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1.  Genetic variation in exon 5 of troponin - I gene in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy cases 
Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of heart muscle disorders and are classified as 1) Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) 2) Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) 3) Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) and 4) Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) as per WHO classification, of which HCM and DCM are common. HCM is a complex but relatively common form of inherited heart muscle disease with prevalence of 1 in 500 individuals and is commonly associated with sarcomeric gene mutations. Cardiac muscle troponin I (TNNI-3) is one such sarcomeric protein and is a subunit of the thin filament-associated troponin-tropomyosin complex involved in calcium regulation of skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction. Mutations in this gene were found to be associated with a history of sudden cardiac death in HCM patients.
Therefore the present study aims to identify for mutations associated with troponin I gene in a set of HCM patients from Indian population.
Mutational analyses of 92 HCM cases were carried out following PCR based SSCP analysis.
The study revealed band pattern variation in 3 cases from a group of 92 HCM patients. This band pattern variation, on sequencing revealed base changes, one at nt 2560 with G>T transversion in exon-5 region with a wobble and others at nt 2479 and nt 2478 with G>C and C>G transversions in the intronic region upstream of the exon 5 on sequencing. Further analysis showed that one of the probands showed apical form of hypertrophy, two others showing asymmetric septal hypertrophy. Two of these probands showed family history of the condition.
Hence, the study supports earlier reports of involvement of TNNI-3 in the causation of apical and asymmetrical forms of hypertrophy.
PMCID: PMC3168158  PMID: 21957345
Genetic variation; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; sudden cardiac death; troponin-I
2.  Recurrent and founder mutations in the Netherlands: cardiac Troponin I (TNNI3) gene mutations as a cause of severe forms of hypertrophic and restrictive cardiomyopathy 
Netherlands Heart Journal  2011;19(7-8):344-351.
About 2-7% of familial cardiomyopathy cases are caused by a mutation in the gene encoding cardiac troponin I (TNNI3). The related clinical phenotype is usually severe with early onset. Here we report on all currently known mutations in the Dutch population and compared these with those described in literature.
TheTNNI3 gene was screened for mutations in all coding exons and flanking intronic sequences in a large cohort of cardiomyopathy patients. All Dutch index cases carrying a TNNI3 mutation that are described in this study underwent extensive cardiological evaluation and were listed by their postal codes.
In 30 families, 14 different mutations were identified. Three TNNI3 mutations were found relatively frequently in both familial and non-familial cases of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) or restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM). Haplotype analysis showed that p.Arg145Trp and p.Ser166Phe are founder mutations in the Netherlands, while p.Glu209Ala is not. The majority of Dutch TNNI3 mutations were associated with a HCM phenotype. Mean age at diagnosis was 36.5 years. Mutations causing RCM occurred less frequently, but were identified in very young children with a poor prognosis.
In line with previously published data, we found TNNI3 mutations to be rare and associated with early onset and severe clinical presentation.
PMCID: PMC3144325  PMID: 21533915
TNNI3; Founder; HCM; RCM; DCM
3.  Recurrent and founder mutations in the Netherlands: cardiac Troponin I (TNNI3) gene mutations as a cause of severe forms of hypertrophic and restrictive cardiomyopathy 
Netherlands Heart Journal  2011;19(7-8):344-351.
About 2-7% of familial cardiomyopathy cases are caused by a mutation in the gene encoding cardiac troponin I (TNNI3). The related clinical phenotype is usually severe with early onset. Here we report on all currently known mutations in the Dutch population and compared these with those described in literature.
TheTNNI3 gene was screened for mutations in all coding exons and flanking intronic sequences in a large cohort of cardiomyopathy patients. All Dutch index cases carrying a TNNI3 mutation that are described in this study underwent extensive cardiological evaluation and were listed by their postal codes.
In 30 families, 14 different mutations were identified. Three TNNI3 mutations were found relatively frequently in both familial and non-familial cases of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) or restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM). Haplotype analysis showed that p.Arg145Trp and p.Ser166Phe are founder mutations in the Netherlands, while p.Glu209Ala is not. The majority of Dutch TNNI3 mutations were associated with a HCM phenotype. Mean age at diagnosis was 36.5 years. Mutations causing RCM occurred less frequently, but were identified in very young children with a poor prognosis.
In line with previously published data, we found TNNI3 mutations to be rare and associated with early onset and severe clinical presentation.
PMCID: PMC3144325  PMID: 21533915
TNNI3; Founder; HCM; RCM; DCM
4.  A Novel Arginine to Tryptophan (R144W) Mutation in Troponin T (cTnT) Gene in an Indian Multigenerational Family with Dilated Cardiomyopathy (FDCM) 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(7):e101451.
Cardiomyopathy is a major cause of heart failure and sudden cardiac death; several mutations in sarcomeric protein genes have been associated with this disease. Our aim in the present study is to investigate the genetic variations in Troponin T (cTnT) gene and its association with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in south-Indian patients. Analyses of all the exons and exon-intron boundaries of cTnT in 147 DCM and in 207 healthy controls had revealed a total of 15 SNPs and a 5 bp INDEL; of which, polymorphic SNPs were compared with the HapMap population data. Interestingly, a novel R144W mutation, that substitutes polar-neutral tryptophan for a highly conserved basic arginine in cTnT, altering the charge drastically, was identified in a DCM, with a family history of sudden-cardiac death (SCD). This mutation was found within the tropomyosin (TPM1) binding domain, and was evolutionarily conserved across species, therefore it is expected to have a significant impact on the structure and function of the protein. Family studies had revealed that the R144W is co-segregating with disease in the family as an autosomal dominant trait, but it was completely absent in 207 healthy controls and in 162 previously studied HCM patients. Further screening of the proband and three of his family members (positive for R144W mutant) with eight other genes β-MYH7, MYBPC3, TPM1, TNNI3, TTN, ACTC, MYL2 and MYL3, did not reveal any disease causing mutation, proposing the absence of compound heterozygosity. Therefore, we strongly suggest that the novel R144W unique/private mutant identified in this study is associated with FDCM. This is furthermore signifying the unique genetic architecture of Indian population.
