Carpolobia lutea (G. Don) (Polygalaceae) is a tropical medicinal plant putative in traditional medicines against gonorrhea, gingivitis, infertility, antiulcer and malaria. The present study evaluated the antimicrobial, antifungal and antihelicobacter effects of extracts C. lutea leaf, stem and root. The extracts were examined using the disc-diffusion and Microplates of 96 wells containing Muller-Hinton methods against some bacterial strains: Eschericia coli (ATCC 25922), E. coli (ATCC10418), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Staphyllococus aureus (ATCC 6571), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and Bacillus subtilis (NCTC 8853) and four clinical isolates: one fungi (Candida albican) and three bacteria (Salmonella, Sheigella and staphylococcus aureus). The Gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 19659) and the Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Cândida albicans (ATCC 18804) and Helicobacter pylori (ATCC 43504). Some of these extracts were found to be active against some tested strains but activity against H. pylori was >1000mg/ml and good fungistatic activity against C. albican. The MIC against C. albican is in the order n-HF > CHF > ETF= EAF.The order of potency of fraction was the ethanol root > n-HF leaf > ethanol fraction stem > chloroform fraction leaf = ethyl acetate fraction leaf. Polyphenols were demonstrated in ethanol fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, crude ethyl acetate extract and ethanol extract, respectively. These polyphenols isolated may partly explain and support the use of C. lutea for the treatment of infectious diseases in traditional Ibibio medicine of Nigeria.
Carpolobia lutea; Polygalaceae; antimicrobial; antifungal; antihelicobacter; Polyphenols
Endophytic fungi from three commonly found seagrasses in southern Thailand were explored for their ability to produce antimicrobial metabolites. One hundred and sixty endophytic fungi derived from Cymodoceaserrulata (Family Cymodoceaceae), Halophilaovalis and Thalassiahemprichii (Family Hydrocharitaceae) were screened for production of antimicrobial compounds by a colorimetric broth microdilution test against ten human pathogenic microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, a clinical isolate of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Escherichia coli ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Candida albicans ATCC 90028 and NCPF 3153, Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 90112 and ATCC 90113 and clinical isolates of Microsporumgypseum and Penicilliummarneffei. Sixty-nine percent of the isolates exhibited antimicrobial activity against at least one test strain. Antifungal activity was more pronounced than antibacterial activity. Among the active fungi, seven isolates including Hypocreales sp. PSU-ES26 from C. serrulata, Trichoderma spp. PSU-ES8 and PSU-ES38 from H. ovalis, and Penicillium sp. PSU-ES43, Fusarium sp. PSU-ES73, Stephanonectria sp. PSU-ES172 and an unidentified endophyte PSU-ES190 from T. hemprichii exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against human pathogens with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of less than 10 µg/ml. The inhibitory extracts at concentrations of 4 times their MIC destroyed the targeted cells as observed by scanning electron microscopy. These results showed the antimicrobial potential of extracts from endophytic fungi from seagrasses.
Aim: The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the in vitro effect of "non-antibiotic" trimebutine against reference strains Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, ATCC 35218, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212; microbiota that are potentially involved in the pathophysiology of post-infectious functional gastrointestinal disorders.
Methods: Trimebutine activity was assessed by the broth microdilution method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations against reference strains S. aureus ATCC 29213 and ATCC 25923, E. coli ATCC 25922 and ATCC 35218, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and E. faecalis ATCC 29212. Bactericidal activity of the compound was determined by spreading a 10 μL aliquot on Mueller-Hinton agar from each dilution showing non-visible growth. All tests were carried out in triplicate.
Results: Trimebutine was active against all strains tested presenting with MIC ranging from 1024 to 4000 mg/L. MIC and MBC were similar for E. coli ATCC 25922 and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 whereas for Gram-positive isolates and E. coli ATCC 35218 the MBC was higher.
