Aqueous and ethanol extracts of cassia didymobotraya were investigated for purgative and anit-inflammatory activities in albino mice and rats, respectively at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Anti-inflammatory activity was screened by 1% carageenan induced paw edema method and purgative activity was screened by the method described by Akah etal, Both the extracts exhibited significant purgative and anti-inflammatory activities, which are comparable to standard drugs, Senna (20mg/kg) and indomethacin (20mg/kg). Ethanol extract showed higher purgative and anti-inflammatory than aqueous extract. The percentage of protection of aqueous, ethanol extracts and indomethacin were found to be 35.29,37.25 and 43.13.
The antidiabetic and antilipaemic effects of Phoenix dactylifera leaf extract (PDE) and its fractions were investigated in various rat models.
Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by alloxan monohydrate. Diabetic animals were randomly divided into 8 groups (1 diabetic control and 7 treated groups). Diabetic control animals received saline (5 mL/kg) orally, whereas the treatment groups received different doses of PDE (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg), PDE fractions (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg), or glibenclamide (4 mg/kg) orally once a day for 14 days. Blood was withdrawn for glucose determination on the 1st, 6th, 10th, and 14th days. The rats were fasted overnight and then sacrificed on the 14th day; blood was collected for biochemical evaluation, including the levels of blood glucose, plasma insulin, serum triglyceride, and cholesterol.
Subacute administration of PDE or its fractions in alloxan-induced diabetic rats significantly reduced blood glucose (P < 0.01). Water intake, serum triglyceride, and cholesterol also decreased in treated animals compared with the control group (P < 0.01). Plasma insulin level increased in the treated groups relative to the control group (P < 0.01).
The results suggested that PDE exhibits antidiabetic and antilipaemic effects in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
antidiabetics; antilipaemics; antioxidants; diabetes metabolism; plant extracts
The objective of present study was to evaluate the effect of active principle (Cg-1) from Cassia glauca leaf on serum glucose and lipid profile in normal and diabetic rats.
Materials and Methods:
Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin in neonates. Oral administration of petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, and methanol of C. glauca leaf (100 mg/kg, p.o.) for 21 days caused a decrease in fasting blood glucose (FBG) in diabetic rats. Among all the extracts, acetone extract was found to lower the FBG level significantly in diabetic rats. Glibenclamide was used as standard antidiabetic drug (5 mg/kg, p.o). Acetone extract was subjected to column chromatography that led to isolation of an active principle, which was given trivial name Cg-1. Cg-1 (50 mg/kg, p.o.) was studied for its hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic potential. The unpaired t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post hoc test was used for statistical analysis.
Cg-1 caused a significant reduction in FBG level. It also caused reduction in cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL levels and improvement in the atherogenic index and HDL level in diabetic rats.
Improvement in the FBG and the atherogenic index by Cg-1 indicates that Cg-1 has cardioprotective potential along with antidiabetic activity and provides a scientific rationale for the use as an antidiabetic agent.
Blood glucose; β-sitosterol; Cassia glauca; diabetes; lipid profile; streptozotocin
The antidiabetic activity of Pongamia pinnata ( Family: Leguminosae) leaf extracts was investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. A comparison was made between the action of different extracts of P. pinnata and a known antidiabetic drug glibenclamide (600 μg/kg b. wt.). An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was also performed in experimental diabetic rats. The petroleum ether, chloroform, alcohol and aqueous extracts of P. pinnata were obtained by simple maceration method and were subjected to standardization using pharmacognostical and phytochemical screening methods. Dose selection was made on the basis of acute oral toxicity study (50-5000 mg/kg b. w.) as per OECD guidelines. P. pinnata ethanolic extract (PPEE) and aqueous extract (PPAE) showed significant (P < 0.001) antidiabetic activity. In alloxan-induced model, blood glucose levels of these extracts on 7th day of the study were 155.83 ± 11.211mg/dl (PPEE) and 132.00 ± 4.955mg/dl (PPAE) in comparison of diabetic control (413.50 ± 4.752mg/dl) and chloroform extract (210.83 ± 14.912mg/dl). In glucose loaded rats, PPEE exhibited glucose level of 164.50 ± 6.350mg/dl after 30 min and 156.50 ± 4.089mg/dl after 90 min, whereas the levels in PPAE treated animals were 176 ± 3.724mg/dl after 30 min and 110.33 ± 6.687mg/dl after 90 min. These extracts also prevented body weight loss in diabetic rats. The drug has the potential to act as an antidiabetic drug.