PMCID: PMC4081629  PMID: 24992688
5.  Perturbed Length–Dependent Activation in Human Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy With Missense Sarcomeric Gene Mutations 
Circulation research  2013;112(11):1491-1505.
High-myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity has been proposed as trigger of disease pathogenesis in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) based on in vitro and transgenic mice studies. However, myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity depends on protein phosphorylation and muscle length, and at present, data in human are scarce.
To investigate whether high-myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity and perturbed length-dependent activation are characteristics for human HCM with mutations in thick- and thin-filament proteins.
Methods and Results
Cardiac samples from patients with HCM harboring mutations in genes encoding thick (MYH7, MYBPC3) and thin (TNNT2, TNNI3, TPM1) filament proteins were compared with sarcomere mutation-negative HCM and nonfailing donors. Cardiomyocyte force measurements showed higher myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity in all HCM samples and low phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA)-targets compared with donors. After exogenous PKA treatment, myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity was either similar (MYBPC3mut, TPM1mut, sarcomere mutation-negative HCM), higher (MYH7mut, TNNT2mut), or even significantly lower (TNNI3mut) compared with donors. Length-dependent activation was significantly smaller in all HCM than in donor samples. PKA treatment increased phosphorylation of PKA-targets in HCM myocardium and normalized length-dependent activation to donor values in sarcomere mutation-negative HCM and HCM with truncating MYBPC3 mutations, but not in HCM with missense mutations. Replacement of mutant by wild-type troponin in TNNT2mut and TNNI3mut corrected length-dependent activation to donor values.
High-myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity is a common characteristic of human HCM and partly reflects hypophosphorylation of PKA-targets compared with donors. Length-dependent sarcomere activation is perturbed by missense mutations, possibly via post-translational modifications other than PKA-hypophosphorylation or altered protein–protein interactions, and represents a common pathomechanism in HCM.
PMCID: PMC3675884  PMID: 23508784
calcium; cardiomyopathy; contractility; hypertrophy; myocardium
6.  An In Silico Analysis of Troponin I Mutations in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy of Indian Origin 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e70704.
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an autosomal dominant disorder of the myocardium which is hypertrophied resulting in arrhythmias and heart failure leading to sudden cardiac death (SCD). Several sarcomeric proteins and modifier genes have been implicated in this disease. Troponin I, being a part of the Troponin complex (troponin I, troponin C, troponin T), is an important gene for sarcomeric function. Four mutations (1 novel) were identified in Indian HCM cases, namely, Pro82Ser, Arg98Gln, Arg141Gln and Arg162Gln in Troponin I protein, which are in functionally significant domains. In order to analyse the effect of the mutations on protein stability and protein-protein interactions within the Troponin complex, an in silico study was carried out. The freely available X-ray crystal structure (PDB ID: 1JIE) was used as the template to model the protein followed by loop generation and development of troponin complex for both the troponin I wild type and four mutants (NCBI ID: PRJNA194382). The structural study was carried out to determine the effect of mutation on the structural stability and protein-protein interactions between three subunits in the complex. These mutations, especially the arginine to glutamine substitutions were found to result in local perturbations within the troponin complex by creating/removing inter/intra molecular hydrogen bonds with troponin T and troponin C. This has led to a decrease in the protein stability and loss of important interactions between the three subunits. It could have a significant impact on the disease progression when coupled with allelic heterogeneity which was observed in the cases carrying these mutations. However, this can be further confirmed by functional studies on protein levels in the identified cases.
PMCID: PMC3742764  PMID: 23967088
7.  Coexistence of mitochondrial DNA and β myosin heavy chain mutations in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with late congestive heart failure 
Heart  1998;80(6):548-558.
Objective—To investigate the possible coexistence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in patients with β myosin heavy chain (βMHC) linked hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) who develop congestive heart failure.
Design—Molecular analysis of βMHC and mtDNA gene defects in patients with HCM.
Setting—Cardiovascular molecular diagnostic and heart transplantation reference centre in north Italy.
Patients—Four patients with HCM who underwent heart transplantation for end stage heart failure, and after pedigree analysis of 60 relatives, eight additional affected patients and 27 unaffected relatives. A total of 111 unrelated healthy adult volunteers served as controls. Disease controls included an additional 27 patients with HCM and 102 with dilated cardiomyopathy.
Intervention—Molecular analysis of DNA from myocardial and skeletal muscle tissue and from peripheral blood specimens.
Main outcome measures—Screening for mutations in βMHC (exons 3-23) and mtDNA tRNA (n = 22) genes with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis or single strand conformational polymorphism followed by automated DNA sequencing.
