In this study, the correlation between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at rs2910829 and rs918592 in the phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) gene and cerebral infarction in the Uygur and Han ethnic groups of Xinjiang, China were examined. The study population consisted of 373 Uygur and Han patients with cerebral infarction and 377 Uygur and Han control participants with no nervous system diseases. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and gene sequencing methods were used to assess the SNPs at the rs2910829 and rs918592 loci in the PDE4D gene. The differences in genotype and allele frequency distribution were compared between the two groups. The C allele frequency of the rs2910829 locus in the PDE4D gene of the cerebral infarction group (81.0%) was significantly higher than that of the control group (76.4%) (P<0.05). Furthermore, the A allele frequency of the rs918592 locus in the PDE4D gene in the Uygur cerebral infarction group was significantly higher than that of the Uygur control group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the genotype and allele frequency distributions between the Uygur and Han groups (P>0.05). The A allele of the rs918592 locus may be associated with the occurrence of cerebral infarction in the Uygur population. In addition, it was indicated that the C allele of the rs2910829 locus in the PDE4D gene confers susceptibility to cerebral infarction; however, no significant difference was identified between Uygur and Han patients with cerebral infarction.
phosphodiesterase 4D; single nucleotide polymorphism; cerebral infarction; Uygur
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the polymorphism of SG13S114 A/T in ALOX5AP gene and the vulnerability of carotid atherosclerosis in Chinese Han population. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of SG13S114 A/T in ALOX5AP gene was performed for 284 patients with atherothrombotic cerebral infarction, of which 152 cases were diagnosed with stable plaque and the other 132 cases had vulnerable plaques. We found that the frequency of SG13S114 AA genotype and A allele of ALOX5AP gene in the cases with vulnerable plaques was significantly higher than those in the cases with stable plaques. These results suggested that high expression of SG13S114 AA genotype was related to the vulnerability of carotid atherosclerosis. SG13S114 A allele may be a risk factor of vulnerable plaques.
5-lipoxygenase activating protein; atherosclerosis; gene polymorphism; polymerase chain reaction
Variants of the arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (ALOX5AP) gene have been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and ischemic stroke. This study was aimed to explore the association of ALOX5AP variants with ischemic stroke risk in Han Chinese of eastern China. A total of 690 ischemic stroke cases and 767 controls were recruited. The subjects were further subtyped according to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) criteria. On the basis of that, two polymorphisms of the ALOX5AP gene (rs10507391 and rs12429692) were determined by TaqMan genotyping assay. In addition, plasma leukotriene B4 (LTB4) levels were analyzed in these subjects. There was no evidence of association between the two variants of ALOX5AP and the risk of ischemic stroke or its TOAST-subtypes. Haplotype analysis and stratification analysis according to sex, age, body mass index, hypertension, and diabetes also showed negative association. Analysis of LTB4 levels in a subset of cases and controls revealed that LTB4 levels were significantly higher in ischemic stroke cases than in the controls (70.06±14.75 ng/L vs 57.34±10.93 ng/L; P = 0.000) and carriers of the T allele of the rs10507391 variant were associated with higher plasma LTB4 levels (P = 0.000). The present study suggests there is no association of the two polymorphisms in the ALOX5AP gene with ischemic stroke risk in Han Chinese of eastern China.
arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein; ischemic stroke; variants; leukotriene B4; risk factors
The arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (ALOX5AP) gene has been associated with stroke. The majority of the reported ALOX5AP associations have considered non-radiologically confirmed infarcts as the stroke phenotype. We assessed the association of genetic variants in ALOX5AP with stroke defined by the presence infarcts on brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). We studied 202 persons with MRI-defined brain infarcts cases and 487 healthy individuals of Caribbean Hispanic ancestry. Another sample of European ancestry comprised of 1,823 persons with MRI-defined brain infarct and 7,578 controls. Subjects were genotyped for the four SNPs that define ALOX5AP HapA haplotype. No association was found between SNPs and MRI-defined brain infarcts. Our data do not support the hypothesis that variants in ALOX5AP are associated with risk of MRI-defined brain infarcts.
