A methodology for rapid, high-purity isolation of plasma membranes using superparamagnetic nanoparticles is described. The method is illustrated with high-resolution proteomic, glycomic and lipidomic analyses of presenilin-deficient cells.
We present a novel strategy based on cationic phospholipids-coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPMNPs) to isolate plasma membranes with very high purity and at a preparative scale.The SPMNP-based isolation method is compatible with subsequent analysis of the biomolecular composition of plasma membranes, including proteomics, lipidomics and N-glycomics analysis.A comparative ‘omics' analysis of plasma membranes from wild-type, presenilin-deficient and human presenilin-1-rescued fibroblasts revealed convergent changes in proteins and lipids, suggesting an underlying endosomal transport defect.Our methodology allows for the systematic set-up of comprehensive plasma membrane inventories: alterations in the composition of the cell surface may potentially identify novel biomarkers or drug targets.
One of the major goals of this paper was to establish a robust method for plasma membrane (PM) isolation in order to perform a full analysis of their biomolecular composition. Using thermal decomposition, we manufactured superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPMNPs) that we rendered water soluble and monodisperse by subsequent coupling of NH2 phospholipids. When incubated with cell monolayers, these cationic phospholipids-SPMNPs remain predominately localized at the cell surface. We applied these unexpected feature of phospholipids-SPMNPs to establish a novel protocol to isolate high yields of highly pure PMs. Due to the superb quality and quantity of isolated PM fractions, we could perform a comprehensive and comparative biomolecular profiling on this subcellular compartment that included proteomics, N-glycoproteomics, lipidomics and N-glycan profiling. This method was subsequently applied to compare the biomolecular composition of PMs isolated from wild-type and presenilin-deficient and human presenilin-1-rescued mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). For the first time, we succeeded in identifying convergent changes in the biomolecular composition of the cell surface caused by presenilin gene deficiency. Furthermore, the observed proteomic/cholesterol changes were restored in presenilin-deficient MEFs rescued with the human presenilin-1 ortholog. These (subtle) changes in protein and lipid composition suggest an underlying endosomal transport defect in presenilin-deficient cell lines that is the subject of ongoing research.
Moreover, and extending the versatility of our method, we could show that our PM isolations are compatible with fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE), allowing for N-glycan profiling of the cell surface. Hitherto, the N-glycan composition was measured on total cell extracts where the sensitivity to detect mature N-glycan chains is significantly hampered by the higher abundances of intracellular immature N-glycan intermediates. Finally, using the γ-secretase protein complex as a model, we confirm that we can study the activity and composition of active protein complexes in their native membrane environment. Our strategy incorporates for the first time most available omics analyses and this on a single isolated membrane compartment. As such, it allows for the monitoring and identification of systematic changes at the cell surface, for instance during differentiation and polarization or as a consequence of environmental insults, ER-stress, apoptotic stimuli and altered lipogenesis. The identification of alterations in the PM protein and lipid composition, as they occur as a consequence of disease, is therefore of paramount importance in several fields of experimental medicine, including immunology, cancer and stem cell research. Our methodology provides also a foundation to systematically start collecting PM ‘fingerprints' of an increasing number of cells. The resulting integrated and comprehensive databases may become the starting point of a ‘subcellular systems biology' approach of the cell's limiting membrane. Since PM proteins provide many pathological relevant biomarkers representing two-thirds of the currently used drug targets, this novel technology has great potential for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications.
We manufactured a novel type of lipid-coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles that allow for a rapid isolation of plasma membranes (PMs), enabling high-resolution proteomic, glycomic and lipidomic analyses of the cell surface. We used this technology to characterize the effects of presenilin knockout on the PM composition of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. We found that many proteins are selectively downregulated at the cell surface of presenilin knockout cells concomitant with lowered surface levels of cholesterol and certain sphingomyelin species, indicating defects in specific endosomal transport routes to and/or from the cell surface. Snapshots of N-glycoproteomics and cell surface glycan profiling further underscored the power and versatility of this novel methodology. Since PM proteins provide many pathologically relevant biomarkers representing two-thirds of the currently used drug targets, this novel technology has great potential for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications.
eukaryotic cell systems; glycomics; lipidomics; presenilin, proteomics
Recent evidence from serum metabolomics indicates that specific metabolic disturbances precede β-cell autoimmunity in humans and can be used to identify those children who subsequently progress to type 1 diabetes. The mechanisms behind these disturbances are unknown. Here we show the specificity of the pre-autoimmune metabolic changes, as indicated by their conservation in a murine model of type 1 diabetes. We performed a study in non-obese prediabetic (NOD) mice which recapitulated the design of the human study and derived the metabolic states from longitudinal lipidomics data. We show that female NOD mice who later progress to autoimmune diabetes exhibit the same lipidomic pattern as prediabetic children. These metabolic changes are accompanied by enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, normoglycemia, upregulation of insulinotropic amino acids in islets, elevated plasma leptin and adiponectin, and diminished gut microbial diversity of the Clostridium leptum group. Together, the findings indicate that autoimmune diabetes is preceded by a state of increased metabolic demands on the islets resulting in elevated insulin secretion and suggest alternative metabolic related pathways as therapeutic targets to prevent diabetes.
