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1.  Recurrent and founder mutations in the Netherlands: cardiac Troponin I (TNNI3) gene mutations as a cause of severe forms of hypertrophic and restrictive cardiomyopathy 
Netherlands Heart Journal  2011;19(7-8):344-351.
Background
About 2-7% of familial cardiomyopathy cases are caused by a mutation in the gene encoding cardiac troponin I (TNNI3). The related clinical phenotype is usually severe with early onset. Here we report on all currently known mutations in the Dutch population and compared these with those described in literature.
Methods
TheTNNI3 gene was screened for mutations in all coding exons and flanking intronic sequences in a large cohort of cardiomyopathy patients. All Dutch index cases carrying a TNNI3 mutation that are described in this study underwent extensive cardiological evaluation and were listed by their postal codes.
Results
In 30 families, 14 different mutations were identified. Three TNNI3 mutations were found relatively frequently in both familial and non-familial cases of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) or restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM). Haplotype analysis showed that p.Arg145Trp and p.Ser166Phe are founder mutations in the Netherlands, while p.Glu209Ala is not. The majority of Dutch TNNI3 mutations were associated with a HCM phenotype. Mean age at diagnosis was 36.5 years. Mutations causing RCM occurred less frequently, but were identified in very young children with a poor prognosis.
Conclusion
In line with previously published data, we found TNNI3 mutations to be rare and associated with early onset and severe clinical presentation.
doi:10.1007/s12471-011-0135-z
PMCID: PMC3144325  PMID: 21533915
TNNI3; Founder; HCM; RCM; DCM
2.  Recurrent and founder mutations in the Netherlands: cardiac Troponin I (TNNI3) gene mutations as a cause of severe forms of hypertrophic and restrictive cardiomyopathy 
Netherlands Heart Journal  2011;19(7-8):344-351.
Background
About 2-7% of familial cardiomyopathy cases are caused by a mutation in the gene encoding cardiac troponin I (TNNI3). The related clinical phenotype is usually severe with early onset. Here we report on all currently known mutations in the Dutch population and compared these with those described in literature.
Methods
TheTNNI3 gene was screened for mutations in all coding exons and flanking intronic sequences in a large cohort of cardiomyopathy patients. All Dutch index cases carrying a TNNI3 mutation that are described in this study underwent extensive cardiological evaluation and were listed by their postal codes.
Results
In 30 families, 14 different mutations were identified. Three TNNI3 mutations were found relatively frequently in both familial and non-familial cases of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) or restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM). Haplotype analysis showed that p.Arg145Trp and p.Ser166Phe are founder mutations in the Netherlands, while p.Glu209Ala is not. The majority of Dutch TNNI3 mutations were associated with a HCM phenotype. Mean age at diagnosis was 36.5 years. Mutations causing RCM occurred less frequently, but were identified in very young children with a poor prognosis.
Conclusion
In line with previously published data, we found TNNI3 mutations to be rare and associated with early onset and severe clinical presentation.
doi:10.1007/s12471-011-0135-z
PMCID: PMC3144325  PMID: 21533915
TNNI3; Founder; HCM; RCM; DCM
3.  Genetic variation in exon 5 of troponin - I gene in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy cases 
BACKGROUND:
Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of heart muscle disorders and are classified as 1) Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) 2) Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) 3) Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) and 4) Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) as per WHO classification, of which HCM and DCM are common. HCM is a complex but relatively common form of inherited heart muscle disease with prevalence of 1 in 500 individuals and is commonly associated with sarcomeric gene mutations. Cardiac muscle troponin I (TNNI-3) is one such sarcomeric protein and is a subunit of the thin filament-associated troponin-tropomyosin complex involved in calcium regulation of skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction. Mutations in this gene were found to be associated with a history of sudden cardiac death in HCM patients.
AIM:
Therefore the present study aims to identify for mutations associated with troponin I gene in a set of HCM patients from Indian population.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Mutational analyses of 92 HCM cases were carried out following PCR based SSCP analysis.
RESULTS:
The study revealed band pattern variation in 3 cases from a group of 92 HCM patients. This band pattern variation, on sequencing revealed base changes, one at nt 2560 with G>T transversion in exon-5 region with a wobble and others at nt 2479 and nt 2478 with G>C and C>G transversions in the intronic region upstream of the exon 5 on sequencing. Further analysis showed that one of the probands showed apical form of hypertrophy, two others showing asymmetric septal hypertrophy. Two of these probands showed family history of the condition.
CONCLUSIONS:
Hence, the study supports earlier reports of involvement of TNNI-3 in the causation of apical and asymmetrical forms of hypertrophy.
doi:10.4103/0971-6866.34706
PMCID: PMC3168158  PMID: 21957345
Genetic variation; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; sudden cardiac death; troponin-I
4.  An In Silico Analysis of Troponin I Mutations in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy of Indian Origin 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e70704.
