High-resolution mapping of LFA-1 surface distribution revealed that on MOs LFA-1 function is associated with a distribution in well-defined nanoclusters (100–150-nm diameter). Interestingly, a fraction of these nanoclusters contains primed LFA-1 molecules expressing the specific activation-dependent L16-epitope. Live imaging of MO–T-cell conjugates showed that only these primed nanoclusters are dynamically recruited to the cellular interface forming micrometer-sized assemblies engaged in ligand binding and linked to talin. We conclude that besides affinity regulation, LFA-1 function is controlled by at least three different avidity patterns: random distributed inactive molecules, well-defined ligand-independent proactive nanoclusters, and ligand-triggered micrometer-sized macroclusters.
Cells such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells migrate through the coordinated responses of discrete integrin-containing focal adhesions and complexes. In contrast, little is known about the organization of integrins on the highly motile T lymphocyte. We have investigated the distribution, activity, and cytoskeletal linkage of the integrin lymphocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) on human T lymphocytes migrating on endothelial cells and on ligand intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). The pattern of total LFA-1 varies from low expression in the lamellipodia to high expression in the uropod. However, high affinity, clustered LFA-1 is restricted to a mid-cell zone that remains stable over time and over a range of ICAM-1 densities. Talin is essential for the stability and formation of the LFA-1 zone. Disruption of the talin–integrin link leads to loss of zone integrity and a substantial decrease in speed of migration on ICAM-1. This adhesive structure, which differs from the previously described integrin-containing attachments displayed by many other cell types, we have termed the “focal zone.”
Immune cell migration into and through mucosal barrier sites in general and airway sites in particular is a critical feature of immune and inflammatory responses, but the determinants of transepithelial (unlike transendothelial) immune cell traffic are poorly defined. Accordingly, we used primary culture airway epithelial cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells to develop a cell monolayer system that allows for apical-to-basal and basal-to-apical T cell transmigration that can be monitored with quantitative immunofluorescence flow cytometry. In this system, T cell adhesion and subsequent transmigration were blocked in both directions by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) or intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) (induced by interferon γ [IFN-γ] treatment of epithelial cells). The total number of adherent plus transmigrated T cells was also similar in both directions, and this pattern fit with uniform presentation of ICAM-1 along the apical and basolateral cell surfaces. However, the relative number of transmigrated to adherent T cells (i.e., the efficiency of transmigration) was increased in the basal-to-apical relative to the apical-to-basal direction, so an additional mechanism was needed to mediate directional movement towards the apical surface. Screening for epithelial-derived β-chemokines indicated that IFN-γ treatment caused selective expression of RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), and the functional significance of this finding was demonstrated by inhibition of epithelial–T cell adhesion and transepithelial migration by anti-RANTES mAbs. In addition, we found that epithelial (but not endothelial) cells preferentially secreted RANTES through the apical cell surface thereby establishing a chemical gradient for chemotaxis across the epithelium to a site where they may be retained by high levels of RANTES and apical ICAM-1. These patterns for epithelial presentation of ICAM-1 and secretion of RANTES appear preserved in airway epithelial tissue studied either ex vivo with expression induced by IFN-γ treatment or in vivo with endogenous expression induced by inflammatory disease (i.e., asthma). Taken together, the results define how the patterns for uniform presentation of ICAM-1 along the cell surface and specific apical sorting of RANTES may serve to mediate the level and directionality of T cell traffic through epithelium (distinct from endothelium) and provide a basis for how this process is precisely coordinated to route immune cells to the mucosal surface and maintain them there under normal and stimulated conditions.
RANTES; intercellular adhesion molecule 1; airway epithelial cell; endothelial cell; asthma
While CD4 and the chemokine receptors are the principal receptors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), other cellular proteins, such as LFA-1, are also involved in HIV infection. LFA-1 and its ligands, ICAM-1, ICAM-2, and ICAM-3, can be expressed on the cells infected by HIV, as well as on the HIV virions themselves. To examine the role of LFA-1 expressed on target cells in HIV infection, Jurkat-derived Jβ2.7 T-cell lines that express either wild-type LFA-1, a constitutively active mutant LFA-1, or no LFA-1 were used. The presence of wild-type LFA-1 enhanced the initial processes of HIV infection, as well as the subsequent replication and transmission from cell to cell. In contrast, the constitutively active LFA-1 mutant failed to promote virus replication and spread, even though this mutant could help HIV enter cells and establish the initial infection. This study clearly demonstrates the contribution of LFA-1 in the different stages of HIV infection. Moreover, not only is LFA-1 expression important for initial HIV-cell interaction, subsequent replication, and transmission, but its activity must also be properly regulated.
