Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important human pathogen leading to hepatocellular carcinoma. Using an in vitro cell-based HCV replicon and JFH-1 infection system, we demonstrated that an aqueous extract of the seaweed Gracilaria tenuistipitata (AEGT) concentration-dependently inhibited HCV replication at nontoxic concentrations. AEGT synergistically enhanced interferon-α (IFN-α) anti-HCV activity in a combination treatment. We found that AEGT also significantly suppressed virus-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression at promoter transactivation and protein levels. Notably, addition of exogenous COX-2 expression in AEGT-treated HCV replicon cells gradually abolished AEGT anti-HCV activity, suggesting that COX-2 down-regulation was responsible for AEGT antiviral effects. Furthermore, we highlighted the inhibitory effect of AEGT in HCV-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression such as the expression of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, inducible nitrite oxide synthase and COX-2 in a concentration-dependent manner to evaluate the potential therapeutic supplement in the management of patients with chronic HCV infections.
Gracilaria changii (Xia et Abbott) Abbott, Zhang et Xia, a red algae commonly found in the coastal areas of Malaysia is traditionally used for foods and for the treatment of various ailments including inflammation and gastric ailments. The aim of the study was to investigate anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective and anti-ulcerogenic activities of a mass spectrometry standardized methanolic extract of Gracilaria changii.
Methanolic extract of Gracilaria changii (MeOHGCM6 extract) was prepared and standardized using mass spectrometry (MS). Anti-inflammatory activities of MeOHGCM6 extract were examined by treating U937 cells during its differentiation with 10 μg/ml MeOHGCM6 extract. Tumour necrosis factors-α (TNF-α) response level and TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene expression were monitored and compared to that treated by 10 nM betamethasone, an anti-inflammatory drug. Gastroprotective and anti-ulcerogenic activities of MeOHGCM6 extract were examined by feeding rats with MeOHGCM6 extract ranging from 2.5 to 500 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) following induction of gastric lesions. Production of mucus and gastric juice, pH of the gastric juice and non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) levels were determined and compared to that fed by 20 mg/kg b.w. omeprazole (OMP), a known anti-ulcer drug.
MS/MS analysis of the MeOHGCM6 extracts revealed the presence of methyl 10-hydroxyphaeophorbide a and 10-hydroxypheophytin a, known chlorophyll proteins and several unidentified molecules. Treatment with 10 μg/ml MeOHGCM6 extract during differentiation of U937 cells significantly inhibited TNF-α response level and TNF-α and IL-6 gene expression. The inhibitory effect was comparable to that of betamethasone. No cytotoxic effects were recorded for cells treated with the 10 μg/ml MeOHGCM6 extract. Rats fed with MeOHGCM6 extract at 500 mg/kg b.w. showed reduced absolute ethanol-induced gastric lesion sizes by > 99% (p < 0.05). This protective effect was comparable to that conferred by OMP. The pH of the gastric mucus decreased in dose-dependent manner from 5.51 to 3.82 and there was a significant increase in NP-SH concentrations.
Results from the study, suggest that the mass spectrometry standardized methanolic extract of Gracillaria changii possesses anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective and anti-ulcerogenic properties. Further examination of the active constituent of the extract and its mechanism of action is warranted in the future.
Anti-inflammatory; Anti-ulcerogenic; Gastroprotective; Gracilaria changii; Cytokines; Betamethasone; Omeprazole; Seaweeds; Ulcer
DNA mismatch repair (MMR) maintains genomic integrity by correction of mispaired bases and insertion-deletion loops. The MMR pathway can also trigger a DNA damage response upon binding of MutSα to specific DNA lesions such as O6methylguanine (O6meG). Limited information is available regarding cellular regulation of these two different pathways. Within this report, we demonstrate that phosphorylated hMSH6 increases in concentration in the presence of a G:T mismatch, as compared to an O6meG:T lesion. TPA, a kinase activator, enhances the phosphorylation of hMSH6 and binding of hMutSα to a G:T mismatch, though not to O6meG:T. UCN-01, a kinase inhibitor, decreases both phosphorylation of hMSH6 and binding of hMutSα to G:T and O6meG:T. HeLa MR cells, pretreated with UCN-01 and exposed to MNNG, undergo activation of Cdk1 and mitosis despite phosphorylation of Chk1 and inactivating phosphorylation of Cdc25c. These results indicate that UCN-01 may inhibit an alternative cell cycle arrest pathway associated with the MMR pathway that does not involve Cdc25c. In addition, recombinant hMutSα containing hMSH6 mutated at an N-terminal cluster of 4 phosphoserines exhibits decreased phosphorylation and decreased binding of hMutSα to G:T and O6meG:T. Taken together, these results suggest a model in which the amount of phosphorylated hMSH6 bound to DNA is dependent on the presence of either a DNA mismatch or DNA alkylation damage. We hypothesize that both phosphorylation of hMSH6 and total concentration of bound hMutSα are involved in cellular signaling of either DNA mismatch repair or MMR-dependent damage recognition activities.