We have recently found that distinct metabolic disturbances precede β-cell autoimmunity in children who later progress to type 1 diabetes (T1D). Here we performed a murine study using non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice that recapitulated the protocol used in human, followed up by independent studies where NOD mice were studied in relation to risk of diabetes progression. We found that young female NOD mice who later progress to autoimmune diabetes exhibit the same lipidomic pattern as prediabetic children. These metabolic changes are accompanied by enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, upregulation of insulinotropic amino acids in islets, elevated plasma leptin and adiponectin, and diminished gut microbial diversity of the Clostridium leptum subgroup. The metabolic phenotypes observed in our study could be relevant as end points for studies investigating T1D pathogenesis and/or responses to interventions. By proceeding from a clinical study via metabolomics and modeling to an experimental model using a similar study design, then evolving further to tissue-specific studies, we hereby also present a conceptually novel approach to reversed translation that may be useful in future therapeutic studies in the context of prevention and treatment of T1D as well as of other diseases characterized by long prodromal periods.
Lipidomics is a critical part of metabolomics and aims to study all the lipids within a living system. We present here the development and evaluation of a sensitive capillary UPLC-MS method for comprehensive top-down/bottom-up lipid profiling. Three different stationary phases were evaluated in terms of peak capacity, linearity, reproducibility, and limit of quantification (LOQ) using a mixture of lipid standards representative of the lipidome. The relative standard deviations of the retention times and peak abundances of the lipid standards were 0.29% and 7.7%, respectively, when using the optimized method. The linearity was acceptable at >0.99 over 3 orders of magnitude, and the LOQs were sub-fmol. To demonstrate the performance of the method in the analysis of complex samples, we analyzed lipids extracted from a human cell line, rat plasma, and a model human skin tissue, identifying 446, 444, and 370 unique lipids, respectively. Overall, the method provided either higher coverage of the lipidome, greater measurement sensitivity, or both, when compared to other approaches of global, untargeted lipid profiling based on chromatography coupled with MS.
ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC); tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS); electrospray ionization (ESI); top-down/bottom-up lipid profiling
Insulin resistance is a key element in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Plasma free fatty acids were assumed to mediate the insulin resistance, while the relationship between lipid and glucose disposal remains to be demonstrated across liver, skeletal muscle and blood.
We profiled both lipidomics and gene expression of 144 total peripheral blood samples, 84 from patients with T2D and 60 from healthy controls. Then, factor and partial least squares models were used to perform a combined analysis of lipidomics and gene expression profiles to uncover the bioprocesses that are associated with lipidomic profiles in type 2 diabetes.
According to factor analysis of the lipidomic profile, several species of lipids were found to be correlated with different phenotypes, including diabetes-related C23:2CE, C23:3CE, C23:4CE, ePE36:4, ePE36:5, ePE36:6; race-related (African-American) PI36:1; and sex-related PE34:1 and LPC18:2. The major variance of gene expression profile was not caused by known factors and no significant difference can be directly derived from differential gene expression profile. However, the combination of lipidomic and gene expression analyses allows us to reveal the correlation between the altered lipid profile with significantly enriched pathways, such as one carbon pool by folate, arachidonic acid metabolism, insulin signaling pathway, amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism, propanoate metabolism, and starch and sucrose metabolism. The genes in these pathways showed a good capability to classify diabetes samples.
Combined analysis of gene expression and lipidomic profiling reveals type 2 diabetes-associated lipid species and enriched biological pathways in peripheral blood, while gene expression profile does not show direct correlation. Our findings provide a new clue to better understand the mechanism of disordered lipid metabolism in association with type 2 diabetes.
Dyslipoproteinemia, obesity and insulin resistance are integrative constituents of the metabolic syndrome and are major risk factors for hypertension. The objective of this study was to determine whether hypertension specifically affects the plasma lipidome independently and differently from the effects induced by obesity and insulin resistance.