MRI-defined brain infarcts; ALOX5AP
The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in matrix metalloproteinase 1(MMP-1)play important roles in some cancers. This study examined the associations between individual SNPs or haplotypes in MMP-1 and susceptibility, clinicopathological parameters and prognosis of gastric cancer in a large sample of the Han population in northern China.
In this case–controlled study, there were 404 patients with gastric cancer and 404 healthy controls. Seven SNPs were genotyped using the MALDI-TOF MS system. Then, SPSS software, Haploview 4.2 software, Haplo.states software and THEsias software were used to estimate the association between individual SNPs or haplotypes of MMP-1 and gastric cancer susceptibility, progression and prognosis.
Among seven SNPs, there were no individual SNPs correlated to gastric cancer risk. Moreover, only the rs470206 genotype had a correlation with histologic grades, and the patients with GA/AA had well cell differentiation compared to the patients with genotype GG (OR=0.573; 95%CI: 0.353–0.929; P=0.023). Then, we constructed a four-marker haplotype block that contained 4 common haplotypes: TCCG, GCCG, TTCG and TTTA. However, all four common haplotypes had no correlation with gastric cancer risk and we did not find any relationship between these haplotypes and clinicopathological parameters in gastric cancer. Furthermore, neither individual SNPs nor haplotypes had an association with the survival of patients with gastric cancer.
This study evaluated polymorphisms of the MMP-1 gene in gastric cancer with a MALDI-TOF MS method in a large northern Chinese case-controlled cohort. Our results indicated that these seven SNPs of MMP-1 might not be useful as significant markers to predict gastric cancer susceptibility, progression or prognosis, at least in the Han population in northern China.
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a complex disease with various components, genetic as well as environmental. Previous reports correlating ALOX5AP gene variants and CAD showed conflicting results depending on the population studied. In this study, we examined the contribution of ALOX5AP genetic predisposition to CAD in a group of CAD patients and controls carefully selected from the Lebanese population. We genotyped SNPs for ALOX5AP variants in 289 catheterized patients aged ≤52 years with >50% stenosis in at least one main coronary artery and 227 catheterized control subjects aged 60 years and above with 0% stenosis. Chi-square (χ2) tests and logistic regression showed no significant difference in the allele and genotype frequencies between the CAD or myocardial infarction (MI) cases and the healthy controls. Haplotype analysis using PHASE showed that the distribution of the risk haplotypes among cases and controls were not significantly different and had no attributable risk to CAD (P = 1.00 and P = 0.5, respectively) or MI (P = 0.2 and P = 0.5, respectively). Our data revealed that ALOX5AP gene variants are not predictors of CAD risk or MI risk among Lebanese patients.
CAD; Stenosis; ALOX5AP; SNP; Inflammation
Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (ALOX12) is a member of the lipoxygenase superfamily, which catalyzes the incorporation of molecular oxygen into polyunsaturated fatty acids. The products of ALOX12 reactions serve as endogenous ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG). The activation of the PPARG pathway in marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitors stimulates adipogenesis and inhibits osteoblastogenesis. Our objective was to determine whether polymorphisms in the ALOX12 gene were associated with variations in peak bone mineral density (BMD) and obesity phenotypes in young Chinese men.
All six tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ALOX12 gene were genotyped in a total of 1215 subjects from 400 Chinese nuclear families by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. The BMD at the lumbar spine and hip, total fat mass (TFM) and total lean mass (TLM) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The pairwise linkage disequilibrium among SNPs was measured, and the haplotype blocks were inferred. Both the individual SNP markers and the haplotypes were tested for an association with the peak BMD, body mass index, TFM, TLM and percentage fat mass (PFM) using the quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT).
Using the QTDT, significant within-family association was found between the rs2073438 polymorphism in the ALOX12 gene and the TFM and PFM (P=0.007 and 0.012, respectively). Haplotype analyses were combined with our individual SNP results and remained significant even after correction for multiple testing. However, we failed to find significant within-family associations between ALOX12 SNPs and the BMD at any bone site in young Chinese men.
