Several new genomic disorders caused by copy number variation (CNV) of genes whose dosage is critical for the physiological function of the nervous system have been recently identified. Dup(7)(q11.23) patients carry duplications of the genomic region deleted in Williams-Beuren syndrome, they are characterized by prominent speech delay. The phenotypes of Potocki-Lupski syndrome and MECP2 duplication syndrome were neuropsychologically examined in detail, which revealed autism as an endophenotype and a prominent behavioral feature of these disorders. Tandem duplication of LMNB1 was reported to cause adult-onset autosomal dominant leukodystrophy. PAFAH1B1/LIS1 and YWHAE, which were deleted in isolated lissencephaly (PAFAH1B1/LIS1 alone) and Miller-Dieker syndrome (both genes), were found to be duplicated in patients with developmental delay. Finally, two novel microdeletion syndromes affecting 17q21.31 and 15q13.3, as well as their reciprocal duplications, were also identified. In this review, we provide an overview of the phenotypic manifestation of these syndromes and the rearrangements causing them.
A novel microduplication syndrome involving various-sized contiguous duplications in 17p13.3 has recently been described, suggesting that increased copy number of genes in 17p13.3, particularly PAFAH1B1, is associated with clinical features including facial dysmorphism, developmental delay, and autism spectrum disorder. We have previously shown that patient-derived cell lines from individuals with haploinsufficiency of RPA1, a gene within 17p13.3, exhibit an impaired ATR-dependent DNA damage response (DDR). Here, we show that cell lines from patients with duplications specifically incorporating RPA1 exhibit a different although characteristic spectrum of DDR defects including abnormal S phase distribution, attenuated DNA double strand break (DSB)-induced RAD51 chromatin retention, elevated genomic instability, and increased sensitivity to DNA damaging agents. Using controlled conditional over-expression of RPA1 in a human model cell system, we also see attenuated DSB-induced RAD51 chromatin retention. Furthermore, we find that transient over-expression of RPA1 can impact on homologous recombination (HR) pathways following DSB formation, favouring engagement in aberrant forms of recombination and repair. Our data identifies unanticipated defects in the DDR associated with duplications in 17p13.3 in humans involving modest RPA1 over-expression.
The widespread use of genomic array technology has lead to the identification of a plethora of novel human genomic disorders. These complex conditions occur as a consequence of structural genomic alterations (deletions, amplifications, complex rearrangements). Understanding the specific consequences of such alterations on gene expression and unanticipated impacts on biochemical pathways represents an important challenge to help untangle the clinical basis of these conditions and ultimately aid in their management. Here, we demonstrate that individuals with specific duplications of 17p13.3 incorporating RPA1 exhibit modest over-expression of RPA1. Unexpectedly, this is associated with elevated levels of genomic instability and sensitivity to DNA damage. RPA1 is a component of the Replication Protein A heterotrimer, a complex that plays fundamental roles in DNA replication, repair, and recombination. Reduced RPA1 levels are associated with impaired DNA damage checkpoint activation, but the cellular impacts of over-expression of this subunit have not previously been described in the context of a genomic disorder. Using model cell and reporter systems, we show that modestly elevated levels of RPA1 can adversely impact on DNA double-strand break–induced homologous recombination resulting in elevated levels of chromosome fusions. This data highlights an unanticipated consequence of copy number variation on genomic stability.
During neocortical development, the extensive migratory movements of neurons from their place of birth to their final location are essential for the coordinated wiring of synaptic circuits and proper neurological function. Failure or delay in neuronal migration causes severe abnormalities in cortical layering, which consequently results in human lissencephaly (‘smooth brain’), a neuronal migration disorder. The brains of lissencephaly patients have less-convoluted gyri in the cerebral cortex with impaired cortical lamination of neurons. Since microtubule- and actin-associated proteins play important functions in regulating the dynamics of microtubule and actin cytoskeletons during neuronal migration, genetic mutations or deletions of crucial genes involved in cytoskeletal processes lead to lissencephaly in human and neuronal migration defects in mouse. During neuronal migration, microtubule organization and transport are controlled by PAFAH1B1 (LIS1), DCX, YWHAE, and tubulin. Actin stress fibers are modulated by PAFAH1B1 (LIS1), DCX, RELN, and VLDLR/LRP8 (APOER2). There are several important levels of crosstalk between these two cytoskeletal systems to establish accurate cortical patterning in development. The recent understanding of the protein networks that govern neuronal migration by regulating cytoskeletal dynamics, from human and mouse genetics as well as molecular and cellular analyses, provides new insights on neuronal migration disorders and may help us devise novel therapeutic strategies for such brain malformations.