We screened the plasma lipidome of 19 men with hypertension and 51 normotensive male controls by top-down shotgun profiling on a LTQ Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer. The analysis encompassed 95 lipid species of 10 major lipid classes. Obesity resulted in generally higher lipid load in blood plasma, while the content of tri- and diacylglycerols increased dramatically. Insulin resistance, defined by HOMA-IR >3.5 and controlled for BMI, had little effect on the plasma lipidome. Importantly, we observed that in blood plasma of hypertensive individuals the overall content of ether lipids decreased. Ether phosphatidylcholines and ether phosphatidylethanolamines, that comprise arachidonic (20∶4) and docosapentaenoic (22∶5) fatty acid moieties, were specifically diminished. The content of free cholesterol also decreased, although conventional clinical lipid homeostasis indices remained unaffected.
Top-down shotgun lipidomics demonstrated that hypertension is accompanied by specific reduction of the content of ether lipids and free cholesterol that occurred independently of lipidomic alterations induced by obesity and insulin resistance. These results may form the basis for novel preventive and dietary strategies alleviating the severity of hypertension.
Non-human primates (NHP) are now being considered as models for investigating human metabolic diseases including diabetes. Analyses of cholesterol and triglycerides in plasma derived from NHPs can easily be achieved using methods employed in humans. Information pertaining to other lipid species in monkey plasma, however, is lacking and requires comprehensive experimental analysis.
We examined the plasma lipidome from 16 cynomolgus monkey, Macaca fascicularis, using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS). We established novel analytical approaches, which are based on a simple gradient elution, to quantify polar lipids in plasma including (i) glycerophospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, PC; phosphatidylethanolamine, PE; phosphatidylinositol, PI; phosphatidylglycerol, PG; phosphatidylserine, PS; phosphatidic acid, PA); (ii) sphingolipids (sphingomyelin, SM; ceramide, Cer; Glucocyl-ceramide, GluCer; ganglioside mannoside 3, GM3). Lipidomic analysis had revealed that the plasma of human and cynomolgus monkey were of similar compositions, with PC, SM, PE, LPC and PI constituting the major polar lipid species present. Human plasma contained significantly higher levels of plasmalogen PE species (p<0.005) and plasmalogen PC species (p<0.0005), while cynomolgus monkey had higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acyls (PUFA) in PC, PE, PS and PI. Notably, cynomolgus monkey had significantly lower levels of glycosphingolipids, including GluCer (p<0.0005) and GM3 (p<0.0005), but higher level of Cer (p<0.0005) in plasma than human. We next investigated the biochemical alterations in blood lipids of 8 naturally occurring diabetic cynomolgus monkeys when compared with 8 healthy controls.
For the first time, we demonstrated that the plasma of human and cynomolgus monkey were of similar compositions, but contained different mol distribution of individual molecular species. Diabetic monkeys exhibited decreased levels of sphingolipids, which are microdomain-associated lipids and are thought to be associated with insulin sensitivity. Significant increases in PG species, which are precursors for cardiolipin biosynthesis in mitochondria, were found in fasted diabetic monkeys (n = 8).
Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome.
The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between dairy product or supplemental calcium intake with changes in the plasma lipidome and body composition during energy restriction. A secondary objective of this study was to explore the relationships among calculated macronutrient composition of the energy restricted diet to changes in the plasma lipidome, and body composition during energy restriction. Overweight adults (n = 61) were randomized into one of three intervention groups including a deficit of 500kcal/d: 1) placebo; 2) 900 mg/d calcium supplement; and 3) 3-4 servings of dairy products/d plus a placebo supplement. Plasma fatty acid methyl esters of cholesterol ester, diacylglycerol, free fatty acids, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and triacylglycerol were quantified by capillary gas chromatography.
After adjustments for energy and protein (g/d) intake, there was no significant effect of treatment on changes in weight, waist circumference or body composition. Plasma lipidome did not differ among dietary treatment groups. Stepwise regression identified correlations between reported intake of monounsaturated fat (% of energy) and changes in % lean mass (r = -0.44, P < 0.01) and % body fat (r = 0.48, P < 0.001). Polyunsaturated fat intake was associated with the % change in waist circumference (r = 0.44, P < 0.01). Dietary saturated fat was not associated with any changes in anthropometrics or the plasma lipidome.
Dairy product consumption or calcium supplementation during energy restriction over the course of 12 weeks did not affect plasma lipids. Independent of calcium and dairy product consumption, short-term energy restriction altered body composition. Reported dietary fat composition of energy restricted diets was associated with the degree of change in body composition in these overweight and obese individuals.