Acute toxicity; alloxan; antidiabetic activity; Pongamia pinnata
The decoction of the aerial parts of Rhynchosia recinosa (A.Rich.) Bak. [Fabaceae] is used in combination with the stem barks of Ozoroa insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Excell. [Celastraceae] Entada abyssinica Steud. ex A.Rich [Fabaceae] and Lannea schimperi (Hochst.)Engl. [Anacardiaceae] as a traditional remedy for managing peptic ulcers. However, the safety and efficacy of this polyherbal preparation has not been evaluated. This study reports on the phytochemical profile and some biological activities of the individual plant extracts and a combination of extracts of the five plants.
A mixture of 80% ethanol extracts of R. recinosa, O. insignis, M. senegalensis, E. abyssinica and L. schimperi at doses of 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body wt were evaluated for ability to protect Sprague Dawley rats from gastric ulceration by an ethanol-HCl mixture. Cytoprotective effect was assessed by comparison with a negative control group given 1% tween 80 in normal saline and a positive control group given 40 mg/kg body wt pantoprazole. The individual extracts and their combinations were also tested for antibacterial activity against four Gram negative bacteria; Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Salmonella typhi (NCTC 8385), Vibrio cholerae (clinical isolate), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (clinical isolate) using the microdilution method. In addition the extracts were evaluated for brine shrimp toxicity and acute toxicity in mice. Phytochemical tests were done using standard methods to determine the presence of tannins, saponins, steroids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenoids in the individual plant extracts and in the mixed extract of the five plants.
The combined ethanolic extracts of the 5 plants caused a dose-dependent protection against ethanol/HCl induced ulceration of rat gastric mucosa, reaching 81.7% mean protection as compared to 87.5% protection by 40 mg/kg body wt pantoprazole. Both the individual plant extracts and the mixed extracts of 5 plants exhibited weak to moderate antibacterial activity against four G-ve bacteria. Despite Ozoroa insignis being toxic to mice at doses above 1000 mg/kg body wt, the other plant extracts and the combined extract of the 5 plants were tolerated by mice up to 5000 mg/kg body wt. The brine shrimp test results showed the same pattern of toxicity with Ozoroa insignis being the most toxic (LC50 = 10.63 μg/ml). Phytochemical tests showed that the combined extract of the five plants contained tannins, saponins, steroids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids and terpenoids. Flavonoids, tannins and terpenoids are known to have antioxidant activity.
The combined extract of the five plants exhibited a dose-dependent protective activity in the rat ethanol-HCl gastric ulcer model. The extracts also exhibited weak antibacterial activity against four Gram negative bacteria and low acute toxicity in mice and brine shrimps. Although the results support claims by traditional healers who use a decoction of the five plants for treatment of peptic ulcers, more models of gastric ulceration and proper animal toxicity studies are needed to validate possible clinical use of the polyherbal extract. It is also evident that the doses of the crude extracts showing protection of the gastric mucosa are too large for realistic translation to direct clinical application, but further studies using bioassay guided fractionation are important to either identify more practical fractions or active compound/s.
Ozoroa insignis; Maytenus senegalensis; Entada abyssinica; Lannea schimperi; Gastroprotection; Toxicity
Ethiopian communities highly depend on local plant resources to secure their subsistence and health. Local tree resources are exploited and used intensively for medicinal purposes. This study provides insight into the medicinal importance of Hagenia abyssinica as well as the degree of threat on its population. An ethnobotanical study was carried out to document medicinal uses of Hagenia abyssinica by rural communities of North and Southeastern Ethiopia. The study was conducted using an integrated approach of group discussions, observation, a local market survey and interviews. A total of 90 people were interviewed among whom elderly and traditional healers were the key informants. Societies in the study sites still depend on Hagenia abyssinica for medicine. All plant parts are used to treat different aliments. Tree identification, collection and utilization were different among the studied communities. In spite of its significance, interest in utilizing flowers of Hagenia abyssinica as an anthelmintic seems to be diminishing, notably among young people. This is partly because the medicine can be harmful when it is taken in large quantities. Nowadays, the widely used Hagenia abyssinica is endangered primarily due to various anthropogenic impacts. This in turn may become a threat for the associated knowledge. It is recommended to assist communities in documenting their traditional knowledge. Measures for conserving species are urgently needed.