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an autosomal dominant disorder of the myocardium which is hypertrophied resulting in arrhythmias and heart failure leading to sudden cardiac death (SCD). Several sarcomeric proteins and modifier genes have been implicated in this disease. Troponin I, being a part of the Troponin complex (troponin I, troponin C, troponin T), is an important gene for sarcomeric function. Four mutations (1 novel) were identified in Indian HCM cases, namely, Pro82Ser, Arg98Gln, Arg141Gln and Arg162Gln in Troponin I protein, which are in functionally significant domains. In order to analyse the effect of the mutations on protein stability and protein-protein interactions within the Troponin complex, an in silico study was carried out. The freely available X-ray crystal structure (PDB ID: 1JIE) was used as the template to model the protein followed by loop generation and development of troponin complex for both the troponin I wild type and four mutants (NCBI ID: PRJNA194382). The structural study was carried out to determine the effect of mutation on the structural stability and protein-protein interactions between three subunits in the complex. These mutations, especially the arginine to glutamine substitutions were found to result in local perturbations within the troponin complex by creating/removing inter/intra molecular hydrogen bonds with troponin T and troponin C. This has led to a decrease in the protein stability and loss of important interactions between the three subunits. It could have a significant impact on the disease progression when coupled with allelic heterogeneity which was observed in the cases carrying these mutations. However, this can be further confirmed by functional studies on protein levels in the identified cases.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070704
PMCID: PMC3742764  PMID: 23967088
5.  Idiopathic restrictive cardiomyopathy is part of the clinical expression of cardiac troponin I mutations 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  2003;111(2):209-216.
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is an uncommon heart muscle disorder characterized by impaired filling of the ventricles with reduced volume in the presence of normal or near normal wall thickness and systolic function. The disease may be associated with systemic disease but is most often idiopathic. We recognized a large family in which individuals were affected by either idiopathic RCM or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Linkage analysis to selected sarcomeric contractile protein genes identified cardiac troponin I (TNNI3) as the likely disease gene. Subsequent mutation analysis revealed a novel missense mutation, which cosegregated with the disease in the family (lod score: 4.8). To determine if idiopathic RCM is part of the clinical expression of TNNI3 mutations, genetic investigations of the gene were performed in an additional nine unrelated RCM patients with restrictive filling patterns, bi-atrial dilatation, normal systolic function, and normal wall thickness. TNNI3 mutations were identified in six of these nine RCM patients. Two of the mutations identified in young individuals were de novo mutations. All mutations appeared in conserved and functionally important domains of the gene.
doi:10.1172/JCI200316336
PMCID: PMC151864  PMID: 12531876
6.  Clinical implications of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated with mutations in the alpha-tropomyosin gene. 
Heart  1996;76(1):63-65.
OBJECTIVE: The disease-bearing genes for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in HCM families have been identified as the beta-myosin heavy chain, alpha-tropomyosin, and cardiac troponin T genes. Three HCM kindreds with three distinct point mutations in the alpha-tropomyosin gene had extensive clinical evaluations. DESIGN AND RESULTS: Single-strand conformation polymorphism gel analysis of polymerase chain reaction amplified products was used to capture each of the nine exons from the alpha-tropomyosin gene to identify mutations in 60 familial HCM patients. Two missense mutations in exon 2 (Ala63Val and Lys70Thr) and one missense mutation in exon 5 (Asp175Asn) were found in three unrelated HCM kindreds. These kindreds were the subject of clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic studies. The morphological appearance of HCM was similar in the three kindreds. All the patients had severe hypertrophy of the left ventricle with asymmetrical septal hypertrophy during the early stage of the disease, which gradually progressed to dilatation of the left ventricle. Moreover, these kindreds showed similar disease penetrance, age of onset, and incidence of premature sudden death. The disease in these kindreds was severe and resulted in frequent sudden deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Among Japanese patients with familial HCM mutations in the alpha-tropomyosin gene are not as rare as reported, accounting for about 5% of all cases. These mutations are characterised by hypertrophy of the left ventricle which then progresses to dilatation and a high incidence of sudden or disease-related death.
PMCID: PMC484428  PMID: 8774330
7.  Myocardial late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy caused by mutations in troponin I 
Heart  2005;91(8):1036-1040.
Objective: To examine the influence of genotype on late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and the potential of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to detect preclinical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Design: Prospective, blinded cohort study of myocardial LGE in a genetically homogeneous population.
Patients: 30 patients with disease causing mutations in the recognised hypertrophic cardiomyopathy gene for cardiac troponin I (TNNI3): 15 with echocardiographically determined left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH+) and 15 without (LVH−).
Main outcome measures: CMR measures of regional left ventricular function, wall thickness, and mass, and the extent and distribution of LGE.
