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1.  113 Type I and III Interferon Are Attenuated in a Human In Vitro Model of Alternatively Activated Macrophages 
The World Allergy Organization Journal  2012;5(Suppl 2):S54-S55.
Background
The alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) are induced by IL-4 and IL-13 and are distinct from the IFN-gamma mediated pathway of classically activated macrophages (CAM). The AAM are implicated in a wide range of physiologic and pathological processes including clearance of helminthic infections, and allergy. They are closely associated with recruiting and amplifying T helper 2 (Th2) lymphocyte response in contrast to Th1-asscoiated CAMs. Wide donor-to-donor variability of human primary monocytes and their limited life span in vitro is a current impediment to investigating human AAM biology and their contribution to enhancing Th2-mediated pathologic inflammation found in asthmatic lungs.
Methods
Using the human promonocytic cell line, THP1, we have successfully established a THP1-derived and committed CAM and AAM populations demonstrating typical macrophage-oriented morphological characteristics.
Results
Quantitative PCR and ELISA demonstrated that THP1-AAM cell model express classic pathogen neutralizing dectin receptors such as scavenger type mannose receptor (MRC1) and Th2-associated signature chemokines including CCL13, 17, 18 and 22, and are tolerant to TLR4 challenge by LPS treatment in contrast to THP1-CAM which expressed an LPS enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory mediators such as TNF-a, CXCL10 and -11. Furthermore, THP1-AAM cell model expressed 50- to 100-fold lower expression IFN-alpha 4, IFN-beta, and IFN-lambda1 compared to THP1-CAM. Quantitative PCR array revealed that a select group of interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), antiviral genes such as Mx1, and interferon stimulated genes such as ISG15 are down-regulated only in THP-1 AAM cell model upon differentiation or LPS treatment emphasizing its classic infection tolerant phenotype. In addition, IRF4 was found to be up-regulated only in the THP1-AAM model which may point towards its critical role in orchestrating the macrophage lineage commitment towards an alternatively activated phenotype as well as governing its unique cytokine and chemokines expression profile.
Conclusions
Compared to the donor variability of primary human monocytes, establishing THP1-AAM and CAM cell models will enable a more rapid and efficient investigation of a spectrum of molecular mechanisms governing innate, classic, and alternative phenotypes in macrophage populations and their role in pathologic processes, in particular allergic inflammation of the upper airways.
doi:10.1097/01.WOX.0000411858.75911.af
PMCID: PMC3512767
2.  Involvement of the Mannose Receptor in Infection of Macrophages by Influenza Virus 
Journal of Virology  2000;74(11):5190-5197.
Influenza viruses A/PR/8/34 (PR8; H1N1), A/Aichi/68 X-31 (HKx31; H3N2), and A/Beijing/89 X-109 (BJx109; H3N2) show marked differences in their ability to infect murine macrophages, including resident alveolar and peritoneal macrophages as well as the macrophage-derived cell line J774. The hierarchy in infectivity of the viruses (PR8 < HKx31 < BJx109) resembles that of their reactivity with mannose-binding lectins of the collectin family. Since the macrophage mannose receptor recognizes the same spectrum of monosaccharides as the collectins do, we investigated the possible involvement of this receptor in infection of macrophages by influenza virus. In competitive binding studies, the binding of 125I-labeled mannosylated bovine serum albumin to macrophages was inhibited by the purified hemagglutinin and neuraminidase (HANA) glycoproteins of influenza virus but not by HANA that had been treated with periodate to oxidize its oligosaccharide side chains. The inhibitory activity of HANA from the three strains of virus differed markedly and correlated with the infectivity of each virus for macrophages. Infection of macrophages, but not MDCK cells, by influenza virus was inhibited by yeast mannan. A variant line of J774 cells, J774E, which expresses elevated levels of the mannose receptor, was more readily infected than J774, and the sensitivity of J774E cells to infection was greatly reduced by culture in the presence of d-mannose, which down-modulated mannose receptor expression. Together, the data implicate the mannose receptor as a major endocytic receptor in the infectious entry of influenza virus, and perhaps other enveloped viruses, into murine macrophages.
PMCID: PMC110872  PMID: 10799594
3.  Quantitative GPCR and ion channel transcriptomics in primary alveolar macrophages and macrophage surrogates 
BMC Immunology  2012;13:57.
Background
Alveolar macrophages are one of the first lines of defence against invading pathogens and play a central role in modulating both the innate and acquired immune systems. By responding to endogenous stimuli within the lung, alveolar macrophages contribute towards the regulation of the local inflammatory microenvironment, the initiation of wound healing and the pathogenesis of viral and bacterial infections. Despite the availability of protocols for isolating primary alveolar macrophages from the lung these cells remain recalcitrant to expansion in-vitro and therefore surrogate cell types, such as monocyte derived macrophages and phorbol ester-differentiated cell lines (e.g. U937, THP-1, HL60) are frequently used to model macrophage function.
Methods
The availability of high throughput gene expression technologies for accurate quantification of transcript levels enables the re-evaluation of these surrogate cell types for use as cellular models of the alveolar macrophage. Utilising high-throughput TaqMan arrays and focussing on dynamically regulated families of integral membrane proteins, we explore the similarities and differences in G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) and ion channel expression in alveolar macrophages and their widely used surrogates.
Results
The complete non-sensory GPCR and ion channel transcriptome is described for primary alveolar macrophages and macrophage surrogates. The expression of numerous GPCRs and ion channels whose expression were hitherto not described in human alveolar macrophages are compared across primary macrophages and commonly used macrophage cell models. Several membrane proteins known to have critical roles in regulating macrophage function, including CXCR6, CCR8 and TRPV4, were found to be highly expressed in macrophages but not expressed in PMA-differentiated surrogates.
Conclusions
The data described in this report provides insight into the appropriate choice of cell models for investigating macrophage biology and highlights the importance of confirming experimental data in primary alveolar macrophages.
doi:10.1186/1471-2172-13-57
PMCID: PMC3542584  PMID: 23102269
COPD; Microfluidics; TaqMan; Arrays; High-throughput
4.  Mannose Receptor (MR) Engagement by Mesothelin GPI Anchor Polarizes Tumor-Associated Macrophages and Is Blocked by Anti-MR Human Recombinant Antibody 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(12):e28386.