Conclusions: We demonstrated the in vitro bacteriostatic/bactericidal activity of trimebutine against bacteria frequently colonizing the gastrointestinal tract and potentially involved in human gastrointestinal infections that might trigger post-infectious functional gastrointestinal disorders.
trimebutine; antimicrobial effect; post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome; functional dyspepsia; gastroesophageal reflux disease
This multicenter study proposes antimicrobial susceptibility (MIC and disk diffusion methods) quality control (QC) parameters for seven compounds utilized in veterinary health. Alexomycin, apramycin, tiamulin, tilmicosin, and tylosin were tested by broth microdilution against various National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS)-recommended QC organisms (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853). In addition, disk diffusion zone diameter QC limits were determined for apramycin, enrofloxacin, and premafloxacin by using E. coli ATCC 25922, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and S. aureus ATCC 25923. The results from five or six participating laboratories produced ≥99.0% of MICs and ≥95.0% of the zone diameters within suggested guidelines. The NCCLS Subcommittee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing has recently approved these ranges for publication in the next M31 document.
To evaluate the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of methanol extract of Evolvulus nummularius (L) L.
Materials and Methods:
Disc diffusion and broth serial dilution tests were used to determine the antibacterial activity of the methanol extract against two Gram-positive bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilus NCIM 2718, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923) and three Gram-negative bacterial strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 70063 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922). The methanol extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis. Free radical scavenging activity of the methanol extract at different concentrations was determined with 2, 2-diphenyl-1picrylhydrazyl (DPPH).
The susceptible organisms to the methanol extract were Escherichia coli (MIC=12.50 mg/ml) and Bacillus subtilus (MIC=3.125 mg/ml) and the most resistant strains were Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The methanol extracts exhibited radical scavenging activity with IC50 of 350 μg/ml.
The results from the study show that methanol extract of E.nummularius has antibacterial activity. The antioxidant activity may be attributed to the presence of tannins, flavonoids and triterpenoids in the methanol extract. The antibacterial and antioxidant activity exhibited by the methanol extract can be corroborated to the usage of this plant in Indian folk medicine.
Antibacterial; DPPH; Evolvulus nummularius
Triphenyltinbenzoate was synthesized using triphenyltinchloride and silver benzoate prepared from sodium benzoate. The structure of the synthetic compound was elucidated by spectral and C, H analysis. The antibacterial activities of the organotin compound were determined against four bacteria namely Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Streptococcus pyogenes (clinical isolate) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) in vitro experiment. All the bacteria were inhibited at a concentration of 200 μg/ml and 20 μg/ml in dimethylsulphoxide solution and the minimum inhibitory concentration was found to be same, 7.5 μg/ml for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and 10 μg/ml for Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Antibacterial activity; MIC; synthesis; triphenyltinbenzoate; zone of inhibition
The purpose of the present study was to measure the stability of imipenem in Mueller-Hinton agar stored at 4 degrees C over time. MICs for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Streptococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 were determined in triplicate daily for up to 15 days. The calculated mean time to observe a shift of one dilution in MIC endpoints was 4.33 +/- 1.25 days. For routine work, imipenem agar dilution plates should be prepared within 48 to 72 h of the test.
A novel approach for setting interpretive breakpoints in disk diffusion antibiotic susceptibility testing according to determined minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) limits is described, using the method of single-strain regression analysis. The procedure was tested on reference strains Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Streptococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), using published results from cefoperazone disk diffusion experiments. The correlation between logarithm of the disk content and inhibition zone diameter squared was linear, excluding three endpoint values. When constants A and B in the new regression line equation were calculated for the four strains, all four showed different regression lines. Zone diameters corresponding to various MICs were calculated for a disk content of 75 micrograms. The values obtained for the four strains were 20.1, 20.9, 24.9, and 25.8 mm, respectively, for an MIC of 16 micrograms/ml, and 15.7, 15.7, 22.3, and 17.9 mm, respectively, for an MIC of 64 micrograms/ml. The following zone diameter breakpoints were determined for the "I" (intermediate) category, using a 75-micrograms disk: S. aureus, 18 to 15 mm; S. faecalis, 23 to 13 mm; E. coli, 20 to 17 mm; and P. aeruginosa, 20 to 17 mm.
To investigate and optimize microbial media that substitute peptone agar using brebra seed defatted flour.