Results: LGE was found in 12 (80%) LVH+ patients but with variable extent (mean 15%, range 3–48%). LGE was also found in two (13%) LVH− patients but the extent was limited (3.6%) and both patients were found to have an abnormal ECG and regional hypertrophy by cine CMR. The extent of LGE was positively associated with clinical markers of sudden death risk (21% with ⩾ 2 risk factors v 7% with ⩽ 1 risk factor, p  =  0.02) and left ventricular mass (r  =  0.56, p < 0.001) and was inversely associated with ejection fraction (r  =  −0.58, p < 0.001). Segmental analysis showed that as regional wall thickness increased, LGE was more prevalent (p < 0.0001) and more extensive (r  =  0.98, p  =  0.001).
Conclusion: In patients with disease causing mutations in TNNI3, focal fibrosis was not detected by LGE CMR before LVH and ECG abnormalities were present. Once LVH is present, LGE is common and the extent correlates with adverse clinical parameters. This suggests that focal fibrosis is closely linked to disease development.
doi:10.1136/hrt.2004.041384
PMCID: PMC1769031  PMID: 16020591
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; magnetic resonance imaging; fibrosis; gadolinium
8.  Differential interactions of thin filament proteins in two cardiac troponin T mouse models of hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathies 
Cardiovascular research  2008;79(1):109-117.
Aim
Mutations in a sarcomeric protein can cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) or dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), the opposite ends of a spectrum of phenotypic responses of the heart to mutations. We posit the contracting phenotypes could result from differential effects of the mutant proteins on interactions among the sarcomeric proteins. To test the hypothesis, we generated transgenic mice expressing either cardiac troponin T (cTnT)-Q92 or cTnT-W141, known to cause HCM and DCM, respectively, in the heart.
Methods and results
We phenotyped the mice by echocardiography, histology and immunoblotting, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. We detected interactions between the sarcomeric proteins by co-immunoprecipitation and determined Ca2+ sensitivity of myofibrillar protein ATPase activity by Carter assay. The cTnT-W141 mice exhibited dilated hearts and decreased systolic function. In contrast, the cTnT-Q92 mice showed smaller ventricles and enhanced systolic function. Levels of cardiac troponin I, cardiac α-actin, α-tropomyosin, and cardiac troponin C co-immunoprecipitated with anti-cTnT antibodies were higher in the cTnT-W141 than in the cTnT-Q92 mice, as were levels of α-tropomyosin co-immunoprecipitated with an anti-cardiac α-actin antibody. In contrast, levels of cardiac troponin I co-immunoprecipitated with an anti-cardiac α-actin antibody were higher in the cTnT-Q92 mice. Ca2+ sensitivity of myofibrillar ATPase activity was increased in HCM but decreased in DCM mice compared with non-transgenic mice.
Conclusion
Differential interactions among the sarcomeric proteins containing cTnT-Q92 or cTnT-W141 are responsible for the contrasting phenotypes of HCM or DCM, respectively.
doi:10.1093/cvr/cvn078
PMCID: PMC2773799  PMID: 18349139
Cardiomyopathy; Genetics; Mutation; Mouse model; Pathogenesis; Fibrosis; Heart failure
9.  Effects of Troponin T Cardiomyopathy Mutations on the Calcium Sensitivity of the Regulated Thin Filament and the Actomyosin Cross-Bridge Kinetics of Human β-Cardiac Myosin 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e83403.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) lead to significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. Mutations in the genes encoding the sarcomere, the force-generating unit in the cardiomyocyte, cause familial forms of both HCM and DCM. This study examines two HCM-causing (I79N, E163K) and two DCM-causing (R141W, R173W) mutations in the troponin T subunit of the troponin complex using human β-cardiac myosin. Unlike earlier reports using various myosin constructs, we found that none of these mutations affect the maximal sliding velocities or maximal Ca2+-activated ADP release rates involving the thin filament human β-cardiac myosin complex. Changes in Ca2+ sensitivity using the human myosin isoform do, however, mimic changes seen previously with non-human myosin isoforms. Transient kinetic measurements show that these mutations alter the kinetics of Ca2+ induced conformational changes in the regulatory thin filament proteins. These changes in calcium sensitivity are independent of active, cycling human β-cardiac myosin.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083403
PMCID: PMC3867432  PMID: 24367593
10.  TNNI3K, a Cardiac-Specific Kinase, Promotes Physiological Cardiac Hypertrophy in Transgenic Mice 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):e58570.
Purpose
Protein kinase plays an essential role in controlling cardiac growth and hypertrophic remodeling. The cardiac troponin I-interacting kinase (TNNI3K), a novel cardiac specific kinase, is associated with cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. However, the precise function of TNNI3K in regulating cardiac remodeling has remained controversial.
