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1.  The use of strain, strain rate, and displacement by 2D speckle tracking for assessment of systolic left ventricular function in goats: applicability and influence of general anesthesia 
Assessment of left ventricular (LV) systolic function can be achieved by conventional echocardiographic methods, but quantification of contractility, regional myocardial function, and ventricular synchrony is challenging. The goal of this study was to investigate the applicability of two-dimensional speckle tracking (2DST) to characterize segmental and global wall motion for assessment of LV function and LV synchrony in healthy goats. We aimed to describe the techniques, report normal values of a variety of 2DST indices, and determine the influence of general anesthesia.
Prospective study on 22 healthy female Saanen goats (3.7 ± 1.1 y, 60.2 ± 10.5 kg [mean ± SD]). All goats underwent two transthoracic echocardiographic examinations, the first standing and unsedated and the second 7.4 ± 3.5 days later during isoflurane anesthesia and positioned in sternal recumbency. Data analyses were performed offline, blinded, and in random order. Left ventricular longitudinal, radial and circumferential strain and strain rate as well as longitudinal and radial displacement were measured using 2DST methods. Summary statistics were generated and differences of 2DST variables between myocardial segments and treatments (i.e., awake vs. anesthetized) were assessed statistically (alpha level=0.05).
Echocardiographic analyses by 2DST were feasible in all goats and at both time points. Longitudinal systolic strain, strain rate and displacement followed a gradient from apex to base. Absolute systolic strain was generally lower and strain rate was higher in awake goats compared to anesthetized goats. Circumferential and radial indices did not consistently follow a segmental pattern. Generally, peak strain occurred later in anesthetized goats compared to awake goats. General anesthesia did not significantly influence LV synchrony.
2SDT is a valid method for non-invasive characterization of LV wall motion in awake and anesthetized goats. The results of this study add to the understanding of LV mechanical function, aid in the diagnosis of global and segmental LV systolic dysfunction, and will be useful for future cardiovascular studies in this species. However, effects of anesthesia and species-specific characteristics should be considered when goats are used as animal models for human disease.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12947-015-0005-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4373510  PMID: 25885445
2D speckle tracking; Strain; Strain rate; Displacement; Left ventricular function; Goat
2.  Left ventricular filling characteristics in pulmonary hypertension: a new mode of ventricular interaction 
British Heart Journal  1992;68(1):16-20.
Objective—To examine the effects of pulmonary hypertension on left ventricular diastolic function and to relate the findings to possible mechanisms of interdependence between the right and left sides of the heart in ventricular disease.
Design—A retrospective and prospective analysis of echocardiographic and Doppler studies.
Setting—A tertiary referral centre for both cardiac and pulmonary disease.
Patients—29 patients with pulmonary hypertension (12 primary pulmonary hypertension, 10 pulmonary fibrosis, five atrial septal defect (ASD), and two scleroderma) were compared with a control group of 10 patients with an enlarged right ventricle but normal pulmonary artery pressure (six ASD, one after ASD closure, one ASD and pulmonary valvotomy, one tricuspid valve endocarditis and repair, and one pulmonary fibrosis). None had clinical or echocardiographic evidence of intrinsic left ventricular disease.
Main Outcome measures—M mode echocardiographic measurements were made of septal thickness, and left and right ventricular internal cavity dimensions. Doppler derived right ventricular to right atrial pressure drop, and time intervals were measured, as were isovolumic relaxation time, and Doppler left ventricular filling characteristics.
Results—The peak right ventricular to right atrial pressure gradient was (mean (SD)) 60 (16) mm Hg in pulmonary hypertensive patients, and 18 (5) mm Hg in controls. The time intervals P2 to the end of the tricuspid regurgitation, and P2 to the start of tricuspid flow were both prolonged in patients with pulmonary hypertension compared with controls (115 (60) and 120 (40) ν 40 (15) and 45 (10) ms, p values <0·001). Pulmonary hypertensive patients commonly had a dominant A wave on the transmitral Doppler (23/29); however, all the controls had a dominant E wave. Isovolumic relaxation time of the left ventricle was prolonged in pulmonary hypertensive patients compared with controls, measured as both A2 to mitral valve opening (80 (25) ν 50 (15) ms) and as A2 to the start of mitral flow (105 (30) ν 60 (15) ms, p values <0·001). The delay from mitral valve opening to the start of transmitral flow was longer in patients with pulmonary hypertension (30 (15) ms) compared with controls (10 (10) ms, p < 0·001). At the time of mitral opening there was a right ventricular to right atrial gradient of 12 (10) mm Hg in pulmonary hypertensive patients, but this was negligible in controls (0·4 (0·3) mm Hg, p < 0·001).
