To compare two strategies of dynamic intensity modulated radiation therapy (dIMRT) with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) in the setting of hypofractionated high-risk prostate cancer treatment.
3DCRT and dIMRT/Helical Tomotherapy(HT) planning with 10 CT datasets was undertaken to deliver 68 Gy in 25 fractions (prostate) and simultaneously delivering 45 Gy in 25 fractions (pelvic lymph node targets) in a single phase. The paradigms of pelvic vessel targeting (iliac vessels with margin are used to target pelvic nodes) and conformal normal tissue avoidance (treated soft tissues of the pelvis while limiting dose to identified pelvic critical structures) were assessed compared to 3DCRT controls. Both dIMRT/HT and 3DCRT solutions were compared to each other using repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc paired t-tests.
When compared to conformal pelvic vessel targeting, conformal normal tissue avoidance delivered more homogenous PTV delivery (2/2 t-test comparisons; p < 0.001), similar nodal coverage (8/8 t-test comparisons; p = ns), higher and more homogenous pelvic tissue dose (6/6 t-test comparisons; p < 0.03), at the cost of slightly higher critical structure dose (Ddose, 1–3 Gy over 5/10 dose points; p < 0.03). The dIMRT/HT approaches were superior to 3DCRT in sparing organs at risk (22/24 t-test comparisons; p < 0.05).
dIMRT/HT nodal and pelvic targeting is superior to 3DCRT in dose delivery and critical structure sparing in the setting of hypofractionation for high-risk prostate cancer. The pelvic targeting paradigm is a potential solution to deliver highly conformal pelvic radiation treatment in the setting of nodal location uncertainty in prostate cancer and other pelvic malignancies.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of an image-guided intensity modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) using involved-field technique to perform a hypofractionated schedule for patients with locally advanced or recurrent pancreatic cancer.
From May 2009 to November 2011, 12 patients with locally advanced or locally recurrent pancreatic cancer received hypofractionated CCRT using TomoTherapy Hi-Art with concurrent and sequential chemotherapy at Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, the Catholic University of Korea. The total dose delivered was 45 Gy in 15 fractions or 50 Gy in 20 fractions. The target volume did not include the uninvolved regional lymph nodes. Treatment planning and delivery were performed using the IG-IMRT technique. The follow-up duration was a median of 31.1 months (range: 5.7-36.3 months).
Grade 2 or worse acute toxicities developed in 7 patients (58%). Grade 3 or worse gastrointestinal and hematologic toxicity occurred in 0% and 17% of patients, respectively. In the response evaluation, the rates of partial response and stable disease were 58% and 42%, respectively. The rate of local failure was 8% and no regional failure was observed. Distant failure was the main cause of treatment failure. The progression-free survival and overall survival durations were 7.6 and 12.1 months, respectively.
The involved-field technique and IG-IMRT delivered via a hypofractionated schedule are feasible for patients with locally advanced or recurrent pancreatic cancer.
Unresectable pancreatic cancer; Hypofractionated radiotherapy; Image-guided; Intensity-modulated radiotherapy
We examined the impact of hypofractionated radiation therapy and androgen suppression therapy (ast) on quality of life (qol) in high-risk prostate cancer patients.
Between March 2005 and March 2007, 60 patients with high-risk prostate cancer were enrolled in a prospective phase ii study. All patients received 68 Gy (2.72 Gy per fraction) to the prostate gland and 45 Gy (1.8 Gy per fraction) to the pelvic lymph nodes in 25 fractions over 5 weeks. Of the 60 patients, 58 received ast. The University of California–Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index questionnaire was used to prospectively measure qol at baseline (month 0) and at 1, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months after radiation treatment. The generalized estimating equation approach was used to compare the qol scores at 1, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months with those at baseline.
We observed a significant decrease in qol items related to bowel and sexual function. Several qol items related to bowel function were significantly adversely affected at both 1 and 6 months, with improvement toward 6 months. Although decreased qol scores persisted beyond the 6-month mark, they began to re-approach baseline at the 18- to 24-month mark. Most sexual function items were significantly adversely affected at both 1 and 6 months, but the effects were not considered to be a problem by most patients. A complete return to baseline was not observed for either bowel or sexual function. Urinary function items remained largely unaffected, with overall urinary function being the only item adversely affected at 6 months, but not at 1 month. Urinary function returned to baseline and remained unimpaired from 18 months onwards.
In our study population, who received hypofractionated radiation delivered using dynamic intensity-modulated radiotherapy with inclusion of the pelvic lymph nodes, and 2–3 years of ast prescription, qol with respect to bowel and sexual function was significantly affected; qol with respect to urinary function was largely unaffected. Our results are comparable to those in other published studies.
Prostate cancer; quality of life; hypofractionation; imrt; toxicity; ast
Radiation therapy to the pelvic lymph nodes in high risk prostate cancer is required on several RTOG clinical trials. Based on a prior lymph node contouring project we have shown significant disagreement in the definition of pelvic lymph node volumes amongst GU radiation oncology specialists involved in developing and executing current RTOG trials.