Our present results suggest that the rs2073438 polymorphism of ALOX12 contributes to the variation of obesity phenotypes in young Chinese men, although we failed to replicate the association with the peak BMD variation in this sample. Further independent studies are needed to confirm our findings.
ALOX12; fat mass; lean mass; peak bone mineral density; quantitative transmission disequilibrium test
Human heparanase plays an important role in cancer development and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the heparanase gene (HPSE) have been shown to be correlated with gastric cancer. The present study examined the associations between individual SNPs or haplotypes in HPSE and susceptibility, clinicopathological parameters and prognosis of gastric cancer in a large sample of the Han population in northern China.
Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded normal gastric tissue samples from 404 patients and from blood from 404 healthy controls. Six SNPs were genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A chi-square (χ2) test and unconditional logistic regression were used to analyze the risk of gastric cancer; a Log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards model were used to produce survival analysis and a Kaplan-Meier method was used to map survival curves. The mean genotyping success rates were more than 99% in both groups. Haplotype CA in the block composed of rs11099592 and rs4693608 had a greater distribution in the group of Borrmann types 3 and 4 (P = 0.037), the group of a greater number of lymph node metastases (N3 vs N0 group, P = 0.046), and moreover was correlated to poor survival (CG vs CA: HR = 0.645, 95%CI: 0.421–0.989, P = 0.044). In addition, genotypes rs4693608 AA and rs4364254 TT were associated with poor survival (P = 0.030, HR = 1.527, 95%CI: 1.042–2.238 for rs4693608 AA; P = 0.013, HR = 1.546, 95%CI: 1.096–2.181 for rs4364254 TT). There were no correlations between individual SNPs or haplotypes and gastric cancer risk.
A functional haplotype in HPSE was found, which included the important SNP rs4693608. SNPs in HPSE play an important role in gastric cancer progression and survival, and perhaps may be a molecular marker for prognosis and treatment values.
The variations of SORCS1 gene may play potential key roles in late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD). To evaluate the relationship between the polymorphism of SORCS1 gene and LOAD in the ethnic Han Chinese, we conducted a case–control study to investigate the association between the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in intron 1 of SORCS1 and LOAD in Chinese Han population. Six reported SNPs in intron 1 of SORCS1 were analyzed by Snapshot, genotyping and haplotyping in 236 Chinese LOAD cases and 233 matched controls. The significant differences in frequencies of two SNPs (rs10884402, rs950809) were found between the two groups. In addition, haplotype analyses revealed that, in the LOAD group, the frequency of haplotypes C-C-G-T-C (alleles in order of rs17277986, rs6584777, rs10884402, rs7078098, rs950809 polymorphisms) were significantly higher (Psim<0.0001) while haplotype C-C-A-T-C, C-C-A-C-C, T-T-A-C-C were significantly lower (Psim<0.0001). Our data suggested that the genetic variation of the rs10884402 and rs950809 in intron 1 of SORCS1 was associated with the late-onset AD in the Chinese Han population.
The HapMap project aimed to catalog millions of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human genome in four major populations, in order to facilitate association studies of complex diseases. To examine the transferability of Han Chinese in Beijing HapMap data to the Southern Han Chinese in Shanghai, we performed comparative analyses between genotypes from over 4,500 SNPs in a 21 Mb region on chromosome 1q21-q25 in 80 unrelated Shanghai Chinese and 45 HapMap Chinese data.
Three thousand and forty-two SNPs were analyzed after removal of SNPs that failed quality control and those not in the HapMap panel. We compared the allele frequency distributions, linkage disequilibrium patterns, haplotype frequency distributions and tagging SNP sets transferability between the HapMap population and Shanghai Chinese population. Among the four HapMap populations, Beijing Chinese showed the best correlation with Shanghai population on allele frequencies, linkage disequilibrium and haplotype frequencies. Tagging SNP sets selected from four HapMap populations at different thresholds were evaluated in the Shanghai sample. Under the threshold of r2 equal to 0.8 or 0.5, both HapMap Chinese and Japanese data showed better coverage and tagging efficiency than Caucasian and African data.