Conclusions—Prolonged decline of right ventricular tension, the direct result of severe pulmonary hypertension, may appear as prolonged tricuspid regurgitation. It persists until after mitral valve opening on the left side of the heart, where events during isovolumic relaxation are disorganised, and subsequent filling is impaired. These effects are likely to be mediated through the interventricular septum, and this right-left ventricular asynchrony may represent a hitherto unrecognised mode of ventricular interaction.
PMCID: PMC1024963  PMID: 1515286
3.  Doppler-derived velocity of blood flow across the cardiac valves in the normal dog. 
Doppler echocardiography is a relatively new procedure used to assess certain cardiovascular disorders in the dog. The objectives of this study were to determine the range of values for the maximal peak velocity of blood flow across each of the four cardiac valves in a sample population of normal adult dogs, using duplex continuous wave Doppler echocardiography, and to determine the optimal tomographic planes to use for an adequate continuous wave Doppler evaluation of the canine heart. Twenty normal dogs were examined to obtain values for peak transvalvular velocity for each of the four cardiac valves. The mean values +/- 1 SD, in cm/s were: 98.1 +/- 9.4 for the pulmonary valve imaged from the left side of the chest, 95.5 +/- 10.3 for the pulmonary valve imaged from the right side of the chest (n = 19), 118.1 +/- 10.8 for the aortic valve, 86.2 +/- 9.5 for the mitral valve and 68.9 +/- 8.4 for the tricuspid valve. Regurgitation was detected across the pulmonic valve in 14 of the 20 dogs, and across the tricuspid valve in ten dogs. The analysis of the tomographic images confirmed that for a complete assessment of a given intracardiac valve, the valve must be examined from all possible directions to obtain maximum values for peak velocity.
PMCID: PMC1263441  PMID: 1884300
4.  Right ventricular filling in dilated cardiomyopathy. 
British Heart Journal  1995;74(3):287-292.
PURPOSE--To assess right ventricular filling in dilated cardiomyopathy. PATIENTS--32 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and 24 healthy controls. METHODS--Stroke distances were measured by pulsed Doppler echocardiography at left ventricular outflow and left and right ventricular inflow. The inflow tract dimensions of both ventricles and the outflow tract dimension of the left ventricle were measured from two dimensional images. Right and left sided atrioventricular (AV) ring excursions were measured by M mode echocardiography at the tricuspid and mitral rings. Stroke volume was derived as stroke distance multiplied by left ventricular outflow tract area. Total stroke distances were calculated as the sum of AV valve Doppler stroke distances and ring excursion. The effective orifice areas of the two AV valves were thus defined as stroke volumes divided by total stroke distance. RESULTS--Total tricuspid stroke distance was normally less than mitral (6.0 (1.7) v 7.6 (1.7) cm, P < 0.05), implying that effective orifice area of the tricuspid valve was consistently greater (6.6 (1.6) v 4.5 (0.8) cm2, P < 0.01). Total tricuspid ring excursion was normally more than mitral (2.30 (0.30) v 1.62 (0.22) cm, P < 0.01). Total tricuspid stroke distance in dilated cardiomyopathy was also less than mitral (7.8 (2.4) v 9.7 (2.8) cm, P < 0.05). Tricuspid stroke distance was significantly increased in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy compared with that in healthy controls (P < 0.05 v controls), though stroke volume was much smaller (26 (10) v 63 (11) ml, P < 0.01) so that tricuspid effective orifice area was reduced to less than half normal (2.7 (1.2) cm2, P < 0.01). Total tricuspid ring long axis excursion was more than mitral (1.37 (0.6) v 0.74 (0.21) cm, P < 0.01). Right ventricular end diastolic inflow dimension was increased compared with that in healthy controls (3.9 (0.7) v 2.8 (0.5) cm, P < 0.01), correlating inversely with tricuspid effective orifice area (r = -0.71, P < 0.01). Total tricuspid ring excursion was bimodally distributed as a low amplitude group (less than 1.6 cm, n = 23) and a high amplitude group (more than 1.6 cm, n = 9), in which the interval P2 to onset of tricuspid flow was much longer (100 (35) v 50 (14) ms, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS--Enlargement of the right ventricular inflow tract in dilated cardiomyopathy, especially to more than 5 cm, is accompanied by a progressive decrease in effective tricuspid orifice area, sometimes to less than 1 cm2 and increased inflow velocities. Right ventricular relaxation was incoordinate in 28% of the patients studied. These disturbances of right ventricular filling are likely to compromise overall cardiac function independently of left ventricular disease.