We have investigated four ~1.6-Mb microduplications and 55 smaller 350–680-kb microduplications at 15q13.2–q13.3 involving the CHRNA7 gene that were detected by clinical microarray analysis. Applying high-resolution array-CGH, we mapped all 118 chromosomal breakpoints of these microduplications. We also sequenced 26 small microduplication breakpoints that were clustering at hotspots of nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR). All four large microduplications likely arose by NAHR between BP4 and BP5 LCRs, and 54 small microduplications arose by NAHR between two CHRNA7-LCR copies. We identified two classes of ~1.6-Mb microduplications and five classes of small microduplications differing in duplication size, and show that they duplicate the entire CHRNA7. We propose that size differences among small microduplications result from preexisting heterogeneity of the common BP4–BP5 inversion. Clinical data and family histories of 11 patients with small microduplications involving CHRNA7 suggest that these microduplications might be associated with developmental delay/mental retardation, muscular hypotonia, and a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, we conclude that these microduplications and their associated potential for increased dosage of the CHRNA7-encoded α7 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are of uncertain clinical significance at present. Nevertheless, if they prove to have a pathological effects, their high frequency could make them a common risk factor for many neurobehavioral disorders.
microduplication; CHRNA7; NAHR; hypotonia; autism spectrum disorder
Limb malformations are rare disorders with high genetic heterogeneity. Although multiple genes/loci have been identified in limb malformations, underlying genetic factors still remain to be determined in most patients.
This study consisted of 51 Japanese families with split-hand/foot malformation (SHFM), SHFM with long bone deficiency (SHFLD) usually affecting the tibia, or Gollop-Wolfgang complex (GWC) characterized by SHFM and femoral bifurcation. Genetic studies included genomewide array comparative genomic hybridization and exome sequencing, together with standard molecular analyses.
We identified duplications/triplications of a 210,050 bp segment containing BHLHA9 in 29 SHFM patients, 11 SHFLD patients, two GWC patients, and 22 clinically normal relatives from 27 of the 51 families examined, as well as in 2 of 1,000 Japanese controls. Families with SHFLD- and/or GWC-positive patients were more frequent in triplications than in duplications. The fusion point was identical in all the duplications/triplications and was associated with a 4 bp microhomology. There was no sequence homology around the two breakpoints, whereas rearrangement-associated motifs were abundant around one breakpoint. The rs3951819-D17S1174 haplotype patterns were variable on the duplicated/triplicated segments. No discernible genetic alteration specific to patients was detected within or around BHLHA9, in the known causative SHFM genes, or in the exome.
These results indicate that BHLHA9 overdosage constitutes the most frequent susceptibility factor, with a dosage effect, for a range of limb malformations at least in Japan. Notably, this is the first study revealing the underlying genetic factor for the development of GWC, and demonstrating the presence of triplications involving BHLHA9. It is inferred that a Japanese founder duplication was generated through a replication-based mechanism and underwent subsequent triplication and haplotype modification through recombination-based mechanisms, and that the duplications/triplications with various haplotypes were widely spread in Japan primarily via clinically normal carriers and identified via manifesting patients. Furthermore, genotype-phenotype analyses of patients reported in this study and the previous studies imply that clinical variability is ascribed to multiple factors including the size of duplications/triplications as a critical factor.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13023-014-0125-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
BHLHA9; Split-hand/foot malformation; Long bone deficiency; Gollop-Wolfgang complex; Expressivity; Penetrance; Susceptibility; Japanese founder copy number gain
Miller-Dieker syndrome involves a severe type of lissencephaly, which is caused by defects in the lissencephaly gene (LIS1). We report the case of a female infant with der(17)t(12;17)(q24.33;p13.3)pat caused by an unbalanced segregation of the parental balanced translocation of 17p with other chromosomes. The proband presented with facial dysmorphism, arthrogryposis, and intrauterine growth retardation. Most cases of Miller-Dieker syndrome have a de novo deletion involving 17p13.3. When Miller-Dieker syndrome is caused by an unbalanced translocation, mild-to-severe phenotypes occur according to the extension of the involved partner chromosome. However, a pure partial monosomy derived from a paternal balanced translocation is relatively rare. In this case, the submicroscopic cryptic deletion in the proband was initially elucidated by FISH, and karyotype analysis did not reveal additional chromosome abnormalities such as translocation. However, a family history of recurrent pregnancy abnormalities strongly suggested familial translocation. Sequential G-banding and FISH analysis of the father's chromosomes showed that the segment of 17p13.3→pter was attached to the 12qter. Thus, we report a case that showed resemblance to the findings in cases of a nearly pure 17p deletion, derived from t(12;17), and delineated by whole genome array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). If such cases are incorrectly diagnosed as Miller-Dieker syndrome caused by de novo 17p13.3 deletion, the resultant improper genetic counseling may make it difficult to exactly predict the potential risk of recurrent lissencephaly for successive pregnancies.
Miller-Dieker syndrome; Lissencephaly; Array comparative genomic hybridization; Partial monosomy 17p
Recent molecular cytogenetic data have shown that the constitution of complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs) may be more complicated than previously thought. The complicated nature of these rearrangements challenges the accurate delineation of the chromosomal breakpoints and mechanisms involved. Here, we report a molecular cytogenetic analysis of two patients with congenital anomalies and unbalanced de novo CCRs involving chromosome 17p using high-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). In the first patient, a 4-month-old boy with developmental delay, hypotonia, growth retardation, coronal synostosis, mild hypertelorism, and bilateral club feet, we found a duplication of the Charcot-Marie–Tooth disease type 1A and Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) chromosome regions, inverted insertion of the Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome region into the SMS region, and two microdeletions including a terminal deletion of 17p. The latter, together with a duplication of 21q22.3-qter detected by array CGH, are likely the unbalanced product of a translocation t(17;21)(p13.3;q22.3). In the second patient, an 8-year-old girl with mental retardation, short stature, microcephaly and mild dysmorphic features, we identified four submicroscopic interspersed 17p duplications. All 17 breakpoints were examined in detail by FISH analysis. We found that four of the breakpoints mapped within known low-copy repeats (LCRs), including LCR17pA, middle SMS-REP/LCR17pB block, and LCR17pC. Our findings suggest that the LCR burden in proximal 17p may have stimulated the formation of these CCRs and, thus, that genome architectural features such as LCRs may have been instrumental in the generation of these CCRs.