'Defatted process, inoculums preparation, evaluation of bacterial growth, preparation of cooked and hydrolyzed media and growth turbidity of tested bacteria were determined.
Two percent defatted flour was found to be suitable concentration for the growth of pathogenic bacteria: Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Salmonella (NCTC 8385) and Shigella flexneri (ATCC 12022) (S. flexneri), while 3% defatted flour was suitable for Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) (S. aureus). E. coli (93±1) and S. flexneri (524±1) colony count were significantly (P≤0.05) greater in defatted flour without supplement than in supplemented medium. E. coli [(3.72×109±2) CFU/mL], S. aureus [(7.4×109±2) CFU/mL], S. flexneri [(4.03×109±2) CFU/mL] and Salmonella [(2.37×109±1) CFU/mL] in non-hydrolyzed sample were statistically (P≤0.05) greater than hydrolyzed one and commercial peptone agar. Colony count of Salmonella [(4.55×109±3) CFU/mL], S. flexneri [(5.40×109±3) CFU/mL] and Lyesria moncytogenes (ATCC 19116) [(5.4×109±3) CFU/mL] on raw defatted flour agar was significantly (P≤0.05) greater than cooked defatted flour and commercial peptone agar. Biomass of E. coli, S. aureus, Salmonella and Enterococcus faecalis in non-hydrolyzed defatted flour is highly increased over hydrolyzed defatted flour and commercial peptone broth.
The defatted flour agar was found to be better microbial media or comparable with peptone agar. The substances in it can serve as sources of carbon, nitrogen, vitamins and minerals that are essential to support the growth of microorganisms without any supplements. Currently, all supplements of peptone agar are very expensive in the market.
Colony counts; Commercial media; Defatted flour; Microbial media; Pathogenic bacteria; Peptone agar
The in vitro antimicrobial activities of the whole plant extract (ethanolic-CEE) of Chrozophora senegalensis and its fractions (ethyl acetate-EAA, n-butanol-NBE, aqueous-AQE) were assayed using the agar plate diffusion and nutrient broth dilution methods. Test microorganisms were Bacillus subtilis (NCTC 8326 B76), Escherichia coli (ATCC 11775), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 10145), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 021001). Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Salmonella typhi - laboratory isolates. CEE, EAA and NBE inhibited all the test bacterial organisms and a fungus-Aspergillus flavus. AQE inhibited only Salmonella typhi and Bacillus subtilis. None of the extracts had activity on other 3 fungal organisms tested. CEE and EAA showed minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of 0.390 and 3.125 mg/ml against S. typhi and E. coli, while NBE and AQE had MIC of 3.125 and 1.563 mg/ml against S. typhi respectively. NBE had an MIC of 12.500 mg/ml against E. coli. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of CEE and EAA was found to be <0.098 against S. typhi. The MBC of AQE was 12.5 mg/ml against E. coli and S. aureus, and 6.25 mg/ml towards P. aeruginosa. CEE and EAA exhibited similar antibacterial activities, followed by AQE. The extracts revealed the presence of carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, sterols determined by utilizing standard methods of analysis.
This study has justified the traditional use of the plant for treating diarrhea, boils and syphilis.
Antimicrobial activity; Chrozophora senegalensis; Extracts; Phytochemical Screening; Euphorbiaceae
The susceptibilities of 221 clinical isolates to ofloxacin were tested simultaneously by broth microdilution and disk diffusion methods with commercially prepared 5-micrograms ofloxacin disks. The acceptability of the following previously proposed zone diameter breakpoints was confirmed: greater than or equal to 16 mm, susceptible; 13 to 15 mm, intermediate; less than or equal to 12 mm, resistant. On the basis of a multilaboratory collaborative study, the following are proposed as acceptable ofloxacin MIC ranges for quality control organisms: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, 0.03 to 0.06 micrograms/ml; Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, 0.12 to 0.5 micrograms/ml; Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, 1.0 to 4.0 micrograms/ml. Ofloxacin quality control zone diameter ranges for the disk diffusion test are tentatively proposed, but variations in the performance of different lots of Mueller-Hinton agar may prove to be a serious problem for users.