DNA mismatch repair; hMutSα; hMSH6; MMR-dependent damage-signaling; alkylation damage
The ability to monitor and characterize DNA mismatch repair activity in various mammalian cells is important for understanding mechanisms involved in mutagenesis and tumorigenesis. Since mismatch repair proteins recognize mismatches containing both normal and chemically altered or damaged bases, in vitro assays must accommodate a variety of mismatches in different sequence contexts. Here we describe the construction of DNA mismatch substrates containing G:T or O6meG:T mismatches, the purification of recombinant native human MutSα (MSH2-MSH6) and MutLα (MLH1-PMS2) proteins, and in vitro mismatch repair and excision assays that can be adapted to study mismatch repair in nuclear extracts from mismatch repair proficient and deficient cells.
DNA repair; Mismatch repair; MutS; MutL
Free radicals and singlet oxygen are responsible for oxidative stress related diseases and many natural compounds are known to have antioxidant properties. In this study, extracts from brown and red seaweeds of Indian origin were evaluated for their ability to scavenge different radicals and quench singlet oxygen. The crude extract in methanol and its fractions in different solvents were evaluated for their activity. The methanol extract and its fractions from brown seaweed exhibited higher 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothizoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activity with more than 90% scavenging in butanol and ethyl acetate fractions and correlated with polyphenol content. There was a significant difference (p≤0.001) in hydroxyl radical scavenging activity between different fractions of the same seaweed. Among the crude extracts, extract from Gracilaria corticata showed the highest (14.0%) activity. Crude extract from brown seaweeds showed higher peroxyl radical scavenging activity compared to red seaweeds. In fractions from brown seaweed extracts, highest activity was observed in ethyl acetate fraction (>88%) followed by hexane fraction (>40 %). Ethyl acetate fraction from crude extract showed higher inhibitory activity against hemoglobin induced linoleic acid oxidation. Singlet oxygen quenching activity of the crude extract from brown seaweed was lower (<13%) compared to red seaweeds (16.4–20.5%).
Seaweed; Polyphenol; Antioxidant; Free radical; Singlet oxygen
We examined the inhibitory effects of loquat methanol extract on the adhesion, migration, invasion and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line. Cells were cultured with DMSO or with 10, 25, or 50 µg/ml of loquat methanol extract. Both leaf and seed extracts significantly inhibited growth of MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose-dependent manner, although leaf extract was more effective. Adhesion and migration were significantly inhibited by loquat extracts in a dose-dependent manner. Loquat extract also inhibited the invasion of breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner and leaf extract was more effective than seed extract. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were also inhibited by loquat extract. Our results indicate that methanol extracts of loquat inhibit the adhesion, migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells partially through the inhibition of MMP activity and leaf extract has more anti-metastatic effects in cell based assay than seed extract. Clinical application of loquat extract as a potent chemopreventive agent may be helpful in limiting breast cancer invasion and metastasis.
Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica); adhesion; migration; invasion; MMP
Ruta graveolens is a medicinal herb that has been used for centuries against various ailments. This study examined the anticancer properties of the herb using cancer cell lines.
Materials and Methods
Methanolic extract of R. graveolens was tested on colon, breast and prostate cancer cells. Viability, cell cycle profiles, clonogenicity and capase activation were measured. Induction and subcellular localizations of p53, 53BP1 and γ-H2AX proteins were examined.
the extract dose-dependently decreased the viability and the clonogenicity of treated cells and induced G2/M arrest, aberrant mitoses, and caspase-3 activation. It also induced the p53 pathway and focal concentration of the DNA damage response proteins 53BP1 and γ-H2AX. Moreover, the levels of phospho-Akt and cyclin B1 were reduced by treatment, whereas only cyclin B1 was reduced in normal dermal fibroblasts.