PMCID: PMC484020  PMID: 7547024
5.  Comparisons between female and male patients with mitral stenosis. 
British Heart Journal  1994;72(6):567-570.
OBJECTIVE--To compare Doppler, echocardiographic, and clinical variables in female and male patients with mitral stenosis. DESIGN--Observational study in consecutive patients with mitral stenosis of cross sectional and Doppler echocardiographic and clinical variables and a retrospective search for a history of systemic embolism. SETTING--A medical centre with 3000 beds, serving both urban and rural populations. PATIENTS--500 consecutive patients with an echocardiographic mitral valve area of 2 cm2 or less. 331 (66.2%) were female and 169 (33.8%) male (mean (SD) ages of 49 (13) and 48 (14) respectively). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Mitral valve areas by echocardiographic planimetry and Doppler pressure half-time method, peak early diastolic mitral velocity and pressure gradient, echocardiographic score of mitral valve, left atrial end systolic diameter, frequency of left atrial thrombus and smoky echoes as well as various valve lesions detected with Doppler and echocardiography, cardiac rhythm, symptomatic functional class of heart failure, and history of systemic embolism. RESULTS--The prevalence of significant tricuspid (22% v 9%, P < 0.001) and pulmonary regurgitation (5% v 1%, P = 0.018) was higher in the female patients than in the male patients. Female patients also had a higher peak regurgitant velocity (3.2 (0.7) v 2.9 (0.7) m/s, P = 0.007) and pressure gradient (41 (21) v 36 (19) mm Hg, P = 0.010) across the tricuspid valve. However, the male patients had a higher echocardiographic score (9.7 (2.4) v 7.0 (2.3), P < 0.001) and a smaller Doppler-derived mitral valve area (0.9 (0.4) v 1.0 (0.4) cm2, P = 0.027). There were no differences between the female and the male patients in mitral valve area measured by planimetry, peak early diastolic mitral velocity and pressure gradient, and left atrial end systolic diameter or in the prevalence of atrial fibrillation, left atrial thrombus, left atrial smoky echoes, significant aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, or heart failure of New York Heart Association class III or IV. CONCLUSIONS--Female patients not only had a higher prevalence of mitral stenosis but also had a higher prevalence of associated tricuspid and pulmonary regurgitation along with a higher velocity and gradient of tricuspid regurgitation. The echocardiographic score was higher in male patients, however. These findings suggest that the pathophysiology of mitral stenosis is different in the two sexes and that gender should be taken into account when therapeutic strategies are formulated.
PMCID: PMC1025644  PMID: 7857741
6.  Comparison of acoustic quantification and Doppler echocardiography in assessment of left ventricular diastolic variables. 
British Heart Journal  1993;70(5):448-456.