The standardized disk diffusion test, in which a 10-micrograms enoxacin disk is used, was performed and microbroth dilution MICs were determined to establish individual test control values with Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, and S. aureus ATCC 29213. In addition, regression analysis correlating inhibitory zone diameter with MICs for approximately 400 gram-negative clinical isolates was performed. Based on linear regression and error rate-bounded analyses, criteria for the category calls of isolates are proposed.
The standardized disk diffusion test was performed with 75-micrograms azlocillin disks to determine individual test, accuracy, and precision control values with Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. In addition, regression lines for correlating inhibitory zone diameters with the 75-micrograms azlocillin disk and azlocillin minimal inhibitory concentrations were calculated for gram-negative clinical isolates (including Enterobacteriaceae, P. Aeruginosa, other nonfermenters, and Aeromonas hydrophila). Criteria for distinguishing susceptible isolates from resistant isolates, based on an error-rate bound classification scheme, are proposed.
An equation was derived from known formulas to express the size of the inhibition zone diameter in the disk diffusion antibiotic susceptibility test as a function of the disk content of antibiotic. The equation permitted a calculation of regression line constants for the correlation between zone diameter and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) with a single reference strain. Analysis of reference strains Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, as well as 12 clinical isolates belonging to these species, showed a linearity between zone size squared and the logarithm of disk content in tests with 10-, 30-, and 100-micrograms gentamicin disks. All three species, however, gave regression line constants which were characteristic for the individual bacterial species. Calculations of zone diameter breakpoints corresponding to recommended MIC limits with E. coli and P. aeruginosa reference strains gave an accurate prediction of gentamicin susceptibility. Histogram analysis of 48 strains of Streptococcus faecalis from clinical specimens showed a distribution of zone diameter values which would result in false classification of susceptibility with breakpoints calculated for the other bacterial species studied. Single reference strain analysis of S. faecalis ATCC 29212 (gentamicin MIC, 8 micrograms/ml) permitted the calculation of breakpoints which accurately assigned the strains tested to the intermediate category of susceptibility. Single reference strain analysis offers a quality control method for individual laboratories that allows the determination of inhibition zone diameter breakpoints corresponding to recommended MIC limits with no MIC determinations required.
Tests with 10-micrograms imipenem disks accurately categorized 98.5% of 551 bacterial isolates when interpretive breakpoints of less than or equal to 13 mm for resistant and greater than or equal to 16 mm for susceptible were used. Because a sufficient number of resistant or moderately susceptible strains were not available for testing, these interpretive standards must be considered tentative. Quality control limits for tests with Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 are 26 to 32 and 20 to 28 mm, respectively. Zones obtained with Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 were too large and variable to be useful for quality control purposes.
A seven-center collaborative study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro performance of the 10 micrograms norfloxacin disks on the basis of previously proposed interpretive susceptibility zone standards and quality control parameters. Of 7,858 clinical isolates tested, 93.2, 4.9, and 1.9% fell into the susceptible, moderately susceptible, and resistant groups, respectively. The quality control data based on a total of 1,368 zone diameter measurements compared quite favorably with the proposed performance limits as follows: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, 28 to 35 mm versus 28 to 36 mm; Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, 21 to 29 mm versus 17 to 29 mm; and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, 23 to 27 mm versus 22 to 29 mm.
JNJ-Q2 is a novel fluorinated 4-quinolone in development for treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. This quality control (QC) study was performed to establish ranges for control strains: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 (0.004 to 0.015 μg/ml), Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 (0.015 to 0.06 μg/ml), Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 (0.5 to 2 μg/ml and 17 to 23 mm), Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (0.008 to 0.03 μg/ml and 30 to 36 mm), Haemophilus influenzae ATCC 49247 (0.002 to 0.015 μg/ml and 31 to 39 mm), Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619 (0.004 to 0.015 μg/ml and 28 to 35 mm), and S. aureus ATCC 25923 (32 to 38 mm). These ranges will be crucial in evaluating JNJ-Q2 potency as it progresses through clinical trial development.