Heterozygous LIS1 mutations are the most common cause of human lissencephaly, a human neuronal migration defect, and DCX mutations are the most common cause of X-linked lissencephaly. LIS1 is part of a protein complex including NDEL1 and 14-3-3ε that regulates dynein motor function and microtubule dynamics, while DCX stabilizes microtubules and cooperates with LIS1 during neuronal migration and neurogenesis. Targeted gene mutations of Lis1, Dcx, Ywhae (coding for 14-3-3ε), and Ndel1 lead to neuronal migration defects in mouse and provide models of human lissencephaly, as well as aid the study of related neuro-developmental diseases. Here we investigated the developing brain of these four mutants and wild-type mice using expression microarrays, bioinformatic analyses, and in vivo/in vitro experiments to address whether mutations in different members of the LIS1 neuronal migration complex lead to similar and/or distinct global gene expression alterations. Consistent with the overall successful development of the mutant brains, unsupervised clustering and co-expression analysis suggested that cell cycle and synaptogenesis genes are similarly expressed and co-regulated in WT and mutant brains in a time-dependent fashion. By contrast, focused co-expression analysis in the Lis1 and Ndel1 mutants uncovered substantial differences in the correlation among pathways. Differential expression analysis revealed that cell cycle, cell adhesion, and cytoskeleton organization pathways are commonly altered in all mutants, while synaptogenesis, cell morphology, and inflammation/immune response are specifically altered in one or more mutants. We found several commonly dysregulated genes located within pathogenic deletion/duplication regions, which represent novel candidates of human mental retardation and neurocognitive disabilities. Our analysis suggests that gene expression and pathway analysis in mouse models of a similar disorder or within a common pathway can be used to define novel candidates for related human diseases.
Neuronal migration is a biological process that ensures proper organization of the cerebral cortex during development. Failure of this process leads to lissencephaly, a neuronal migration defect in humans and an important cause of mental retardation and intractable epilepsy. To study these defects, we generated mouse mutants by inactivating four genes (Lis1, Dcx, Ywhae, and Ndel1) that play a crucial role in neuronal migration. These genes are part of the same molecular complex (LIS1 complex) that we hypothesize have overlapping functions in neuronal migration and cell proliferation. To broaden our understanding of neuronal migration and to further test our hypothesis, we analyzed global gene expression in these mutants using informatic approaches, confirming some of them biologically. We found that several biological processes were commonly altered in all mutants, while others were altered only in specific mutants. Our results provide new insights into the pathways and biological processes that regulate normal brain development and that are altered in mouse mutants of human neuronal migration defects, and they suggest a genomic approach to use gene expression analysis of mouse models of human genetic disease to identify candidate genes for related disorders, such as mental retardation and epilepsy.
Segmental duplications at breakpoints (BP4–BP5) of chromosome 15q13.2q13.3 mediate a recurrent genomic imbalance syndrome associated with mental retardation, epilepsy, and/or EEG abnormalities.
DNA samples from 1,445 unrelated patients submitted consecutively for clinical array comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) testing at Children’s Hospital Boston and DNA samples from 1,441 individuals with Autism from 751 families in the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) repository.
We report the clinical features of five patients with a BP4-BP5 deletion, three with a BP4–BP5 duplication, and two with an overlapping but smaller duplication identified by whole genome high resolution oligonucleotide array CGH. These BP4–BP5 deletion cases exhibit minor dysmorphic features, significant expressive language deficits, and a spectrum of neuropsychiatric impairments that include autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, anxiety disorder, and mood disorder. Cognitive impairment varied from moderate mental retardation to normal IQ with learning disability. BP4–BP5 covers ~1.5Mb (chr15:28.719–30.298Mb) and includes 6 reference genes and 1 miRNA gene, while the smaller duplications cover ~500 kb (chr15:28.902–29.404 Mb) and contain 3 reference genes and one miRNA gene. The BP4–BP5 deletion and duplication events span CHRNA7, a candidate gene for seizures. However, none of these individuals reported here have epilepsy, although two have an abnormal EEG.
The phenotype of chromosome 15q13.2q13.3 BP4–BP5 microdeletion/duplication syndrome may include features of autism spectrum disorder, a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, and cognitive impairment. Recognition of this broader phenotype has implications for clinical diagnostic testing and efforts to understand the underlying etiology of this syndrome.
array CGH; autism; language delay; microdeletion/duplication; neuropsychiatric disorders
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental conditions with a demonstrated genetic etiology. Rare (<1% frequency) copy number variations (CNVs) account for a proportion of the genetic events involved, but the contribution of these events in non-European ASD populations has not been well studied. Here, we report on rare CNVs detected in a cohort of individuals with ASD of Han Chinese background.