Results—One proband (kindred A) (plus seven affected relatives) had arginine 249 glutamine (Arg249Gln) βMHC and heteroplasmic mtDNA tRNAIle A4300G mutations. Another unrelated patient (kindred B) with sporadic HCM had identical mutations. The remaining two patients (kindred C), a mother and son, had a novel βMHC mutation (lysine 450 glutamic acid) (Lys450Glu) and a heteroplasmic missense (T9957C, phenylalanine (Phe)->leucine (Leu)) mtDNA mutation in subunit III of the cytochrome C oxidase gene. The amount of mutant mtDNA was higher in the myocardium than in skeletal muscle or peripheral blood and in affected patients than in asymptomatic relatives. Mutations were absent in the controls. Pathological and biochemical characteristics of patients with mutations Arg249Gln plus A4300G (kindreds A and B) were identical, but different from those of the two patients with Lys450Glu plus T9957C(Phe->Leu) mutations (kindred C). Cytochrome C oxidase activity and histoenzymatic staining were severely decreased in the two patients in kindreds A and B, but were unaffected in the two in kindred C.
Conclusions—βMHC gene and mtDNA mutations may coexist in patients with HCM and end stage congestive heart failure. Although βMHC gene mutations seem to be the true determinants of HCM, both mtDNA mutations in these patients have known prerequisites for pathogenicity. Coexistence of other genetic abnormalities in βMHC linked HCM, such as mtDNA mutations, may contribute to variable phenotypic expression and explain the heterogeneous behaviour of HCM.

 Keywords: β myosin heavy chain;  mitochondrial DNA;  hypertrophic cardiomyopathy;  oxidative phosphorylation;  congestive heart failure
PMCID: PMC1728869  PMID: 10065021
8.  Clinical implications of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated with mutations in the alpha-tropomyosin gene. 
Heart  1996;76(1):63-65.
OBJECTIVE: The disease-bearing genes for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in HCM families have been identified as the beta-myosin heavy chain, alpha-tropomyosin, and cardiac troponin T genes. Three HCM kindreds with three distinct point mutations in the alpha-tropomyosin gene had extensive clinical evaluations. DESIGN AND RESULTS: Single-strand conformation polymorphism gel analysis of polymerase chain reaction amplified products was used to capture each of the nine exons from the alpha-tropomyosin gene to identify mutations in 60 familial HCM patients. Two missense mutations in exon 2 (Ala63Val and Lys70Thr) and one missense mutation in exon 5 (Asp175Asn) were found in three unrelated HCM kindreds. These kindreds were the subject of clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic studies. The morphological appearance of HCM was similar in the three kindreds. All the patients had severe hypertrophy of the left ventricle with asymmetrical septal hypertrophy during the early stage of the disease, which gradually progressed to dilatation of the left ventricle. Moreover, these kindreds showed similar disease penetrance, age of onset, and incidence of premature sudden death. The disease in these kindreds was severe and resulted in frequent sudden deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Among Japanese patients with familial HCM mutations in the alpha-tropomyosin gene are not as rare as reported, accounting for about 5% of all cases. These mutations are characterised by hypertrophy of the left ventricle which then progresses to dilatation and a high incidence of sudden or disease-related death.
PMCID: PMC484428  PMID: 8774330
9.  A Gain-of-Function Mutation in Tnni2 Impeded Bone Development through Increasing Hif3a Expression in DA2B Mice 
PLoS Genetics  2014;10(10):e1004589.
Distal arthrogryposis type 2B (DA2B) is an important genetic disorder in humans. However, the mechanisms governing this disease are not clearly understood. In this study, we generated knock-in mice carrying a DA2B mutation (K175del) in troponin I type 2 (skeletal, fast) (TNNI2), which encodes a fast-twitch skeletal muscle protein. Tnni2K175del mice (referred to as DA2B mice) showed typical DA2B phenotypes, including limb abnormality and small body size. However, the current knowledge concerning TNNI2 could not explain the small body phenotype of DA2B mice. We found that Tnni2 was expressed in the osteoblasts and chondrocytes of long bone growth plates. Expression profile analysis using radii and ulnae demonstrated that Hif3a expression was significantly increased in the Tnni2K175del mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that both wild-type and mutant tnni2 protein can bind to the Hif3a promoter using mouse primary osteoblasts. Moreover, we showed that the mutant tnni2 protein had a higher capacity to transactivate Hif3a than the wild-type protein. The increased amount of hif3a resulted in impairment of angiogenesis, delay in endochondral ossification, and decrease in chondrocyte differentiation and osteoblast proliferation, suggesting that hif3a counteracted hif1a-induced Vegf expression in DA2B mice. Together, our data indicated that Tnni2K175del mutation led to abnormally increased hif3a and decreased vegf in bone, which explain, at least in part, the small body size of Tnni2K175del mice. Furthermore, our findings revealed a new function of tnni2 in the regulation of bone development, and the study of gain-of-function mutation in Tnni2 in transgenic mice opens a new avenue to understand the pathological mechanism of human DA2B disorder.
Author Summary
Distal arthrogryposis type 2B (DA2B) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder. The typical clinical features of DA2B include hand and/or foot contracture and shortness of stature in patients. To date, mutations in TNNI2 can explain approximately 20% of familial incidences of DA2B. TNNI2 encodes a subunit of the Tn complex, which is required for calcium-dependent fast twitch muscle fiber contraction. In the absence of Ca2+ ions, TNNI2 impedes sarcomere contraction. Here, we reported a knock-in mouse carrying a DA2B mutation TNNI2 (K175del) had typical limb abnormality and small body size that observed in human DA2B. However, the small body did not seem to be convincingly explained using the present knowledge of TNNI2 associated skeletal muscle contraction. Our findings showed that the Tnni2K175del mutation impaired bone development of Tnni2K175del mice. Our data further showed that the mutant tnni2 protein had a higher capacity to transactivate Hif3a than the wild-type protein and led to a reduction in Vegf expression in bone of DA2B mice. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that the disease-associated Tnni2K175del mutation caused bone defects, which accounted for, at least in part, the small body size of Tnni2K175del mice. Our data also suggested, for the first time, a novel role of tnni2 in the regulation of bone development of mice by affecting Hif-vegf signaling.