Methods and Results
In a rat model of cardiac hypertrophy generated by transverse aortic constriction, myocardial TNNI3K expression was significantly increased by 1.62 folds (P<0.05) after constriction for 15 days. To investigate the role of TNNI3K in cardiac hypertrophy, we generated transgenic mouse lines with overexpression of human TNNI3K specifically in the heart. At the age of 3 months, the high-copy-number TNNI3K transgenic mice demonstrated a phenotype of concentric hypertrophy with increased heart weight normalized to body weight (1.31 fold, P<0.01). Echocardiography and non-invasive hemodynamic assessments showed enhanced cardiac function. No necrosis or myocyte disarray was observed in the heart of TNNI3K transgenic mice. This concentric hypertrophy maintained up to 12 months of age without cardiac dysfunction. The phospho amino acid analysis revealed that TNNI3K is a protein-tyrosine kinase. The yeast two-hybrid screen and co-immunoprecipitation assay identified cTnI as a target for TNNI3K. Moreover, TNNI3K overexpression induced cTnI phosphorylation at Ser22/Ser23 in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that TNNI3K is a novel upstream regulator for cTnI phosphorylation.
Conclusion
TNNI3K promotes a concentric hypertrophy with enhancement of cardiac function via regulating the phosphorylation of cTnI. TNNI3K could be a potential therapeutic target for preventing from heart failure.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058570
PMCID: PMC3589374  PMID: 23472207
11.  Molecular genetics and pathogenesis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 
Minerva medica  2001;92(6):435-451.
Advances in molecular genetics of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) have led to identification of mutations in 11 genes coding for sarcomeric proteins. In addition, mutations in gene coding for the γ subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase and triplet-repeat syndromes, as well as in mitochondrial DNA have been identified in patients with HCM. Mutations in genes coding for the β-myosin heavy chain, myosin binding protein-C, and cardiac troponin T account for approximately 2/3 of all HCM cases. Accordingly, HCM is considered a disease of contractile sarcomeric proteins. Genotype-phenotype correlation studies show mutations and the genetic background affect the phenotypic expression of HCM. The final phenotype is the result of interactions between the causal genes, genetic background (modifier genes), and probably the environmental factors. The molecular pathogenesis of HCM is not completely understood. The initial defects caused by the mutant proteins are diverse. However, despite their diversity, they converge into common final pathway of impaired cardiac myocyte function. The latter leads to an increased myocyte stress and subsequent activation of stress-responsive signaling kinases and trophic factors, which activate the transcriptional machinery inducing cardiac hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis and myocyte disarray, the pathological characteristics of HCM. Studies in transgenic animal models show that cardiac hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis, and myocyte disarray are potentially reversible. These findings raise the possibility of reversal of evolving phenotype or prevention of phenotypes in human patients with HCM. Elucidation of the molecular genetic basis and the pathogenesis of HCM could provide the opportunity for genetic based diagnosis, risk stratification, and implementation of preventive and therapeutic measures in those who have inherited the causal mutations for HCM.
PMCID: PMC2910253  PMID: 11740432
Cardiomyopathy; hypertrophic; genetics - Genes - Mutation - Death; sudden; cardiac
12.  MYBPC3 gene variations in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients in India 
BACKGROUND
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a complex cardiac muscular disorder, inherited as an autosomal dominant disease with variable penetrance. Cardiac myosin-binding protein C (MyBPC) is the predominant myosin-binding protein isoform in the heart muscle. One hundred forty-seven mutations have been detected in MYBPC3, accounting for 15% of all HCM cases.
OBJECTIVE
To screen exons 16, 18, 19, 22, 24, 28, 30, 31 and 34 in the MYBPC3 gene in Indian HCM patients.
METHODS
Sixty control and 95 HCM samples were collected from cardiology units of the CARE Hospital (Nampally, Banjara Hills, Secunderabad, India) for genomic DNA isolation followed by polymerase chain reaction and single-stranded conformational polymorphism analysis.
RESULTS
Screening of the exons revealed two variations – one novel frame shift mutation in exon 19 at the nucleotide position 11577^11578 and one novel single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in codon 1093 of exon 31, coding for glycine with a C>T transition (GGC/GGT), in addition to the seven known SNPs mainly in the intronic region and one known missense mutation D770N in this population.
CONCLUSION
The novel frame shift mutation identified in exon 19, D570fs, with the insertion of an adenine residue in codon 570 coding for aspartate, results in a premature termination codon that produces a truncated protein lacking myosin- and titin-binding sites, explaining the role of the nonsense-mediated decay pathway. A novel SNP identified in codon 1093 of exon 31 was found to be a synonymous codon, which may have a regulatory effect at the translational level, attributing to affinity differences between codon-anticodon interactions. The screening of this gene may be relevant in the Indian context.