We tested whether characteristic changes of the plasma lipidome in individuals with comparable total lipids level associate with future cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcome and whether 23 validated gene variants associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) affect CVD associated lipid species.
Methods and Results
Screening of the fasted plasma lipidome was performed by top-down shotgun analysis and lipidome compositions compared between incident CVD cases (n = 211) and controls (n = 216) from the prospective population-based MDC study using logistic regression adjusting for Framingham risk factors. Associations with incident CVD were seen for eight lipid species (0.21≤q≤0.23). Each standard deviation unit higher baseline levels of two lysophosphatidylcholine species (LPC), LPC16∶0 and LPC20∶4, was associated with a decreased risk for CVD (P = 0.024–0.028). Sphingomyelin (SM) 38∶2 was associated with increased odds of CVD (P = 0.057). Five triglyceride (TAG) species were associated with protection (P = 0.031–0.049). LPC16∶0 was negatively correlated with the carotid intima-media thickness (P = 0.010) and with HbA1c (P = 0.012) whereas SM38∶2 was positively correlated with LDL-cholesterol (P = 0.0*10−6) and the q-values were good (q≤0.03). The risk allele of 8 CAD-associated gene variants showed significant association with the plasma level of several lipid species. However, the q-values were high for many of the associations (0.015≤q≤0.75). Risk allele carriers of 3 CAD-loci had reduced level of LPC16∶0 and/or LPC 20∶4 (P≤0.056).
Our study suggests that CVD development is preceded by reduced levels of LPC16∶0, LPC20∶4 and some specific TAG species and by increased levels of SM38∶2. It also indicates that certain lipid species are intermediate phenotypes between genetic susceptibility and overt CVD. But it is a preliminary study that awaits replication in a larger population because statistical significance was lost for the associations between lipid species and future cardiovascular events when correcting for multiple testing.
Membrane lipid composition is an important correlate of the rate of aging of animals and, therefore, the determination of their longevity. In the present work, the use of high-throughput technologies allowed us to determine the plasma lipidomic profile of 11 mammalian species ranging in maximum longevity from 3.5 to 120 years. The non-targeted approach revealed a specie-specific lipidomic profile that accurately predicts the animal longevity. The regression analysis between lipid species and longevity demonstrated that the longer the longevity of a species, the lower is its plasma long-chain free fatty acid (LC-FFA) concentrations, peroxidizability index, and lipid peroxidation-derived products content. The inverse association between longevity and LC-FFA persisted after correction for body mass and phylogenetic interdependence. These results indicate that the lipidomic signature is an optimized feature associated with animal longevity, emerging LC-FFA as a potential biomarker of longevity.
We report a preliminary demonstration of the accurate mass and time (AMT) tag approach for lipidomics. Initial data-dependent LC-MS/MS analyses of human plasma, erythrocyte, and lymphocyte lipids were performed in order to identify lipid molecular species in conjunction with complementary accurate mass and isotopic distribution information. Identified lipids were used to populate initial lipid AMT tag databases containing 250 and 45 entries for those species detected in positive and negative electrospray ionization (ESI) modes, respectively. The positive ESI database was then utilized to identify human plasma, erythrocyte, and lymphocyte lipids in high-throughput LC-MS analyses based on the AMT tag approach. We were able to define the lipid profiles of human plasma, erythrocytes, and lymphocytes based on qualitative and quantitative differences in lipid abundance.
lipidomics; AMT tag approach; capillary liquid chromatography; mass spectrometry
Secretions that are produced by meibomian glands (also known as meibum) are a major source of lipids for the ocular surface of humans and animals alike. Many animal species have been evaluated for their meibomian lipidomes. However, there have been a very small number of studies in which the animals were compared with humans side by side. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare meibum collected from humans and three typical laboratory animals, canines, mice, and rabbits, for their meibomian lipid composition in order to determine which animal species most resembles humans.
High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) in combination with mass spectrometry were used to evaluate lipidomes of all tested species.
Among three tested animal species, mice were found to be the closest match to humans in terms of their meibomian lipidomes, while canines were the second closest species. The lipids of these three species were close to each other structurally and, for most lipid classes, quantitatively. The rabbit meibomian lipidome, on the other hand, was vastly different from lipidomes of all other tested species. Interestingly, a previously described class of lipids, acylated omega-hydroxy fatty acids (OAHFA), was found to be present in every tested species as the major amphiphilic component of meibum.
Our side by side comparison of the rabbit and the human meibum demonstrated their vast differences. Thus, the rabbit seems to be a poor animal model of the human tear film, at least when studying its biochemistry and biophysics.