Acute pancreatitis is a morbid inflammatory condition of pancreas with limited specific therapy. Enhanced oxidative stress plays an important role in induction and progression of acute pancreatitis. So reducing oxidative stress may relieve this pathogenic process. Echium amoenum Fisch. and Mey has been implemented in Iranian folk medicine for several centuries. Antioxidant, analgesic, immunomodulatory, and anxiolytic properties of E. amoenum suggest that this plant may have beneficial effects in the management of acute pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of petals of E. amoenum extract (EAE) on a murine model of pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis was induced by five intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of cerulein (50 μg/kg) with 1h intervals which was characterized by pancreatic inflammation and increase in the serum level of digestive enzymes, in comparison to normal mice. EAE (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) was administered i.p., 30 minutes before induction of pancreatitis. Pretreatment with EAE (400 mg/kg) reduced significantly the inflammatory response of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis by ameliorating pancreatic edema, amylase and lipase serum levels, proinflammatory cytokines, myeloperoxidase activity, lipid peroxidation and pathological alteration. These results show that EAE attenuates the severity of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis with an anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antioxidant effects.
Catharanthus roseus Linn (Apocynaceae), is a traditional medicinal plant used to control diabetes, in various regions of the world. In this study we evaluated the possible antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effect of C. roseus (Catharanthus roseus) leaf powder in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 55 mg/kg body wt) to male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: Control, control-treated, diabetic, and diabetic-treated group. Diabetic-treated and control-treated rats were treated with C. roseus leaf powder suspension in 2 ml distilled water, orally (100 mg/kg body weight/day/60 days). In diabetic rats (D-group) the plasma glucose was increased and the plasma insulin was decreased gradually. In the diabetic-treated group lowering of plasma glucose and an increase in plasma insulin were observed after 15 days and by the end of the experimental period the plasma glucose had almost reached the normal level, but insulin had not. The significant enhancement in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL-cholesterol, and the atherogenic index of diabetic rats were normalized in diabetic-treated rats. Decreased hepatic and muscle glycogen content and alterations in the activities of enzymes of glucose metabolism (glycogen phosphorylase, hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), as observed in the diabetic control rats, were prevented with C. roseus administration. Our results demonstrated that C. roseus with its antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties could be a potential herbal medicine in treating diabetes.
Anti Catharanthus roseus; plasma insulin; plasma lipids; STZ-induced diabetes
The effect of Gymnema montanum leaves on alloxaninduced
hyperlipidemia was studied in male Wistar rats.
Ethanolic extract of G. montanum leaves was administered
orally and different doses of the extract on blood glucose,
serum and tissue lipids, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase,
thiobarbituric acid–reactive substances (TBARS), hydroperoxides,
and glutathione in alloxan-induced diabetic
rats were studied. G. montanum leaf extract (GLEt) at doses
of 50, 100, 200 mg/kg body weight for 3 weeks suppressed
the elevated blood glucose and lipid levels in diabetic rats.
GLEt at 200 mg/kg body weight was found to be comparable
to glibenclamide, a reference drug. These data indicate
that G. montanum represents an effective antihyperglycemic
and antihyperlipidemic adjunct for the treatment
of diabetes and a potential source of discovery of new orally
active agent for future therapy.
Carthamus tinctorius L. (Compositae) has been used in Iranian traditional medicine for treatment of diabetes. In this study, anti-diabetic effect of its hydroalcoholic extract was compared with that of glibenclamide.
Male white Wistar rats were randomly allocated into four groups of six each: nondiabetic control; diabetic control; diabetic treated with hydroalcoholic extract of Carthamus tinctorius (200 mg kg-1 BW); diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide (0.6 mg kg-1 BW). Alloxan was administered (120 mg kg-1 BW), intraperitoneally to induce diabetes. Fasting blood samples were collected three times, before injection of alloxan, two weeks and six weeks after injection of alloxan and fasting blood sugar (FBS), Hb A1C, insulin, cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, VLDL-C, triglyceride, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured each time.