PMCID: PMC2644567  PMID: 18273486
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; MYBPC3; Nonsense-mediated decay pathway; Novel mutation
13.  On Genetic and Phenotypic Variability of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Nature Versus Nurture* 
The seminal discovery of the R403Q mutation in the beta-myosin heavy chain (MyHC) gene as a cause of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) by Dr. Thierfelder’s group a decade ago (1) ushered in a new era in the molecular genetics of HCM. To date, over 120 mutations in 10 genes, all encoding sarcomeric proteins, have been identified in patients with HCM (2), leading to the notion that HCM is a disease of contractile sarcomeric proteins (3). Mutations in nonsarcomeric genes, mitochondrial genome and genes responsible for the triplet repeat syndromes also have been found in patients with HCM (2). Although no large-scale systematic search has yet been performed, the existing data suggest that mutations in the beta-MyHC, myosin binding protein-C (MyBP-C) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) are the most common causes of HCM, collectively accounting for approximately 60% to 70% of all HCM cases (2). It has also become evident that the frequency of each particular causal mutation in the HCM population is relatively low (<5%). Overall, genetic studies indicate significant allelic and nonallelic heterogeneity of HCM, an issue that complicates the feasibility of genetic diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC2900847  PMID: 11499720
14.  Overexpression of TNNI3K, a cardiac specific MAPKKK, promotes cardiac dysfunction 
Cardiac Troponin I-interacting kinase (TNNI3K) is a cardiac specific kinase whose biological function remains largely unknown. We have recently shown that TNNI3K expression greatly accelerates cardiac dysfunction in mouse models of cardiomyopathy, indicating an important role in modulating disease progression. To further investigate TNNI3K kinase activity in vivo, we have generated transgenic mice expressing both wild-type and kinase-dead versions of the human TNNI3K protein. Importantly, we show that the increased TNNI3K kinase activity induces mouse cardiac remodeling, and its kinase activity promotes accelerated disease progression in a left-ventricular pressure overload model of mouse cardiomyopathy. Using an in vitro kinase assay and proteomics analysis, we show that TNNI3K is a dual-function kinase with Tyr and Ser/Thr kinase activity. TNNI3K expression induces a series of cellular and molecular changes, including a reduction of sarcomere length and changes in titin isoform composition, which are indicative of cardiac remodeling. Using antisera to TNNI3K, we show that TNNI3K protein is located at the sarcomere Z disc. These combined data suggest that TNNI3K mediates cell signaling to modulate cardiac response to stress.
doi:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2012.10.004
PMCID: PMC3535516  PMID: 23085512
TNNI3K; kinase; cardiac remodeling
15.  Altered cardiac troponin T in vitro function in the presence of a mutation implicated in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1996;97(12):2842-2848.
Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) can be caused by dominant missense mutations in cardiac troponin T (TnT), alpha-tropomyosin, C-protein, or cardiac myosin heavy chain genes. The myosin mutations are known to impair function, but any functional consequences of the TnT mutations are unknown. This report describes the in vitro function of troponin containing an IIe91Asn mutation in rat cardiac TnT, corresponding to the HCM-causing Ile79Asn mutation in man. Mutant and wild-type TnT cDNAs were expressed in bacteria and the proteins purified and reconstituted with the other troponin subunits, the mutation had no effect on troponin's affinity for tropomyosin, troponin-induced binding of tropomyosin to actin, cooperative binding of myosin subfragment 1 to the thin filament, CA(2+)-sensitive regulation of thin filament-myosin subfragment 1 ATPase activity, or the CA2+ concentration dependence of this regulation. However, the mutation resulted in 50% faster thin filament movement over a surface coated with heavy meromyosin in in vitro motility assays. The increased sliding speed suggests an unexpected role for the amino terminal region of TnT in which this mutation occurs. The relationship between this faster motility and altered cardiac contraction in patients with HCM is discussed.
PMCID: PMC507378  PMID: 8675696
16.  Human cardiomyopathy mutations induce myocyte hyperplasia and activate hypertrophic pathways during cardiogenesis in zebrafish 
Disease Models & Mechanisms  2011;4(3):400-410.