Tumor-infiltrating macrophages respond to microenvironmental signals by developing a tumor-associated phenotype characterized by high expression of mannose receptor (MR, CD206). Antibody cross-linking of CD206 triggers anergy in dendritic cells and CD206 engagement by tumoral mucins activates an immune suppressive phenotype in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Many tumor antigens are heavily glycosylated, such as tumoral mucins, and/or attached to tumor cells by mannose residue-containing glycolipids (GPI anchors), as for example mesothelin and the family of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). However, the binding to mannose receptor of soluble tumor antigen GPI anchors via mannose residues has not been systematically studied. To address this question, we analyzed the binding of tumor-released mesothelin to ascites-infiltrating macrophages from ovarian cancer patients. We also modeled functional interactions between macrophages and soluble mesothelin using an in vitro system of co-culture in transwells of healthy donor macrophages with human ovarian cancer cell lines. We found that soluble mesothelin bound to human macrophages and that the binding depended on the presence of GPI anchor and of mannose receptor. We next challenged the system with antibodies directed against the mannose receptor domain 4 (CDR4-MR). We isolated three novel anti-CDR4-MR human recombinant antibodies (scFv) using a yeast-display library of human scFv. Anti-CDR4-MR scFv #G11 could block mesothelin binding to macrophages and prevent tumor-induced phenotype polarization of CD206low macrophages towards TAMs. Our findings indicate that tumor-released mesothelin is linked to GPI anchor, engages macrophage mannose receptor, and contributes to macrophage polarization towards TAMs. We propose that compounds able to block tumor antigen GPI anchor/CD206 interactions, such as our novel anti-CRD4-MR scFv, could prevent tumor-induced TAM polarization and have therapeutic potential against ovarian cancer, through polarization control of tumor-infiltrating innate immune cells.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028386
PMCID: PMC3232216  PMID: 22163010
5.  Myeloid dendritic cells display downregulation of C-type lectin receptors and aberrant lectin uptake in systemic lupus erythematosus 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2008;10(5):R114.
Introduction
There is a growing body of evidence implicating aberrant dendritic cell function as a crucial component in the immunopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the phagocytic capacity and expression of receptors involved in pathogen recognition and self-nonself discrimination on myeloid dendritic cells from patients with lupus.
Methods
Unstimulated or stimulated monocyte-derived dendritic cells were obtained from lupus patients and healthy control individuals, and expression of C-type lectin receptors (mannose receptor and dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-grabbing nonintegrin), complement-receptor 3 and Fcγ receptors was determined by flow cytometry. Dextran uptake by lupus and control dendritic cells was also assessed by flow cytometry. Serum IFNγ was quantified by ELISA, and uptake of microbial products was measured using fluorescently labeled zymosan.
Results
When compared with dendritic cells from healthy control individuals, unstimulated and stimulated lupus dendritic cells displayed significantly decreased dextran uptake and mannose receptor and dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-grabbing nonintegrin expression. Decreased expression of the mannose receptor was associated with high serum IFNγ levels, but not with maturation status or medications. Diminished dextran uptake and mannose receptor expression correlated with lupus disease activity. There were no differences between control and lupus dendritic cells in the expression of other pattern recognition receptors or in the capacity to uptake zymosan particles
Conclusions
Lupus dendritic cells have diminished endocytic capacity, which correlates with decreased mannose receptor expression. While this phenomenon appears primarily intrinsic to dendritic cells, modulation by serum factors such as IFNγ could play a role. These abnormalities may be relevant to the aberrant immune homeostasis and the increased susceptibility to infections described in lupus.
doi:10.1186/ar2517
PMCID: PMC2592801  PMID: 18811944
6.  HIV-1 gp120 Mannoses Induce Immunosuppressive Responses from Dendritic Cells 
PLoS Pathogens  2007;3(11):e169.
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein gp120 is a vaccine immunogen that can signal via several cell surface receptors. To investigate whether receptor biology could influence immune responses to gp120, we studied its interaction with human, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) in vitro. Gp120 from the HIV-1 strain JR-FL induced IL-10 expression in MDDCs from 62% of donors, via a mannose C-type lectin receptor(s) (MCLR). Gp120 from the strain LAI was also an IL-10 inducer, but gp120 from the strain KNH1144 was not. The mannose-binding protein cyanovirin-N, the 2G12 mAb to a mannose-dependent gp120 epitope, and MCLR-specific mAbs inhibited IL-10 expression, as did enzymatic removal of gp120 mannose moieties, whereas inhibitors of signaling via CD4, CCR5, or CXCR4 were ineffective. Gp120-stimulated IL-10 production correlated with DC-SIGN expression on the cells, and involved the ERK signaling pathway. Gp120-treated MDDCs also responded poorly to maturation stimuli by up-regulating activation markers inefficiently and stimulating allogeneic T cell proliferation only weakly. These adverse reactions to gp120 were MCLR-dependent but independent of IL-10 production. Since such mechanisms might suppress immune responses to Env-containing vaccines, demannosylation may be a way to improve the immunogenicity of gp120 or gp140 proteins.
Author Summary
Dendritic cells (DCs) initiate immune responses to pathogens or vaccine antigens. The HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein is an antigen that is a focus of vaccine design strategies. We have studied how gp120 proteins interact with DCs in cell culture. Certain gp120s stimulate DCs from some, but not all, human donors to produce IL-10, a cytokine that is generally immunosuppressive. In addition, whether or not the DCs produce IL-10, their ability to mature properly when activated is impaired by gp120—the gp120-treated DCs have a reduced ability to stimulate T cell growth when the two cell types are cultured together. These various effects of gp120 are caused by its binding to cell surface receptors of the mannose C-type lectin receptor family, including (but probably not exclusively) one called DC-SIGN. Gp120 binds to these receptors via mannose residues that are present on some of the glycan structures that overlay much of its protein surface. Removing the mannoses by digesting gp120 with a suitable enzyme prevents IL-10 induction and impairment of DC maturation, as does the use of inhibitors of the binding of gp120 to DC-SIGN and similar receptors. This work could help with the design of better HIV-1 vaccines.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.0030169
PMCID: PMC2048530  PMID: 17983270
7.  DC-SIGN and L-SIGN Can Act as Attachment Receptors for Alphaviruses and Distinguish between Mosquito Cell- and Mammalian Cell-Derived Viruses 
Journal of Virology  2003;77(22):12022-12032.
C-type lectins such as DC-SIGN and L-SIGN, which bind mannose-enriched carbohydrate modifications of host and pathogen proteins, have been shown to bind glycoproteins of several viruses and facilitate either cis or trans infection. DC-SIGN and L-SIGN are expressed in several early targets of arbovirus infection, including dendritic cells (DCs) and cells of the reticuloendothelial system. In the present study, we show that DC-SIGN and L-SIGN can function as attachment receptors for Sindbis (SB) virus, an arbovirus of the Alphavirus genus. Human monocytic THP-1 cells stably transfected with DC-SIGN or L-SIGN were permissive for SB virus replication, while untransfected controls were essentially nonpermissive. The majority of control THP-1 cells were permissive when attachment and entry steps were eliminated through electroporation of virus transcripts. Infectivity for the DC-SIGN/L-SIGN-expressing cells was largely blocked by yeast mannan, EDTA, or a DC-SIGN/L-SIGN-specific monoclonal antibody. Infection of primary human DCs by SB virus was also dependent upon SIGN expression by similar criteria. Furthermore, production of virus particles in either C6/36 mosquito cells or CHO mammalian cells under conditions that limited complex carbohydrate content greatly increased SB virus binding to and infection of THP-1 cells expressing these lectins. C6/36-derived virus also was much more infectious for primary human DCs than CHO-derived virus. These results suggest that (i) lectin molecules such as DC-SIGN and L-SIGN may represent common attachment receptor molecules for arthropod-borne viruses, (ii) arbovirus particles produced in and delivered by arthropod vectors may preferentially target vertebrate host cells bearing these or similar lectin molecules, and (iii) a cell line has been identified that can productively replicate alphaviruses but is deficient in attachment receptors.
doi:10.1128/JVI.77.22.12022-12032.2003
PMCID: PMC254289  PMID: 14581539
8.  Macrophage-Specific RNAi Targeting via ‘Click’, Mannosylated Polymeric Micelles 
Molecular pharmaceutics  2013;10(3):975-987.