PMCID: PMC4207604  PMID: 25340332
10.  Idiopathic restrictive cardiomyopathy is part of the clinical expression of cardiac troponin I mutations 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  2003;111(2):209-216.
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is an uncommon heart muscle disorder characterized by impaired filling of the ventricles with reduced volume in the presence of normal or near normal wall thickness and systolic function. The disease may be associated with systemic disease but is most often idiopathic. We recognized a large family in which individuals were affected by either idiopathic RCM or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Linkage analysis to selected sarcomeric contractile protein genes identified cardiac troponin I (TNNI3) as the likely disease gene. Subsequent mutation analysis revealed a novel missense mutation, which cosegregated with the disease in the family (lod score: 4.8). To determine if idiopathic RCM is part of the clinical expression of TNNI3 mutations, genetic investigations of the gene were performed in an additional nine unrelated RCM patients with restrictive filling patterns, bi-atrial dilatation, normal systolic function, and normal wall thickness. TNNI3 mutations were identified in six of these nine RCM patients. Two of the mutations identified in young individuals were de novo mutations. All mutations appeared in conserved and functionally important domains of the gene.
PMCID: PMC151864  PMID: 12531876
11.  MYBPC3 gene variations in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients in India 
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a complex cardiac muscular disorder, inherited as an autosomal dominant disease with variable penetrance. Cardiac myosin-binding protein C (MyBPC) is the predominant myosin-binding protein isoform in the heart muscle. One hundred forty-seven mutations have been detected in MYBPC3, accounting for 15% of all HCM cases.
To screen exons 16, 18, 19, 22, 24, 28, 30, 31 and 34 in the MYBPC3 gene in Indian HCM patients.
Sixty control and 95 HCM samples were collected from cardiology units of the CARE Hospital (Nampally, Banjara Hills, Secunderabad, India) for genomic DNA isolation followed by polymerase chain reaction and single-stranded conformational polymorphism analysis.
Screening of the exons revealed two variations – one novel frame shift mutation in exon 19 at the nucleotide position 11577^11578 and one novel single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in codon 1093 of exon 31, coding for glycine with a C>T transition (GGC/GGT), in addition to the seven known SNPs mainly in the intronic region and one known missense mutation D770N in this population.
The novel frame shift mutation identified in exon 19, D570fs, with the insertion of an adenine residue in codon 570 coding for aspartate, results in a premature termination codon that produces a truncated protein lacking myosin- and titin-binding sites, explaining the role of the nonsense-mediated decay pathway. A novel SNP identified in codon 1093 of exon 31 was found to be a synonymous codon, which may have a regulatory effect at the translational level, attributing to affinity differences between codon-anticodon interactions. The screening of this gene may be relevant in the Indian context.
PMCID: PMC2644567  PMID: 18273486
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; MYBPC3; Nonsense-mediated decay pathway; Novel mutation
12.  ENerGetIcs in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: traNslation between MRI, PET and cardiac myofilament function (ENGINE study) 
Netherlands Heart Journal  2013;21(12):567-571.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an autosomal dominant heart disease mostly due to mutations in genes encoding sarcomeric proteins. HCM is characterised by asymmetric hypertrophy of the left ventricle (LV) in the absence of another cardiac or systemic disease. At present it lacks specific treatment to prevent or reverse cardiac dysfunction and hypertrophy in mutation carriers and HCM patients. Previous studies have indicated that sarcomere mutations increase energetic costs of cardiac contraction and cause myocardial dysfunction and hypertrophy. By using a translational approach, we aim to determine to what extent disturbances of myocardial energy metabolism underlie disease progression in HCM.
Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) patients and aortic valve stenosis (AVS) patients will undergo a positron emission tomography (PET) with acetate and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) with tissue tagging before and 4 months after myectomy surgery or aortic valve replacement + septal biopsy. Myectomy tissue or septal biopsy will be used to determine efficiency of sarcomere contraction in-vitro, and results will be compared with in-vivo cardiac performance. Healthy subjects and non-hypertrophic HCM mutation carriers will serve as a control group.
Our study will reveal whether perturbations in cardiac energetics deteriorate during disease progression in HCM and whether these changes are attributed to cardiac remodelling or the presence of a sarcomere mutation per se. In-vitro studies in hypertrophied cardiac muscle from HOCM and AVS patients will establish whether sarcomere mutations increase ATP consumption of sarcomeres in human myocardium. Our follow-up imaging study in HOCM and AVS patients will reveal whether impaired cardiac energetics are restored by cardiac surgery.
PMCID: PMC3833912  PMID: 24114686
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; Carrier; Myocardial energetics; Sarcomere mutations
13.  Combined obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and double outlet right ventricle in an infant with Down syndrome 
Patient: Male, 2
Final Diagnosis: Obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Symptoms: Congestive heart failure
Medication: —
Clinical Procedure: Left ventricular septal myectomy • repair of congenital heart disease
Specialty: Cardiology
Rare disease
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is uncommon in Down syndrome (DS). When combined with congenital heart disease (CHD) both morbidity and mortality may be greater compared to CHD alone. Whether HCM in DS patients is related to having trisomy 21 versus a second site mutation is unknown.