A consensus meeting was held on October 3, 2007, to reach agreement on pelvic lymph node volumes. Data was presented to address the lymph node drainage of the prostate. Extensive discussion ensued to develop CTV pelvic lymph node consensus.
Consensus was obtained resulting in CT image-based pelvic lymph node CTVs. Based on this consensus the pelvic lymph node volumes to be irradiated include:
distal common iliacpresacral lymph nodes (S1–S3)external iliac lymph nodesinternal iliac lymph nodesobturator lymph nodes
Lymph node CTVs include the vessels (artery and vein) and a 7mm radial margin being careful to “carve out” bowel, bladder, bone, and muscle. Volumes begin at the L5/S1 interspace and end at the superior aspect of the pubic bone. Consensus on DVH constraints for OARs were also attained.
Consensus on pelvic lymph node CTVs for radiation therapy to address high-risk prostate cancer was attained and is available as web-based CT images as well as a descriptive format through the RTOG. This will allow for uniformity in evaluating the benefit and risk of such treatment.
prostate cancer; pelvic lymph nodes; target volume; IMRT; Radiation OncologyGuidelines
The RTOG 94-13 trial has provided evidence that patients with high risk prostate cancer benefit from an additional radiotherapy to the pelvic nodes combined with concomitant hormonal ablation. Since lymphatic drainage of the prostate is highly variable, the optimal target volume definition for the pelvic lymph nodes is problematic. To overcome this limitation, we tested the feasibility of an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) protocol, taking under consideration the individual pelvic sentinel node drainage pattern by SPECT functional imaging.
Patients with high risk prostate cancer were included. Sentinel nodes (SN) were localised 1.5–3 hours after injection of 250 MBq 99mTc-Nanocoll using a double-headed gamma camera with an integrated X-Ray device. All sentinel node localisations were included into the pelvic clinical target volume (CTV). Dose prescriptions were 50.4 Gy (5 × 1.8 Gy / week) to the pelvis and 70.0 Gy (5 × 2.0 Gy / week) to the prostate including the base of seminal vesicles or whole seminal vesicles. Patients were treated with IMRT. Furthermore a theoretical comparison between IMRT and a three-dimensional conformal technique was performed.
Since 08/2003 6 patients were treated with this protocol. All patients had detectable sentinel lymph nodes (total 29). 4 of 6 patients showed sentinel node localisations (total 10), that would not have been treated adequately with CT-based planning ('geographical miss') only. The most common localisation for a probable geographical miss was the perirectal area. The comparison between dose-volume-histograms of IMRT- and conventional CT-planning demonstrated clear superiority of IMRT when all sentinel lymph nodes were included. IMRT allowed a significantly better sparing of normal tissue and reduced volumes of small bowel, large bowel and rectum irradiated with critical doses. No gastrointestinal or genitourinary acute toxicity Grade 3 or 4 (RTOG) occurred.
IMRT based on sentinel lymph node identification is feasible and reduces the probability of a geographical miss. Furthermore, IMRT allows a pronounced sparing of normal tissue irradiation. Thus, the chosen approach will help to increase the curative potential of radiotherapy in high risk prostate cancer patients.
To assess the influence of sentinel lymph nodes (SNs) SPECT/CT and 18 F-choline (18 F-FCH) PET/CT in radiotherapy (RT) treatment planning for prostate cancer patients with a high-risk for lymph node (LN) involvement.
Twenty high-risk prostate cancer patients underwent a pelvic SPECT acquisition following a transrectal ultrasound guided injection of 99mTc-Nanocoll into the prostate. In all patients but one an 18 F-FCH PET/CT for RT treatment planning was performed. SPECT studies were coregistered with the respective abdominal CTs. Pelvic SNs localized on SPECT/CT and LN metastases detected by 18 F-FCH PET/CT were compared to standard pelvic clinical target volumes (CTV).
A total of 104 pelvic SNs were identified on SPECT/CT (mean 5.2 SNs/patient; range 1–10). Twenty-seven SNs were located outside the standard pelvic CTV, 17 in the proximal common iliac and retroperitoneal regions above S1, 9 in the pararectal fat and 1 in the inguinal region. SPECT/CT succeeded to optimize the definition of the CTV and treatment plans in 6/20 patients due to the presence of pararectal SNs located outside the standard treatment volume. 18 F-FCH PET/CT identified abnormal tracer uptake in the iliac LN region in 2/19 patients. These abnormal LNs were negative on SPECT/CT suggesting a potential blockade of lymphatic drainage by metastatic LNs with a high tumour burden.
Multimodality imaging which combines SPECT/CT prostate lymphoscintigraphy and 18 F-FCH PET/CT identified SNs outside standard pelvic CTVs or highly suspicious pelvic LNs in 40% of high-risk prostate cancer patients, highlighting the potential impact of this approach in RT treatment planning.