DNA samples were obtained from 104 ASD probands and their parents who were recruited from Harbin, China. Samples were genotyped on the Affymetrix CytoScan HD platform. Rare CNVs were identified by comparing data with 873 technology-matched controls from Ontario and 1,235 additional population controls of Han Chinese ethnicity.
Of the probands, 8.6% had at least 1 de novo CNV (overlapping the GIGYF2, SPRY1, 16p13.3, 16p11.2, 17p13.3-17p13.2, DMD, and NAP1L6 genes/loci). Rare inherited CNVs affected other plausible neurodevelopmental candidate genes including GRID2, LINGO2, and SLC39A12. A 24-kb duplication was also identified at YWHAE, a gene previously implicated in ASD and other developmental disorders. This duplication is observed at a similar frequency in cases and in population controls and is likely a benign Asian-specific copy number polymorphism.
Our findings help define genomic features relevant to ASD in the Han Chinese and emphasize the importance of using ancestry-matched controls in medical genetic interpretations.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD); Copy number variations (CNVs); Microarray diagnostic testing; Han Chinese
Duplications of the Xq28 chromosome region resulting in functional disomy are associated with a distinct clinical phenotype characterized by infantile hypotonia, severe developmental delay, progressive neurological impairment, absent speech, and proneness to infections. Increased expression of the dosage-sensitive MECP2 gene is considered responsible for the severe neurological impairments observed in affected individuals. Although cytogenetically visible duplications of Xq28 are well documented in the published literature, recent advances using array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) led to the detection of an increasing number of microduplications spanning MECP2. In rare cases, duplication results from intrachromosomal rearrangement between the X and Y chromosomes. We report six cases with sex chromosome rearrangements involving duplication of MECP2. Cases 1–4 are unbalanced rearrangements between X and Y, resulting in MECP2 duplication. The additional Xq material was translocated to Yp in three cases (cases 1–3), and to the heterochromatic region of Yq12 in one case (case 4). Cases 5 and 6 were identified by array CGH to have a loss in copy number at Xp and a gain in copy number at Xq28 involving the MECP2 gene. In both cases, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed a recombinant X chromosome containing the duplicated material from Xq28 on Xp, resulting from a maternal pericentric inversion. These cases add to a growing number of MECP2 duplications that have been detected by array CGH, while demonstrating the value of confirmatory chromosome and FISH studies for the localization of the duplicated material and the identification of complex rearrangements.
MECP2; array CGH; Xq28; mental retardation
Infantile spasms (IS) is a specific type of epileptic encephalopathy associated with severe developmental disabilities. Genetic factors are strongly implicated in IS, however, the exact genetic defects remain unknown in the majority of cases. Rare mutations in a single gene or in copy number variants (CNVs) have been implicated in IS of children in Western countries. The objective of this study was to dissect the role of copy number variations in Chinese children with infantile spasms.
We used the Agilent Human Genome CGH microarray 180 K for genome-wide detection of CNVs. Real-time qPCR was used to validate the CNVs. We performed genomic and medical annotations for individual CNVs to determine the pathogenicity of CNVs related to IS.
We report herein the first genome-wide CNV analysis in children with IS, detecting a total of 14 CNVs in a cohort of 47 Chinese children with IS. Four CNVs (4/47 = 8.5%) (1q21.1 gain; 1q44, 2q31.1, and 17p13 loss) are considered to be pathogenic. The CNV loss at 17p13.3 contains PAFAH1B1 (LIS1), a causative gene for lissencephaly. Although the CNVs at 1q21.1, 1q44, and 2q23.1 have been previously implicated in a wide spectrum of clinical features including autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and generalized seizure, our study is the first report identifying them in individuals with a primary diagnosis of IS. The CNV loss in the 1q44 region contains HNRNPU, a strong candidate gene recently suggested in IS by the whole exome sequencing of children with IS. The CNV loss at 2q23.1 includes MBD5, a methyl-DNA binding protein that is a causative gene of ASD and a candidate gene for epileptic encephalopathy. We also report a distinct clinical presentation of IS, microcephaly, intellectual disability, and absent hallux in a case with the 2q23.1 deletion.
Our findings strongly support the role of CNVs in infantile spasms and expand the clinical spectrum associate with 2q23.1 deletion. In particular, our study implicates the HNRNPU and MBD5 genes in Chinese children with IS. Our study also supports that the molecular mechanisms of infantile spasms appear conserved among different ethnic backgrounds.
Infantile spasms; Copy number variants; Array CGH; Autism spectrum disorders; MBD5; HNRNPU
Cancer-related genes show racial differences. Therefore, identification and characterization of DNA copy number alteration regions in different racial groups helps to dissect the mechanism of tumorigenesis.