Our study supported the applicability of HapMap Beijing Chinese SNP data to the study of complex diseases among southern Chinese population.
The use of haplotype-based association tests can improve the power of genome-wide association studies. Since the observed genotypes are unordered pairs of alleles, haplotype phase must be inferred. However, estimating haplotype phase is time consuming. When millions of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are analyzed in genome-wide association study, faster methods for haplotype estimation are required.
We developed a program package for parallel computation of haplotype estimation. Our program package, ParaHaplo 2.0, is intended for use in workstation clusters using the Intel Message Passing Interface (MPI). We compared the performance of our algorithm to that of the regular permutation test on both Japanese in Tokyo, Japan and Han Chinese in Beijing, China of the HapMap dataset.
Parallel version of ParaHaplo 2.0 can estimate haplotypes 100 times faster than a non-parallel version of the ParaHaplo.
ParaHaplo 2.0 is an invaluable tool for conducting haplotype-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The need for fast haplotype estimation using parallel computing will become increasingly important as the data sizes of such projects continue to increase. The executable binaries and program sources of ParaHaplo are available at the following address: http://en.sourceforge.jp/projects/parallelgwas/releases/
The association of ATP binding cassette transporter G8 gene (ABCG8) rs4148217 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid profiles is still controversial in diverse racial/ethnic groups. Mulao nationality is an isolated minority in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of ABCG8 rs4148217 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations.
A total of 634 subjects of Mulao nationality and 717 participants of Han nationality were randomly selected from our previous samples. Genotyping of the ABCG8 rs4148217 SNP was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing.
The genotypic and allelic frequencies of ABCG8 rs4148217 SNP were different between the two nationalities (P < 0.01 for each), the frequency of A allele was higher in Mulao than in Han. The A allele carriers in Han had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 levels than the A allele noncarriers (P < 0.05 for each), whereas the A allele carriers in Mulao had lower ApoA1 levels than the A allele noncarriers (P < 0.05). Subgroup analyses showed that the A allele carriers in Han had lower HDL-C and higher triglyceride (TG) levels in females but not in males than the A allele noncarriers (P < 0.05 for each), and the A allele carriers in Mulao had lower ApoA1 levels in females but not in males than the A allele noncarriers (P < 0.05). The levels of TG and HDL-C in Han, and ApoA1 in Mulao were associated with genotypes in females but not in males (P < 0.05-0.01). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors (P < 0.05-0.001).
The ABCG8 rs4148217 SNP is associated with serum TG, HDL-C and ApoA1 levels in our study populations, but this association is different between the Mulao and Han populations. There is a sex (female)-specific association in both ethnic groups.
Aims. Genes of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway are compelling candidates for atherosclerosis. We hypothesize that polymorphisms in ALOX12, ALOX15, ALOX5, and ALOX5AP genes are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in multiple vascular beds. Methods. Families with two or more siblings with type 2 diabetes and their nondiabetic siblings were studied as part of the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS). European American diabetic (n = 828) and nondiabetic (n = 170) siblings were genotyped for SNPs in the ALOX12, ALOX15, ALOX5, and ALOX5AP genes. Subclinical measures of atherosclerosis (IMT, coronary (CorCP), carotid (CarCP) and aortic (AorCP) calcified plaque) were obtained. Results. Associations were observed between ALOX12 with CorCP, ALOX5 with CorCP, AorCP, and IMT, and ALOX5AP with CorCP and CarCP, independent of known epidemiologic risk factors. Further, lipoxygenase pathway SNPs that were associated with measures of atherosclerosis were associated with markers of inflammation (CRP, ICAM-1) and calcification (MGP).
Conclusions. Polymorphisms within ALOX12, ALOX5, and ALOX5AP are genetically associated with subclinical atherosclerosis and with biomarkers of disease in families with type 2 diabetes. These results suggest that variants in lipoxygenase pathway genes may have pleiotropic effects on multiple components that determine risk of cardiovascular disease.