Prostate cancer; Radiotherapy; SPECT; Sentinel node; 18 F-choline PET/CT
Hypofractionated radiation therapy for prostate cancer has become of increasing interest with the recognition of a potential improvement in therapeutic ratio with treatments delivered in larger-sized fractions. In addition, the associated reduction in fraction number produces attractive cost and patient convenience advantages as well.
A still limited but growing number of hypofractionation trials have reported acceptable short-term levels of toxicity and biochemical control, but most have insufficient follow-up to assure the long-term safety and efficacy of this approach. This situation will improve as many currently active trials mature, particularly several high value randomized trials. In contrast, extreme hypofractionation, with schedules delivering only on the order of 5 fractions, is truly in its infancy for prostate cancer, with extremely limited tolerance and efficacy information currently available.
Several uncertainties in the radiobiology of hypofractionation mitigate for an organized, cautious investigational approach. The fractionation response (α/β ratio) of prostate cancers and, for that matter, late responding normal tissues, has yet to be rigorously defined. Additionally, the linear quadratic (LQ) model used in the design of hypofractionation schedules is subject to its own uncertainties, particularly with respect to the upper limit of fraction sizes for which it remains valid.
Contemporary dose escalated radiation therapy is already highly effective, making it imperative that ongoing and future studies of hypofractionation be carried out in carefully designed, randomized clinical trials. Clinical validation permitting, the adaptation of hypofractionation as a standard of care could profoundly influence future management of localized prostate cancer.
Recently, the use of hypo-fractionated treatment schemes for the prostate cancer has been encouraged due to the fact that α/β ratio for prostate cancer should be low. However a major concern on the use of hypofractionation is the late rectal toxicity, it is important to be able to predict the risk of toxicity for alternative treatment schemes, with the best accuracy. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the response of rectum wall to changes in fractionation and to quantify the α/β ratio for late rectal toxicity
162 patients with localized prostate cancer, treated with conformal radiotherapy, were enrolled in a phase II randomized trial. The patients were randomly assigned to 80 Gy in 40 fractions over 8 weeks (arm A) or 62 Gy in 20 fractions over 5 weeks (arm B). The median follow-up was 30 months. The late rectal toxicity was evaluated using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) scale. It was assumed ≥ Grade 2 (G2) toxicity incidence as primary end point. Fit of toxicity incidence by the Lyman-Burman-Kutcher (LKB) model was performed.
The crude incidence of late rectal toxicity ≥ G2 was 14% and 12% for the standard arm and the hypofractionated arm, respectively. The crude incidence of late rectal toxicity ≥ G2 was 14.0% and 12.3% for the arm A and B, respectively. For the arm A, volumes receiving ≥ 50 Gy (V50) and 70 Gy (V70) were 38.3 ± 7.5% and 23.4 ± 5.5%; for arm B, V38 and V54 were 40.9 ± 6.8% and 24.5 ± 4.4%. An α/β ratio for late rectal toxicity very close to 3 Gy was found.
The ≥ G2 late toxicities in both arms were comparable, indicating the feasibility of hypofractionated regimes in prostate cancer. An α/β ratio for late rectal toxicity very close to 3 Gy was found.
Radiation-induced dermatitis is a common side effect of breast irradiation, with hypofractionation being a well-known risk factor. In the context of the widespread adoption of hypofractionated breast radiotherapy, we evaluated the effect of hypofractionated radiotherapy on the incidence of skin toxicity in patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy.
Patients and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with breast cancer treated from 2004 to 2006 at a single institution. Patients undergoing lumpectomy with or without adjuvant chemotherapy followed by hypofractionated radiotherapy consisting of 42.4 Gy in 16 fractions were included in the study. Using cosmetic and skin toxicity scales, all patients were evaluated weekly during treatment and at scheduled follow-up visits with the radiation oncologist.
During the study period, 162 patients underwent radiotherapy, and 30% of those (n = 48) received chemotherapy. Radiotherapy boost to the tumour bed was more common in the chemotherapy group [n = 20 (42%)] than in the radiotherapy-alone group [n = 30 (26%)]. We observed no statistically significant difference between the groups with regard to acute skin toxicity of grade 3 or higher (2.1% in the chemotherapy group vs. 4.4% in the radiation-alone group, p = 0.67) or of grades 1–2 toxicity (62.5% vs. 51.7% respectively, p = 0.23). There was also no significant difference in late grade 3 or higher skin toxicity between the groups (2.1% vs. 0% respectively, p = 0.30) or in grades 1–2 toxicity (20.8% vs. 25.5% respectively, p = 0.69). Similarly, excellent or good cosmetic result scores were similar in both groups (p = 0.80)
In our single-institution review, we observed no adverse effects of chemotherapy in combination with hypofractionated whole-breast irradiation. Further investigations are necessary to better elucidate the effects of chemotherapy on skin toxicity in the context of hypofractionated irradiation.