In order to analyze whether measles virus (MV) is transported via transmigrating leukocytes across endothelial barriers or whether virus spreads via infection of endothelial cells and basolateral release, we investigated the migratory behavior of infected human primary T lymphocytes across polarized cell layers of human brain microvascular endothelial cells. We found that the capacity of lymphocytes to migrate through filter pores was only slightly affected by wild-type MV infection, whereas their capacity to migrate through endothelial barriers was drastically reduced. MV infection stimulated the expression and activation of the leukocyte integrins LFA-1 and VLA-4, mediating a strong adherence to the surface of endothelial cells. Furthermore, the formation of engulfing membrane protrusions by endothelial cells, so-called transmigratory cups, was induced, but transmigration was impaired. As a consequence of this close cell-cell contact, MV infection was transmitted from lymphocytes to the endothelium. MV envelope proteins were expressed on the apical and basolateral surfaces of infected polarized endothelial cells, and virus was released from both sides. Wild-type MV infection did not induce the formation of syncytia, suggesting virus spread from cell to cell via cell processes and contacts. Our data indicate that transendothelial migration of infected T cells is strongly inhibited, whereas virus can cross endothelial barriers by productive infection of the endothelium and subsequent bipolar virus release.
Stable adhesion of leukocytes to endothelium is crucial for transendothelial migration (TEM) of leukocytes evoked during inflammatory responses, immune surveillance, and homing and mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. The basis of stable adhesion involves expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), an inducible endothelial adhesive protein that serves as a counter-receptor for β2-integrins on leukocytes. Interaction of ICAM-1 with β2-integrins enables leukocytes to adhere firmly to the vascular endothelium and subsequently, to migrate across the endothelial barrier. The emerging paradigm is that ICAM-1, in addition to firmly capturing leukocytes, triggers intracellular signaling events that may contribute to active participation of the endothelium in facilitating the TEM of adherent leukocytes. The nature, duration, and intensity of ICAM-1-dependent signaling events may contribute to the determination of the route (paracellular vs. transcellular) of leukocyte passage; these aspects of ICAM-1 signaling may in turn be influenced by density and distribution of ICAM-1 on the endothelial cell surface, the source of endothelial cells it is present on, and the type of leukocytes with which it is engaged. This review summarizes our current understanding of the “ICAM-1 paradigm” of TEM with an emphasis on the signaling events mediating ICAM-1 expression and activated by ICAM-1 engagement in endothelial cells. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 823–839.
The adhesion molecule ICAM-3 belongs to the immunoglobulin gene superfamily and functions as a ligand for the β2 integrins LFA-1, Mac-1 and αdβ2. The expression of ICAM-3 is restricted to cells of the hematopoietic lineage. We present evidences that the ICAM-3 gene promoter exhibits a leukocyte-specific activity, as its activity is significantly higher in ICAM-3+ hematopoietic cell lines. The activity of the ICAM-3 gene promoter is dependent on the occupancy of RUNX cognate sequences both in vitro and in vivo, and whose integrity is required for RUNX responsiveness and for the cooperative actions of RUNX with transcription factors of the Ets and C/EBP families. Protein analysis revealed that ICAM-3 levels diminish upon monocyte-derived macrophage differentiation, monocyte transendothelial migration and dendritic cell maturation, changes that correlate with an increase in RUNX3. Importantly, disruption of RUNX-binding sites led to enhanced promoter activity, and small interfering RNA-mediated reduction of RUNX3 expression resulted in increased ICAM-3 mRNA levels. Altogether these results indicate that the ICAM-3 gene promoter is negatively regulated by RUNX transcription factors, which contribute to the leukocyte-restricted and the regulated expression of ICAM-3 during monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation and monocyte extravasation.