Since the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are genetic variations which determine the difference between any two unrelated individuals, the SNPs can be used to identify the correct source population of an individual. For efficient population identification with the HapMap genotype data, as few informative SNPs as possible are required from the original 4 million SNPs. Recently, Park et al. (2006) adopted the nearest shrunken centroid method to classify the three populations, i.e., Utah residents with ancestry from Northern and Western Europe (CEU), Yoruba in Ibadan, Nigeria in West Africa (YRI), and Han Chinese in Beijing together with Japanese in Tokyo (CHB+JPT), from which 100,736 SNPs were obtained and the top 82 SNPs could completely classify the three populations.
In this paper, we propose to first rank each feature (SNP) using a ranking measure, i.e., a modified t-test or F-statistics. Then from the ranking list, we form different feature subsets by sequentially choosing different numbers of features (e.g., 1, 2, 3, ..., 100.) with top ranking values, train and test them by a classifier, e.g., the support vector machine (SVM), thereby finding one subset which has the highest classification accuracy. Compared to the classification method of Park et al., we obtain a better result, i.e., good classification of the 3 populations using on average 64 SNPs.
Experimental results show that the both of the modified t-test and F-statistics method are very effective in ranking SNPs about their classification capabilities. Combined with the SVM classifier, a desirable feature subset (with the minimum size and most informativeness) can be quickly found in the greedy manner after ranking all SNPs. Our method is able to identify a very small number of important SNPs that can determine the populations of individuals.
Background. Acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) are clinically cardiovascular events associated with dyslipidemia in common. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes in the APOA1/C3/A5 gene cluster are associated with diabetes and familial combined hyperlipidaemia (FCH). Little is known about whether the polymorphisms in these genes affect lipid homeostasis in patients with ACSs. The present paper aimed to examine these associations with 4 SNPs in the APOA1 −75G > A, the APOC3 −455T > C, and APOA5 −1131T > C, c.553G > T variant to ACSs in Chinese Han. Methods. Chinese Han of 229 patients with ACSs and 254 unrelated controls were analyzed. Four SNPs in APOA1/C3/A5 cluster were genotyped and lipid was determined. Results. Our data show that minor allelic frequencies of APOC3 −455T > C, APOA5 −1131T > C, and c.553G > T polymorphisms in patients with ACSs were significantly higher than control group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the 3 polymorphic sites were strongly of linkage disequilibrium, and minor alleles of 3 SNP sites had higher TG level than wild alleles (P < 0.05), APOC3 −455C and APOA5 c.553T allele carriers also had lower level of HDL-C.
Conclusions. The minor alleles of APOC3 −455T > C, APOA5 −1131T > C, and c.553G > T polymorphisms are closely associated with ACSs.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between the polymorphisms of fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1), fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2), and elongation of very long-chain fatty acids-like 2 (ELOVL2) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Chinese Han population. Therefore, we selected three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from these candidate genes and genotyped them using PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in 249 ACS patients and 240 non-ACS subjects, as were Han Chinese ancestry. The results showed that rs174556 in the FADS1 gene is found to be in allelic association (P = 0.003
) and genotypic association (P = 0.036) with ACS. The frequencies of rs174556 minor allele (T) in case group were obviously higher than in control group. The trans-phase gene-gene interaction analysis showed that the combined genotype of rs174556 (T/T) and rs3756963 (T/T) was associated with ACS (P = 0.031). And the results suggest that, for rs174556 C>T, the CT/TT genotypes were more likely to lead in ACS in subjects with hypertension after correction of all risk factors (OR = 4.236, 95% CI, 2.216–7.126). These findings suggest that the polymorphisms of rs174556 in the FADS1 gene are very likely to be associated with ACS in Chinese Han population, especially in subjects with hypertension.
Natural menopause is a key physiological event in a woman’s life. Timing of menopause affects risk for many postmenopausal systemic disorders and may thus influence life expectancy. Age at natural menopause (ANM) is largely determined genetically, but a list of candidate genes is far from complete. This study investigated the ALOX12 gene for its possible association with ANM.