Breast cancer; hypofractionated radiotherapy; chemotherapy; skin toxicity
Toxicity concerns have limited pelvic nodal prescriptions to doses that may be suboptimal for controlling microscopic disease. In a prospective trial, we tested whether image-guided IMRT can safely deliver escalated nodal doses while treating the prostate with hypofractionated radiotherapy in 5–1/2 weeks.
Methods and Materials
Pelvic nodal and prostatic image-guided IMRT was delivered to 53 NCCN high risk patients to a nodal dose of 56 Gy in 2 Gy fractions with concomitant treatment of the prostate to 70 Gy in 28 fractions of 2.5 Gy, and 50 of 53 patients received androgen deprivation for a median duration of 12 months.
The median follow-up was 25.4 months (range 4.2–57.2). No early grade 3 (Gr3) RTOG or CTCAE v.3.0 GU or GI toxicities were seen. The cumulative actuarial incidence of Gr2 early GU toxicity (primarily alpha blocker initiation) was 38%. The rate was 32% for Gr2 early GI toxicity. None of the dose-volume descriptors correlated with GU toxicity, and only the volume of bowel receiving ≥30 Gy correlated with early GI toxicity (p=0.029). Maximum late grades 1,2 and 3 GU toxicities were seen in in 30%, 25% and 2%, respectively. Maximum late grade 1 and 2 GI toxicities were seen in 30% and 8% (rectal bleeding requiring cautery), respectively. The estimated 3-year biochemical control (nadir + 2) was 81.2 ± 6.6%. No patient manifested pelvic nodal failure, while two experienced para-aortic nodal failure outside the field. The 6 other clinical failures were distant only.
Pelvic IMRT nodal dose escalation to 56 Gy was delivered concurrently with 70 Gy of hypofractionated prostate radiotherapy in a convenient, resource-efficient and well-tolerated 28 fraction schedule. Pelvic nodal dose escalation may be an option in any future exploration of potential benefits of pelvic radiation therapy in high-risk prostate cancer patients.
Pelvic Lymph Node Dose Escalation; Bowel Displacement Board; Rectal Balloon; Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy; Image-Guided Prostate IMRT
Lymph node metastases associated with prostate cancer (PCa) has been shown to be a poor prognostic factor. The role of pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) itself in relation to survival remains unclear, however. A Medline search was conducted to address this issue. The following conclusions were drawn. Only recently, improved survival due to completion of radical prostatectomy (RP) (compared to abandoning RP) in known or presumed lymph-node-positive patients has been shown. Lymph node sampling can only be considered representative if an adequate number of nodes is removed. While several authors have suggested that a therapeutic benefit in patients undergoing RP is not provided by PLND, the reliability of these studies is uncertain. Contrary to this, several studies have indicated the possibility of long-term survival even in the presence of limited lymph node metastases. The role and timing of initiation of adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in patients who have node-positive disease after RP is controversial. Recent studies suggest that delaying ADT may not adversely impact survival.
To report results in terms of feasibility and early toxicity of hypofractionated simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) approach with Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) as adjuvant treatment after breast-conserving surgery.
Between September 2010 and May 2011, 50 consecutive patients presenting early-stage breast cancer were submitted to adjuvant radiotherapy with SIB-VMAT approach using RapidArc in our Institution (Istituto Clinico Humanitas ICH). Three out of 50 patients were irradiated bilaterally (53 tumours in 50 patients). All patients were enrolled in a phase I-II trial approved by the ICH ethical committee. All 50 patients enrolled in the study underwent VMAT-SIB technique to irradiate the whole breast with concomitant boost irradiation of the tumor bed. Doses to whole breast and surgical bed were 40.5 Gy and 48 Gy respectively, delivered in 15 fractions over 3 weeks. Skin toxicities were recorded during and after treatment according to RTOG acute radiation morbidity scoring criteria with a median follow-up of 12 months (range 8–16). Cosmetic outcomes were assessed as excellent/good or fair/poor.
The median age of the population was 68 years (range 36–88). According to AJCC staging system, 38 breast lesions were classified as pT1, and 15 as pT2; 49 cases were assessed as N0 and 4 as N1. The maximum acute skin toxicity by the end of treatment was Grade 0 in 20/50 patients, Grade 1 in 32/50, Grade 2 in 0 and Grade 3 in 1/50 (one of the 3 cases of bilateral breast irradiation). No Grade 4 toxicities were observed. All Grade 1 toxicities had resolved within 3 weeks. No significant differences in cosmetic scores on baseline assessment vs. 3 months and 6 months after the treatment were observed: all patients were scored as excellent/good (50/50) compared with baseline; no fair/poor judgment was recorded. No other toxicities or local failures were recorded during follow-up.
The 3-week course of postoperative radiation using VMAT with SIB showed to be feasible and was associated with acceptable acute skin toxicity profile. Long-term follow-up data are needed to assess late toxicity and clinical outcomes.