SUMMARY
To assess the effects during cardiac development of mutations that cause human cardiomyopathy, we modeled a sarcomeric gene mutation in the embryonic zebrafish. We designed morpholino antisense oligonucleotides targeting the exon 13 splice donor site in the zebrafish cardiac troponin T (tnnt2) gene, in order to precisely recapitulate a human TNNT2 mutation that causes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). HCM is a disease characterized by myocardial hypertrophy, myocyte and myofibrillar disarray, as well as an increased risk of sudden death. Similar to humans with HCM, the morphant zebrafish embryos displayed sarcomere disarray and there was a robust induction of myocardial hypertrophic pathways. Microarray analysis uncovered a number of shared transcriptional responses between this zebrafish model and a well-characterized mouse model of HCM. However, in contrast to adult hearts, these embryonic hearts developed cardiomyocyte hyperplasia in response to this genetic perturbation. The re-creation of a human disease-causing TNNT2 splice variant demonstrates that sarcomeric mutations can alter cardiomyocyte biology at the earliest stages of heart development with distinct effects from those observed in adult hearts despite shared transcriptional responses.
doi:10.1242/dmm.006148
PMCID: PMC3097461  PMID: 21245263
17.  Beyond the Cardiac Myofilament: Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy-Associated Mutations in Genes that Encode Calcium-Handling Proteins 
Current molecular medicine  2012;12(5):507-518.
Traditionally regarded as a genetic disease of the cardiac sarcomere, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited cardiovascular disease and a significant cause of sudden cardiac death. While the most common etiologies of this phenotypically diverse disease lie in a handful of genes encoding critical contractile myofilament proteins, approximately 50% of patients diagnosed with HCM worldwide do not host sarcomeric gene mutations. Recently, mutations in genes encoding calcium-sensitive and calcium-handling proteins have been implicated in the pathogenesis of HCM. Among these are mutations in TNNC1-encoded cardiac troponin C, PLN-encoded phospholamban, and JPH2-encoded junctophilin 2 which have each been associated with HCM in multiple studies. In addition, mutations in RYR2-encoded ryanodine receptor 2, CASQ2-encoded calsequestrin 2, CALR3-encoded calreticulin 3, and SRI-encoded sorcin have been associated with HCM, although more studies are required to validate initial findings. While a relatively uncommon cause of HCM, mutations in genes that encode calcium-handling proteins represent an emerging genetic subset of HCM. Furthermore, these naturally occurring disease-associated mutations have provided useful molecular tools for uncovering novel mechanisms of disease pathogenesis, increasing our understanding of basic cardiac physiology, and dissecting important structure-function relationships within these proteins.
PMCID: PMC3940075  PMID: 22515980
Calcium; genetics; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; junctophilin; mutation; phospholamban; troponin
18.  Genotype—phenotype relationships involving hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-associated mutations in titin, muscle LIM protein, and telethonin ☆ 
Background
TTN-encoded titin, CSRP3-encoded muscle LIM protein, and TCAP-encoded telethonin are Z-disc proteins essential for the structural organization of the cardiac sarcomere and the cardiomyocyte’s stretch sensor. All three genes have been established as cardiomyopathy-associated genes for both dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Here, we sought to characterize the frequency, spectrum, and phenotype associated with HCM-associated mutations in these three genes in a large cohort of unrelated patients evaluated at a single tertiary outpatient center.
Methods
DNA was obtained from 389 patients with HCM (215 male, left ventricular wall thickness of 21.6 ± 6 mm) and analyzed for mutations involving all translated exons of CSRP3 and TCAP and targeted HCM-associated exons (2, 3, 4, and 14) of TTN using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC), and direct DNA sequencing. Clinical data were extracted from patient records and maintained independent of the genotype.
Results
Overall, 16 patients (4.1%) harbored a Z-disc mutation: 12 had a MLP mutation and 4 patients a TCAP mutation. No TTN mutations were detected. Seven patients were also found to have a concomitant myofilament mutation. Seven patients with a MLP-mutation were found to harbor the DCM-associated, functionally characterized W4R mutation. W4R-MLP was also noted in a single white control subject. Patients with MLP/TCAP-associated HCM clinically mimicked myofilament-HCM.
Conclusions
Approximately 4.1% of unrelated patients had HCM-associated MLP or TCAP mutations. MLP/TCAP-HCM phenotypically mirrors myofilament-HCM and is more severe than the subset of patients who still remain without a disease-causing mutation. The precise role of W4R-MLP in the pathogenesis of either DCM or HCM warrants further investigation.
doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2005.10.008
PMCID: PMC2756511  PMID: 16352453
Genetics; Genes; Hypertrophy; Cardiomyopathy; Z-disc; Muscle LIM protein; Telethonin; TCAP; Titin
19.  Inherited cardiomyopathies caused by troponin mutations 
Genetic investigations of cardiomyopathy in the recent two decades have revealed a large number of mutations in the genes encoding sarcomeric proteins as a cause of inherited hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), or restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM). Most functional analyses of the effects of mutations on cardiac muscle contraction have revealed significant changes in the Ca2+-regulatory mechanism, in which cardiac troponin (cTn) plays important structural and functional roles as a key regulatory protein. Over a hundred mutations have been identified in all three subunits of cTn, i.e., cardiac troponins T, I, and C. Recent studies on cTn mutations have provided plenty of evidence that HCM- and RCM-linked mutations increase cardiac myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity, while DCM-linked mutations decrease it. This review focuses on the functional consequences of mutations found in cTn in terms of cardiac myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity, ATPase activity, force generation, and cardiac troponin I phosphorylation, to understand potential molecular and cellular pathogenic mechanisms of the three types of inherited cardiomyopathy.
doi:10.3969/j.issn.1671-5411.2013.01.014
PMCID: PMC3627712  PMID: 23610579
Troponin; Cardiomyopathy; Calcium sensitivity; Muscle contraction
20.  A new mutation of the cardiac troponin T gene causing familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy without left ventricular hypertrophy 
Heart  1999;82(5):621-624.