Macrophages represent an important therapeutic target, because their activity has been implicated in the progression of debilitating diseases such as cancer and atherosclerosis. In this work, we designed and characterized pH-responsive polymeric micelles that were mannosylated using ‘click’ chemistry in order to achieve CD206 (mannose receptor)-targeted siRNA delivery. CD206 is primarily expressed on macrophages and dendritic cells, and upregulated in tumor-associated macrophages, a potentially useful target for cancer therapy. The mannosylated nanoparticles improved siRNA delivery into primary macrophages by 4-fold relative to a non-targeted version of the same carrier (p < 0.01). Further, 24h of treatment with the mannose-targeted siRNA carriers achieved 87±10% knockdown of a model gene in primary macrophages, cell type that is typically difficult to transfect. Finally, these nanoparticles were also avidly recognized and internalized by human macrophages and facilitated the delivery of 13-fold more siRNA into these cells relative to model breast cancer cell lines. We anticipate that these mannose receptor-targeted, endosomolytic siRNA delivery nanoparticles will become an enabling technology to target macrophage activity in various diseases, especially those where CD206 is up-regulated in macrophages present within the pathologic site. This work also establishes a generalizable platform that could be applied for click functionalization with other targeting ligands to direct siRNA delivery.
doi:10.1021/mp300434e
PMCID: PMC3595119  PMID: 23331322
mannose; nanoparticles; macrophages; siRNA; drug delivery; immunotherapy
9.  Characterization of the Receptor-Ligand Pathways Important for Entry and Survival of Francisella tularensis in Human Macrophages  
Infection and Immunity  2006;74(9):5114-5125.
Inhalational pneumonic tularemia, caused by Francisella tularensis, is lethal in humans. F. tularensis is phagocytosed by macrophages followed by escape from phagosomes into the cytoplasm. Little is known of the phagocytic mechanisms for Francisella, particularly as they relate to the lung and alveolar macrophages. Here we examined receptors on primary human monocytes and macrophages which mediate the phagocytosis and intracellular survival of F. novicida. F. novicida association with monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) was greater than with monocytes. Bacteria were readily ingested, as shown by electron microscopy. Bacterial association was significantly increased in fresh serum and only partially decreased in heat-inactivated serum. A role for both complement receptor 3 (CR3) and Fcγ receptors in uptake was supported by studies using a CR3-expressing cell line and by down-modulation of Fcγ receptors on MDM, respectively. Consistent with Fcγ receptor involvement, antibody in nonimmune human serum was detected on the surface of Francisella. In the absence of serum opsonins, competitive inhibition of mannose receptor (MR) activity on MDM with mannan decreased the association of F. novicida and opsonization of F. novicida with lung collectin surfactant protein A (SP-A) increased bacterial association and intracellular survival. This study demonstrates that human macrophages phagocytose more Francisella than monocytes with contributions from CR3, Fcγ receptors, the MR, and SP-A present in lung alveoli.
doi:10.1128/IAI.00795-06
PMCID: PMC1594866  PMID: 16926403
10.  Acute-phase serum amyloid A production by rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue 
Arthritis Research  2000;2(2):142-144.
Acute-phase serum amyloid A (A-SAA) is a major component of the acute-phase response. A sustained acute-phase response in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with increased joint damage. A-SAA mRNA expression was confirmed in all samples obtained from patients with RA, but not in normal synovium. A-SAA mRNA expression was also demonstrated in cultured RA synoviocytes. A-SAA protein was identified in the supernatants of primary synoviocyte cultures, and its expression colocalized with sites of macrophage accumulation and with some vascular endothelial cells. It is concluded that A-SAA is produced by inflamed RA synovial tissue. The known association between the acute-phase response and progressive joint damage may be the direct result of synovial A-SAA-induced effects on cartilage degradation.
Introduction:
Serum amyloid A (SAA) is the circulating precursor of amyloid A protein, the fibrillar component of amyloid deposits. In humans, four SAA genes have been described. Two genes (SAA1 and SAA2) encode A-SAA and are coordinately induced in response to inflammation. SAA1 and SAA2 are 95% homologous in both coding and noncoding regions. SAA3 is a pseudogene. SAA4 encodes constitutive SAA and is minimally inducible. A-SAA increases dramatically during acute inflammation and may reach levels that are 1000-fold greater than normal. A-SAA is mainly synthesized in the liver, but extrahepatic production has been demonstrated in many species, including humans. A-SAA mRNA is expressed in RA synoviocytes and in monocyte/macrophage cell lines such as THP-1 cells, in endothelial cells and in smooth muscle cells of atherosclerotic lesions. A-SAA has also been localized to a wide range of histologically normal tissues, including breast, stomach, intestine, pancreas, kidney, lung, tonsil, thyroid, pituitary, placenta, skin and brain.
Aims:
To identify the cell types that produce A-SAA mRNA and protein, and their location in RA synovium.
Materials and methods:
Rheumatoid synovial tissue was obtained from eight patients undergoing arthroscopic biopsy and at joint replacement surgery. Total RNA was analyzed by reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for A-SAA mRNA. PCR products generated were confirmed by Southern blot analysis using human A-SAA cDNA. Localization of A-SAA production was examined by immunohistochemistry using a rabbit antihuman A-SAA polyclonal antibody. PrimaryRA synoviocytes were cultured to examine endogenous A-SAA mRNA expression and protein production.
Results:
A-SAA mRNA expression was detected using RT-PCR in all eight synovial tissue samples studied. Figure 1 demonstrates RT-PCR products generated using synovial tissue from three representative RA patients. Analysis of RA synovial tissue revealed differences in A-SAA mRNA levels between individual RA patients.