FBS, triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL-C and VLDL-C had a meaningful decrease in diabetic rats treated with Carthamus tinctorius and diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide as compared with diabetic rats with no treatment. Insulin level increased significantly in diabetic groups received treatment (glibenclamide or Carthamus tinctorius L) in comparison with diabetic group with no treatment. The histological study revealed size of islets of Langerhans enlarged significantly consequentially as compared with diabetic rats with no treatment. The extract appeared non toxic as evidenced by normal levels of AST, ALP and ALT. Effects of administrating glibenclamide or extract of Carthamus tinctorius L on all biochemical parameters discussed above showed no difference and both tend to bring the values to near normal.
These results suggested that the hydroalcoholic extract of Carthamus tinctorius possesses beneficial effect on treatment of diabetes.
Alloxan; carthamus tinctorius L.; diabetes; glibenclamide; hydroalcoholic extract
Trichosanthes dioica is used to treat diabetes mellitus, epilepsy, alopecia, and skin disease in folklore medicine. The leaf extract of the plant is used in diabetes mellitus but there have been no scientific studies reported.
To study the effect of Trichosanthes dioica on serum glucose level in glucose loaded, normal and hyperglycemic rats.
Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Karnataka, India.
Materials and Methods:
The aqueous extract of leaves of Trichosanthes dioica are compared with glibeclamide for their influence on fasting blood sugar in glucose loaded, normoglycemic and streptozotocin induced (45 mg/kg ip) hyperglycemic rats.
The data was analyzed by one way ANOVA followed by Scheffe's post hoc test.
In glucose loaded rats, normal rats and hyperglycemic rats the aqueous extract at both the doses (800 mg/kg/p.o and 1600 mg/kg/p.o) reduced blood glucose significantly when compared to control but it was not as effective as glibenclamide.
The aqueous extract of Trichosanthes dioica has antihyperglycemic action.
Diabetic rats; hypoglycemic effect; Trichosanthes dioica
Delonix regia (Fabaceae) leaf is used in folk medicine of Bangladesh for the treatment of diabetes, but so far no scientific study has been done which may support its use in traditional medicine. The present study was carried out to evaluate the possible glucose tolerance efficacy of methanolic extract of Delonix regia leaf using glucose-induced hyperglycemic mice. The extract at different doses was administered one hr prior to glucose administration and blood glucose level was measured after two hrs of glucose administration (p.o.) using glucose oxidase method. The statistical data indicated significant oral hypoglycemic activity on glucose-loaded mice at every dose. Maximum anti-hyperglycemic activity was showed at 400 mg/kg which was comparable to that of a standard drug, glibenclamide (10 mg/kg). The methanolic extract of leaf of Delonix regia had beneficial effects in reducing the elevated blood glucose level of hyperglycemic mice.
Delonix regia; Hypoglycemic activity; Serum glucose level; Glibenclamide
The hypoglycaemic and antihyperglycaemic properties of the aqueous extracts of the leaves of Ageratum conyzoides L. were evaluated in normoglycemic and in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, in order to validate its use in folk medicine. Tested animals were given the aqueous extracts of the plant at the doses of 100, 200 and 300mg/kg. These doses were tested also on glucose loaded normal male rats (Oral Glucose Tolerance Test). Of all the doses, the aqueous extracts at 200 and 300mg/kg showed statistically significant hypoglycaemic and antihyperglycaemic activities. For the oral glucose tolerance test, 100mg/kg dose only attenuated significantly the rise of blood glucose in normal fasted rats. Consequently, these results confirmed the hypoglycaemic properties of the leaves of Ageratum conyzoides.
Ageratum conyzoides; hypoglycaemic activity; antihyperglycaemic activity; Oral glucose tolerance test
Capparis sepiaria L, a profusely branched hedge plant, is used in Indian traditional medicine. Capparis sepiaria leaves were extracted with ethanol and concentrated to dryness. The LD50 value was determined as 894.43 mg/kg body weight by acute toxicity study. The ethanol extract was investigated for possible hypoglycemic effect produced by single oral administration at various dose levels 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg in the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and compared against normal saline control and the standard glibenclamide. A maximum fall of plasma glucose level 9.40%; 13.57%; 15.25% and 18.80% was observed after 12 h of treatment when administered with ethanol extract of Capparis sepiaria at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, and glibenclamide 10 mg/kg dose, respectively. The findings from the study suggest that the Capparis sepiaria leaves may be prescribed as an adjunct to traditional formulation and drug treatment for controlling diabetes mellitus.