AIM—To screen for a mutation of the cardiac troponin T gene in two families where there had been sudden deaths without an increase in left ventricular mass but with myocardial disarray suggesting hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
METHODS—DNA from affected individuals from both families was used to screen the cardiac troponin T gene on an exon by exon basis. Mutation screening was achieved by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. Where appropriate, a mutation was confirmed by restriction digest.
RESULTS—A novel missense mutation of exon 9 was found in the affected individuals of one of the families. This mutation at amino acid 94 resulted in the substitution of arginine for leucine and was not found in 100 normal control samples. A mutation of the cardiac troponin T gene was excluded in the second family.
CONCLUSIONS—A mutation of the gene for the sarcomeric protein cardiac troponin T can cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with marked myocyte disarray and frequent premature sudden death in the absence of myocardial hypertrophy at clinical or macroscopic level.


Keywords: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; troponin T
PMCID: PMC1760789  PMID: 10525521
21.  ENerGetIcs in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: traNslation between MRI, PET and cardiac myofilament function (ENGINE study) 
Netherlands Heart Journal  2013;21(12):567-571.
Introduction
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an autosomal dominant heart disease mostly due to mutations in genes encoding sarcomeric proteins. HCM is characterised by asymmetric hypertrophy of the left ventricle (LV) in the absence of another cardiac or systemic disease. At present it lacks specific treatment to prevent or reverse cardiac dysfunction and hypertrophy in mutation carriers and HCM patients. Previous studies have indicated that sarcomere mutations increase energetic costs of cardiac contraction and cause myocardial dysfunction and hypertrophy. By using a translational approach, we aim to determine to what extent disturbances of myocardial energy metabolism underlie disease progression in HCM.
Methods
Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) patients and aortic valve stenosis (AVS) patients will undergo a positron emission tomography (PET) with acetate and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) with tissue tagging before and 4 months after myectomy surgery or aortic valve replacement + septal biopsy. Myectomy tissue or septal biopsy will be used to determine efficiency of sarcomere contraction in-vitro, and results will be compared with in-vivo cardiac performance. Healthy subjects and non-hypertrophic HCM mutation carriers will serve as a control group.
Endpoints
Our study will reveal whether perturbations in cardiac energetics deteriorate during disease progression in HCM and whether these changes are attributed to cardiac remodelling or the presence of a sarcomere mutation per se. In-vitro studies in hypertrophied cardiac muscle from HOCM and AVS patients will establish whether sarcomere mutations increase ATP consumption of sarcomeres in human myocardium. Our follow-up imaging study in HOCM and AVS patients will reveal whether impaired cardiac energetics are restored by cardiac surgery.
doi:10.1007/s12471-013-0478-8
PMCID: PMC3833912  PMID: 24114686
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; Carrier; Myocardial energetics; Sarcomere mutations
22.  A human MYBPC3 mutation appearing about 10 centuries ago results in a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with delayed onset, moderate evolution but with a risk of sudden death 
BMC Medical Genetics  2012;13:105.
Background
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a genetically heterogeneous disease. One specific mutation in the MYBPC3 gene is highly prevalent in center east of France giving an opportunity to define the clinical profile of this specific mutation.
Methods
HCM probands were screened for mutation in the MYH7, MYBPC3, TNNT2 and TNNI3 genes. Carriers of the MYBPC3 IVS20-2A>G mutation were genotyped with 8 microsatellites flanking this gene. The age of this MYBPC3 mutation was inferred with the software ESTIAGE. The age at first symptom, diagnosis, first complication, first severe complication and the rate of sudden death were compared between carriers of the IVS20-2 mutation (group A) and carriers of all other mutations (group B) using time to event curves and log rank test.
Results
Out of 107 HCM probands, 45 had a single heterozygous mutation in one of the 4 tested sarcomeric genes including 9 patients with the MYBPC3 IVS20-2A>G mutation. The IVS20-2 mutation in these 9 patients and their 25 mutation carrier relatives was embedded in a common haplotype defined after genotyping 4 polymorphic markers on each side of the MYBPC3 gene. This result supports the hypothesis of a common ancestor. Furthermore, we evaluated that the mutation occurred about 47 generations ago, approximately at the 10th century.