R. graveolens extract contains bioactive compounds which, independently of known photoactivatable mechanisms, potently inhibit cancer cell proliferation and survival through multiple targets.
Medicinal herb; bioactivity; p53 pathway; apoptosis
In the present study, we evaluated the effect of brown seaweeds Sargassum muticum methanolic extract (SMME), against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines proliferation. This algae extract was also evaluated for reducing activity and total polyphenol content. The MTT assay results indicated that the extracts were cytotoxic against breast cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 of 22 μg/ml for MCF-7 and 55 μg/ml for MDA-MB-231 cell lines. The percentages of apoptotic MCF-7-treated cells increased from 13% to 67% by increasing the concentration of the SMME. The antiproliferative efficacy of this algal extract was positively correlated with the total polyphenol contents, suggesting a causal link related to extract content of phenolic acids. Cell cycle analysis showed a significant increase in the accumulation of SMME-treated cells at sub-G1 phase, indicating the induction of apoptosis by SMME. Further apoptosis induction was confirmed by Hoechst 33342 and AO/PI staining. Also SMME implanted in vivo into fertilized chicken eggs induced dose-related antiangiogenic activity in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Our results imply a new insight on the novel function of Sargassum muticum polyphenol-rich seaweed in cancer research by induction of apoptosis, antioxidant, and antiangiogenesis effects.
We aimed to investigate the apoptotic effects of the methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed on WEHI-164, cancerous cells in comparison with L929, normal cells and compared them with the cytotoxic effects of Taxol. So, MTT test and DNA fragmentation assay were performed on cultured and treated cells. Also electrophoresis which was followed by immunoblotting was done to survey the production of Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins, and to inquire into their relative genes expression, RT-PCR was used. According to our findings, the methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed can alter cells morphology as they shrink and take a spherical shape and lose their attachment too. So, the plant extract inhibits cell growth albeit in a time- and dose-dependent manner and results in degradation of chromosomal DNA. Induction of apoptosis by the plant extract was proved by the reduction of pro-Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins and increase in Caspase-3 gene expression and decrease in that of bcl2 too. Our data well established the antiproliferative effect of methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed and clearly showed that the plant extract can induce apoptosis and not necrosis in vitro. These results demonstrated that Dorema glabrum seed might be a novel and attractive therapeutic candidate for tumor treatment.
Diabetic Neuropathy (DN) is a major microvascular complication of uncontrolled diabetes. This may result from increased oxidative stress that accompanies diabetes. Hence plants with antioxidant action play an important role in management of diabetes and its complications.
Materials and Methods:
This study was designed to evaluate preventive as well as curative effect of methanol extracts of outer scales and edible portions of two plants with established antioxidant action - Allium cepa and Allium sativum, in induced DN in albino mice. Mice were divided into control, diabetic and test extracts treated groups. Test extracts were administered daily at a dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. for 21 days, in the preventive group prior to onset of DN, and in the curative group after the onset of DN. Hyperalgesia and oxidative stress markers were assessed. STZ-diabetic mice showed a significant thermal hyperalgesia (as assessed by the tail-flick test), indicating development of DN.
Treatment with test extracts prevented loss in body weight, decreased plasma glucose level, and significantly ameliorated the hyperalgesia, TBARS, serum nitrite and GSH levels in diabetic mice.
Methanol extract of outer scales of onion has shown most significant improvement; may be due to higher content of phenolic compounds in outer scales of A. cepa.
Allium cepa; Allium sativum; diabetic neuropathy; oxidative stress
Composite methanolic extract of roots of Withania somnifera, leaves of Ocimum sanctum, and rhizomes of Zingiber officinalis was administered by gavage at the dose of 40 mg 100 g−1 body weight day−1 to rat orally for 15 days prior to experimentation followed by co-administration of above extract at the same dose for 28 days of swimming to find out the remedial effect of this extract on exhaustive physical exercise-induced oxidative damage. Swimming resulted significant diminution (p<0.05) in the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase along with elevation (p<0.05) in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and conjugated dienes in cardiac, skeletal, hepatic tissues, cerebrum and cerebellum in respect to control. The levels of all these parameters were resettled significantly (p<0.05) towards the extract pretreated cum co-treated swimming group. The antioxidative potency of this composite extract was compared with standard non-enzymatic antioxidant (vitamin-E) in forced swimming state. The above extract has no general toxic effect as reflected here from the study of transaminase activities in liver and kidney. Results lead to conclude that the composite extract of above three plant parts has a therapeutic protective effect on forced swimming-induced oxidative stress in vital organs.