Six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the gene (rs9904779, rs2073438, rs11571340, rs434473, rs2307214, and rs312462) were genotyped in a random sample of 210 unrelated white women. The SNPs and common haplotypes were then analyzed for their association with ANM. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and duration of breast-feeding were used as covariates.
Two SNPs, rs9904779 and rs434473 (encodes a replacement of asparagine by serine in the protein), were significantly associated with ANM (P = 0.022 and 0.033, respectively). The minor alleles of both SNPs seem to promote about 1.3- to 1.5-year earlier menopause and confer a 1.6 to 1.8 times higher risk for early menopause. All SNPs indicated significant or nearly significant interactions with alcohol use and duration of breast-feeding. Five common haplotypes were also associated with ANM.
The ALOX12 gene seems to be associated with the timing of natural menopause in white women.
Age at natural menopause; Association; ALOX12; Polymorphisms; Haplotypes
Background: The rs7395662 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the MADD-FOLH1 has been associated with serum lipid traits, but the results are inconsistent in different populations. The present study was undertaken to investigate the association of rs7395662 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations.
Method: A total of 721 subjects of Mulao and 727 subjects of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized samples. Genotyping of the SNP was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and confirmed by direct sequencing.
Results: Serum apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels were higher in Mulao than in Han (P < 0.01). The allelic and genotypic frequencies in Han were different between males and females (P < 0.05 for each), but there was no difference between Mulao and Han or between Mulao males and females. The levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB in Mulao females were different among the genotypes (P < 0.05), the G allele carriers had higher LDL-C and ApoB levels than the G allele non-carriers. The levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), LDL-C and ApoB in Han males and TC, TG and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in Han females were different among the genotypes (P < 0.05-0.01), the subjects with GG genotype in Han males had higher TC, TG, and ApoB and lower LDL-C levels than the subjects with AA or AG genotype, and the G allele carriers in Han females had lower TC and HDL-C levels than the G allele non-carriers. The levels of LDL-C and ApoB in Mulao females were correlated with the genotypes (P < 0.05 for each). The levels of HDL-C and ApoAI in Han males and HDL-C in Han females were correlated with genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups (P < 0.05-0.01).
Conclusion: The association of rs7395662 SNP and serum lipid levels is different between the Mulao and Han populations, and between males and females in both ethnic groups.
environmental factors; MADD-FOLH1; lipid profiles; single nucleotide polymorphism.
The aim of present study was to investigate the relationship between nerve injury-induced protein 2 (NINJ2) gene polymorphism and stroke in Chinese Han population. Fifty-two patients with large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA) infarction, 85 patients with small-artery occlusion lacunar (SAO) infarction, 50 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and 66 controls were included. Genotypes and alleles frequencies of the two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of NINJ2 among different groups were analyzed and compared. In regard to rs12425791, the frequencies of the AG and AA+AG genotypes of the LAA and SAO groups were significantly higher than those in the control group; the frequency of the A allele of the SAO group was significantly higher than that of the control group. In regard to rs11833579, there were not any significant differences between the case and the control groups. The SNP rs12425791 is significantly associated with ischemic stroke, and the A allele increases the susceptibility to stroke. The SNP rs11833579 is not significantly associated with stroke.
nerve injury-induced protein 2 (NINJ2); single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP); stroke; cell adhesion molecule
Murine genetic models suggest that function of the 12/15 LOX enzyme promotes atherosclerosis. We tested the hypothesis that exonic and/or promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human 12/15-LOX gene (ALOX15) alter the risk of symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD).
Methods & Results
We resequenced ALOX15 and then genotyped a common promoter and a less common novel coding SNP (T560M) in 1809 subjects with CAD and 1734 controls from Kaiser Permanente including a subset of participants of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study. We found no association between the promoter SNP and the risk of CAD. However, heterozygote carriers of the 560M allele had an increased risk of CAD (adjusted OR, 1.62; P=0.02) compared to non-carriers. In vitro studies demonstrated a 20-fold reduction in the catalytic activity of 560M when compared to 560T. We then genotyped T560M in 12974 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study and similarly found that heterozygote carriers had an increased risk of CAD compared to non-carriers (adjusted HR, 1.31; P=0.06). In both population studies, homozygote carriers were rare and associated with a non-significant decreased risk of CAD compared to non-carriers (adjusted OR, 0.55; P=0.63 and HR, 0.93; P=0.9).