Capparis sepiaria; streptazotocin (STZ); antidiabetic activity and Capparidaceae
Urtica dioica has been used as antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic herbal medicine. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica on fructose-induced insulin resistance rats.
Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups including control, fructose, extract 50, extract 100 and extract 200. The control rat received vehicle, the fructose and extract groups received fructose 10% for eight weeks. The extract groups received single daily injection of vehicle, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for the two weeks. Blood glucose, insulin, last fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI), serum triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), alanin trasaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), leptin and LDL/HDL ratio were determined.
Results: Compared to control group, daily administration of fructose was associated with significant increase in FIRI, blood glucose and insulin, significant decrease in lepin, and no significant change in TG, HDL, LDL, LDL/HDL ratio, VLDL, ALT, and ALP. The extract significantly decreased serum glucose, insulin, LDL and leptin, and LDL/HDL ratio and FIRI. It also significantly increased serum TG, VLDL, and AST, but did not change serum ALP.
Conclusion: We suggest that Urtica dioica extract, by decreasing serum glucose, and FIRI, may be useful to improve type 2 diabetes mellitus. Also, by positive effect on lipid profile and by decreasing effect on leptin, it may improve metabolic syndrome.
Fructose; insulin resistance; Urtica dioica
To study the antidiabetic activity of Barleria prionitis Linn in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
Materials and Methods:
Alcoholic extract of leaf and root of B. prionitis was tested for their antidiabetic activity. Albino rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. In three groups, diabetes was induced using alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) and all the rats were given different treatments consisting of vehicle, alcoholic extract of leaves, and alcoholic extract roots of B. prionitis Linn (200 mg/kg) for 14 days. The same treatment was given to the other three groups, comprising non-diabetic (normal) animals. Blood glucose level, glycosylated hemoglobin, liver glycogen, serum insulin, and body weight were estimated in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats, before and 2 weeks after administration of drugs.
Animals treated with the alcoholic extract of leaves of B. prionitis Linn showed a significant decrease in blood glucose level (P<0.01) and glycosylated hemoglobin (P<0.01). A significant increase was observed in serum insulin level (P<0.01) and liver glycogen level (P<0.05), whereas the decrease in the body weight was arrested by administration of leaf extract to the animals. The alcoholic extract of roots showed a moderate but non-significant antidiabetic activity in experimental animals.
The study reveals that the alcoholic leaf extract of B. prionitis could be added in the list of herbal preparations beneficial in diabetes mellitus.
Barleria prionitis; alloxan monohydrate; alcoholic extract
To study the effects of Parthenium hysterophorus L. flower on serum glucose level in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats.
Materials and Methods:
Albino rats were divided into six groups of six animals each, three groups of normal animals receiving different treatments consisting of vehicle, aqueous extract of Parthenium hysterophorus L. flower (100 mg/kg) and the standard antidiabetic drug, glibenclamide (0.5 mg/kg). The same treatment was given to the other three groups comprising alloxan induced diabetic animals. Fasting blood glucose level was estimated using the glucose oxidase method in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats, before and 2 h after the administration of drugs.
Parthenium hysterophorus L. showed significant reduction in blood glucose level in the diabetic (P<0.01) rats. However, the reduction in blood glucose level with aqueous extract was less than with the standard drug glibenclamide. The extract showed less hypoglycemic effect in fasted normal rats, (P<0.05).
The study reveals that the active fraction of Parthenium hysterophorus L. flower extract is very promising for developing standardized phytomedicine for diabetes mellitus.
Diabetes mellitus; hypoglycemia; Parthenium hysterophorus
To investigate the medicative effects of medium-polar (benzene:acetone, 1:1, v/v) extract of leaves from Stevia rebaudiana (family Asteraceae) on alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
Materials and Methods:
Diabetes was induced in adult albino Wistar rats by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of alloxan (180 mg/kg). Medium-polar extract was administered orally at daily dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body wt. basis for 10 days. The control group received normal saline (0.9%) for the same duration. Glibenclamide was used as positive control reference drug against Stevia extract.