Brain tissues; metabolic organs; oxidative stress; phytotherapy; swimming; vitamin-E
Proanthocyanidins, compounds highly concentrated in dietary fruits, such as cranberries and grapes, demonstrate significant cancer prevention potential against many types of cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate cranberry and grape seed extracts to quantitate and compare their anti-proliferative effects on the most common type of oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Using two well-characterized oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, CAL27 and SCC25, assays were performed to evaluate the effects of cranberry and grape seed extract on phenotypic behaviors of these oral cancers. The proliferation of both oral cancer cell lines was significantly inhibited by the administration of cranberry and grape seed extracts, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, key regulators of apoptosis, caspase-2 and caspase-8, were concomitantly up-regulated by these treatments. However, cranberry and grape seed extracts elicited differential effects on cell adhesion, cell morphology, and cell cycle regulatory pathways. This study represents one of the first comparative investigations of cranberry and grape seed extracts and their anti-proliferative effects on oral cancers. Previous findings using purified proanthocyanidin from grape seed extract demonstrated more prominent growth inhibition, as well as apoptosis-inducing, properties on CAL27 cells. These observations provide evidence that cranberry and grape seed extracts not only inhibit oral cancer proliferation but also that the mechanism of this inhibition may function by triggering key apoptotic regulators in these cell lines. This information will be of benefit to researchers interested in elucidating which dietary components are central to mechanisms involved in the mediation of oral carcinogenesis and progression.
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent. It is associated with serious dose-limiting cardiotoxicity, which is at least partly caused by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Supplementations with bilberries were effective in reducing oxidative stress in many tissue injuries due their high content of antioxidants. The present study investigated the potential protective effect of bilberry extract against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.
Rats were treated orally with a methanolic extract of bilberry for 10 days. DOX was injected intraperitoneally on day 7. Twenty-four hours after the last bilberry administration, rats were subjected to ECG study. Blood was then withdrawn and cardiac tissues were dissected for assessment of oxidative stress and cardiac tissue injury. Cardiac tissues were also subjected to histopathological examination.
Bilberry extract significantly inhibited DOX-provoked reduced glutathione depletion and accumulation of oxidized glutathione, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls in cardiac tissues. This was accompanied by significant amelioration of reduced cardiac catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase activities; and increased cardiac myeloperoxidase activity in response to DOX challenge. Pretreatment with bilberry significantly guarded against DOX-induced increase in serum activities of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine phosphokinase and creatine kinase-MB, as well as the level of troponin I. Bilberry alleviated ECG changes in rats treated with DOX and attenuated its pathological changes.
Bilberry protects against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. This can be attributed, at least in part, to its antioxidant activity.
bilberry; doxorubicin; cardiotoxicity; antioxidant; rats
We have produced two lines of transgenic mice in which the expression of temperature-sensitive SV-40 large T antigen is targeted to bone marrow megakaryocytes via the platelet factor 4 (PF4) tissue-specific promoter. The progeny of these transgenic mice were observed for about 3 mo, and no malignancies were detected over this period of time. The offspring of these transgenic mice, 6- to 12-wk of age, served as a source of bone marrow cells, which upon in vitro cultivation at the permissive temperature yielded immortalized cell lines (MegT). At the permissive temperature, MegT cells exhibit the characteristics of early 2N and 4N megakaryocytes which include the presence of specific gene products such as PF4, glycoprotein IIb, acetylcholinesterase, and CD45 as well as the absence of molecular markers of other cell lineages such as the macrophage marker Mac-1, the T helper cell marker CD4, the mast cell marker IgE, the T cell marker CD2 or the erythroid cell marker alpha-globin. The inactivation of the oncogene by a shift of temperature from 34 degrees to 39.5 degrees C produces a reduction in the frequency of the 2N cells, in conjunction with the appearance of 8N and 16N cells, consisting of 27 and 3% of total cells, respectively. Thus, we have generated hematopoietic cell lines that are trapped in the early stages of megakaryocyte commitment, but able to undergo part of the normal program of terminal differentiation.