Several multilaboratory studies to determine quality control (QC) ranges for a variety of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) susceptibility tests are summarized. Replicate testing used multiple lots of media and antimicrobial disks in accordance with NCCLS recommendations, including the appropriate medium modifications for tests with Haemophilus spp. and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. QC ranges for MIC and disk diffusion testing of N. gonorrhoeae ATCC 49226 were proposed for cefepime, cefetamet, cefmetazole, and cefpodoxime. Disk diffusion QC ranges for Haemophilus influenzae ATCC 49247 or ATCC 49766 were recommended with cefepime, cefetamet (10- and 30-microgram disks), cefmetazole, cefpodoxime, and cefprozil. Disk diffusion QC ranges for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 with cefdinir and clinafloxacin and those for Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 with clinafloxacin were also proposed.
Use of antibiotic-loaded acrylic bone cement to treat orthopaedic infections continues to remain popular, but resistance to routinely used antibiotics has led to the search for alternative, more effective antibiotics. We studied, in vitro, the elution kinetics and bio-activity of different concentrations of meropenem-loaded acrylic bone cement.
Meropenem-loaded bone cement cylinders of different concentrations were serially immersed in normal saline. Elution kinetics was studied by measuring the drug concentration in the eluate, collected at pre-determined intervals, by high-performance liquid chromatography. Bio-activity of the eluate of two different antibiotic concentrations was tested for a period of 3 weeks against each of the following organisms: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 2593 (MSSA), Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, S. aureus ATCC 43300 (MRSA) and Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603 (ESBL).
Meropenem elutes from acrylic bone cement for a period of 3–27 days depending on the concentration of antibiotic. Higher doses of antibiotic concentration resulted in greater elution of the antibiotic. The eluate was found to be biologically active against S. aureus ATCC 2593 (MSSA), P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, E. coli ATCC 25922 and K. pneumoniae ATCC 700603 (ESBL) for a period of 3 weeks.
The elution of meropenem is in keeping with typical antibiotic-loaded acrylic bone cement elution characteristics. The use of high-dose meropenem-loaded acrylic bone cement seems to be an attractive option for treatment of resistant Gram-negative orthopaedic infections but needs to be tested in vivo.
Local antibiotic delivery; Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers; Gram-negative; Orthopaedic infections; Antibiotic bone cement
To investigate the structurally novel and bioactive natural compounds from marine-derived microorganisms under high salinity, the fungus Aspergillus terreus PT06-2 was isolated from the sediment of the Putian Sea Saltern, Fujian, China. Three new compounds, terremides A (1) and B (2) and terrelactone A (3), along with twelve known compounds (4–15) were isolated and identified from the fermentation broth of A. terreus PT06-2 at 10% salinity. Among these metabolites, compounds 4 and 15 only produced in the 10% salinity culture, were identified as methyl 3,4,5-trimethoxy-2-(2-(nicotinamido) benzamido) benzoate, and (+)-terrein, respectively. The new compounds 1 and 2 exhibited antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter aerogenes with MIC values of 63.9 and 33.5 μM, respectively. Compounds 5 showed moderate anti-H1N1 activity and lower cytotoxicity with IC50 and CC50 values of and 143.1 and 976.4 μM, respectively.
Aspergillus terreus; high salinity metabolites; terremides A and B; terrelactone A
A multilaboratory study was designed to define quality control limits for microdilution susceptibility tests with norfloxacin. The following limits were proposed: for Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, 0.03 to 0.125 micrograms/ml; for Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, 1.0 to 4.0 micrograms/ml; for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, 0.5 to 2.0 micrograms/ml; and for Streptococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, 2.0 to 8.0 micrograms/ml. The latter represents a change in the previously recommended control limits.
The present multicenter study proposes broth microdilution quality control (QC) ranges for the antimicrobial agents ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, penicillin G-novobiocin, pirlimycin, premafloxacin, and spectinomycin, which are used in veterinary practice. Six separate laboratories tested replicates of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS)-recommended QC organisms (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212) on medium lots both common and unique to all laboratories. The proposed ranges were within 3 or 4 log2 dilution steps of the modal MICs for all organism-antimicrobial agent pairs, depending on their MIC distributions. With > or = 94.7% of all MIC results being within the proposed QC ranges, all combinations tested comply with NCCLS guidelines and all have been accepted by the NCCLS subcommittee developing susceptibility testing procedures for veterinary laboratories.