The process of angiogenesis is crucial for progression and metastasis of the majority of solid tumors including melanomas. The purpose of this review is to summarize existing knowledge of the mechanisms of angiogenesis in melanoma as well as current anti-angiogenic therapeutic strategies and their targets. Here, we have focused primarily on the role of key growth factors which are secreted by melanoma cells and known to trigger angiogenic responses, and their receptors as expressed on both endothelial and melanoma cells. Many of these growth factors function in synergy with receptors for extracellular matrix, integrins and matrix metalloproteinases. All these systems of molecules are activated during major stages of angiogenesis such as endothelial migration, proliferation and reorganization of surrounding extracellular matrix. The blockade of these molecules and their downstream pathways leads to inhibition of melanoma vascularization. Thus, these classes of molecules are essential for melanoma angiogenesis and, therefore, might serve as promising targets for therapeutic intervention. Many recently developed compounds targeting key pathways in angiogenesis are in their final stages of clinical trials.
Melanoma; Angiogenesis; Extracellular matrix; Growth factors; Integrins; Matrix metalloproteinase
N-cadherin is recruited to the heterotypic contact during transendothelial migration of melanoma cells in a coculture system with tumor cells seeded on top of a monolayer of endothelial cells. However, β-catenin dissociates from N-cadherin and redistributes to the nucleus of transmigrating melanoma cells to activate gene transcription. In this report, we demonstrate that Src becomes activated at the heterotypic contact between the transmigrating melanoma cell and neighboring endothelial cells. Src activation shows close temporal correlation with tyrosine phosphorylation of N-cadherin. Expression of a dominant-negative Src in melanoma cells blocks N-cadherin phosphorylation, β-catenin dissociation, and nuclear translocation in transmigrating cells, consistent with the involvement of Src family kinases. In in vitro binding assays, Src-mediated phosphorylation of the N-cadherin cytoplasmic domain results in a significant reduction in β-catenin binding. Although five phospho-tyrosine residues can be identified on the N-cadherin cytoplasmic domain by mass spectrometry, site-specific mutagenesis indicates that Tyr-860 is the critical amino acid involved in β-catenin binding. Overexpression of N-cadherin carrying the Y860F mutation inhibits the transmigration of transfected cells across the endothelium. Together, the data suggest a novel role for tyrosine phosphorylation of N-cadherin by Src family kinases in the regulation of β-catenin association during transendothelial migration of melanoma cells.
The immune cells named T lymphocytes circulate around the body fulfilling their role in immunosurveillance by monitoring the tissues for injury or infection. To migrate from the blood into the tissues, they make use of the integrin LFA-1 which is exclusively expressed by immune cells. These highly motile cells attach and migrate on substrates expressing the LFA-1 ligand ICAM-1. The molecular events signaling LFA-1 activation and adhesion are now reasonably well identified, but the process of detaching LFA-1 adhesions is less understood. The cysteine protease calpain is involved in turnover of integrin-mediated adhesions in less motile cell types. In this study we have explored the involvement of calpain in turnover of LFA-1-mediated adhesions of T lymphocytes. Using live cell imaging and immunohistochemistry, we demonstrate that turnover of adhesions depends on the Ca2+-dependent enzyme, calpain 2. Inhibition of calpain activity by means of siRNA silencing or pharmacological inhibition results in inefficient disassembly of LFA-1 adhesions causing T lymphocyte elongation and shedding of LFA-1 clusters behind the migrating T lymphocytes. We show that calpain 2 is distributed throughout the T lymphocyte, but is most active at the trailing edge as detected by expression of its fluorescent substrate CMAC,t-BOC-Leu-Met. Extracellular Ca2+ entry is essential for the activity of calpain 2 that is constantly maintained as the T lymphocytes migrate. Use of T cells from a patient with mutation in ORAI1 revealed that the major calcium-release-activated-calcium channel is not the ion channel delivering the Ca2+. We propose a model whereby Ca2+ influx, potentially through stretch activated channels, is sufficient to activate calpain 2 at the trailing edge of a migrating T cell and this activity is essential for the turnover of LFA-1 adhesions.