Medium-polar leaf extract of S. rebaudiana (200 and 400 mg/kg) produced a delayed but significant (P < 0.01) decrease in the blood glucose level, without producing condition of hypoglycemia after treatment, together with lesser loss in the body weight as compared with standard positive control drug glibenclamide.
Treatment of diabetes with sulfonylurea drugs (glibenclamide) causes hypoglycemia followed by greater reduction in body weight, which are the most worrisome effects of these drugs. Stevia extract was found to antagonize the necrotic action of alloxan and thus had a re-vitalizing effect on β-cells of pancreas.
Alloxan-induced diabetic rats; antidiabetic activity; benzene:acetone extract; Compositae; Stevia rebaudiana
Methanol extract of the aerial parts of Phlomis persica Boiss. (Lamiaceae) (PPE) was studied to evaluate the effects of antidiabetic potential, by measuring fasting blood glucose, insulin, total antioxidant power (TAP), using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), lipid peroxidation (using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of six animals each. Oral administration of PPE at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg once a day for 10 days resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose and an increase in serum insulin levels, in comparison with diabetic control group. It also prevented diabetes-induced loss in body weight. Hepatic TAP increased and TBARS decreased following PPE treatments. The extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg increased the activity of hepatic SOD, CAT, and GPx in diabetic rats. It is concluded that PPE has antidiabetic potential that is comparable with glibenclamide. In conclusion, the results of the present study show positive effects of P. persica on experimental diabetes and thus the antidiabetic effect of PPE is related to its potential to inhibit hepatocellular oxidative stress.
Antidiabetic; diabetes rats; oxidative stress; Phlomis persica; streptozotocin
In this study, we sought to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in a cohort of pregnant women with a wide range of glucose tolerance, prepregnancy risk factors for MS during pregnancy, and the effects of MS in the outcomes in the mother and in the newborn.
One hundred and thirty six women with positive screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were classified by two diagnostic methods: glycemic profile and 100 g OGTT as normoglycemic, mild gestational hyperglycemic, GDM, and overt GDM. Markers of MS were measured between 24-28th during the screening.
The prevalence of MS was: 0%; 20.0%; 23.5% and 36.4% in normoglycemic, mild hyperglycemic, GDM, and overt GDM groups, respectively. Previous history of GDM with or without insulin use, BMI ≥ 25, hypertension, family history of diabetes in first degree relatives, non-Caucasian ethnicity, history of prematurity and polihydramnios were statistically significant prepregnancy predictors for MS in the index pregnancy, that by its turn increased the adverse outcomes in the mother and in the newborn.
The prevalence of MS increases with the worsening of glucose tolerance; impaired glycemic profile identifies pregnancies with important metabolic abnormalities even in the presence of a normal OGTT, in patients that are not classified as having GDM.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the methanol extract, fractions and isolated compounds from Entada abyssinica stem bark, plant used traditionally against gastrointestinal infections.
The methanol extract of E. abyssinica stem bark was pre-dissolved in a mixture of methanol and water, and then partitioned between n-hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The ethyl acetate portion was fractionated by column chromatography and the structures of isolated compounds elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison with literature data. Antimicrobial activity was assayed by broth microdilution techniques on bacteria and yeasts. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH radical scavenging method.
Four known compounds [(5S,6R,8aR)-5-(carboxymethyl)-3,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-5,6,8a-trimethylnaphthalenecarboxylic acid (1), methyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate (2), benzene-1,2,3-triol (3) and 2,3-dihydroxypropyltriacontanoate (4)] were isolated. Compared to the methanol extract, fractionation increased the antibacterial activities of the n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions, while the antifungal activities increased in ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous residue fractions. The isolated compounds were generally more active on bacteria (9.7 to 156.2 μg/ml) than yeasts (78.1 to 312.5 μg/ml). Apart from compound 1, the three others displayed DPPH· scavenging activity (RSa), with RSa50 values of 1.45 and 1.60 μg/ml.
The results obtained from this study support the ethnomedicinal use of E. abyssinica in the treatment of gastrointestinal infections and the isolated compounds could be useful in the standardisation of antimicrobial phytomedicine from this plant.
Streptozotocin (STZ) selectively destroys the pancreatic insulin secreting cells, leaving less active cells and resulting in a diabetic state. The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperglycemic effect of the ethanolic seed extract of Swietenia macrophylla (SME) in normal and STZ-diabetic rats.