OBJECTIVE--To assess the haemodynamic correlations of the waveforms of left ventricular area change obtained by automated boundary detection with newly developed acoustic quantification technology. DESIGN--The timing of events in the cardiac cycle was identified on the wave-form automated boundary detection and was correlated with the corresponding timing derived from pulsed wave Doppler flow velocity traces of the mitral valve and left ventricular outflow tract. The amounts of area change during the rapid filling phase and during atrial contraction were correlated with the time-velocity integrals of early and late diastolic ventricular filling obtained from Doppler tracings of the mitral inflow. SETTING--A university medical school echocardiography laboratory. SUBJECTS--16 healthy volunteers and 19 patients referred for echocardiographic studies. RESULTS--A significant correlation was found between the methods for measurement of the time from the R wave to mitral valve opening (r = 0.72, p < 0.01), isovolumic relaxation time (r = 0.62, p < 0.01), and ejection time (r = 0.54, p < 0.01). The change of total area that occurred during rapid filling and atrial filling phases measured from the acoustic waveform correlated with the time-velocity integrals of the early and late diastolic mitral valve inflow velocity derived from Doppler echocardiography (r = 0.60 and r = 0.80, respectively). CONCLUSION--The waveform of left ventricular area obtained by the automated boundary detection technique identifies the phases of the cardiac cycle and correlates with Doppler values of left ventricular diastolic function. Therefore, this new method of automated boundary detection has potential uses in the assessment of left ventricular diastolic function.
PMCID: PMC1025358  PMID: 8260277
7.  Relation of left ventricular isovolumic relaxation time and incoordination to transmitral Doppler filling patterns 
British Heart Journal  1992;68(6):567-573.
Objective—To investigate factors during isovolumic relaxation that determine Doppler filling patterns in patients with left ventricular disease, and thus to identify the underlying mechanisms.
Design—85 patients (50 ischaemic heart disease, 35 left ventricular hypertrophy due to aortic stenosis) and 26 controls were studied with Doppler and M mode echocardiography and phonocardiography. 16 patients underwent two studies on separate occasions, to find whether changes in isovolumic relaxation time were reflected by a change in the Doppler A/E ratio.
Setting—A tertiary cardiac referral centre.
Subjects—Patients referred for assessment of coronary artery disease or aorticstenosis with left ventricular hypertrophy.
Main outcomes measures—Doppler filling velocities during early (E wave) and late (A wave) diastole and the A/E ratio, acceleration of the E wave, digitised M mode indices of incoordinate relaxation (change in cavity dimension before mitral valve opening and time from minimum dimension to mitral valve opening), isovolumic relaxation time, M mode measures of diastolic function after mitral valve opening (peak rate of posterior wall thinning and peak rate of dimension increase), and left ventricular end diastolic pressure.
Results—A/E correlated with age in normal subjects (r = 0·74), to a lesser extent in left ventricular hypertrophy (r = 0·41), but not significantly in ischaemic heart disease. In all patients, isovolumic relaxation time was significantly and negatively correlated with the acceleration of the E wave, showing its fundamental relation to the force responsible for early diastolic filling (r = −0·71 for left ventricular hypertrophy, and −0·74 for ischaemic heart disease, p value < 0·01). In left ventricular hypertrophy and those ischaemic patients without left ventricular dilatation A/E was correlated both with isovolumic relaxation time (r = 0·68 and 0·60 respectively), and with incoordinate relaxation (r = 0·65 and 0·61). In those ischaemic patients with left ventricular dilatation, the influence of incoordination was lost and isovolumic relaxation time became the dominant influence upon A/E (r = 0·82). Weak correlations of end diastolic pressure and RR interval with A/E, became insignificant once isovolumic relaxation time had been taken into account. Isovolumic relaxation time and incoordination together accounted for over 50% of the variance in the A/E ratio in our patients. Isovolumic relaxation time and the A/E ratio were linearly related. Patients with a short isovolumic relaxation time had evidence of considerable diastolic abnormalities, despite a normal Doppler A/E ratio. In the 16 patients who had two echocardiographic studies, changes in the duration of isovolumic relaxation were accompanied by a change in the Doppler A/E ratio. The relation between these two variables, derived from the group as a whole was similar.
Conclusions—The main factors influencing the A/E ratio in patients with left ventricular disease are two distinct properties of isovolumic relaxation—namely the duration and the extent of incoordinate wall motion. Filling pressure and RR interval are not significant independent determinants, but act only through an effect upon isovolumic relaxation time. Age is an important influence in normal people, but this effect is attenuated in left ventricular hypertrophy and lost in ischaemic ventricular disease.