Array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) was analyzed for DNA copy number profile in 40 Asian and 20 Caucasian lung cancer patients. Three methods including MetaCore analysis for disease and pathway correlations, concordance analysis between array-CGH database and the expression array database, and literature search for copy number variation genes were performed to select novel lung cancer candidate genes. Four candidate oncogenes were validated for DNA copy number and mRNA and protein expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH), reverse transcriptase-qPCR (RT-qPCR), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in more patients.
We identified 20 chromosomal imbalance regions harboring 459 genes for Caucasian and 17 regions containing 476 genes for Asian lung cancer patients. Seven common chromosomal imbalance regions harboring 117 genes, included gain on 3p13-14, 6p22.1, 9q21.13, 13q14.1, and 17p13.3; and loss on 3p22.2-22.3 and 13q13.3 were found both in Asian and Caucasian patients. Gene validation for four genes including ARHGAP19 (10q24.1) functioning in Rho activity control, FRAT2 (10q24.1) involved in Wnt signaling, PAFAH1B1 (17p13.3) functioning in motility control, and ZNF322A (6p22.1) involved in MAPK signaling was performed using qPCR and RT-qPCR. Mean gene dosage and mRNA expression level of the four candidate genes in tumor tissues were significantly higher than the corresponding normal tissues (P<0.001~P=0.06). In addition, CISH analysis of patients indicated that copy number amplification indeed occurred for ARHGAP19 and ZNF322A genes in lung cancer patients. IHC analysis of paraffin blocks from Asian Caucasian patients demonstrated that the frequency of PAFAH1B1 protein overexpression was 68% in Asian and 70% in Caucasian.
Our study provides an invaluable database revealing common and differential imbalance regions at specific chromosomes among Asian and Caucasian lung cancer patients. Four validation methods confirmed our database, which would help in further studies on the mechanism of lung tumorigenesis.
Array-CGH; Lung cancer; Asian; Caucasian; Oncogene
YWHAE (14-3-3ε) protein levels are considered to be a reliable biomarker for neurodegeneration. The YWHAE protein interacts both directly and indirectly with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) accessory proteins, leading to cell death. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between YWHAE polymorphisms and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) and the relationship between YWHAE protein levels and HAND. A cross-sectional study using random samples of HIV-seropositive (n=20) and HIV–seronegative (controls) (n=16) women from the Hispanic-Latino Longitudinal Cohort of Women was conducted. Individuals who are HIV-seropositive and heterozygous at the rs4790084/rs1204828 loci in the YWHAE gene were 3X more likely to display reduced cognitive functioning, to have received a HAND diagnosis, and to have less YHWAE protein expressed than homozygotes. Western blots from cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) indicate that the HIV-seropositive women with HAND expressed 4.5X less YWHAE compared to HIV-seropositive cognitively normal women (94% sensitivity, 84% specificity; HIV-seropositive vs. controls). Therefore, polymorphism in YWHAE may be a genetic risk factor for HAND and levels of YWHAE protein are a likely biomarker for neurocognitive status in HIV-seropositive women.
Dementia; 14-3-3; HAND; neuropsychological; polymorphism
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a rare autosomal-dominant disorder characterised by facial dysmorphism, growth and psychomotor developmental delay and skeletal defects. To date, causative mutations in the NIPBL (cohesin regulator) and SMC1A (cohesin structural subunit) genes account for > 50% and 6% of cases, respectively.
We recruited 50 patients with a CdLS clinical diagnosis or with features that overlap with CdLS, who were negative for mutations at NIPBL and SMC1A at molecular screening. Chromosomal rearrangements accounting for the clinical diagnosis were screened for using array Comparative Genomic Hybridisation (aCGH).
Four patients were shown to carry imbalances considered to be candidates for having pathogenic roles in their clinical phenotypes: patient 1 had a 4.2 Mb de novo deletion at chromosome 20q11.2-q12; patient 2 had a 4.8 Mb deletion at chromosome 1p36.23-36.22; patient 3 carried an unbalanced translocation, t(7;17), with a 14 Mb duplication of chromosome 17q24.2-25.3 and a 769 Kb deletion at chromosome 7p22.3; patient 4 had an 880 Kb duplication of chromosome 19p13.3, for which his mother, who had a mild phenotype, was also shown to be a mosaic.
Notwithstanding the variability in size and gene content of the rearrangements comprising the four different imbalances, they all map to regions containing genes encoding factors involved in cell cycle progression or genome stability. These functional similarities, also exhibited by the known CdLS genes, may explain the phenotypic overlap between the patients included in this study and CdLS. Our findings point to the complexity of the clinical diagnosis of CdLS and confirm the existence of phenocopies, caused by imbalances affecting multiple genomic regions, comprising 8% of patients included in this study, who did not have mutations at NIPBL and SMC1A. Our results suggests that analysis by aCGH should be recommended for CdLS spectrum cases with an unexplained clinical phenotype and included in the flow chart for diagnosis of cases with a clinical evaluation in the CdLS spectrum.
It has previously been shown that specific microdeletions and microduplications, many of which also associated with cognitive impairment (CI), can present with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) represents an efficient method to screen for such recurrent microdeletions and microduplications.