This study deals with total phenolic content, antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity of methanolic extracts from different Teucrium species and the effect on the prooxidant/antioxidant status in HCT-116 cells. The total phenolic content of the extracts was measured spectrophotometricaly and the obtained results ranged from 56.62 mg/g to 172.50 mg GA/g. The antiproliferative activity of methanolic extracts from different Teucrium species was determined using MTT cell viability assay, where IC50 value was used as a parameter for cytotoxicity. The type of cell death was explored by fluorescence microscopy using the acridin orange/ethidium bromide method. MTT assay showed that all extracts significantly reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, with very low IC50 values. The highest content of phenolic compounds and the best cytotoxic activity on HCT-116 cells after 24 h of exposure was in T. chamaedrys extract, with IC50 values of 5.48 × 10−9 μg/mL. After 72 h, methanolic extract of T. arduini appeared to have the best cytotoxic activity on HCT-116, with IC50 values of 0.37 μg/mL. Treatments caused typical apoptotic morphological changes in HCT-116 cells and showed a high percentage of apoptotic cells. The results of the presented research indicate that some Teucrium extracts are a very rich source of phenols, which may directly contribute to high antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity.
acridin orange/ethidium bromide assay; antiprolifertative activity; antioxidants; MTT assay; phenols; Teucrium
In the present study, a suitable drying method was developed for citrus press cakes (CPCs), which are produced as a by-product in citrus juice plants, and the protective effect of methanol extract of CPCs prepared by far-infrared radiation (FIR) drying against H2O2-induced DNA damage was evaluated versus that of freeze-dried CPCs. Methanol extract of FIR-dried CPCs exhibited comparatively good ROS scavenging activity versus the freeze-dried CPCs at the concentration of 100 µg/mL. The extract strongly enhanced the cell viability against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in Vero cells. Lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity of the extract from FIR-dried CPCs was comparable to that of the extract from freeze-dried CPCs. This sample also exhibited good protective effects against H2O2-mediated cell apoptosis as demonstrated by decreased apoptotic body formation in the nuclear staining with Hoechst 33342. In the comet assay, the CPC extracts exhibited strong inhibitory effects against H2O2-mediated DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, this study demonstrated that FIR drying effectively preserves CPC as a functionally important natural antioxidant source and the FIR drying can be adapted for drying CPCs and is more economical for massive production than freeze drying.
Antioxidant; by-product; citrus press cake; far-infrared radiation drying; flavonoid
Saffron extract, a natural product, has been shown to induce apoptosis in several tumor cell lines. Nevertheless, the p53-dependency of saffron’s mechanism of action in colon cancer remains unexplored.
Material and methods
In order to examine saffron’s anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in colorectal cancer cells, we treated two p53 isogenic HCT116 cell lines (HCT wildtype and HCT p53−/−) with different doses of the drug and analyzed cell proliferation and apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. MTT viability and crystal violet assays were performed in order to determine the effective dose of saffron on both cell lines. The cell cycle progress was examined by Flow cytometric analysis. Apoptosis was assessed using Annexin-PI-staining and Western Blotting for caspase 3 and PARP cleavage. Autophagy was determined by Western Blotting of the light chain 3 (LC3)-II and Beclin 1 proteins. The protein content of phospho-H2AX (γH2AX), a sensor of DNA double strand breaks, was also analyzed by Western Blotting.
Saffron extract induced a p53-dependent pattern of cell cycle distribution with a full G2/M stop in HCT116 p53 wildtype cells. However, it induced a remarkable delay in S/G2 phase transit with entry into mitosis in HCT116 p53 −/− cells. The apoptotic Pre-G1 cell fraction as well as Annexin V staining and caspase 3 cleavage showed a more pronounced apoptosis induction in HCT116 p53 wildtype cells. Obviously, the significantly higher DNA-damage, reflected by ɣH2AX protein levels in cells lacking p53, was coped by up-regulation of autophagy. The saffron-induced LC3-II protein level was a remarkable indication of the accumulation of autophagosomes, a response to the cellular stress condition of drug treatment.