In order to identify the cells that expressed A-SAA mRNA in RA synovial tissue, we analyzed primary human synoviocytes (n = 2). RT-PCR analysis revealed A-SAA mRNA expression in primary RA synoviocytes (n = 2; Fig. 2). The endogenous A-SAA mRNA levels detected in individual primary RA synoviocytes varied between patients. These findings are consistent with A-SAA expression in RA synovial tissue (Fig. 1). Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) levels were relatively similar in the RA synoviocytes examined (Fig. 2). A-SAA protein in the supernatants of primary synoviocyte cultures from four RA patients was measured using ELISA. Mean values of a control and four RA samples were 77.85, 162.5, 249.8, 321.5 and 339.04 μg/l A-SAA, respectively, confirming the production of A-SAA protein by the primary RA synoviocytes. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to localize sites of A-SAA production in RA synovial tissue. Positive staining was present in both the lining and sublining layers of all eight RA tissues examined (Fig. 3a). Staining was intense and most prominent in the cells closest to the surface of the synovial lining layer. Positively stained cells were evident in the perivascular areas of the sublining layer. In serial sections stained with anti-CD68 monoclonal antibody, positive staining of macrophages appeared to colocalize with A-SAA-positive cells (Fig. 3b). Immunohistochemical studies of cultured primary RA synoviocytes confirmed specific cytoplasmic A-SAA expression in these cells. The specificity of the staining was confirmed by the absence of staining found on serial sections and synoviocyte cells treated with IgG (Fig. 3c).
Discussion:
This study demonstrates that A-SAA mRNA is expressed in several cell populations infiltrating RA synovial tissue. A-SAA mRNA expression was observed in all eight unseparated RA tissue samples studied. A-SAA mRNA expression and protein production was demonstrated in primary cultures of purified RA synoviocytes. Using immunohistochemical techniques, A-SAA protein appeared to colocalize with both lining layer and sublining layer synoviocytes, macrophages and some endothelial cells. The detection of A-SAA protein in culture media supernatants harvested from unstimulated synoviocytes confirms endogenous A-SAA production, and is consistent with A-SAA mRNA expression and translation by the same cells. Moreover, the demonstration of A-SAA protein in RA synovial tissue, RA cultured synoviocytes, macrophages and endothelial cells is consistent with previous studies that demonstrated A-SAA production by a variety of human cell populations.
The RA synovial lining layer is composed of activated macrophages and fibroblast-like synoviocytes. The macrophage is the predominant cell type and it has been shown to accumulate preferentially in the surface of the lining layer and in the perivascular areas of the sublining layer. Nevertheless, our observations strongly suggest that A-SAA is produced not only by synoviocytes, but also by synovial tissue macrophage populations. Local A-SAA protein production by vascular endothelial cells was detected in some, but not all, of the tissues examined. The reason for the variability in vascular A-SAA staining is unknown, but may be due to differences in endothelial cell activation, events related to angiogenesis or the intensity of local inflammation.
The value of measuring serum A-SAA levels as a reliable surrogate marker of inflammation has been demonstrated for several diseases including RA, juvenile chronic arthritis, psoriatic arthropathy, ankylosing spondylitis, Behçet's disease, reactive arthritis and Crohn's disease. It has been suggested that serum A-SAA levels may represent the most sensitive measurement of the acute-phase reaction. In RA, A-SAA levels provide the strongest correlations with clinical measurements of disease activity, and changes in serum levels best reflect the clinical course.
A number of biologic activities have been described for A-SAA, including several that are relevant to the understanding of inflammatory and tissue-degrading mechanisms in human arthritis. A-SAA induces migration, adhesion and tissue infiltration of circulating monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. In addition, human A-SAA can induce interleukin-1β, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and soluble type II tumour necrosis factor receptor production by a monocyte cell line. Moreover, A-SAA can stimulate the production of cartilage-degrading proteases by both human and rabbit synoviocytes. The effects of A-SAA on protease production are interesting, because in RA a sustained acute-phase reaction has been strongly associated with progressive joint damage. The known association between the acute-phase response and progressive joint damage may be the direct result of synovial A-SAA-induced effects on cartilage degradation.
Conclusion:
In contrast to noninflamed synovium, A-SAA mRNA expression was identified in all RA tissues examined. A-SAA appeared to be produced by synovial tissue synoviocytes, macrophages and endothelial cells. The observation of A-SAA mRNA expression in cultured RA synoviocytes and human RA synovial tissue confirms and extends recently published findings that demonstrated A-SAA mRNA expression in stimulated RA synoviocytes, but not in unstimulated RA synoviocytes.
PMCID: PMC17807  PMID: 11062604
acute-phase response; rheumatoid arthritis; serum amyloid A; synovial tissue
11.  Interaction of human monocytes, macrophages, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes with zymosan in vitro. Role of type 3 complement receptors and macrophage-derived complement. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1985;76(6):2368-2376.
Macrophages take up zymosan in the absence of exogenous complement via receptors for iC3b (type 3 complement receptors) acting with or without lectin-like receptors for mannosyl-fucosyl-terminated glycoconjugates. We previously provided evidence that macrophages themselves secrete complement-alternative pathway components able to opsonize zymosan locally (Ezekowitz et al., J. Exp. Med. 1984. 159:244-260). We show here that covalently bound C3 cleavage products C3b and iC3b can be eluted from zymosan particles cultivated with 36-h adherent human monocytes in the absence of serum. The ligand binding site of type 3 complement receptors is involved in macrophage-zymosan interactions as shown by inhibition studies of zymosan binding and uptake with Fab fragments of anti-C3 antibodies and monoclonal antireceptor antibodies M01 and OKM10. In contrast, antibody IB4, which binds to a receptor epitope distinct from the binding site, does not inhibit zymosan uptake. Selective modulation of macrophage receptors onto anticomplement receptor antibody and mannose-rich yeast mannan, respectively, confirms that the complement and lectin-like receptors are distinct. Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, which express receptors for complement, but are not known to secrete complement proteins, bind and ingest only exogenously opsonized zymosan. Unopsonized zymosan is a poor trigger of respiratory burst activity in neutrophils or 7-d adherent human macrophages, but induces cell aggregation and secretion of large amounts of superoxide anion when these cells are co-cultivated in serum-free medium and challenged with zymosan. Our studies indicate that complement and/or other products synthesized by macrophages at extravascular sites could play an important role in opsonization and lysis of pathogens able to activate the alternative pathway and mediate macrophage-neutrophil collaboration in first-line host defence.
Images
PMCID: PMC424379  PMID: 2934410
12.  The Mannose Receptor Mediates Dengue Virus Infection of Macrophages 
PLoS Pathogens  2008;4(2):e17.