The aim of this study was to obtain saccharide (dextran and sucrose)-coated maghemite nanoparticles with antibacterial activity. The polysaccharide-coated maghemite nanoparticles were synthesized by an adapted coprecipitation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies demonstrate that the obtained polysaccharide-coated maghemite nanoparticles can be indexed into the spinel cubic lattice with a lattice parameter of 8.35 Å. The refinement of XRD spectra indicated that no other phases except the maghemite are detectable. The characterization of the polysaccharide-coated maghemite nanoparticles by various techniques is described. The antibacterial activity of these polysaccharide-coated maghemite nanoparticles (NPs) was tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1397, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Candida krusei 963, and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and was found to be dependent on the polysaccharide type. The antibacterial activity of dextran-coated maghemite was significantly higher than that of sucrose-coated maghemite. The antibacterial studies showed the potential of dextran-coated iron oxide NPs to be used in a wide range of medical infections.
Iron oxides; Biological polymers; Antibacterial activity
Enzymatically active and inactive (diisopropylfluorophosphate-treated) cathepsin G exerted antibacterial action in vitro against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas only enzymatically active cathepsin G displayed bactericidal action against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In order to further test the requirement for protease activity for the antipseudomonal action of cathepsin G, synthetic peptides spanning the full-length mature protein were prepared and examined for antibacterial action. Surprisingly, three structurally distinct peptides that correspond to residues 61 to 80, 117 to 136, and 198 to 223 within the full-length protein were found to exert potent antipseudomonal action (> 4.5 logs of killing at 500 micrograms/ml) against P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and four mucoid clinical isolates. Only the peptide (CG117-136) corresponding to residues 117 to 136 (117-RPGTLCTVAGWGRVSMRRGT-136) within cathepsin G exerted antibacterial action against the gram-positive pathogen S. aureus. The antipseudomonal action of CG117-136 was rapid and could be inhibited either by increasing concentrations of NaCl or by 0.5 mM MgCl2 plus 0.5 mM CaCl2, and these conditions appeared to reduce binding of the peptide to whole bacteria. Variants of peptide CG117-136 lacking either a hydrophobic N-terminal domain or a positively charged C-terminal domain were found to have significantly less antipseudomonal action than CG117-136. The antibacterial capacity of the all-D-enantiomeric form of peptide CG117-136 was found to be identical to that of the all-L-peptide, suggesting that the mechanism of killing does not require the recognition of a target site possessing a chiral center.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic microorganism with the ability to respond to a wide variety of environmental changes, exhibiting a high intrinsic resistance to a number of antimicrobial agents. This low susceptibility to antimicrobial substances is primarily due to the low permeability of its outer membrane, efflux mechanisms and the synthesis of enzymes that promote the degradation of these drugs. Cephalosporins, particularty ceftazidime and cefepime are effective against P. aeruginosa, however, its increasing resistance has limited the usage of these antibiotics. Encapsulating antimicrobial drugs into unilamellar liposomes is an approach that has been investigated in order to overcome microorganism resistance. In this study, antimicrobial activity of liposomal ceftazidime and cefepime against P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and P. aeruginosa SPM-1 was compared to that of the free drugs. Liposomal characterization included diameter, encapsulation efficiency and stability. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was determined for free and liposomal forms of both drugs. Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) was determined at concentrations 1, 2 and 4 times MIC. Average diameter of liposomes was 131.88 nm and encapsulation efficiency for cefepime and ceftazidime were 2.29% end 5.77%, respectively. Improved stability was obtained when liposome formulations were prepared with a 50% molar ratio for cholesterol in relation to the phospholipid. MIC for liposomal antibiotics for both drugs were 50% lower than that of the free drug, demonstrating that liposomal drug delivery systems may contribute to increase the antibacterial activity of these drugs.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa; liposomes; cephalosporins