Breast cancer; Simultaneous integrated boost; Hypofractionation; Volumetric modulated arc therapy
The purpose of this work was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy and side effect profile of hypofractionated versus conventional external-beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer.
Several databases were searched, including Medline, EmBase, LiLACS, and Central. The endpoints were freedom from biochemical failure and side effects. We performed a meta-analysis of the published data. The results are expressed as the hazard ratio (HR) or risk ratio (RR), with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI).
The final analysis included nine trials comprising 2702 patients. Freedom from biochemical failure was reported in only three studies and was similar in patients who received hypofractionated or conventional radiotherapy (fixed effect, HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.88–1.20; P = 0.75), with heterogeneity [χ2 = 15.32, df = 2 (P = 0.0005); I2 = 87%]. The incidence of acute adverse gastrointestinal events was higher in the hypofractionated group (fixed effect, RR 2.02, 95% CI 1.45–2.81; P < 0.0001). We also found moderate heterogeneity on this analysis [χ2 = 7.47, df = 5 (P = 0.19); I2 = 33%]. Acute genitourinary toxicity was similar among the groups (fixed effect, RR 1.19, 95% CI 0.95–1.49; P = 0.13), with moderate heterogeneity [χ2 = 5.83, df = 4 (P = 0.21); I2 = 31%]. The incidence of all late adverse events was the same in both groups (fixed effect, gastrointestinal toxicity, RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.79–1.72, P = 0.44; and acute genitourinary toxicity, RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.80–1.68, P = 0.44).
Hypofractionated radiotherapy in localized prostate cancer was not superior to conventional radiotherapy and showed higher acute gastrointestinal toxicity in this meta-analysis. Because the number of published studies is still small, future assessments should be conducted to clarify better the true role of hypofractionated radiotherapy in patients with prostate cancer.
hypofractionated; radiotherapy; prostate cancer; systematic review; acute radiation effects
Hypofractionated radiotherapy for prostate cancer has become of increasing interest with the recognition of a potential improvement in therapeutic outcome with treatments delivered in large-sized daily fractions. In addition, hypofractionation offers a reduction in fraction number and produces attractive cost and increased convenience for patients. There is convincing evidence, by several clinical trials, that biochemical control is significantly improved with higher administered radiation doses to the prostate gland. Furthermore, the improved radiation delivery techniques such as 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) or, better, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) allow high administered doses to the prostate while sparing the normal surrounding tissues. Several studies of the radiobiology of prostate cancer suggest that it may be more susceptible to large fraction sizes compared with conventional fractionation of external beam radiation.
The α/β ratio for prostate cancer is postulated to be between 1 and 3, giving rise to the hypothesis that there may be a therapeutic advantage to hypofractionation. The dosimetry and acute toxicity are described in the first 100 men enrolled in a randomized trial.
Patients and Methods
The trial compares 76 Gy in 38 fractions (Arm I) to 70.2 Gy in 26 fractions (Arm II) using intensity modulated radiotherapy. The planning target volume (PTV) margins in Arms I and II were 5 mm and 3 mm posteriorly and 8 mm and 7 mm in all other dimensions. The PTV D95% was at least the prescription dose.
The mean PTV doses for Arms I and II were 81.1 and 73.8 Gy. There were no differences in overall maximum acute gastrointestinal (GI) or genitourinary (GU) toxicity acutely. However, there was a slight but significant increase in Arm II GI toxicity during Weeks 2, 3, and 4. In multivariate analyses, only the combined rectal DVH parameter of V65 Gy/V50 Gy was significant for GI toxicity and the bladder volume for GU toxicity.
Hypofractionation at 2.7 Gy per fraction to 70.2 Gy was well tolerated acutely using the planning conditions described.
IMRT; Dosimetry; Hypofractionation; Toxicity
This study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes and prognostic factors of patients treated with salvage radiotherapy for the treatment of isolated lymph node recurrence of cervical cancer.
Between 1990 and 2009, 22 cervical cancer patients with lymph node recurrence who had previously undergone radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection were treated with salvage radiotherapy with (n=18) or without (n=4) chemotherapy. Of the 22 patients, 10 had supraclavicular lymph node recurrence, 9 had para-aortic lymph node, and 3 had inguinal lymph node. The median total radiotherapy dose was 60 Gy (range, 40 to 70 Gy). Initial pathologic findings, latent period to lymph node recurrence and other clinical parameters such as squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) level and concurrent chemotherapy were identified as prognostic factors for survival.
The median follow-up period after salvage radiotherapy was 31.2 months (range, 12.1 to 148.9 months). The 5-year progression-free and overall survival rates of all patients were 32.7% and 30.7%, respectively. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (p=0.009) and longer latent period to lymph node recurrence (>18 months vs. ≤18 months, p=0.019) were significant predictors of progression-free survival and SCC-Ag level at the time of recurrence (>8 ng/dL vs. ≤8 ng/dL, p=0.008) and longer latent period to lymph node recurrence (p=0.040) for overall survival. Treatment failure after salvage radiotherapy occurred in 14 (63.6%) for the 22 patients (in field, 2; out of field, 10; both in and out field, 2). Grade 3 acute skin (n=2) and hematologic toxicity (n=1) developed in 3 patients.