Macrophages (MØ) and mononuclear phagocytes are major targets of infection by dengue virus (DV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus that can cause haemorrhagic fever in humans. To our knowledge, we show for the first time that the MØ mannose receptor (MR) binds to all four serotypes of DV and specifically to the envelope glycoprotein. Glycan analysis, ELISA, and blot overlay assays demonstrate that MR binds via its carbohydrate recognition domains to mosquito and human cell–produced DV antigen. This binding is abrogated by deglycosylation of the DV envelope glycoprotein. Surface expression of recombinant MR on NIH3T3 cells confers DV binding. Furthermore, DV infection of primary human MØ can be blocked by anti-MR antibodies. MR is a prototypic marker of alternatively activated MØ, and pre-treatment of human monocytes or MØ with type 2 cytokines (IL-4 or IL-13) enhances their susceptibility to productive DV infection. Our findings indicate a new functional role for the MR in DV infection.
Author Summary
Dengue disease and its severe manifestations are a growing public health concern, with a third to half the world's population living in dengue-endemic areas. In recent years there have been significant advances in understanding dengue virus (DV) interactions with target cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, hepatocytes, and endothelial cells. Interaction with and infection of these cells leads to the production of new virions as well as immune mediators, which can shape the course of the subsequent immune response. The vascular leakage associated with dengue haemorrhagic fever is believed to be immune mediated. Our work on the interaction of DV with human macrophages has led to two major findings; first, we have identified that the macrophage mannose receptor is important for mediating the infection of human macrophages by DV, and second, that the type 2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 enhance macrophage susceptibility to DV infection. DV–receptor interactions are of critical importance for understanding not only the mechanisms of entry, but also the biology of infection and the pathogenesis. Understanding the immunopathogenesis of dengue disease is crucial to the development of both a safe dengue vaccine and therapeutic inhibitors of early DV replication.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.0040017
PMCID: PMC2233670  PMID: 18266465
13.  The major surface glycoprotein of Trypanosoma cruzi amastigotes are ligands of the human serum mannose-binding protein. 
Infection and Immunity  1996;64(7):2649-2656.
Trypanosoma cruzi, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, chronically infects mammals and causes Chagas' disease in humans. T. cruzi evasion of the mammalian immune response and establishment of chronic infection are poorly understood. During T. cruzi infection, amastigotes and trypomastigotes disseminate in the mammalian host and invade multiple cell types. Parasite surface carbohydrates and mammalian lectins have been implicated in the invasion of mammalian cells. A recent study has demonstrated that the human mannose-binding protein and the macrophage mannose receptor, two mammalian C-type lectins, bind to T. cruzi (S. J. Kahn, M. Wleklinski, A. Aruffo, A. Farr, D. Coder, and M. Kahn, J. Exp. Med. 182:1243-1258,1995). In this report we identify the major surface glycoproteins, including the SA85-1 glycoproteins, as T. cruzi ligands of the mannose-binding protein. Further characterization of the interaction between the mannose-binding protein and T. cruzi demonstrates that (i) the SA85-1 glycoproteins are expressed by amastigotes and trypomastigotes but only amastigotes express the mannose-binding protein ligand, (ii) treatment of amastigotes with alpha-mannosidase inhibits the binding of mannose-binding protein, and (iii) amastigote binding of mannose-binding protein is stable despite the spontaneous shedding of some glycoproteins from its surface. Together, the data indicate that developmentally regulated glycosylation of surface glycoproteins controls the expression of ligands that affect the interactions between T. cruzi and mannose-binding protein. It has been established that the binding of mannose-binding protein to microorganisms facilitates their uptake into phagocytic cells. Preferential opsonization of amastigotes with mannose-binding proteins may account for their clearance from the circulation and may contribute to the parasite's ability to invade different cell types.
PMCID: PMC174122  PMID: 8698491
14.  PPARγ Controls Dectin-1 Expression Required for Host Antifungal Defense against Candida albicans 
PLoS Pathogens  2010;6(1):e1000714.
We recently showed that IL-13 or peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) ligands attenuate Candida albicans colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. Here, using a macrophage-specific Dectin-1 deficient mice model, we demonstrate that Dectin-1 is essential to control fungal gastrointestinal infection by PPARγ ligands. We also show that the phagocytosis of yeast and the release of reactive oxygen intermediates in response to Candida albicans challenge are impaired in macrophages from Dectin-1 deficient mice treated with PPARγ ligands or IL-13. Although the Mannose Receptor is not sufficient to trigger antifungal functions during the alternative activation of macrophages, our data establish the involvement of the Mannose Receptor in the initial recognition of non-opsonized Candida albicans by macrophages. We also demonstrate for the first time that the modulation of Dectin-1 expression by IL-13 involves the PPARγ signaling pathway. These findings are consistent with a crucial role for PPARγ in the alternative activation of macrophages by Th2 cytokines. Altogether these data suggest that PPARγ ligands may be of therapeutic value in esophageal and gastrointestinal candidiasis in patients severely immunocompromised or with metabolic diseases in whom the prevalence of candidiasis is considerable.
Author Summary
Since the early 1980s, Candida albicans has emerged as major cause of human disease, especially among immunocompromised individuals and those with metabolic dysfunction. The main host defense mechanisms against this yeast are engulfment and the production of reactive oxygen molecules by macrophages through Dectin-1 and the Mannose Receptor, two macrophage receptors for Candida albicans cell wall sugars. However, the contribution of these two receptors remains unclear. In our animal experiments, the lack of Dectin-1 in macrophages renders the animals more susceptible to gastrointestinal infection with Candida albicans, demonstrating the essential role of Dectin-1 in antifungal defense. In addition, our experiments established that the interaction between Dectin-1 and Mannose Receptor is important to orchestrate the host antifungal defense. Thus, Candida albicans clearance would be improved by Dectin-1 and Mannose Receptor up-regulation. Interestingly, we had established that the expression of these two receptors was increased by IL-13 through the activation of the nuclear receptor PPARγ, suggesting that PPARγ could be a therapeutic target to eliminate fungal infection. This paper, which highlights a new area of application of PPARγ ligands in infectious diseases, hence heralds the emergence of a new therapeutic strategy against fungal infection in severely immunocompromised patients or those with metabolic diseases.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000714
PMCID: PMC2795865  PMID: 20062524
15.  Lectinophagocytosis of encapsulated Klebsiella pneumoniae mediated by surface lectins of guinea pig alveolar macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages. 
Infection and Immunity  1991;59(5):1673-1682.