Case Report:
We report a case of severe HCM in an infant with DS in combination with double outlet right ventricle (DORV) who required surgery for relive of sub-aortic obstruction and congestive heart failure. We predicted that this infant would have a second site mutation involving either a sarcomeric protein or metabolic disorder as a cause for his HCM. Using current genetic and metabolic testing as well as histologic assessment of excised cardiac tissue we sought to further characterize the nature of the HCM. A successful resection of sub-aortic stenosis and DORV repair was performed. Genetic and metabolic testing was negative for gene defects and/or syndromes commonly associated with familial HCM. Excised cardiac tissue from the ventricular septum exhibited myocyte hypertrophy and sub-endocardial fibrosis but no sarcomeric disarray, myocyte fibrosis or glycogen storage. Metabolic testing for common forms of mitochondrial disease was negative. Post-operative echocardiograms show persistent, non-obstructive septal hypertrophy.
Unlike prior reports, this child required a surgical intervention to relieve his sub-aortic obstruction. Thus, HCM in this population can be more serious that previously suspected. Although testing did not reveal the cause of his HCM, we still suggest screening for known causes of HSC until the etiology of the HCM in DS is well understood.
PMCID: PMC3821707  PMID: 24222815
conal-truncal defect; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; Down syndrome
14.  Adverse events in families with hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy and mutations in the MYBPC3 gene 
BMC Medical Genetics  2008;9:95.
Mutations in MYBPC3 encoding myosin binding protein C belong to the most frequent causes of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and may also lead to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). MYBPC3 mutations initially were considered to cause a benign form of HCM. The aim of this study was to examine the clinical outcome of patients and their relatives with 18 different MYBPC3 mutations.
87 patients with HCM and 71 patients with DCM were screened for MYBPC3 mutations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing. Close relatives of mutation carriers were genotyped for the respective mutation. Relatives with mutation were then evaluated by echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging. A detailed family history regarding adverse clinical events was recorded.
In 16 HCM (18.4%) and two DCM (2.8%) index patients a mutation was detected. Seven mutations were novel. Mutation carriers exhibited no additional mutations in genes MYH7, TNNT2, TNNI3, ACTC and TPM1. Including relatives of twelve families, a total number of 42 mutation carriers was identified of which eleven (26.2%) had at least one adverse event. Considering the twelve families and six single patients with mutations, 45 individuals with cardiomyopathy and nine with borderline phenotype were identified. Among the 45 patients, 23 (51.1%) suffered from an adverse event. In eleven patients of seven families an unexplained sudden death was reported at the age between 13 and 67 years. Stroke or a transient ischemic attack occurred in six patients of five families. At least one adverse event occurred in eleven of twelve families.
MYBPC3 mutations can be associated with cardiac events such as progressive heart failure, stroke and sudden death even at younger age. Therefore, patients with MYBPC3 mutations require thorough clinical risk assessment.
PMCID: PMC2584029  PMID: 18957093
15.  Molecular and Functional Characterization of Novel Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Susceptibility Mutations in TNNC1- Encoded Troponin C 
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common primary cardiac disorder defined by a hypertrophied left ventricle, is one of the main causes of sudden death in young athletes and has been associated with mutations in most sarcomeric proteins (tropomyosin, Troponin T and I, and actin, etc.). Many of these mutations appear to affect the functional properties of cardiac troponin C (cTnC), i.e., by increasing the Ca2+-sensitivity of contraction, a hallmark of HCM, and surprisingly, prior to this report, cTnC had not been classified as a HCM susceptibility gene. In this study, we show that mutations occurring in the human cTnC (HcTnC) gene (TNNC1) have the same prevalence (~0.4%) as well established HCM-susceptibility genes that encode other sarcomeric proteins. Comprehensive open reading frame/splice site mutation analysis of TNNC1 performed on 1025 unrelated HCM patients over the last 10 years revealed novel missense mutations in TNNC1: A8V, C84Y, E134D, and D145E. Functional studies with these recombinant HcTnC HCM mutations showed increased Ca2+ sensitivity of force development (A8V, C84Y and D145E) and force recovery (A8V and D145E). These results are consistent with the HCM functional phenotypes seen with other sarcomeric HCM mutations (E134D showed no changes in these parameters). This is the largest cohort analysis of TNNC1 in HCM that details the discovery of at least three novel HCM-associated mutations and more strongly links TNNC1 to HCM along with functional evidence that supports a central role for its involvement in the disease. These types of studies may help to further define TNNC1 as an HCM-susceptibility gene that has already been established for the other members of the Troponin complex.
PMCID: PMC2627482  PMID: 18572189
troponin C; TnC; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; HCM; mutation; calcium; genetics
16.  Relationship between sex, shape, and substrate in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 
American heart journal  2008;155(6):1128-1134.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a disease characterized by substantial genetic, morphologic, and prognostic heterogeneity. Recently, sex-related differences in HCM were reported, with women being older at diagnosis and exhibiting greater left ventricular outflow tract obstruction than men. We sought to evaluate the influence of sex on the HCM phenotype in a large cohort of unrelated patients with genetically and morphologically classified HCM.