For isolated lymph node recurrence of cervical cancer, salvage radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy should be considered, especially in patients with a long-term progression-free period.
Cervical cancer; Lymph nodes; Salvage therapy
The aim of this study was to ascertain whether all cervical cancer patients who received adjuvant concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) for high risk of treatment failure after radical hysterectomy are at the same risk of treatment failure, and if not, to propose trial treatment modification.
Between January 1999 and December 2007, 58 patients with FIGO stage Ib-IIa cervical cancer received adjuvant CCRT due to high risk factors such as positive lymph nodes or positive parametrium, or positive vaginal resection margins. Patients were divided into two Groups. Group A were patients with negative parametrium, negative vaginal resection margins, and only unilateral lymph node metastasis (involved L/N≤2). Group B were those with either bilateral pelvic lymph node involvement, or more than 2 lymph node involvement, or positive parametrium with lymph node involvement.
During a median follow-up period of 34 months (range, 6 to 102 months), 9 patients (15.5%) experienced recurrence; among whom 2 patients (2/28, 7.1%) were Group A, and 7 patients (7/30, 23.3%) were Group B. At 3 years, the estimated progression-free survival rate of all 58 patients was 78.3%, and the overall survival rate was 89.7%. Patients in Group A had significantly better progression-free survival (88.2% vs. 68.2%, p=0.042) and overall survival rate (100% vs. 78.8%, p=0.034) than Group B.
Treatment modifications such as consolidation chemotherapy after CCRT may be considered based on the poor prognosis of very high risk patients such as those patients in Group B.
Concurrent chemoradiation; High risk factor; Treatment modification; Consolidation chemotherapy
Increasing the radiotherapy dose can result in improved local control for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and can thereby improve survival. Accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy can expose tumors to a high dose of radiation in a short period of time, but the optimal treatment regimen remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing high-dose accelerated hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (at 3 Gy/fraction) with concurrent vinorelbine (NVB) and carboplatin (CBP) chemotherapy for the treatment of local advanced NSCLC.
Untreated patients with unresectable stage IIIA/IIIB NSCLC or patients with a recurrence of NSCLC received accelerated hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. The total dose was greater than or equal to 60 Gy. The accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy was conducted once daily at 3 Gy/fraction with 5 fractions per week, and the radiotherapy was completed in 5 weeks. In addition to radiotherapy, the patients also received at least 1 cycle of a concurrent two-drug chemotherapy regimen of NVB and CBP.
A total of 26 patients (19 previously untreated cases and 7 cases of recurrent disease) received 60Gy-75Gy radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy. All of the patients underwent evaluations for toxicity and preliminary therapeutic efficacy. There were no treatment-related deaths within the entire patient group. The major acute adverse reactions were radiation esophagitis (88.5%) and radiation pneumonitis (42.3%). The percentages of grade III acute radiation esophagitis and grade III radiation pneumonitis were 15.4% and 7.7%, respectively. Hematological toxicities were common and did not significantly affect the implementation of chemoradiotherapy after supportive treatment. Two patients received high dose of 75 Gy had grade III late esophageal toxicity, and none had grade IV and above. Grade III and above late lung toxicity did not occur.
High-dose accelerated hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with a dose of 60 Gy or greater with concurrent NVB and CBP chemotherapy might be feasible. However esophagus toxicity needs special attention. A phase I trial is recommended to obtain the maximum tolerated radiation dose of accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy.
Non-small-cell lung cancer; Accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy; Concurrent chemoradiotherapy; Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy; Vinorelbine; Carboplatin
The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and safety of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) combined with (+) low-dose external beam radiotherapy (LRT) as supplemental therapy for advanced prostate cancer (PCa) following hormonal therapy (HT). Our definition of HIFU+LRT refers to treating primary tumour lesions with HIFU in place of reduced field boost irradiation to the prostate, while retaining four-field box irradiation to the pelvis in conventional-dose external beam radiotherapy (CRT). We performed a prospective, controlled and non-randomized study on 120 patients with advanced PCa after HT who received HIFU, CRT, HIFU+LRT and HT alone, respectively. CT/MR imaging showed the primary tumours and pelvic lymph node metastases visibly shrank or even disappeared after HIFU+LRT treatment. There were significant differences among four groups with regard to overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) curves (P=0.018 and 0.015). Further comparison between each pair of groups suggested that the long-term DSS of the HIFU+LRT group was higher than those of the other three groups, but there was no significant difference between the HIFU+LRT group and the CRT group. Multivariable Cox's proportional hazard model showed that both HIFU+LRT and CRT were independently associated with DSS (P=0.001 and 0.035) and had protective effects with regard to the risk of death. Compared with CRT, HIFU+LRT significantly decreased incidences of radiation-related late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity grade ≥II. In conclusion, long-term survival of patients with advanced PCa benefited from strengthening local control of primary tumour and regional lymph node metastases after HT. As an alternative to CRT, HIFU+LRT showed good efficacy and better safety.