Macrophages express a mannose/N-acetylglucosamine-specific lectin which serves as a receptor for nonopsonic phagocytosis of mannose-coated particles. We have examined the binding to guinea pig alveolar macrophages in a serum-free medium of 16 Klebsiella pneumoniae serotypes and of the capsular polysaccharides isolated from 7 of these serotypes. Only five polysaccharides containing the repeating sequence Man alpha 2/3Man or L-Rha alpha 2/3-L-Rha bound to the macrophages. Of the 11 bacterial serotypes expressing such disaccharides in their capsular polysaccharides, 7 bound efficiently, 2 bound poorly, and 2 did not bind at all. No binding occurred with five serotypes lacking these disaccharides. Binding of the bacteria was inhibited by homologous and heterologous capsular polysaccharides that contain the disaccharide sequences, by mannan, and by (Man)25BSA (where BSA is bovine serum albumin). Man alpha 2/3Man-containing oligosaccharides were potent inhibitors compared with monosaccharides. Binding was dependent on Ca2+, modulated by cultivating the macrophages on mannan-coated surfaces, and increased in human monocyte-derived macrophages compared with monocytes. The bulk of the bacteria bound to the macrophages was internalized and killed. The data taken together suggest that Klebsiella pneumoniae cells undergo lectinophagocytosis mediated by capsular disaccharides recognized by the mannose/N-acetylglucosamine-specific lectin of macrophages. This may enhance clearance of the organisms from the serum-poor environment of the lung.
PMCID: PMC257901  PMID: 2019437
16.  The Uptake of Apoptotic Cells Drives Coxiella burnetii Replication and Macrophage Polarization: A Model for Q Fever Endocarditis 
PLoS Pathogens  2008;4(5):e1000066.
Patients with valvulopathy have the highest risk to develop infective endocarditis (IE), although the relationship between valvulopathy and IE is not clearly understood. Q fever endocarditis, an IE due to Coxiella burnetii, is accompanied by immune impairment. Patients with valvulopathy exhibited increased levels of circulating apoptotic leukocytes, as determined by the measurement of active caspases and nucleosome determination. The binding of apoptotic cells to monocytes and macrophages, the hosts of C. burnetii, may be responsible for the immune impairment observed in Q fever endocarditis. Apoptotic lymphocytes (AL) increased C. burnetii replication in monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in a cell-contact dependent manner, as determined by quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence. AL binding induced a M2 program in monocytes and macrophages stimulated with C. burnetii as determined by a cDNA chip containing 440 arrayed sequences and functional tests, but this program was in part different in monocytes and macrophages. While monocytes that had bound AL released high levels of IL-10 and IL-6, low levels of TNF and increased CD14 expression, macrophages that had bound AL released high levels of TGF-β1 and expressed mannose receptor. The neutralization of IL-10 and TGF-β1 prevented the replication of C. burnetii due to the binding of AL, suggesting that they were critically involved in bacterial replication. In contrast, the binding of necrotic cells to monocytes and macrophages led to C. burnetii killing and typical M1 polarization. Finally, interferon-γ corrected the immune deactivation induced by apoptotic cells: it prevented the replication of C. burnetii and re-directed monocytes and macrophages toward a M1 program, which was deleterious for C. burnetii. We suggest that leukocyte apoptosis associated with valvulopathy may be critical for the pathogenesis of Q fever endocarditis by deactivating immune cells and creating a favorable environment for bacterial persistence.
Author Summary
Infective endocarditis (IE) is a problem of public health that still causes high mortality despite antibiotic treatments. Most of the patients who develop an IE have pre-existing cardiac lesions, although the relationship between IE and valvulopathy is not clearly understood. We showed here that patients with valvulopathy exhibited increased levels of circulating apoptotic leukocytes. As the binding of apoptotic cells to monocytes and macrophages is known to inhibit their inflammatory activity, we hypothesized that the high levels of circulating apoptotic leukocytes may be responsible for the immune impairment observed in Q fever endocarditis, an IE due to Coxiella burnetii, a bacterium that survives in monocytes and macrophages. The binding of apoptotic lymphocytes to monocytes and macrophages increased the replication of C. burnetii by stimulating their anti-inflammatory response. In contrast, the binding of necrotic lymphocytes to monocytes and macrophages induced C. burnetii killing and stimulated an inflammatory response. Interferon-γ, which is associated with the control of C. burnetii infection, prevented the replication of C. burnetii in monocytes and macrophages that have bound apoptotic lymphocytes by stimulating their inflammatory response. In conclusion, we suggest that leukocyte apoptosis associated with valvulopathy may be critical for the pathogenesis of Q fever endocarditis by deactivating immune cells and creating a favorable environment for pathogen persistence.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000066
PMCID: PMC2361190  PMID: 18483547
17.  Expression of a mannosyl-fucosyl receptor for endocytosis on cultured primary macrophages and their hybrids 
The Journal of Cell Biology  1982;93(1):49-56.
The presence of a pinocytosis receptor, specific for mannose-fucose terminated glycoproteins, has been established on murine resident peritoneal macrophages, thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages, and macrophages derived from bone-marrow in culture. Macrophagelike cell lines (J-774 and P338.D1), a myelomonocytic cell line (427E), lymphocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and fibroblasts were negative. Binding and uptake of 125I-mannose-BSA and 125I-beta- glucuronidase, respectively, into thioglycollate-induced peritoneal macrophages is saturable (Kd 4 degrees C = 5.4 X 10(-9) M; Kuptake 37 degrees C = 7 X 10(-7) M) and sugar specific. Macrophage-macrophage (rat X mouse) hybrids prepared by fusing rat alveolar macrophages with J-774-B10 (HAT-sensitive macrophagelike cell line) expresses the mannose-fucose receptor. Karyotypes of the hybrids confirmed a 1:1 fusion of rat and mouse cells. The rat/mouse hybrids express a variety of rat and mouse antigens including Fc receptors. Fibroblast-macrophage hybrids and melanoma-macrophage hybrids were negative for mannose- fucose receptor activity. The expression of the mannose-fucose receptor by macrophages appears to be regulated independently of other macrophage markers.
PMCID: PMC2112098  PMID: 6279673
18.  Functional characterization of macrophage receptors for in vitro phagocytosis of unopsonized Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1988;82(3):872-879.
The phagocytic receptor for unopsonized Pseudomonas aeruginosa was characterized functionally using human monocyte-derived macrophages. Freshly isolated human peripheral blood monocytes were unable to ingest unopsonized P. aeruginosa; ingestion did not occur until the cells had been in culture for 2 d and it became maximal after 4 d. Macrophages plated on coverslips derivatized with anti-BSA IgG or with human gamma-globulin lost the capacity to phagocytose unopsonized P. aeruginosa, unopsonized zymosan, and EIgG but bound C3bi-coated erythrocytes normally. Each of the four human IgG subclasses and Fc fragments of anti-BSA IgG inhibited phagocytosis of both unopsonized P. aeruginosa and EIgG. Phagocytosis of P. aeruginosa and zymosan was markedly impaired and EIgG minimally inhibited if macrophages were plated on coverslips derivatized with mannan or when mannan was added to the phagocytosis buffer. Phagocytosis of P. aeruginosa and zymosan, and binding of EC3bi was dependent on the presence of divalent cations, but phagocytosis of EIgG was not. The macrophage phagocytic receptor for unopsonized P. aeruginosa was inactivated by proteolytic enzymes. Phagocytosis of P. aeruginosa was inhibited by D-mannose, L-fucose, and alpha methyl mannoside, but not by L-mannose, D-fucose, or D-glucose. The same sugars inhibited phagocytosis of unopsonized zymosan. We conclude that phagocytosis of unopsonized P. aeruginosa by human monocyte-derived macrophages is facilitated by mannose receptors.