This is the first study showing the effect of saffron in HCT116 colorectal cancer cells with different p53 status. Saffron induced DNA-damage and apoptosis in both cell lines. However, autophagy has delayed the induction of apoptosis in HCT116 p53 −/− cells. Considering the fact that most tumors show a functional p53 inactivation, further research is needed to elucidate the long-term effects of saffron in p53 −/− tumors.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the gastroprotective activity of a sulfated-polysaccharide (PLS) fraction extracted from the marine red algae Gracilaria caudata and the mechanism underlying the gastroprotective activity. Male Swiss mice were treated with PLS (3, 10, 30 and 90 mg·kg−1, p.o.), and after 30 min, they were administered 50% ethanol (0.5 mL/25 g−1, p.o.). One hour later, gastric damage was measured using a planimeter. Samples of the stomach tissue were also obtained for histopathological assessment and for assays of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Other groups were pretreated with l-NAME (10 mg·kg−1, i.p.), dl-propargylglycine (PAG, 50 mg·kg−1, p.o.) or glibenclamide (5 mg·kg−1, i.p.). After 1 h, PLS (30 mg·kg−1, p.o.) was administered. After 30 min, ethanol 50% was administered (0.5 mL/25g−1, p.o.), followed by sacrifice after 60 min. PLS prevented-ethanol-induced macroscopic and microscopic gastric injury in a dose-dependent manner. However, treatment with l-NAME or glibenclamide reversed this gastroprotective effect. Administration of propargylglycine did not influence the effect of PLS. Our results suggest that PLS has a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric damage in mice via activation of the NO/KATP pathway.
polysaccharide; gastric damage; ethanol; nitric oxide; hydrogen sulfide
Seaweeds are an important source of bioactive metabolites for the pharmaceutical industry in drug development. Many of these compounds are used to treat diseases like cancer, acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), inflammation, pain, arthritis, as well as viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. This paper offers a survey of the literature for Gracilaria algae extracts with biological activity, and identifies avenues for future research. Nineteen species of this genus that were tested for antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antihypertensive, cytotoxic, spermicidal, embriotoxic, and anti-inflammatory activities are cited from the 121 references consulted.
Gracilaria; macroalgae; seaweed; biological activity; natural product; review
Traditionally various human diseases of kidneys, hormonal imbalance and sexual diseases are treated with Launaea procumbens (L). In the present study protective effects of methanolic extract of Launaea procumbens (LPME) was evaluated against CCl4-induced oxidative damages in rat testis.
To examine the protective effects of Launaea procumbens on testis against oxidative stress of carbon tetrachloride in male rat, 30 male albino rats were equally divided into 5 groups (6 rats). First group was given standard diet and drinking water. Second group received CCl4 3 ml/kg intraperitoneally (30% in olive oil). Third and forth were given orally 100; 200 mg/kg b.w., in 99.8% dimethyl sulphooxide (DMSO), Launaea procumbens methanolic extracts (LPME) after 48 h of CCl4 treatment twice a week and sixth group received only LPME in DMSO at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w., for four weeks. Protective effects of Launaea procumbens were observed on sperm concentration, motility and morphology, serum reproductive hormonal level, activity of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and DNA damages.
Results of the present study revealed that treatment of CCl4 significantly (p < 0.01) reduced sperm concentration and motility comparatively to controls. Level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone, were depleted markedly (p <0.01) with treatment of CCl4. In addition, CCl4 induction in rats reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes while increased lipid peroxidation and DNA damages. Co-administration of LPME significantly (p <0.01) improved these alterations in improving of hormonal level, activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation near to control rats.
From the results it is suggested that Launaea procumbens methanolic extract has the ability to protect testis against oxidative damages, possibly through antioxidant effects of its bioactive compounds.
Launaea procumbens; GSH; CCl4; Lipidperoxidation; DNA damages
The objective of this study was to investigate the modulatory effect of Chlorella vulgaris on cultured fibroblast cells derived from young and old aged individuals focusing on DNA damage, telomere length and telomerase activity. Dose-response test of the algal extract on cells in both age groups revealed that optimum viability was observed at a concentration of 50 µg/ml. Results obtained showed that Chlorella vulgaris exhibited protective effects against H2O2-induced oxidative stress as shown by the reduction in damaged DNA caused by H2O2 treatment (p<0.05) in Chlorella vulgaris pre- and post-treated groups (p<0.05). Pre-treatment of Chlorella vulgaris resulted in a significant decrease in DNA damage suggesting a bioprotective effect against free radical attacks. A decline in DNA damage was observed in post-treated cells which proves Chlorella vulgaris to present bioremediative properties. In cells induced with oxidative stress, telomere length decreased significantly coupled with a concomitant decline of telomerase activity (p<0.05). However, these reductions were prevented with prior and post treatment of Chlorella vulgaris. Therefore, we concluded that Chlorella vulgaris exhibited bioprotective effects especially in cells obtained from young donor but were more bioremediative for cells obtained from old donor as indicated by DNA damage, telomere shortening and reduction in telomerase activity.