In the current study, a total of 279 unrelated subjects ascertained for ASDs were screened for genomic disorders associated with CI using MLPA. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and/or direct DNA sequencing were used to validate potential microdeletions and microduplications. Methylation-sensitive MLPA was used to characterize individuals with duplications in the Prader-Willi/Angelman (PWA) region.
MLPA showed two subjects with typical ASD-associated interstitial duplications of the 15q11-q13 PWA region of maternal origin. Two additional subjects showed smaller, de novo duplications of the PWA region that had not been previously characterized. Genes in these two novel duplications include GABRB3 and ATP10A in one case, and MKRN3, MAGEL2 and NDN in the other. In addition, two subjects showed duplications of the 22q11/DiGeorge syndrome region. One individual was found to carry a 12 kb deletion in one copy of the ASPA gene on 17p13, which when mutated in both alleles leads to Canavan disease. Two subjects showed partial duplication of the TM4SF2 gene on Xp11.4, previously implicated in X-linked non-specific mental retardation, but in our subsequent analyses such variants were also found in controls. A partial duplication in the ASMT gene, located in the pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) of the sex chromosomes and previously suggested to be involved in ASD susceptibility, was observed in 6–7% of the cases but in only 2% of controls (P = 0.003).
MLPA proves to be an efficient method to screen for chromosomal abnormalities. We identified duplications in 15q11-q13 and in 22q11, including new de novo small duplications, as likely contributing to ASD in the current sample by increasing liability and/or exacerbating symptoms. Our data indicate that duplications in TM4SF2 are not associated with the phenotype given their presence in controls. The results in PAR1/PAR2 are the first large-scale studies of gene dosage in these regions, and the findings at the ASMT locus indicate that further studies of the duplication of the ASMT gene are needed in order to gain insight into its potential involvement in ASD. Our studies also identify some limitations of MLPA, where single base changes in probe binding sequences alter results. In summary, our studies indicate that MLPA, with a focus on accepted medical genetic conditions, may be an inexpensive method for detection of microdeletions and microduplications in ASD patients for purposes of genetic counselling if MLPA-identified deletions are validated by additional methods.
Deletions of chromosome 22q11 are present in over 90% of cases of DiGeorge or Velo-Cardio-Facial syndrome (DGS/VCFS). 15q11-q13 duplication is another recognized syndrome due to rearrangements of several genes, belonging to the category of imprinted genes. The phenotype of this syndrome varies but has been clearly associated with developmental delay and autistic spectrum disorders. Co-existence of the two syndromes has not been reported so far.
Here we report a 6-year-old boy presenting growth retardation, dysmorphic features and who exhibited learning difficulties. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of the proband revealed a deletion of DiGeorge Syndrome critical region (TUPLE). Array-CGH analysis revealed an interstitial duplication of 12 Mb in size in the area 15q11.2-q13.3, combined with a 3.2 Mb deletion at region 22q11.1-q11.21. FISH analysis in the mother showed a cryptic balanced translocation between chromosome 15 and chromosome 22 (not evident by classic karyotyping).
The clinical manifestations could be related to both syndromes and the importance of array-CGH analysis in cases of unexplained developmental delay is emphasized. The present case further demonstrates how molecular cytogenetic techniques applied in the parents were necessary for the genetic counseling of the family.
Copy number variations associated with abnormal gene dosage have an important role in the genetic etiology of many neurodevelopmental disorders, including intellectual disability (ID) and autism. We hypothesize that the chromosome 2q23.1 region encompassing MBD5 is a dosage-dependent region, wherein deletion or duplication results in altered gene dosage. We previously established the 2q23.1 microdeletion syndrome and report herein 23 individuals with 2q23.1 duplications, thus establishing a complementary duplication syndrome. The observed phenotype includes ID, language impairments, infantile hypotonia and gross motor delay, behavioral problems, autistic features, dysmorphic facial features (pinnae anomalies, arched eyebrows, prominent nose, small chin, thin upper lip), and minor digital anomalies (fifth finger clinodactyly and large broad first toe). The microduplication size varies among all cases and ranges from 68 kb to 53.7 Mb, encompassing a region that includes MBD5, an important factor in methylation patterning and epigenetic regulation. We previously reported that haploinsufficiency of MBD5 is the primary causal factor in 2q23.1 microdeletion syndrome and that mutations in MBD5 are associated with autism. In this study, we demonstrate that MBD5 is the only gene in common among all duplication cases and that overexpression of MBD5 is likely responsible for the core clinical features present in 2q23.1 microduplication syndrome. Phenotypic analyses suggest that 2q23.1 duplication results in a slightly less severe phenotype than the reciprocal deletion. The features associated with a deletion, mutation or duplication of MBD5 and the gene expression changes observed support MBD5 as a dosage-sensitive gene critical for normal development.
MBD5; gene dosage; 2q23.1; autism spectrum disorder; microduplication; microdeletion
The rearrangements in the 22q11.2 chromosomal region, responsible for the 22q11.2 deletion and microduplication syndromes, are frequently associated with congenital heart disease (CHD). The present work aimed to identify the genetic basis of CHD in 87 patients from the São Miguel Island, Azores, through the detection of copy number variants (CNVs) in the 22q11.2 region. These structural variants were searched using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). In patients with CNVs, we additionally performed fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for the assessment of the exact number of 22q11.2 copies among each chromosome, and array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) for the determination of the exact length of CNVs.