Images
PMCID: PMC303596  PMID: 3138287
19.  Pneumocystis Activates Human Alveolar Macrophage NF-κB Signaling through Mannose Receptors  
Infection and Immunity  2004;72(6):3147-3160.
Alveolar macrophages (AM) represent important effector cells in the innate immune response to the AIDS-related pathogen Pneumocystis, but the early AM host defense signaling events are poorly defined. Using AM from healthy individuals, we showed in the present study that Pneumocystis organisms stimulate AM NF-κB p50 and p65 nuclear translocation in a time-dependent and multiplicity-of-infection-dependent manner as determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and immunofluorescence microscopy and that NF-κB nuclear translocation is associated with I-κB phosphorylation. Importantly, competitive inhibition of mannose receptor and targeted short interfering RNA-mediated gene suppression of mannose receptor mRNA and protein is associated with complete elimination of NF-κB nuclear translocation in response to Pneumocystis. Furthermore, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of AM (as a model human disease state of reduced AM mannose receptor expression and function) inhibits Pneumocystis-mediated NF-κB nuclear translocation and is associated with reduced I-κB phosphorylation and reduced interleukin-8 (IL-8) release. In contrast, NF-κB nuclear translocation and IL-8 release in response to lipopolysaccharide are intact in AM from both healthy and HIV-infected individuals, indicating that the observed impairment is not a global disturbance of the NF-κB pathway. Thus, in addition to phagocytic and endocytic effector functions, the present study identifies mannose receptors as pattern recognition receptors capable of NF-κB activation in response to infectious non-self challenge. AM mannose receptor-mediated NF-κB activation may represent an important mechanism of the host cell response to Pneumocystis, and altered NF-κB activation in the context of HIV infection may impair a critical innate immune signaling response and may contribute to pathogenesis of opportunistic lung infections.
doi:10.1128/IAI.72.6.3147-3160.2004
PMCID: PMC415687  PMID: 15155616
20.  Binding, internalization, and degradation of mannose-terminated glucocerebrosidase by macrophages. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1993;91(5):1909-1917.
Mannose-terminated glucocerebrosidase (alglucerase; Ceredase) was designed for enzyme replacement therapy in Gaucher disease to take advantage of mannose receptor-mediated endocytosis by macrophages. To provide a rational basis for designing enzyme replacement therapy protocols, we examined the in vitro binding, uptake, and degradation of alglucerase by murine and human macrophages. Both were found to have approximately 500,000 mannose-dependent receptors for alglucerase per cell with a Kd of 10(-7) M at 0 degrees C. In contrast, the number of binding sites for mannose-bovine serum albumin (mannose-BSA), the classical ligand for the mannose receptor, was only approximately 20,000 with a Kd of 10(-8) M. Alglucerase was also bound in a mannose-dependent manner by cells that lack the capacity to bind mannose-BSA, such as Cos-1 cells, endothelial cells, and peripheral blood monocytes. The fact that the binding of alglucerase by macrophages was mediated principally by a receptor distinct from the classical mannose receptor that binds mannose-BSA was confirmed by differential inhibitors, viz., alpha-methyl-glucoside, fucose, and mannose-BSA, and by its independence on Ca2+. Uptake of alglucerase by macrophages at 37 degrees C was concentration dependent and half maximal at 10(-6) M. However, at a concentration of 10(-7) M, only 0.5% of the added alglucerase was incorporated into macrophages and approximately 50% of the alglucerase taken up was quickly released into the medium. Endothelial cells also manifest mannose-dependent binding and uptake of alglucerase and may therefore account for a large proportion of the infused alglucerase. Our data suggest that only a small amount of the alglucerase administered is effectively delivered to macrophages and that a more efficiently targeted enzyme might have a marked therapeutic advantage over mannose-terminated glucocerebrosidase.
PMCID: PMC288185  PMID: 8486762
21.  Pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba keratitis: carbohydrate-mediated host-parasite interactions. 
Infection and Immunity  1997;65(2):439-445.
Acanthamoeba keratitis is a sight-threatening corneal infection. In a recent study, the saccharide mannose has been shown to inhibit the binding of Acanthamoeba organisms to the epithelium of the cornea (L. D. Morton, G. L. McLaughlin, and H. E. Whiteley, Infect. Immun. 59:3819-3822, 1991). In an attempt to determine the molecular mechanism by which acanthamoebae adhere to the surface of the cornea, the present study was designed to determine whether Acanthamoeba castellanii derived from an infected human cornea (i) binds to mannose-containing glycoproteins (mannose-GPs) of corneal epithelium and (ii) expresses one or more mannose-binding proteins. Mannose-GPs of primary cell cultures of rabbit corneal epithelium were isolated by using three different agarose-conjugated, mannose-specific lectins. By electrophoresis blot-overlay assays, 35S-labeled acanthamoebae were shown to bind to mannose-GPs of corneal epithelium and to a neoglycoprotein, mannose-bovine serum albumin (mannose-BSA). 35S-labeled acanthamoebae also bound to microtiter wells coated with mannose-BSA in a concentration-dependent manner. The binding of amoebae to mannose-GPs was blocked by free methyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside. The parasites did not bind to galactose-BSA or to many other proteins lacking mannose residues. A membrane-associated mannose-binding protein (136 kDa) of A. castellanii was isolated by affinity chromatography of detergent extracts of unlabeled parasites and of cell surface biotin-labeled parasites on a p-aminophenyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside-agarose column. The affinity-purified protein of the amoeba was shown to bind specifically to mannose-BSA. In summary, a mannose-binding protein is present on the surface membranes of Acanthamoeba, and corneal epithelial cells express Acanthamoeba-reactive GPs. One of the mechanisms of Acanthamoeba adhesion to the corneal surface may involve interactions between the mannose-binding protein of Acanthamoeba and mannose-GPs on the surface of corneal epithelium.
PMCID: PMC174614  PMID: 9009294
22.  Human Macrophage ATP7A is Localized in the trans-Golgi Apparatus, Controls Intracellular Copper Levels, and Mediates Macrophage Responses to Dermal Wounds 
Inflammation  2012;35(1):167-175.