complication; high-intensity focused ultrasound; hormonal therapy; low-dose external beam radiotherapy; prostate cancer; survival rate
Prostate cancer has a high prevalence and a rising incidence in many parts of the world. Although many screen-detected prostate cancers may be indolent, prostate cancer remains a major contributor to mortality in men. Therefore, the appropriate diagnosis and treatment of localized prostate cancer with lethal potential are of great importance. High-risk, localized prostate cancer has multiple definitions. Treatment options that should be individualized to each patient include observation, radical prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, androgen deprivation, and combined modality treatment. Specific outcomes of radical prostatectomy and combined modality treatment for high-risk prostate cancer are reviewed. The rationale for extended pelvic lymphadenectomy at the time of surgery is discussed, as is the role for surgery in the setting of node-positive, high-risk disease. There is not yet a biomarker that accurately identifies lethal prostate cancer, but rigorous clinical studies have identified methods of optimizing oncologic outcomes in high-risk men.
Prostate-specific antigen; Prostatectomy; Prostatic neoplasms; Radiotherapy
Management of lymph nodes in radiotherapy for prostate cancer is an issue for curative intent. To find the influence of lymph nodes, patients with T1–T3 prostate cancer and surgically confirmed negative nodes were treated with radiotherapy.
After lymphadenectomy, 118 patients received photon beam radiotherapy with 66 Gy to the prostate. No adjuvant treatment was performed until biochemical failure. After failure, hormone therapy was administered. Follow-up period was 57 months (mean).
Biochemical failure occurred in 47 patients. Few failures were observed in patients with low (24%) and intermediate risks (14%). In contrast, 64% of high-risk patients experienced failure, 97% of whom showed until 36 months. Most patients with failure responded well to hormone therapy. After 15 months (mean), a second biochemical failure occurred in 21% of patients who had the first failure, most of them were high risk. Factors involving failure were high initial and nadir prostate-specific antigen, advanced stage, short prostate-specific antigen-doubling time and duration between radiation and first failure. Failure showed an insufficient reduction in prostate-specific antigen after radiotherapy. Factor for second failure was prostate-specific antigen-doubling time at first failure.
Half of high-risk patients experienced biochemical failure, indicating one of the causes involves factors other than lymph nodes. Low-, intermediate- and the other half of high-risk patients did not need to take immediate hormone therapy after radiotherapy. After failure, delayed hormone therapy was effective. Prostate-specific antigen parameters were predictive factors for further outcome.
prostate cancer; radiotherapy; biochemical failure; high risk; PSA-doubling time
Post-prostatectomy adjuvant or salvage radiotherapy, when using standard fractionation, requires 6.5–8 weeks of treatment. We report on the safety and efficacy of an expedited radiotherapy course for salvage prostate radiotherapy.
A total of 108 consecutive patients were treated with salvage radiation therapy to 65 Gy in 26 fractions of 2.5 Gy. Median follow-up was 32.4 months. Median pre-salvage PSA was 0.44 (0.05–9.50). Eighteen patients (17%) received androgen deprivation following surgery or concurrently with radiation.
The actuarial freedom from biochemical failure for the entire group at 4 years was 67% +/− 5.3%. An identical 67% control rate was seen at 5 years for the first 50 enrolled patients whose median followup was longer at 43 months. One acute grade 3 GU toxicity occurred, with no acute grade 3 GI and no late grade 3 toxicities observed. On univariate analysis, higher Gleason score (p=0.006), PSA doubling time ≤ 12 months (p=0.03), perineural invasion (p=0.06), and negative margins (p=0.06) showed association with unsuccessful salvage. On multivariate analysis, higher Gleason score (p=0.057) and negative margins (p=0.088) retained an association with biochemical failure.
Hypofractionated radiotherapy (65 Gy in 2.5 Gy fractions in about 5 weeks) reduces the length of treatment by from 1–1/2 to 3 weeks relative to other treatment schedules commonly employed, produces low rates of loxicity, and demonstrates encouraging efficacy at 4 – 5 years. Hypofractionation may provide a convenient, resource efficient and well-tolerated salvage approach for the estimated 20–35,000 US men per year experiencing biochemical recurrence after prostatectomy.