We found that four patients (4.6%; A to D) carried CNVs. Patients A and D, both affected with a ventricular septal defect, carried a de novo 2.5 Mb deletion of the 22q11.2 region, which was probably originated by inter-chromosomal (inter-chromatid) non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) events in the regions containing low-copy repeats (LCRs). Patient C, with an atrial septal defect, carried a de novo 2.5 Mb duplication of 22q11.2 region, which could have been probably generated during gametogenesis by NAHR or by unequal crossing-over; additionally, this patient presented a benign 288 Kb duplication, which included the TOP3B gene inherited from her healthy mother. Finally, patient B showed a 3 Mb triplication associated with dysmorphic facial features, cognitive deficit and heart defects, a clinical feature not reported in the only case described so far in the literature. The evaluation of patient B’s parents revealed a 2.5 Mb duplication in her father, suggesting a paternal inheritance with an extra copy.
This report allowed the identification of rare deletion and microduplication syndromes in Azorean CHD patients. Moreover, we report the second patient with a 22q11.2 triplication, and we suggest that patients with triplications of chromosome 22q11.2, although they share some characteristic features with the deletion and microduplication syndromes, present a more severe phenotype probably due to the major dosage of implicated genes.
Congenital heart disease; 22q11.2 deletion; 22q11.2 microduplication; 22q11.2 triplication
Deletion and the reciprocal duplication in 16p11.2 were recently associated with autism and developmental delay.
We indentified 27 deletions and 18 duplications of 16p11.2 were identified in 0.6% of all samples submitted for clinical array-CGH (comparative genomic hybridisation) analysis. Detailed molecular and phenotypic characterisations were performed on 17 deletion subjects and ten subjects with the duplication.
The most common clinical manifestations in 17 deletion and 10 duplication subjects were speech/language delay and cognitive impairment. Other phenotypes in the deletion patients included motor delay (50%), seizures (~40%), behavioural problems (~40%), congenital anomalies (~30%), and autism (~20%). The phenotypes among duplication patients included motor delay (6/10), behavioural problems (especially attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)) (6/10), congenital anomalies (5/10), and seizures (3/10). Patients with the 16p11.2 deletion had statistically significant macrocephaly (p<0.0017) and 6 of the 10 patients with the duplication had microcephaly. One subject with the deletion was asymptomatic and another with the duplication had a normal cognitive and behavioural phenotype. Genomic analyses revealed additional complexity to the 16p11.2 region with mechanistic implications. The chromosomal rearrangement was de novo in all but 2 of the 10 deletion cases in which parental studies were available. Additionally, 2 de novo cases were apparently mosaic for the deletion in the analysed blood sample. Three de novo and 2 inherited cases were observed in the 5 of 10 duplication patients where data were available.
Recurrent reciprocal 16p11.2 deletion and duplication are characterised by a spectrum of primarily neurocognitive phenotypes that are subject to incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. The autism and macrocephaly observed with deletion and ADHD and microcephaly seen in duplication patients support a diametric model of autism spectrum and psychotic spectrum behavioural phenotypes in genomic sister disorders.
The Reelin signaling pathway controls radial neuronal migration and maturation in the developing brain. The platelet activating factor (PAF) acetyl hydrolase 1b (Pafah1b) complex is also involved in multiple aspects of brain development. We previously showed that the Reelin pathway and the Pafah1b complex interact genetically and biochemically. Lis1, the regulatory subunit of Pafah1b interacts with phosphoDab1, an essential mediator of Reelin signaling. Compound mutants carrying mutations in both, the Reelin pathway and Lis1 exhibit hydrocephalus, a phenotype that is suppressed by mutations in the gene encoding the Alpha2 subunit of Pafah1b. This subunit, like to other Pafah1b catalytic subunit Alpha1, also binds the Reelin receptor VLDLR. Here we investigated the molecular interactions of the Pafah1b catalytic subunits with Dab1. We found that Alpha2 coprecipitates with Dab1 from brain extracts of normal and reeler mutant mice lacking Reelin, and from cell-free extracts containing normal or a phosphorylation mutant form of Dab1, suggesting that Dab1 phosphorylation is not necessary for binding to Alpha2. This interaction is specific for Alpha2 and not Alpha1, and depends on a unique tyrosine residue of Alpha2. Biochemical assays using mutant mice lacking Alpha2 further demonstrated that this subunit is not required for Reelin-induced Dab1 phosphorylation. However, increasing amounts of Alpha2 in a cell free system disrupted the formation of Dab1-Lis1 complexes without affecting the association of Dab1 with VLDLR. Our data suggest that the Alpha2 subunit may play a modulatory role in the formation of protein complexes that affect brain development and hydrocephalus.
reeler; neuronal migration; Disabled-1; lipoprotein receptor; platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase; neocortex
Chromosomal rearrangements, arising from unequal recombination between repeated sequences, are found in a subset of patients with autism. Duplications involving loci associated with behavioural disturbances constitute an especially good candidate mechanism. The Williams–Beuren critical region (WBCR), located at 7q11.23, is commonly deleted in Williams–Beuren microdeletion syndrome (WBS). However, only four patients with a duplication of the WBCR have been reported to date: one with severe language delay and the three others with variable developmental, psychomotor and language delay.