Comprehensive genotyping of 13 HCM-susceptibility genes encoding myofilament and Z-disc proteins of the cardiac sarcomere was performed previously on 382 unrelated patients with HCM. Blinded to the genotype, the septal morphology was graded as reverse-curvature, sigmoidal, apical, or neutral-contour HCM by echocardiography.
Overall, women (a) were significantly older at diagnosis (45.1 ± 20 vs 35.8 ± 17 years, P < .001), (b) had greater left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (53.5 ± 45 vs 41.7 ± 42 mm Hg, P = .009), (c) were more likely to have concomitant hypertension (19% vs 11%, P = .02), and (d) had a higher rate of surgical myectomy (49% vs 36%, P = .01) than men. Interestingly, these sex-based differences were apparent only among patients with sigmoidal HCM (P < .001).
In this largest cohort of comprehensively genotyped and morphologically classified patients with clinically diagnosed HCM, we observed that the striking sex-related differences in the clinical phenotype are confined largely to the subset of mutation-negative sigmoidal HCM. Whereas mutations within the sarcomere appear to dominate the disease process, in their absence, sex has a significant modifying effect, specifically noted in cases of sigmoidal HCM.
PMCID: PMC3912560  PMID: 18513529
17.  The novel mitochondrial 16S rRNA 2336T>C mutation is associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 
Journal of Medical Genetics  2013;51(3):176-184.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a primary disorder characterised by asymmetric thickening of septum and left ventricular wall, with a prevalence of 0.2% in the general population.
To describe a novel mitochondrial DNA mutation and its association with the pathogenesis of HCM.
Methods and results
All maternal members of a Chinese family with maternally transmitted HCM exhibited variable severity and age at onset, and were implanted permanent pacemakers due to complete atrioventricular block (AVB). Nuclear gene screening (MYH7, MYBPC3, TNNT2 and TNNI3) was performed, and no potential pathogenic mutation was identified. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing analysis identified a novel homoplasmic 16S rRNA 2336T>C mutation. This mutation was exclusively present in maternal members and absent in non-maternal members. Conservation index by comparison to 16 other vertebrates was 94.1%. This mutation disturbs the 2336U-A2438 base pair in the stem–loop structure of 16S rRNA domain III, which is involved in the assembly of mitochondrial ribosome. Oxygen consumption rate of the lymphoblastoid cells carrying 2336T>C mutation had decreased by 37% compared with controls. A reduction in mitochondrial ATP synthesis and an increase in reactive oxidative species production were also observed. Electron microscopic analysis indicated elongated mitochondria and abnormal mitochondrial cristae shape in mutant cells.
It is suggested that the 2336T>C mutation is one of pathogenic mutations of HCM. This is the first report of mitochondrial 16S rRNA 2336T>C mutation and an association with maternally inherited HCM combined with AVB. Our findings provide a new insight into the pathogenesis of HCM.
PMCID: PMC3932983  PMID: 24367055
18.  Study familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells 
Cardiovascular Research  2014;104(2):258-269.
Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is one the most common heart disorders, with gene mutations in the cardiac sarcomere. Studying HCM with patient-specific induced pluripotent stem-cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) would benefit the understanding of HCM mechanism, as well as the development of personalized therapeutic strategies.
Methods and results
To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the abnormal CM functions in HCM, we derived iPSCs from an HCM patient with a single missense mutation (Arginine442Glycine) in the MYH7 gene. CMs were next enriched from HCM and healthy iPSCs, followed with whole transcriptome sequencing and pathway enrichment analysis. A widespread increase of genes responsible for ‘Cell Proliferation’ was observed in HCM iPSC-CMs when compared with control iPSC-CMs. Additionally, HCM iPSC-CMs exhibited disorganized sarcomeres and electrophysiological irregularities. Furthermore, disease phenotypes of HCM iPSC-CMs were attenuated with pharmaceutical treatments.
Overall, this study explored the possible patient-specific and mutation-specific disease mechanism of HCM, and demonstrates the potential of using HCM iPSC-CMs for future development of therapeutic strategies. Additionally, the whole methodology established in this study could be utilized to study mechanisms of other human-inherited heart diseases.
PMCID: PMC4217687  PMID: 25209314
Induced pluripotent stem cells; Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; Cardiomyocyte; Heart
19.  Mutations in the cardiac troponin T gene show various prognoses in Japanese patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 
Heart and Vessels  2013;28(6):785-794.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an autosomal dominant disorder resulting from mutations in genes for at least 15 various sarcomere-related proteins including cardiac β-myosin heavy chain, cardiac myosin-binding protein C, and cardiac troponin T. The troponin T gene (TNNT2) mutation has the third incidence of familial HCM, and the genotype–phenotype correlation of this gene still remains insufficient in Japanese familial HCM. Therefore, in the present study, we focused on screening the TNNT2 mutation in 173 unrelated Japanese patients with familial HCM, and found three reported mutations and a new mutation of TNNT2 in 11 individuals from four families. In these families, two individuals from one family had double mutations, Arg130Cys and Phe110Ile, six individuals from two other families had an Arg92Trp mutation, and one individual of another family had a new mutation, Ile79Thr, of TNNT2. The phenotype of each family was often different from reported cases, even if they had the same genetic mutation. In addition, families with the same genetic mutation showed a similar trend in the phenotype, but it was not exactly the same. However, sudden death in youth was observed in all of these families. Although the type of genetic mutation is not useful for predicting prognosis in HCM, the possibility of sudden cardiac death remains. Therefore, the prognosis of individuals bearing the TNNT2 mutation with familial HCM should be more carefully observed from birth.