PMCID: PMC1025686  PMID: 1467050
8.  Transthoracic echocardiography reference values in juvenile and adult 129/Sv mice 
In the recent years, the use of Doppler-echocardiography has become a standard non-invasive technique in the analysis of cardiac malformations in genetically modified mice. Therefore, normal values have to be established for the most commonly used inbred strains in whose genetic background those mutations are generated. Here we provide reference values for transthoracic echocardiography measurements in juvenile (3 weeks) and adult (8 weeks) 129/Sv mice.
Echocardiographic measurements were performed using B-mode, M-mode and Doppler-mode in 15 juvenile (3 weeks) and 15 adult (8 weeks) mice, during isoflurane anesthesia. M-mode measurements variability of left ventricle (LV) was determined.
Several echocardiographic measurements significantly differ between juvenile and adult mice. Most of these measurements are related with cardiac dimensions. All B-mode measurements were different between juveniles and adults (higher in the adults), except for fractional area change (FAC). Ejection fraction (EF) and fractional shortening (FS), calculated from M-mode parameters, do not differ between juvenile and adult mice. Stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) were significantly different between juvenile and adult mice. SV was 31.93 ± 8.67 μl in juveniles vs 70.61 ± 24.66 μl in adults, ρ < 0.001. CO was 12.06 ± 4.05 ml/min in juveniles vs 29.71 ± 10.13 ml/min in adults, ρ < 0.001. No difference was found in mitral valve (MV) and tricuspid valve (TV) related parameters between juvenile and adult mice. It was demonstrated that variability of M-mode measurements of LV is minimal.
This study suggests that differences in cardiac dimensions, as wells as in pulmonary and aorta outflow parameters, were found between juvenile and adult mice. However, mitral and tricuspid inflow parameters seem to be similar between 3 weeks and 8 weeks mice. The reference values established in this study would contribute as a basis to future studies in post-natal cardiovascular development and diagnosing cardiovascular disorders in genetically modified mouse mutant lines.
PMCID: PMC3651272  PMID: 23634975
Echocardiography; Juvenile; Adult; 129/Sv mouse; Reference values; Doppler
9.  Echocardiographic indices in normal German shepherd dogs 
Journal of Veterinary Science  2006;7(2):193-198.
Sixty clinically normal German shepherd dogs, 31 males and 29 females, ranging in age from 1 and 5 years and with a body weight ranging from 22 to 37.2 kg, were examined by the two-dimensional mode, M-mode, and Doppler echocardiography. In Doppler mode, the mitral valve flows were obtained, where the aim was to determine the velocity peaks and ratios of the E and A waves and the mitral E wave deceleration time. The velocity peaks were obtained for the tricuspid, pulmonary and aortic valves. On the left ventricular outflow tract flow, the time velocity integral and aortic cross-sectional area was used to calculate the cardiac output. A statistically significant correlation with the body weight was found for the systolic left atrial and diastolic aortic diameter on two-dimensional mode. On M-mode, there was a significant correlation between the body weight and the systolic left atrium and diastolic aortic dimension, systolic and diastolic left ventricular, septal and posterior wall dimensions. Doppler echocardiography showed that there was no significant correlation between the body weight and the mitral, tricuspid, pulmonary and aortic valves flows. These results demonstrate that it is important to know the normal echocardiographic values for German shepherd dogs because there are some characteristics peculiar to this particular breed. The data obtained is expected to be helpful for studies on small animal cardiology.
PMCID: PMC3242114  PMID: 16645347
Doppler echocardiography; echocardiography; M-mode; two-dimensional mode
10.  Atrioventricular Flow Wave Patterns before and after Birth by Fetal Echocardiography 
Doppler echocardiographic measurements of both valves during intrauterine life can be used to calculate peak early filling velocity (E)/late peak atrial filling velocity (A) ratio as a single index of diastolic performance. The purposes of this study were to estimate the changes in atrioventricular valve flow from gestational age 37-40 weeks to 1 month of postnatal life and to clarify the difference in right and left ventricular diastolic filling patterns.