Objective and Methods
In this study, we screened 206 patients with autism spectrum disorders for the WBCR duplication by quantitative microsatellite analysis and multiple ligation‐dependent probe amplification.
We identified one male patient with a de novo interstitial duplication of the entire WBCR of paternal origin. The patient had autistic disorder, severe language delay and mental retardation, with very mild dysmorphic features.
We report the first patient with autistic disorder and a WBCR duplication. This observation indicates that the 7q11.23 duplication could be involved in complex clinical phenotypes, ranging from developmental or language delay to mental retardation and autism, and extends the phenotype initially reported. These findings also support the existence of one or several genes in 7q11.23 sensitive to gene dosage and involved in the development of language and social interaction.
autism; mental retardation; language delay; 7q11; duplication
Chromosomal rearrangements, arising from unequal recombination between repeated sequences, are found in a subset of patients with autism. Duplications involving loci associated with behavioural disturbances especially constitute a good candidate mechanism. The Williams-Beuren Critical Region (WBCR), located in 7q11.23, is commonly deleted in the Williams-Beuren microdeletion syndrome (WBS). However, only four patients with a duplication of the WBCR have been reported so far, one with severe language delay and the three others with variable developmental, psychomotor and language delay.
Objective and Methods
In this study, we screened 206 patients with autism spectrum disorders for the WBCR duplication by quantitative microsatellite analysis and multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA).
We have identified one male patient with a de novo interstitial duplication of the entire WBCR of paternal origin. The patient had autistic disorder, severe language delay and mental retardation, with very mild dysmorphic features.
We report the first patient with autistic disorder who has a WBCR duplication. This observation indicates that the 7q11.23 duplication could be involved in complex clinical phenotypes, ranging from developmental or language delay to mental retardation and autism, and extends the phenotype initially reported. These findings also support the existence of one or several genes in 7q11.23 sensitive to gene dosage and involved in the development of language and social interaction.
autism, mental retardation, language delay, 7q11, duplication
Clubfoot is a common birth defect characterized by inward posturing and rigid downward displacement of one or both feet. The etiology of syndromic forms of clubfoot is varied and the causes of isolated clubfoot are not well understood. A microduplication of 2.2 Mb on chromosome 17q23.1q23.2 which includes T-box 4 (TBX4), a hindlimb-specific gene, and 16 other genes was recently identified in 3 of 66 families reported as nonsyndromic clubfoot, but additional non-foot malformations place them in the syndromic clubfoot category. Our study assesses whether variation in or around TBX4 contributes to nonsyndromic clubfoot. To determine whether this microduplication was a common cause of nonsyndromic clubfoot, 605 probands (from 148 multiplex and 457 simplex families) with nonsyndromic clubfoot were evaluated by copy number and oligonucleotide array CGH testing modalities. Only one multiplex family (0.68%) that had 16 with clubfoot and 9 with other foot anomalies, had a 350kb microduplication, which included the complete duplication of TBX4 and NACA2 and partial duplication of BRIP1. The microduplication was transmitted in an autosomal dominant pattern and all with the microduplication had a range of phenotypes from short wide feet and toes to bilateral clubfoot. Minimal evidence was found for an association between TBX4 and clubfoot and no pathogenic sequence variants were identified in the two known TBX4 hindlimb enhancer elements. Altogether, these results demonstrate that variation in and around the TBX4 gene and the 17q23.1q23.2 microduplication are not a frequent cause of this common orthopedic birth defect and narrows the 17q23.1q23.2 nonsyndromic clubfoot-associated region.
Clubfoot; genetics; TBX4; microduplication; association; malformation
A novel multiple congenital anomalies syndrome has been recently identified in four patients carrying a 8q12 microduplication sharing the smallest region of overlap (SRO, size 1.6 Mb) including five genes CA8, ASPH, RAB2B, CLVS1 and CDH7. The phenotype is mainly characterized by neurodevelopmental delay, heart defects, facial features and Type 1 Duane anomaly. Increasing dosage of CDH7 was proposed to be responsible for the recurrent pattern of MCA.
High resolution array-CGH analysis identified a 4.2 Mb de novo interstitial duplication of the 8q12.1-q12.3 chromosome region in a boy with developmental delay, dysmorphic features, type 3 Duane anomaly. This duplication includes several genes and spans the SRO.
The present case represents a further patient with an interstitial duplication of chromosome 8q12 and several shared clinical features. Although more cases are needed to delineate the full-blown phenotype of 8q12 duplication syndrome, published data and present observations suggest that it results in a clinically recognizable phenotype. The presence of Duane anomaly in four out of five described patients with a 8q12 duplication definitely rules against the possibility of its being a chance finding unrelated to the imbalance and points toward a pathogenic role. Gene content analysis of the duplicated region and review of the literature suggest that gain-of-dosage of the CHD7 gene may be a good candidate for the main clinical features of the syndrome.
8q12 microduplication; Array-CGH; CHD7; Duane retraction syndrome