A coding SNP in ALOX15 (T560M) results in a near null variant of human 12/15-LOX. Assuming a co-dominant mode of inheritance, this variant does not protect against CAD. Assuming a recessive mode of inheritance, the effect of this mutation remains unclear, but is unlikely to provide a protective effect to the degree suggested by mouse knockout studies.
Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase; polymorphism – single nucleotide; coronary disease
The aims of this study were to investigate the association between the +781C/T polymorphism of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and atherosclerotic cerebral infarction and the interaction between the +781C/T polymorphism and smoking or drinking in cerebral infarction in the Han Chinese population.
We investigated the +781C/T polymorphism of IL-8 in 308 consecutive Han Chinese patients who were diagnosed with atherosclerotic cerebral infarction and in 294 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects. The patients were classified using the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project (OCSP) classification. The patients and subjects’ histories of smoking and drinking were recorded, and atherosclerosis (AS) of the internal carotid artery (ICA) was evaluated in the patients. The +781C/T polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis.
The +781C/T polymorphism and allele frequencies were not significantly different between the patients and controls and were not significantly associated with the OCSP classifications. We found that the 781C allele was significantly associated with AS of the ICA in the patients (p = 0.017), and the CT genotype was more prevalent in patients without AS of the ICA (p = 0.035). No interactions were observed between the +781C/T polymorphism and smoking or drinking.
Our results demonstrated that the +781C/T polymorphism of IL-8 did not play a role and had no interaction with smoking or drinking in the occurrence of cerebral infarction in the Han Chinese population. However, the C allele and the CT genotype might be associated with AS of the ICA in patients with ischemic stroke.
Arachidonic acid (AA), an essential polyunsaturated fatty acid, is one of the major components of neural membranes, which show an altered phospholipid composition in schizophrenia. Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (ALOX12), an important enzyme, metabolizes AA to 12-HPETE, which affects catecholamine synthesis. However, research has yet to show the genetic association between ALOX12 and schizophrenia. Therefore, we investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of the ALOX12 gene in schizophrenia, recruiting patients with schizophrenia (n = 289) and normal controls (n = 306) from a Korean population. We selected three SNPs (rs1126667, rs434473, and rs1042357) of the ALOX12 gene and genotyped them by direct sequencing. We reviewed the schizophrenic patients' medical records and assessed them clinically using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), and the Operational Criteria Checklist (OPCRIT). Then we statistically analyzed the genetic associations between the SNPs and schizophrenia, finding a genetic association between both rs1126667 and rs1042357 and schizophrenia, in the recessive model (p = 0.015 and 0.015, respectively). We also found an association between rs434473 and negative symptoms, defined through a factor analysis of the OPCRIT data (p = 0.040). Consequently, we suggest that SNPs of the ALOX12 gene might be associated with schizophrenia and negative symptoms in this Korean population. These weak positives require additional study.
Background and Purpose
Atherothrombotic cerebral infarction [atherothrombotic stroke (ATS)] shares common risk factors and pathophysiological mechanisms with coronary artery disease (CAD), and both diseases appear to have common susceptibility loci. The muscle RAS oncogene homolog gene (MRAS) has been identified as a susceptibility locus for CAD and is implicated in atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes of MRAS are associated with increased risk of ATS in a population of Han Chinese.
A case-controlled association study was conducted in which only patients with ATS (identified as a major subtype in the Korean modification of the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classification) were enrolled. Subgroup analyses were carried out to determine whether the effect of the MRAS polymorphism was specific to age and gender among the subjects.