We have studied human melanoma cell (C8161) adhesion and migration in response to stimulation by soluble collagen IV (CIV) using a modified Boyden chamber. In this modified chamber, shear flow can be introduced over the cell-substrate interface, affecting tumor cell chemotactic migration through a microporous filter. A relatively high level of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) was found on C8161 cells. In contrast, levels of β2-integrins (e.g., LFA-1 and Mac-1), the molecules that would be necessary for C8161 stable adhesion to the endothelium substrate, were found to be very low on these melanoma cells. As a result, C8161 transendothelial migration under a flow condition of 4 dyn/cm2 decreased by 70% as compared to static migration. When human neutrophils (PMNs) were present in the tumor cell suspension, C8161 migration recovered by 85% over C8161 cells alone under the 4 dyn/cm2 flow condition. Blocking ICAM-1 on C8161 cells or Mac-1 on PMNs significantly inhibited C8161-PMN adhesion and subsequent C8161 migration through the endothelium under flow conditions. In addition, increased interleukin-8 production and Mac-1 expression by PMNs were detected when they were co-cultured with C8161 melanoma cells. These results suggest that transmigration of C8161 cells under flow conditions can be influenced by PMNs, mediated by Mac-1/ICAM-1 adhesive interactions and enhanced by altered cytokine production.
in vitro extravasation; shear stress; type IV collagen; interleukin-8; Mac-1/ICAM-1
Cell adhesion, mediated by specific receptor-ligand interactions, plays an important role in biological processes such as tumor metastasis and inflammatory cascade. For example, interactions between β2-integrin (lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 and/or Mac-1) on polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and ICAM-1 on melanoma cells initiate the bindings of melanoma cells to PMNs within the tumor microenvironment in blood flow, which in turn activate PMN-melanoma cell aggregation in a near-wall region of the vascular endothelium, therefore enhancing subsequent extravasation of melanoma cells in the microcirculations. Kinetics of integrin-ligand bindings in a shear flow is the determinant of such a process, which has not been well understood. In the present study, interactions of PMNs with WM9 melanoma cells were investigated to quantify the kinetics of β2-integrin and ICAM-1 bindings using a cone-plate viscometer that generates a linear shear flow combined with a two-color flow cytometry technique. Aggregation fractions exhibited a transition phase where it first increased before 60 s and then decreased with shear durations. Melanoma-PMN aggregation was also found to be inversely correlated with the shear rate. A previously developed probabilistic model was modified to predict the time dependence of aggregation fractions at different shear rates and medium viscosities. Kinetic parameters of β2-integrin and ICAM-1 bindings were obtained by individual or global fittings, which were comparable to respectively published values. These findings provide new quantitative understanding of the biophysical basis of leukocyte-tumor cell interactions mediated by specific receptor-ligand interactions under shear flow conditions.
heterotypic cell aggregation; adhesion molecule; leukocyte; tumor cell; reverse rate; binding affinity; probabilistic model; polymorphonuclear neutrophils; intercellular adhesion molecule-1
To examine the role of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) expression on murine B cells as it pertains to their function in T cell activation, we carried out antigen-presentation assays in tissue culture wells coated with a purified, secreted form of the murine intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). We observed a significant decrease in the concentration of antigen required to activate a T cell hybridoma and primary T cells in wells coated with ICAM-1. This effect was dependent on the amount of ICAM-1 used to coat the wells and was also observed in wells coated with anti-LFA-1-monoclonal antibodies and was blocked by soluble anti-LFA-1 antibodies. The effect on antigen dose was most pronounced in assays carried out with an ICAM-1-deficient mutant B lymphoma cell line, small resting primary B cells, and unfractionated primary B cells at low concentrations. No decrease in the antigen dose was observed if the B cells were chemically fixed or treated with ricin, or when antigen was presented by a HeLa cell line transfected with murine class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, indicating that the immobilized ICAM-1 was mediating its effect through B cell LFA-1, and that B cell protein synthesis was required. The enhancing effect was also observed if the B cells were prepulsed with antigen, indicating that improved uptake or processing of antigen, or increased class II MHC expression were unlikely mechanisms.