A side by side comparison of the rabbit and the human meibum demonstrated their vast biochemical differences. Thus, the rabbit seems to be a poor animal model of the human tear film studies. Mice and canines, on the other hand, were found to be very similar to humans and should be considered instead.
The assessment of blood lipids is very frequent in clinical research as it is assumed to reflect the lipid composition of peripheral tissues. Even well accepted such relationships have never been clearly established. This is particularly true in ophthalmology where the use of blood lipids has become very common following recent data linking lipid intake to ocular health and disease. In the present study, we wanted to determine in humans whether a lipidomic approach based on red blood cells could reveal associations between circulating and tissue lipid profiles. To check if the analytical sensitivity may be of importance in such analyses, we have used a double approach for lipidomics.
Methodology and Principal Findings
Red blood cells, retinas and optic nerves were collected from 9 human donors. The lipidomic analyses on tissues consisted in gas chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled to an electrospray ionization source-mass spectrometer (LC-ESI-MS). Gas chromatography did not reveal any relevant association between circulating and ocular fatty acids except for arachidonic acid whose circulating amounts were positively associated with its levels in the retina and in the optic nerve. In contrast, several significant associations emerged from LC-ESI-MS analyses. Particularly, lipid entities in red blood cells were positively or negatively associated with representative pools of retinal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), retinal very-long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFA) or optic nerve plasmalogens.
Conclusions and Significance
LC-ESI-MS is more appropriate than gas chromatography for lipidomics on red blood cells, and further extrapolation to ocular lipids. The several individual lipid species we have identified are good candidates to represent circulating biomarkers of ocular lipids. However, further investigation is needed before considering them as indexes of disease risk and before using them in clinical studies on optic nerve neuropathies or retinal diseases displaying photoreceptors degeneration.
We have explored human aqueous tear fluid lipidome with an emphasis to identify the major lipids. We also address the physiological significance of the lipidome. The tears were analysed using thin layer chromatographic, enzymatic and mass spectrometric techniques. To emphasize the physiological aspect of the lipidome, we modelled the spreading of the non-polar tear fluid lipids at air-water interface in macroscopic scale with olive oil and egg yolk phosphatidylcholine. Based on enzymatic analysis the respective concentrations of choline-containing lipids, triglycerides, and cholesteryl esters were 48±14, 10±0, and 21±18 µM. Ultra performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry analysis showed that phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were the two most common polar lipids comprising 88±6% of all identified lipids. Triglycerides were the only non-polar lipids detected in mass spectrometric analysis i.e. no cholesteryl or wax esters were identified. The spreading experiments show that the presence of polar lipids is an absolute necessity for a proper spreading of non-polar tear fluid lipids. We provide evidence that polar lipids are the most common lipid species. Furthermore, we provide a physiological rationale for the observed lipid composition. The results open insights into the functional role of lipids in the tear fluid and also aids in providing new means to understand and treat diseases of the ocular surface.
Plant sterols (PS) are well known to reduce serum levels of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. Lipidomics potentially provides detailed information on a wide range of individual serum lipid metabolites, which may further add to our understanding of the biological effects of PS. In this study, lipidomics analysis was applied to serum samples from a placebo-controlled, parallel human intervention study (n = 97) of 4-week consumption of two PS-enriched, yoghurt drinks differing in fat content (based on 0.1% vs. 1.5% dairy fat). A comprehensive data analysis strategy was developed and implemented to assess and compare effects of two different PS-treatments and placebo treatment. The combination of univariate and multivariate data analysis approaches allowed to show significant effects of PS intake on the serum lipidome, and helped to distinguish them from fat content and non-specific effects. The PS-enriched 0.1% dairy fat yoghurt drink had a stronger impact on the lipidome than the 1.5% dairy fat yoghurt drink, despite similar LDL-cholesterol lowering effects. The PS-enriched 0.1% dairy fat yoghurt drink reduced levels of several sphingomyelins which correlated well with the reduction in LDL-cholesterol and can be explained by co-localization of sphingomyelins and cholesterol on the surface of LDL lipoprotein. Statistically significant reductions in serum levels of two lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC(16:1), LPC(20:1)) and cholesteryl arachidonate may suggest reduced inflammation and atherogenic potential.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11306-011-0384-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Plant sterols; Lipidomics; Lipoproteins; LDL-cholesterol; Data analysis; Multilevel-PLS-DA; Linear mixed models
Lipidomics is a branch of the field of metabolomics. Although only about a decade since its inception, lipidomics has already had a major influence on the way in which questions about lipid metabolism and signaling are posed. The field is intertwined in the culture and rich history of mass spectrometry. Early work emphasized analytical issues such as limits of detection and numbers of molecular species quantitated in single injections. Increased sophistication in applications of lipidomic analysis and emerging technologies, such as imaging mass spectrometry, are facilitating the study of lipid metabolism and signaling species in cellular functions and human diseases. In the coming years we anticipate a richer understanding of how specific lipid species mediate complex biological processes and interconnections between cellular pathways that were thought to be disparate.