We then compared the clinical profile of the IVS20-2 mutation carriers (group A) and the carriers of all other mutations (group B). Age at onset of symptoms was similar in the 34 group A cases and the 73 group B cases but group A cases were diagnosed on average 15 years later (log rank test p = 0.022). Age of first complication and first severe complication was delayed in group A vs group B cases but the prevalence of sudden death and age at death was similar in both groups.
Conclusion
A founder mutation arising at about the 10th century in the MYBPC3 gene accounts for 8.4% of all HCM in center east France and results in a cardiomyopathy starting late and evolving slowly but with an apparent risk of sudden death similar to other sarcomeric mutations.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-13-105
PMCID: PMC3549277  PMID: 23140321
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; MYBPC3; Mutation; Founder effect
23.  The Δ14 Mutation of Human Cardiac Troponin T Enhances ATPase Activity and Alters the Cooperative Binding of S1-ADP to Regulated Actin† 
Biochemistry  2004;43(48):15276-15285.
The complex of tropomyosin and troponin binds to actin and inhibits activation of myosin ATPase activity and force production of striated muscles at low free Ca2+ concentrations. Ca2+ stimulates ATP activity, and at subsaturating actin concentrations, the binding of NEM-modified S1 to actin–tropomyosin–troponin increases the rate of ATP hydrolysis even further. We show here that the Δ14 mutation of troponin T, associated with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, results in an increase in ATPase rate like that seen with wild-type troponin in the presence of NEM-S1. The enhanced ATPase activity was not due to a decreased incorporation of mutant troponin T with troponin I and troponin C to form an active troponin complex. The activating effect was more prominent with a hybrid troponin (skeletal TnI, TnC, and cardiac TnT) than with all cardiac troponin. Thus it appears that changes in the troponin–troponin contacts that result from mutations or from forming hybrids stabilize a more active state of regulated actin. An analysis of the effect of the Δ14 mutation on the equilibrium binding of S1-ADP to actin was consistent with stabilization of an active state of actin. This change in activation may be important in the development of cardiac disease.
doi:10.1021/bi048646h
PMCID: PMC1351011  PMID: 15568820
24.  Mutations in the cardiac troponin T gene show various prognoses in Japanese patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 
Heart and Vessels  2013;28:785-794.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an autosomal dominant disorder resulting from mutations in genes for at least 15 various sarcomere-related proteins including cardiac β-myosin heavy chain, cardiac myosin-binding protein C, and cardiac troponin T. The troponin T gene (TNNT2) mutation has the third incidence of familial HCM, and the genotype–phenotype correlation of this gene still remains insufficient in Japanese familial HCM. Therefore, in the present study, we focused on screening the TNNT2 mutation in 173 unrelated Japanese patients with familial HCM, and found three reported mutations and a new mutation of TNNT2 in 11 individuals from four families. In these families, two individuals from one family had double mutations, Arg130Cys and Phe110Ile, six individuals from two other families had an Arg92Trp mutation, and one individual of another family had a new mutation, Ile79Thr, of TNNT2. The phenotype of each family was often different from reported cases, even if they had the same genetic mutation. In addition, families with the same genetic mutation showed a similar trend in the phenotype, but it was not exactly the same. However, sudden death in youth was observed in all of these families. Although the type of genetic mutation is not useful for predicting prognosis in HCM, the possibility of sudden cardiac death remains. Therefore, the prognosis of individuals bearing the TNNT2 mutation with familial HCM should be more carefully observed from birth.
doi:10.1007/s00380-013-0332-3
PMCID: PMC3830204  PMID: 23494605
Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; TNNT2 gene; Mutation; Phenotype–genotype
25.  Is 8860 variation a rare polymorphism or associated as a secondary effect in HCM disease? 
Introduction
mtDNA defects, both deletions and point mutations, have been associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathies. The aim of this study was to establish a spectrum for mtDNA mutations in Iranian hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients.
Material and methods
The control group was chosen among the special medical centre visitors who did not have hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or any related heart disease. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is widely accepted as a pluricausal or multifactorial disease. Because of the linkage between energy metabolism in the mitochondria and cardiac muscle contraction, it is reasonable to assume that mitochondrial abnormalities may be responsible for some forms of HCM. Point mutations and deletions in the two hot spot regions of mtDNA were investigated by PCR and sequencing methods.
Results
Some unreported point mutations have been found in this study but no deletion was detected. Meanwhile some of these point mutations have been investigated among HCM patients for the first time.
Conclusions
A8860G transition was detected in a high proportion, raising the question whether this rare polymorphism is associated as a secondary effect in HCM disease.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2011.22074
PMCID: PMC3258716  PMID: 22291763
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; mtDNA mutation disease

Results 1-25 (881438)