PMCID: PMC3830204  PMID: 23494605
Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; TNNT2 gene; Mutation; Phenotype–genotype
20.  Genotype—phenotype relationships involving hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-associated mutations in titin, muscle LIM protein, and telethonin ☆ 
TTN-encoded titin, CSRP3-encoded muscle LIM protein, and TCAP-encoded telethonin are Z-disc proteins essential for the structural organization of the cardiac sarcomere and the cardiomyocyte’s stretch sensor. All three genes have been established as cardiomyopathy-associated genes for both dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Here, we sought to characterize the frequency, spectrum, and phenotype associated with HCM-associated mutations in these three genes in a large cohort of unrelated patients evaluated at a single tertiary outpatient center.
DNA was obtained from 389 patients with HCM (215 male, left ventricular wall thickness of 21.6 ± 6 mm) and analyzed for mutations involving all translated exons of CSRP3 and TCAP and targeted HCM-associated exons (2, 3, 4, and 14) of TTN using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC), and direct DNA sequencing. Clinical data were extracted from patient records and maintained independent of the genotype.
Overall, 16 patients (4.1%) harbored a Z-disc mutation: 12 had a MLP mutation and 4 patients a TCAP mutation. No TTN mutations were detected. Seven patients were also found to have a concomitant myofilament mutation. Seven patients with a MLP-mutation were found to harbor the DCM-associated, functionally characterized W4R mutation. W4R-MLP was also noted in a single white control subject. Patients with MLP/TCAP-associated HCM clinically mimicked myofilament-HCM.
Approximately 4.1% of unrelated patients had HCM-associated MLP or TCAP mutations. MLP/TCAP-HCM phenotypically mirrors myofilament-HCM and is more severe than the subset of patients who still remain without a disease-causing mutation. The precise role of W4R-MLP in the pathogenesis of either DCM or HCM warrants further investigation.
PMCID: PMC2756511  PMID: 16352453
Genetics; Genes; Hypertrophy; Cardiomyopathy; Z-disc; Muscle LIM protein; Telethonin; TCAP; Titin
21.  High resolution melting: improvements in the genetic diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a Portuguese cohort 
BMC Medical Genetics  2012;13:17.
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a complex myocardial disorder with a recognized genetic heterogeneity. The elevated number of genes and mutations involved in HCM limits a gene-based diagnosis that should be considered of most importance for basic research and clinical medicine.
In this report, we evaluated High Resolution Melting (HRM) robustness, regarding HCM genetic testing, by means of analyzing 28 HCM-associated genes, including the most frequent 4 HCM-associated sarcomere genes, as well as 24 genes with lower reported HCM-phenotype association. We analyzed 80 Portuguese individuals with clinical phenotype of HCM allowing simultaneously a better characterization of this disease in the Portuguese population.
HRM technology allowed us to identify 60 mutated alleles in 72 HCM patients: 49 missense mutations, 3 nonsense mutations, one 1-bp deletion, one 5-bp deletion, one in frame 3-bp deletion, one insertion/deletion, 3 splice mutations, one 5'UTR mutation in MYH7, MYBPC3, TNNT2, TNNI3, CSRP3, MYH6 and MYL2 genes. Significantly 22 are novel gene mutations.
HRM was proven to be a technique with high sensitivity and a low false positive ratio allowing a rapid, innovative and low cost genotyping of HCM. In a short return, HRM as a gene scanning technique could be a cost-effective gene-based diagnosis for an accurate HCM genetic diagnosis and hopefully providing new insights into genotype/phenotype correlations.
PMCID: PMC3359199  PMID: 22429680
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; Gene-based diagnosis; High Resolution Melting; Sarcomere proteins; CSRP3 gene
22.  Genetic variations of β-MYH7 in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy 
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is known to be manifested by mutations in 12 sarcomeric genes and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is known to manifest due to cytoskeletal mutations. Studies have revealed that sarcomeric mutations can also lead to DCM. Therefore, in the present study, we have made an attempt to compare and analyze the genetic variations of beta-myosin heavy chain gene (β-MYH7), which are interestingly found to be common in both HCM and DCM. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism leading to two different phenotypes has been discussed in this study. Till date, about 186 and 73 different mutations have been reported in HCM and DCM, respectively, with respect to this gene.
The screening of β-MYH7 gene in both HCM and DCM has revealed some common genetic variations. The aim of the present study is to understand the pathophysiological mechanism underlying the manifestation of two different phenotypes.
100 controls, 95 HCM and 97 DCM samples were collected. Genomic DNA was extracted following rapid nonenzymatic method as described by Lahiri and Nurnberger (1991), and the extracted DNA was later subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based single stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)s/mutations associated with the diseased phenotypes.
Similar variations were observed in β-MYH7 exons 7, 12, 19 and 20 in both HCM and DCM. This could be attributed to impaired energy compromise, or to dose effect of the mutant protein, or to even environmental factors/modifier gene effects wherein an HCM could progress to a DCM phenotype affecting both right and left ventricles, leading to heart failure.
PMCID: PMC2955954  PMID: 21031054
Diastolic dysfunction; dose effect; dilated cardiomyopathy; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; single nucleotide polymorphism; systolic dysfunction
23.  Survival and Clinical Behavior of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in a Latin American Cohort in Contrast to Cohorts from the Developed World 
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common hereditary heart disease with diverse phenotipyc, genetic expession and clinical presentations. The evolution of patients with HCM in Latin America has not been properly described being the frequency, the long-term prognosis as well as the predominant phenotypic expression still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the survival rate of HCM patients having different phenotypes in a Mexican cohort of patients.