Ether phospholipids are abundant membrane constituents present in electrically active tissues (e.g., heart and the brain) that play important roles in cellular function. Alterations of ether phospholipid molecular species contents are associated with a number of genetic disorders and human diseases.
Herein, the power of shotgun lipidomics, in combination with high mass accuracy/high resolution mass spectrometry, was explored to identify a paired rule for the presence of isomeric ether phospholipid molecular species in cellular lipidomes. The rule predicts that if an ether phospholipid A′-B is present in a lipidome, its isomeric counterpart B′-A is also present (where the ′ represents an ether linkage). The biochemical basis of this rule results from the fact that the enzymes which participate in either the sequential oxidation of aliphatic alcohols to fatty acids, or the reduction of long chain fatty acids to aliphatic alcohols (metabolic precursors of ether lipid synthesis), are not entirely selective with respect to acyl chain length or degree of unsaturation. Moreover, the enzymatic selectivity for the incorporation of different aliphatic chains into the obligatory precursor of ether lipids (i.e., 1-O-alkyl-glycero-3-phosphate) is also limited.
This intrinsic amplification of the number of lipid molecular species present in biological membranes predicted by this rule and demonstrated in this study greatly expands the number of ether lipid molecular species present in cellular lipidomes. Application of this rule to mass spectrometric analyses provides predictive clues to the presence of specific molecular species and greatly expands the number of identifiable and quantifiable ether lipid species present in biological samples. Through appropriate alterations in the database, use of the paired rule increases the number of identifiable metabolites in metabolic networks, thereby facilitating identification of biomarkers presaging disease states.
Exosomes and microvesicles are cell membranous sacs originating from multivesicular bodies and plasma membranes that facilitate long-distance intercellular communications. Lipidomic, proteomic and cell biologic approaches uncovered processes by which the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) can use exosomes and MV to facilitate its dissemination. Macrophage MV and exosomes were isolated by immunoaffinity and sucrose cushion centrifugation and characterized by morphologic, biochemical and molecular assays. HIV-1 was “entrapped” in exosome aggregates. Robust HIV-1 replication followed infection with exosome-enhanced fractions isolated from infected cell supernatants. MV and exosomes facilitated viral infection that was affected by a range of cell surface receptors and adhesion proteins. HIV-1 readily completed its life cycle in human monocyte-derived macrophages but not in CD4 negative cells. The data support a significant role for exosomes as facilitators of viral infection.
Milk fat globules (MFG) are accepted primarily as triacylglycerol delivery systems. The identification of nanometer-sized lipid-protein particles termed ‘lactosomes’ that do not contain triacylglycerol raises the question of their possible functions. MFGs were isolated by slow centrifugation and lactosomes were isolated by ultracentrifugation at a density equivalent to plasma HDL (d > 1.063 g/ml) from human milk obtained from six volunteers at different lactation stages. Isolated lactosomes were analyzed and compared with MFGs for their size distribution, lipidome, proteome, and functional activity. Lactosomes from early milk—day 8, were found to be similar in size as those from mature milk >28 days averaging ~25 nm in diameter. In total, 97 non-redundant proteins were identified in the MFG and lactosome fractions, 46 of which were unique to the MFG fraction and 29 of which were unique to the lactosome fraction. The proteins identified in the lactosome and MFG fractions were enriched with proteins identified with immunomodulatory pathways. Unlike MFGs and GM1 laden reconstituted high- density lipoprotein (rHDL) that served as a positive control, lactosomal binding capacity to cholera toxin was weak. Lipidomic analyses found that lactosomes were devoid of triacylglycerol and gangliosides, unlike MFGs, but rich in a variety of phospholipid species. The data found differences in structure, composition and function between lactosomes and MFG suggesting these two particles are derived from different biosynthetic and/or secretory pathways. The results reveal a bioactive lipid-protein, nanometer-length scale particle that is secreted into milk not to supply energy to the infant, but to play unique, protective and regulatory roles.
Milk; lipidome; proteome; fat globule; lactosome
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia among neurodegenerative diseases, afflicts millions of elderly people worldwide. In addition to amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide and phosphorylated tau, lipid dysregulation is suggested to participate in AD pathogenesis. However, alterations in individual lipid species and their role in AD disease progression remain unclear.