Chlorella vulgaris; DNA damage; telomere; telomerase; ageing
The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of erythrocarpine E (CEB4), a limonoid extracted from Chisocheton erythrocarpus on human oral squamous cell carcinoma. Based on preliminary dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, CEB4 treated HSC-4 cells demonstrated a cytotoxic effect and inhibited cell proliferation in a time and dose dependent manner with an IC50 value of 4.0±1.9 µM within 24 h of treatment. CEB4 was also found to have minimal cytotoxic effects on the normal cell line, NHBE with cell viability levels maintained above 80% upon treatment. Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage and DNA fragmentation assay results showed that CEB4 induces apoptosis mediated cell death. Western blotting results demonstrated that the induction of apoptosis by CEB4 appeared to be mediated through regulation of the p53 signalling pathway as there was an increase in p53 phosphorylation levels. CEB4 was also found to up-regulate the pro-apoptotic protein, Bax, while down-regulating the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, suggesting the involvement of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Reduced levels of initiator procaspase-9 and executioner caspase-3 zymogen were also observed following CEB4 exposure, hence indicating the involvement of cytochrome c mediated apoptosis. These results demonstrate the cytotoxic and apoptotic ability of erythrocarpine E, and suggest its potential development as a cancer chemopreventive agent.
Anthocyanins have received growing attention as dietary antioxidants for the prevention of oxidative damage. Astrocytes, which are specialized glial cells, exert numerous essential, complex functions in both healthy and diseased central nervous system (CNS) through a process known as reactive astrogilosis. Therefore, the maintenance of glial cell viability may be important because of its role as a key modulator of neuropathological events. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of anthocyanin on the survival of glial cells exposed to oxidative stress. Our results demonstrated that anthocyanin extracts from black soybean increased survival of U87 glioma cells in a dose dependent manner upon oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), accompanied by decrease levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). While treatment cells with anthocyanin extracts or OGD stress individually activated autophagy induction, the effect was significantly augmented by pretreatment cells with anthocyanin extracts prior to OGD. The contribution of autophagy induction to the protective effects of anthocyanin was verified by the observation that silencing the Atg5 expression, an essential regulator of autophagy induction, reversed the cytoprotective effect of anthocyanin extracts against OGD stress. Treatment of U87 cells with rapamycin, an autophagy inducer, increased cell survival upon OGD stress comparable to anthocyanin, indicating that autophagy functions as a survival mechanism against oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity in glial cells. Our results, therefore, provide a rationale for the use of anthocyanin as a preventive agent for brain dysfunction caused by oxidative damage, such as a stroke.
Anthocyanin; Oxygen-glucose deprivation; Glial cells
The crude extract of the fruit bearing plant, Physalis peruviana (golden berry), demonstrated anti-hepatoma and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the cellular mechanism involved in this process is still unknown.
Herein, we isolated the main pure compound, 4β-Hydroxywithanolide (4βHWE) derived from golden berries, and investigated its antiproliferative effect on a human lung cancer cell line (H1299) using survival, cell cycle, and apoptosis analyses. An alkaline comet-nuclear extract (NE) assay was used to evaluate the DNA damage due to the drug.
It was shown that DNA damage was significantly induced by 1, 5, and 10 μg/mL 4βHWE for 2 h in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.005). A trypan blue exclusion assay showed that the proliferation of cells was inhibited by 4βHWE in both dose- and time-dependent manners (p < 0.05 and 0.001 for 24 and 48 h, respectively). The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 4βHWE in H1299 cells for 24 and 48 h were 0.6 and 0.71 μg/mL, respectively, suggesting it could be a potential therapeutic agent against lung cancer. In a flow cytometric analysis, 4βHWE produced cell cycle perturbation in the form of sub-G1 accumulation and slight arrest at the G2/M phase with 1 μg/mL for 12 and 24 h, respectively. Using flow cytometric and annexin V/propidium iodide immunofluorescence double-staining techniques, these phenomena were proven to be apoptosis and complete G2/M arrest for H1299 cells treated with 5 μg/mL for 24 h.
In this study, we demonstrated that golden berry-derived 4βHWE is a potential DNA-damaging and chemotherapeutic agent against lung cancer.