Salvage radiotherapy; hypofractionation; prostate cancer; prognostic factors; post-prostatectomy
As the α/β value of prostate is very small and lower than the surrounding critical organs, hypofractionated radiotherapy became a vital mode of treatment of prostate cancer. Cyberknife (Accuray Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA) treatment for localized prostate cancer is performed in hypofractionated dose regimen alone. Effective dose escalation in the hypofractionated regimen can be estimated if the corresponding conventional 2 Gy per fraction equivalent normalized total dose (NTD) distribution is known. The present study aims to analyze the hypofractionated dose distribution of localized prostate cancer in terms of equivalent NTD. Randomly selected 12 localized prostate cases treated in cyberknife with a dose regimen of 36.25 Gy in 5 fractions were considered. The 2 Gy per fraction equivalent NTDs were calculated using the formula derived from the linear quadratic (LQ) model. Dose distributions were analyzed with the corresponding NTDs. The conformity index for the prescribed target dose of 36.25 Gy equivalent to the NTD dose of 90.63 Gy (α/β = 1.5) or 74.31 Gy (α/β = 3) was ranging between 1.15 and 1.73 with a mean value of 1.32 ± 0.15. The D5% of the target was 111.41 ± 8.66 Gy for α/β = 1.5 and 90.15 ± 6.57 Gy for α/β = 3. Similarly, the D95% was 91.98 ± 3.77 Gy for α/β = 1.5 and 75.35 ± 2.88 Gy for α/β = 3. The mean values of bladder and rectal volume receiving the prescribed dose of 36.25 Gy were 0.83 cm3 and 0.086 cm3, respectively. NTD dose analysis shows an escalated dose distribution within the target for low α/β (1.5 Gy) with reasonable sparing of organs at risk. However, the higher α/β of prostate (3 Gy) is not encouraging the fact of dose escalation in cyberknife hypofractionated dose regimen of localized prostate cancer.
Cyberknife; hypofractionation; localized prostate; low α/β; normalized total dose
A variety of hypofractionated radiotherapy schedules has been proposed after breast conserving surgery in the attempt to shorten the overall treatment time. The aim of the present study is to assess acute and late toxicity of using daily fractionation of 2.25 Gy to a total dose of 45 Gy to the whole breast in a mono-institutional series.
Eighty-five women with early breast cancer were assigned to receive 45 Gy followed by a boost to the tumour bed. Early and late toxicity were scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. For comparison, a group of 70 patients with similar characteristics and treated with conventional fractionation of 2 Gy to a total dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions followed by a boost, was retrospectively selected.
Overall median treatment duration was 29 days for hypofractionated radiotherapy and 37 days for conventional radiotherapy. Early reactions were observed in 72/85 (85%) patients treated with hypofractionation and in 67/70 (96%) patients treated with conventional fractionation (p = 0.01). Late toxicity was observed in 8 patients (10%) in the hypofractionation group and in 10 patients (15%) in the conventional fractionation group, respectively (p = 0.4).
The hypofractionated schedule delivering 45 Gy in 20 fractions shortened the overall treatment time by 1 week with a reduction of skin acute toxicity and no increase of late effects compared to the conventional fractionation. Our results support the implementation of hypofractionated schedules in clinical practice.
Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) assessment is a key component of clinical oncology trials. However, few breast cancer trials comparing adjuvant conventional radiotherapy (CR) and hypofractionated tomotherapy (TT) have investigated HRQOL. We compared HRQOL in stage I-II breast cancer patients who were randomized to receive either CR or TT. Tomotherapy uses an integrated computed tomography scanner to improve treatment accuracy, aiming to reduce the adverse effects of radiotherapy.
A total of 121 stage I–II breast cancer patients who had undergone breast conserving surgery (BCS) or mastectomy (MA) were randomly assigned to receive either CR or TT. CR patients received 25 × 2 Gy over 5 weeks, and BCS patients also received a sequential boost of 8 × 2 Gy over 2 weeks. TT patients received 15 × 2.8 Gy over 3 weeks, and BCS patients also received a simultaneous integrated boost of 15 × 0.6 Gy over 3 weeks. Patients completed the EORTC QLQ-C30 and BR23 questionnaires. The mean score (± standard error) was calculated at baseline, the end of radiotherapy, and at 3 months and 1, 2, and 3 years post-radiotherapy. Data were analyzed by the 'intention-to-treat' principle.
On the last day of radiotherapy, patients in both treatment arms had decreased global health status and functioning scores; increased fatigue (clinically meaningful in both treatment arms), nausea and vomiting, and constipation; decreased arm symptoms; clinically meaningful increased breast symptoms in CR patients and systemic side effects in TT patients; and slightly decreased body image and future perspective.
At 3 months post-radiotherapy, TT patients had a clinically significant increase in role- and social-functioning scores and a clinically significant decrease in fatigue. The post-radiotherapy physical-, cognitive- and emotional-functioning scores improved faster in TT patients than CR patients. TT patients also had a better long-term recovery from fatigue than CR patients. ANOVA with the Bonferroni correction did not show any significant differences between groups in HRQOL scores.
TT patients had a better improvement in global health status and role- and cognitive-functioning, and a faster recovery from fatigue, than CR patients. These results suggest that a shorter fractionation schedule may reduce the adverse effects of treatment.
Health-related quality of life; Breast cancer; Hypofractionated radiotherapy; Adjuvant treatment; Randomized trial