We performed a lipidomic analysis using brain tissues and plasma obtained from mice expressing mutated human amyloid precursor protein (APP) and tau protein (Tg2576×JNPL3) (APP/tau mice) at 4 (pre-symptomatic phase), 10 (early symptomatic) and 15 months (late symptomatic).
Levels of docosahexaenoyl (22:6) cholesterol ester (ChE) were markedly increased in APP/tau mice compared to controls at all stages examined. Several species of ethanolamine plasmalogens (pPEs) and sphingomyelins (SMs) showed different levels between brains from APP/tau and control mice at various stages of AD. Increased levels of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) during the early symptomatic phase were consistent with previous reports using human AD brain tissue. In addition, 19,20-dihydroxy-docosapentaenoic acid (19,20-diHDoPE) and 17,18-dihydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (17,18-diHETE), which are produced from docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid via 19,20-epoxy-docosapentaenoic acid (19,20-EpDPE) and 17,18-epoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (17,18-EpETE), respectively, were significantly increased in APP/tau brains during the pre-symptomatic phase, and concomitant increases occurred in plasma. Several arachidonic acid metabolites such as prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE), which have potential deteriorating and protective actions, respectively, were decreased in the early symptomatic phase of APP/tau mice. Significant decreases in phosphatidylcholines and PEs with polyunsaturated fatty acids were also detected in the late symptomatic phase, indicating a perturbation of membrane properties.
Our results provide fundamental information on lipid dysregulation during various stages of human AD.
Lipidomic analysis; Alzheimer’s disease; Mice model; Ethanolamine plasmalogens; Oxidative fatty acids
The effect of weight loss on different plasma lipid subclasses at the molecular level is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether a diet-induced weight reduction result in changes in the extended plasma lipid profiles (lipidome) in subjects with features of metabolic syndrome in a 33-week intervention.
Plasma samples of 9 subjects in the weight reduction group and 10 subjects in the control group were analyzed using mass spectrometry based lipidomic and fatty acid analyses. Body weight decreased in the weight reduction group by 7.8±2.9% (p<0.01). Most of the serum triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines were reduced. The decrease in triacylglycerols affected predominantly the saturated short chain fatty acids. This decrease of saturated short chain fatty acid containing triacylglycerols correlated with the increase of insulin sensitivity. However, levels of several longer chain fatty acids, including arachidonic and docosahexanoic acid, were not affected by weight loss. Levels of other lipids known to be associated with obesity such as sphingolipids and lysophosphatidylcholines were not altered by weight reduction.
Diet-induced weight loss caused significant changes in global lipid profiles in subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism. The observed changes may affect insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in these subjects.
Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are associated with increased circulating free fatty acids and triacylglycerols. However, very little is known about specific molecular lipid species associated with these diseases. In order to gain further insight into this, we performed plasma lipidomic analysis in a rodent model of obesity and insulin resistance as well as in lean, obese and obese individuals with T2DM.
Lipidomic analysis using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry revealed marked changes in the plasma of 12 week high fat fed mice. Although a number of triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol species were elevated along with of a number of sphingolipids, a particularly interesting finding was the high fat diet (HFD)-induced reduction in lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) levels. As liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue play an important role in metabolism, we next determined whether the HFD altered LPCs in these tissues. In contrast to our findings in plasma, only very modest changes in tissue LPCs were noted. To determine when the change in plasma LPCs occurred in response to the HFD, mice were studied after 1, 3 and 6 weeks of HFD. The HFD caused rapid alterations in plasma LPCs with most changes occurring within the first week. Consistent with our rodent model, data from our small human cohort showed a reduction in a number of LPC species in obese and obese individuals with T2DM. Interestingly, no differences were found between the obese otherwise healthy individuals and the obese T2DM patients.
Irrespective of species, our lipidomic profiling revealed a generalized decrease in circulating LPC species in states of obesity. Moreover, our data indicate that diet and adiposity, rather than insulin resistance or diabetes per se, play an important role in altering the plasma LPC profile.