Clinical and echocardiographic data obtained from 77 Mexican patients with recently diagnosed HCM were analyzed. The follow-up was of 12.5 years.
96.1% of patients were in functional class I/II according to the New York Heart Association, 2.6% in class III and 1.3% in class IV. Only 3.9% of them went to surgery for myectomy. During the follow-up, 17 patients (22%) died: 4/9 (44%) had apical HCM, 5/20 (25%) had obstructive septal asymmetric HCM, 6/35 (17%) had nonobstructive septal asymmetric HCM and 2/3 (15%) had concentric HCM. The survival rate was worse for patients with apical HCM, followed by those with obstructive and nonobstructive septal asymmetric HCM and patients showing concentric HCM had the best survival rates. There is significant difference in survival rates which declined in 65% in a 9 years-period. Log rank test showed significant differences (p < 0.002).
The survival rate of patients with HCM was worse in those with apical variety. The majority of patients received medical treatment. The indication for myectomy was below that observed in other international centers.
PMCID: PMC4398780  PMID: 25883752
Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; Latinamerican cohort; Myectomy
24.  TNNI3K, a Cardiac-Specific Kinase, Promotes Physiological Cardiac Hypertrophy in Transgenic Mice 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):e58570.
Protein kinase plays an essential role in controlling cardiac growth and hypertrophic remodeling. The cardiac troponin I-interacting kinase (TNNI3K), a novel cardiac specific kinase, is associated with cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. However, the precise function of TNNI3K in regulating cardiac remodeling has remained controversial.
Methods and Results
In a rat model of cardiac hypertrophy generated by transverse aortic constriction, myocardial TNNI3K expression was significantly increased by 1.62 folds (P<0.05) after constriction for 15 days. To investigate the role of TNNI3K in cardiac hypertrophy, we generated transgenic mouse lines with overexpression of human TNNI3K specifically in the heart. At the age of 3 months, the high-copy-number TNNI3K transgenic mice demonstrated a phenotype of concentric hypertrophy with increased heart weight normalized to body weight (1.31 fold, P<0.01). Echocardiography and non-invasive hemodynamic assessments showed enhanced cardiac function. No necrosis or myocyte disarray was observed in the heart of TNNI3K transgenic mice. This concentric hypertrophy maintained up to 12 months of age without cardiac dysfunction. The phospho amino acid analysis revealed that TNNI3K is a protein-tyrosine kinase. The yeast two-hybrid screen and co-immunoprecipitation assay identified cTnI as a target for TNNI3K. Moreover, TNNI3K overexpression induced cTnI phosphorylation at Ser22/Ser23 in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that TNNI3K is a novel upstream regulator for cTnI phosphorylation.
TNNI3K promotes a concentric hypertrophy with enhancement of cardiac function via regulating the phosphorylation of cTnI. TNNI3K could be a potential therapeutic target for preventing from heart failure.
PMCID: PMC3589374  PMID: 23472207
25.  Normal passive viscoelasticity but abnormal myofibrillar force generation in human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy, increased ventricular stiffness and impaired diastolic filling. We investigated to what extent myocardial functional defects can be explained by alterations in the passive and active properties of human cardiac myofibrils. Skinned ventricular myocytes were prepared from patients with obstructive HCM (two patients with MYBPC3 mutations, one with a MYH7 mutation, and three with no mutation in either gene) and from four donors. Passive stiffness, viscous properties, and titin isoform expression were similar in HCM myocytes and donor myocytes. Maximal Ca2+-activated force was much lower in HCM myocytes (14 ± 1 kN/m2) than in donor myocytes (23 ± 3 kN/m2; P < 0.01), though cross-bridge kinetics (ktr) during maximal Ca2+ activation were 10% faster in HCM myocytes. Myofibrillar Ca2+ sensitivity in HCM myocytes (pCa50 = 6.40 ± 0.05) was higher than for donor myocytes (pCa50 = 6.09 ± 0.02; P < 0.001) and was associated with reduced phosphorylation of troponin-I (ser-23/24) and MyBP-C (ser-282) in HCM myocytes. These characteristics were common to all six HCM patients and may therefore represent a secondary consequence of the known and unknown underlying genetic variants. Some HCM patients did however exhibit an altered relationship between force and cross-bridge kinetics at submaximal Ca2+ concentrations, which may reflect the primary mutation. We conclude that the passive viscoelastic properties of the myocytes are unlikely to account for the increased stiffness of the HCM ventricle. However, the low maximum Ca2+-activated force and high Ca2+ sensitivity of the myofilaments are likely to contribute substantially to any systolic and diastolic dysfunction, respectively, in hearts of HCM patients.
Research Highlights
► The passive stiffness of skinned HCM cardiac myocytes was similar to that of normal (donor) myocytes. ► Maximum Ca-activated force production was reduced by 40% in HCM vs donor myocytes. ► This loss of force could contribute to systolic dysfunction in HCM hearts. ► Myofibrillar Ca sensitivity was higher in HCM than in donor myocytes. ► The enhanced Ca sensitivity could compensate for the smaller maximum force but would tend to cause diastolic dysfunction. ► These characteristics were common to all HCM patients studied, suggesting the changes were secondary consequence of the underlying genetic variants.
PMCID: PMC2954357  PMID: 20615414
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; Skinned cardiac myocytes; Viscoelasticity; Ca2+ sensitivity; Cross-bridge kinetics

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