The copper transporter ATP7A has attracted significant attention since the discovery of its gene mutation leading to human Menkes disease. We previously reported that ATP7A is highly expressed in the human vasculature and identified a novel vascular function of ATP7A in modulation of the expression and activity of extracellular superoxide dismutase. We recently identified that ATP7A expression in THP-1 cells (a monocyte/macrophage model cell line) plays a role in the oxidation of low density lipoproteins, indicating that it is necessary to further investigate its expression and function in monocytes/macrophages. In the current study, we demonstrated the protein and mRNA expression of ATP7A in human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-derived macrophages and alveolar macrophages. ATP7A was strongly co-localized with the trans-Golgi apparatus in PBMC-derived macrophages. Intracellular copper, detected by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy, was found to be distributed to the nucleus and cytoplasm in human THP-1 cells. To confirm the role of endogenous ATP7A in macrophage copper homeostasis, we performed inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in murine peritoneal macrophages, which showed markedly increased intracellular copper levels in macrophages isolated from ATP7A-deficient mice versus control mice. Moreover, the role of ATP7A in regulating macrophage responses to dermal wounds was studied by introduction of control and ATP7A-downregulated THP-1 cells into dermal wounds of nude mice. Infiltration of THP-1 cells into the wounded area (detected by expression of human macrophage markers MAC2 and CD68) was reduced in response to downregulation of ATP7A, hinting decreased macrophage accumulation subsequent to dermal wounds. In summary, alongside our previous studies, these findings indicate that human macrophage ATP7A is localized in the trans-Golgi apparatus, regulates intracellular copper levels, and mediates macrophage responses to a dermal wound.
doi:10.1007/s10753-011-9302-z
PMCID: PMC3791630  PMID: 21336677
macrophage; copper; ATP7A
23.  Hemoglobin Directs Macrophage Differentiation and Prevents Foam Cell Formation in Human Atherosclerotic Plaques 
Objectives
To examine selective macrophage differentiation occurring in areas of intraplaque hemorrhage in human atherosclerosis.
Background
Macrophage subsets are recognized in atherosclerosis but the stimulus for and importance of differentiation programs remains unknown.
Methods
We used freshly isolated human monocytes, a rabbit model, and human atherosclerotic plaques to analyze macrophage differentiation in response to hemorrhage.
Results
Macrophages characterized by high expression of both mannose and CD163 receptors preferentially exist in atherosclerotic lesions at sites of intraplaque hemorrhage. These hemoglobin (Hb)-stimulated macrophages, M(Hb), are devoid of neutral lipids typical of foam cells. In vivo modeling of hemorrhage in the rabbit model demonstrated that sponges exposed to red cells showed an increase in mannose receptor positive macrophages only when these cells contained hemoglobin (Hb). Cultured human monocytes exposed to hemoglobin:haptoglobin complexes (Hb:Hp), but not IL-4, expressed the M(Hb) phenotype and were characterized by their resistance to cholesterol loading and upregulation of ABC transporters. M(Hb) demonstrated increased ferroportin (FPN) expression, reduced intracellular iron, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Degradation of FPN using hepcidin increased ROS, inhibited ABCA1 expression, and cholesterol efflux to ApoAI, suggesting reduced ROS triggers these effects. Knockdown of liver x receptor alpha (LXRα) inhibited ABC transporter expression in M(Hb) and macrophages differentiated in the anti-oxidant superoxide dismutase. Lastly, liver X receptor α (LXR) luciferase reporter activity was increased in M(Hb) and significantly reduced by overnight treatment with hepcidin. Collectively, these data suggest reduced ROS triggers LXRα activation and macrophage reverse cholesterol transport (RCT).
Conclusions
Hb is a stimulus for macrophage differentiation in human atherosclerotic plaques. A reduction of macrophage intracellular iron plays an important role in this non- foam cell phenotype by reducing ROS, which drives transcription of ABC transporters through activation of LXRα. Reduction of macrophage intracellular iron may be a promising avenue to increase macrophage RCT.
doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2011.10.852
PMCID: PMC3253238  PMID: 22154776
ABC transporters; atherosclerosis; inflammation; hemoglobin; macrophages; reactive oxygen species
24.  Macrophage Receptors for Influenza A Virus: Role of the Macrophage Galactose-Type Lectin and Mannose Receptor in Viral Entry ▿  
Journal of Virology  2010;84(8):3730-3737.
Although sialic acid has long been recognized as the primary receptor determinant for attachment of influenza virus to host cells, the specific receptor molecules that mediate viral entry are not known for any cell type. For the infection of murine macrophages by influenza virus, our earlier study indicated involvement of a C-type lectin, the macrophage mannose receptor (MMR), in this process. Here, we have used direct binding techniques to confirm and characterize the interaction of influenza virus with the MMR and to seek additional macrophage surface molecules that may have potential as receptors for viral entry. We identified the macrophage galactose-type lectin (MGL) as a second macrophage membrane C-type lectin that binds influenza virus and is known to be endocytic. Binding of influenza virus to MMR and MGL occurred independently of sialic acid through Ca2+-dependent recognition of viral glycans by the carbohydrate recognition domains of the two lectins; influenza virus also bound to the sialic acid on the MMR. Multivalent ligands of the MMR and MGL inhibited influenza virus infection of macrophages in a manner that correlated with expression of these receptors on different macrophage populations. Influenza virus strain A/PR/8/34, which is poorly glycosylated and infects macrophages poorly, was not recognized by the C-type lectin activity of either the MMR or the MGL. We conclude that lectin-mediated interactions of influenza virus with the MMR or the MGL are required for the endocytic uptake of the virus into macrophages, and these lectins can thus be considered secondary or coreceptors with sialic acid for infection of this cell type.
doi:10.1128/JVI.02148-09
PMCID: PMC2849513  PMID: 20106926
25.  The human macrophage mannose receptor directs Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipoarabinomannan-mediated phagosome biogenesis 
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) survives in macrophages in part by limiting phagosome–lysosome (P-L) fusion. M.tb mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) blocks phagosome maturation. The pattern recognition mannose receptor (MR) binds to the ManLAM mannose caps and mediates phagocytosis of bacilli by human macrophages. Using quantitative electron and confocal microscopy, we report that engagement of the MR by ManLAM during the phagocytic process is a key step in limiting P-L fusion. P-L fusion of ManLAM microspheres was significantly reduced in human macrophages and an MR-expressing cell line but not in monocytes that lack the receptor. Moreover, reversal of P-L fusion inhibition occurred with MR blockade. Inhibition of P-L fusion did not occur with entry via Fcγ receptors or dendritic cell–specific intracellular adhesion molecule 3 grabbing nonintegrin, or with phosphatidylinositol-capped lipoarabinomannan. The ManLAM mannose cap structures were necessary in limiting P-L fusion, and the intact molecule was required to maintain this phenotype. Finally, MR blockade during phagocytosis of virulent M.tb led to a reversal of P-L fusion inhibition in human macrophages (84.0 ± 5.1% vs. 38.6 ± 0.6%). Thus, engagement of the MR by ManLAM during the phagocytic process directs M.tb to its initial phagosomal niche, thereby enhancing survival in human macrophages.
doi:10.1084/jem.20051239
PMCID: PMC2213176  PMID: 16203868

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