Lipids have critical functions in cellular energy storage, structure and signaling. Many individual lipid molecules have been associated with the evolution of prostate cancer; however, none of them has been approved to be used as a biomarker. The aim of this study is to identify lipid molecules from hundreds plasma apparent lipid species as biomarkers for diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Using lipidomics, lipid profiling of 390 individual apparent lipid species was performed on 141 plasma samples from 105 patients with prostate cancer and 36 male controls. High throughput data generated from lipidomics were analyzed using bioinformatic and statistical methods. From 390 apparent lipid species, 35 species were demonstrated to have potential in differentiation of prostate cancer. Within the 35 species, 12 were identified as individual plasma lipid biomarkers for diagnosis of prostate cancer with a sensitivity above 80%, specificity above 50% and accuracy above 80%. Using top 15 of 35 potential biomarkers together increased predictive power dramatically in diagnosis of prostate cancer with a sensitivity of 93.6%, specificity of 90.1% and accuracy of 97.3%. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) demonstrated that patient and control populations were visually separated by identified lipid biomarkers. RandomForest and 10-fold cross validation analyses demonstrated that the identified lipid biomarkers were able to predict unknown populations accurately, and this was not influenced by patient's age and race. Three out of 13 lipid classes, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), ether-linked phosphatidylethanolamine (ePE) and ether-linked phosphatidylcholine (ePC) could be considered as biomarkers in diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Using lipidomics and bioinformatic and statistical methods, we have identified a few out of hundreds plasma apparent lipid molecular species as biomarkers for diagnosis of prostate cancer with a high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy.
The relationship between lipid metabolism with prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance) and type 2 diabetes mellitus is poorly defined. We hypothesized that a lipidomic analysis of plasma lipids might improve the understanding of this relationship. We performed lipidomic analysis measuring 259 individual lipid species, including sphingolipids, phospholipids, glycerolipids and cholesterol esters, on fasting plasma from 117 type 2 diabetes, 64 prediabetes and 170 normal glucose tolerant participants in the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab) then validated our findings on 1076 individuals from the San Antonio Family Heart Study (SAFHS). Logistic regression analysis of identified associations with type 2 diabetes (135 lipids) and prediabetes (134 lipids), after adjusting for multiple covariates. In addition to the expected associations with diacylglycerol, triacylglycerol and cholesterol esters, type 2 diabetes and prediabetes were positively associated with ceramide, and its precursor dihydroceramide, along with phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol. Significant negative associations were observed with the ether-linked phospholipids alkylphosphatidylcholine and alkenylphosphatidylcholine. Most of the significant associations in the AusDiab cohort (90%) were subsequently validated in the SAFHS cohort. The aberration of the plasma lipidome associated with type 2 diabetes is clearly present in prediabetes, prior to the onset of type 2 diabetes. Lipid classes and species associated with type 2 diabetes provide support for a number of existing paradigms of dyslipidemia and suggest new avenues of investigation.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the lipidome of meibomian gland secretions in canines (cMGS) – a common pet and laboratory animal – and to compare it with that of human MGS (hMGS), to determine whether canines could be used as a valid experimental animal model in studies of the biochemistry and physiology of the human ocular surface in general, and of the Meibomian glands in particular. The MGS of both species were evaluated using HPLC in combination with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometry. The main lipid classes found in cMGS were very long chain cholesteryl esters, wax esters, (O-acyl)-omega-hydroxy fatty acids (OAHFA), and cholesteryl esters of OAHFA. The lipidomes of cMGS and hMGS were found to be qualitatively similar, which implies similar biosynthetic and biodegradation pathways in canines and humans. However, some quantitative differences between the two were observed.
Background and Aims
The spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes steatosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and progression to cirrhosis. While differences in liver lipids between disease states have been reported, precise composition of phospholipids and diacylglycerols (DAG) at a lipid species level has not been previously described. The goal of this study was to characterize changes in lipid species through progression of human NAFLD using advanced lipidomic technology and compare this with a murine model of early and advanced NAFLD.
Utilizing mass spectrometry lipidomics, over 250 phospholipid and diacylglycerol species (DAGs) were identified in normal and diseased human and murine liver extracts.
Significant differences between phospholipid composition of normal and diseased livers were demonstrated, notably among DAG species, consistent with previous reports that DAG transferases are involved in the progression of NAFLD and liver fibrosis. In addition, a novel phospholipid species (ether linked phosphatidylinositol) was identified in human cirrhotic liver extracts.
Using parallel lipidomics analysis of murine and human liver tissues it was determined that mice maintained on a high-fat diet provide a reproducible model of NAFLD in regards to specificity of lipid species in the liver. These studies demonstrated that novel lipid species may serve as markers of advanced liver disease and importantly, marked increases in DAG species are a hallmark of NAFLD. Elevated DAGs may contribute to altered triglyceride, phosphatidylcholine (PC), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) levels characteristic of the disease and specific DAG species might be important lipid signaling molecules in the progression of NAFLD.