Materials and Methods:
The experimental groups were rendered diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of STZ (40 mg/kg body weight [BW]). Rats with glucose levels > 200 mg/dL were considered diabetic and were divided into 5 groups. Three groups of diabetic animals were orally administered, daily with seed extract at a dosage of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg BW. One group of STZ rats was treated as diabetic control and the other group was orally administered 600 μg/kg BW glibenclamide daily.
Graded doses of seed extract and glibenclamide showed a significant reduction in blood glucose levels and improvement in serum insulin levels. The extract also improved body weight and promoted liver glycogen content. After treatment, hemoglobin (Hb) level increased and glycosylated Hb level significantly decreased in diabetic rats. The activities of the carbohydrate metabolic enzymes showed significant changes in the rats. Of the 3 doses, 100 mg dose showed maximum activity. Histological investigations of pancreas also supported the biochemical findings.
Thus, our findings indicate the folklore use of the seed for diabetes and the mechanism seems to be insulin secretion.
Glucose; insulin; Swietenia macrophylla; strepotozotocin
Diabetes mellitus has remained a significant contributor to morbidities and mortalities in our environment despite all efforts to curb the trend. Regrettably, conventional, orthodox hypoglycemic agents have remained unaffordable. Consequently the need for available and affordable alternatives cannot be overemphasized.
To determine the effect of the methanolic seed extracts of Buchhlozia coriacea, on blood glucose levels in alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus.
Hyperglycemia was induced by the injection of 120 mg/kg intrapetoneally (i.p.) of alloxan monohydrate freshly dissolved in distilled water. Three doses (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) per os, of the extracts were administered in the study. The activity was compared with reference standard drug, glibenclamide (2 mg/kg, p.o.) and negative control.
Treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic mice with the crude extracts of B. coriacea seed brought down the raised blood glucose levels significantly (P = 0.043) in a dose-dependent manner.
B. coriacea seed was shown to possess significant antidiabetic potential.
Alloxan monohydrate; Buchhlozia coriacea; Diabetes mellitus; Glibenclamide
The aim of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic activity of Crateva nurvala stem bark (family: Capparidaceae) extracts in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. A comparison was made between the action of different extracts of C. nurvala and a known antidiabetic drug glibenclamide (600 μg/kg b. wt.). An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was also performed in diabetic rats.
Materials and Methods:
The petroleum ether, chloroform, alcohol, and aqueous extracts of C. nurvala stem bark were obtained by simple maceration method and were subjected to standardization by following pharmacognostical and phytochemical screening methods. Dose selection was made on the basis of acute oral toxicity study (50–5000 mg/kg b. wt.) as per Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines.
Results and Conclusions:
C. nurvala petroleum ether extract (CNPEE) and ethanolic extract (CNEE) showed significant (P< 0.001) antidiabetic activities. In alloxan-induced model, blood glucose level of these extracts on seventh day of study were CNPEE (126.33±13.703 mg/dl) and CNEE (126.66±13.012 mg/dl) when compared with diabetic control (413.50±4.752 mg/dl) and chloroform extract (320.83±13.516 mg/dl). In OGGT model (glucose loaded rats), CNPEE showed a glucose level of 178.83±3.070 mg/dl after 30 min and 131.66±2.486 mg/dl after 90 min, whereas CNEE showed 173.66±4.224 mg/dl after 30 min and 115.50±3.394 mg/dl after 90 min. These extracts also prevented body weight loss in diabetic rats. The drug has the potential to act as an antidiabetic drug.
Alloxan; antidiabetic activity; acute toxicity; Crateva nurvala; phytochemical
Brown pigment(s) formed in Cryptococcus neoformans when grown on media containing extracts of the seeds of Guizotia abyssinica cannot be extracted by common organic solvents or by 6 n HCl or 2 n NaOH. A similar pigmentation was observed in C. neoformans when grown on a medium containing caffeic acid isolated from the hydrolyzed methanol extract of G. abyssinica seeds. Its methyl ester and the diacetate thereof, as well as the following structurally related compounds, 3-hydroxytyramine, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanolamine, and 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxycinnamic acid, brought about similar pigmentation. However, 2,4-, 2,5-, 2,6-, and 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acids, tyrosine, phenylalanine, cinnamic acid, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid did not cause coloration in C. neoformans.