In total, 194 ATS and 186 control subjects were included in the present study. Two tagging SNPs were identified in MRAS (rs40593 and rs3755751). A multivariate regression analysis revealed a positive association between rs40593 and ATS under dominant and additive models after adjustment for covariates. Subgroup analyses revealed that there were no gender differences with respect to allele or genotype frequencies between the groups. The AG genotype for rs40593 (p=0.028), the CT genotype for rs3755751 (p=0.036), and G-allele carriers (AG plus GG) for rs40593 (p=0.015) exhibited a significant protective effect among those aged ≥45 years. For the haplotype analysis, ATS subjects aged ≥45 years had a higher frequency of the ACAC haplotype (76.0%) than the controls (68.1%; p<0.05); that haplotype was associated with an increased risk of ATS.
The obtained data suggest a positive association between MRAS and ATS among the Han Chinese. Further studies should be performed with larger sample and among different ethnic populations, and gene-gene or gene-environment interactions should be considered.
ischemic stroke; atherothrombotic stroke; single-nucleotide polymorphism; haplotype; genetic variation
Somatic alterations of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2)-cyclin E complex have been shown to contribute to breast cancer (BC) development and progression. This study aimed to explore the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CDK2 and CCNE1 (a gene encoding G1/S specific cyclin E1 protein, formerly called cyclin E) on BC risk, progression and survival in a Chinese Han population.
We herein genotyped 6 haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPs) of CCNE1 and 2 htSNPs of CDK2 in 1207 BC cases and 1207 age-matched controls among Chinese Han women, and then reconstructed haplotype blocks according to our genotyping data and linkage disequilibrium status of these htSNPs. For CCNE1, the minor allele homozygotes of three htSNPs were associated with BC risk (rs3218035: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.69–6.67; rs3218038: aOR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.22–2.70; rs3218042: aOR = 2.64, 95% CI = 1.31–5.34), and these three loci showed a dose-dependent manner in increasing BC risk (Ptrend = 0.0001). Moreover, the 5-SNP haplotype CCGTC, which carried none of minor alleles of the 3 at-risk SNPs, was associated with a favorable event-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.32–0.90). Stratified analysis suggested that the minor-allele homozygote carriers of rs3218038 had a worse event-free survival among patients with aggressive tumours (in tumour size>2 cm group: HR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.06–3.99; in positive lymph node metastasis group: HR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.15–5.03; in stage II–IV group: HR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.09–3.79). For CDK2, no significant association was found.
This study indicates that genetic variants in CCNE1 may contribute to BC risk and survival in Chinese Han population. They may become molecular markers for individual evaluation of BC susceptibility and prognosis. Nevertheless, further validation studies are needed.
Backgroud: The associations of scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1) rs5888 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid levels are inconsistant among diverse ethnic populations. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of rs5888 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations.
Methods: Genotypes of the SCARB1 rs5888 SNP in 801 subjects of Mulao and 807 subjects of Han Chinese were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing.
Results: Serum apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels and the T allelic frequency were higher in Mulao than in Han. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in Mulao were different among the genotypes, the subjects with TT genotype had lower HDL-C levels than the subjects with CC or CT genotype in female (P < 0.05). For the Han population, serum triglyceride (TG), HDL-C, ApoAI, ApoB levels and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in males were different among the genotypes, the T allele carriers had lower serum HDL-C, ApoAI levels and ApoAI/ApoB ratio and higher serum ApoB levels than the T allele noncarriers (P < 0.05 for all), the subjects with TT genotype had higher serum TG levels than the subjects with CC or CT genotype. Serum HDL-C levels in Mulao females and serum HDL-C, ApoAI, ApoB levels and the ApoAI/ApoB ratio in Han males were correlated with genotypes by the multiple linear regression analysis. Serum lipid parameters were also influenced by genotype-environmental interactions in Han but not in Mulao populations.
Conclusions: These results suggest that the rs5888 SNP is associated with serum HDL-C levels in Mulao females, and TG, HDL-C, ApoAI, ApoB levels and the ApoAI/ApoB ratio in Han males. The differences in serum ApoB levels between the two ethnic groups might partially attribute to different SCARB1 genotype-environmental interactions.
scavenger receptor class B type 1 gene; single nucleotide polymorphism; lipids; apolipoproteins