Atrioventricular flow waves were analyzed in 24 full-term pregnant women by fetal echocardiography. Postnatal follow-up studies were performed at 1 hour, 6 hours, 24 hours, 3 days, 1 week and 1 month. In each time point, pulsed Doppler echocardiography was used to interrogate Doppler waveform of E velocity, A velocity, total area under the curve (time velocity integral) and heart rate.
Mitral E/A ratio significantly increased from 0.7 ± 0.1 before birth to 1.0 ± 0.3 at postnatal 1 hour, 1.0 ± 0.2 at 1 week, and 1.5 ± 1.0 at 1 month. Tricuspid flow E/A ratio was 0.8 ± 0.3 before birth, 0.8 ± 0.1 at 1 hour, 0.8 ± 0.2 at 3 days, 0.9 ± 1.0 at 1 month. Time velocity integral of tricuspid flow was significantly higher than that of mitral flow before birth, but there was no difference after birth.
The dominance of mitral A wave before birth was changed very quickly after birth to the dominance of E wave, but the dominance of tricuspid A wave was maintained at 1 month. Diastolic function and compliance of mitral valve were better than those of the tricuspid valve after birth.
PMCID: PMC3391633  PMID: 22787525
Fetal echocardiography; Atrioventricular valve flow
11.  Reliability of quantitative echocardiography in adult sheep and goats 
Echocardiography is a non-invasive method for assessment of the ovine and caprine heart. Complete reference ranges for cardiac dimensions and time indices for both species are not currently available and reliability of these measurements has not been evaluated. The objectives for this study are to report reliability, normal cardiac dimensions and time indices in a large group of adult sheep and goats.
Fifty-one adult sheep and forty adult goats were recruited. Full echocardiographic examinations were performed in the standing unsedated animal. All animals underwent echocardiography four times in a 72-hour period. Echocardiography was performed three times by one author and once by another. Images were stored and measured offline. Technique and measurement repeatability and reproducibility and any differences due to animal or day were evaluated. Reference ranges (mean ± 2 standard deviations) were calculated for both species.
Majority of the images obtained were of good to excellent quality. Image acquisition was straightforward with 5.4% of animals demonstrating a small scanning window. Reliability was excellent for majority of dimensions and time indices. There was less variation in repeatability when compared with reproducibility and differences were greater for technique than for measurements. Dimensions that were less reliable included those for right ventricular diameter and left ventricular free wall. There were many differences in cardiac dimensions between sheep and goats.
This study has demonstrated that specific reference ranges are required for these two species. Repeatability and reproducibility were excellent for the majority of cardiac dimensions and time indices suggesting that this technique is reliable and valuable for examination of clinical cases over time and for longitudinal research studies.
PMCID: PMC3574009  PMID: 23017011
Ovine; Caprine; Cardiac; Heart; Measurements; Ultrasonography
12.  Cardiac dysfunction in liver cirrhosis: A tissue Doppler imaging study from Egypt 
Electronic Physician  2015;7(4):1135-1143.
Patients with liver cirrhosis suffer from various cardiac abnormalities, which may influence their outcome. Tissue Doppler recording of the mitral and tricuspid annular diastolic velocities can be used to assess diastolic function accurately. There has been very little published information regarding RV diastolic function in liver cirrhosis. This study is aimed at evaluating right and left ventricular systolic and diastolic functions in post hepatitis C liver cirrhosis patients using conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging.
This study was conducted on 75 adults from inpatient and outpatient services of the Theodor Bilharz Research Institute (TBRI) hospital. They were divided into two groups: Group 1 included 50 patients with post hepatitis C liver cirrhosis; and Group 2 included 25 normal adults serving as a control group. All patients and normal volunteers were subjected to clinical examination, laboratory evaluation, abdominal ultrasonography and echocardiographic studies with tissue Doppler imaging for evaluation of left and right ventricular systolic and diastolic functions.
The mitral flow showed significant increase in A wave velocity, as well as DT and IVRT with a significant decrease in E/A ratio in Group 1 compared to Group 2 (P<0.01). The tricuspid flow also showed a significant increase in A wave velocity (P<0.01) and DT (P<0.05) in addition to a significant decrease in E wave velocity and E/A ratio (P<0.01) in Group 1 as compared to Group 2. At the mitral annulus, we found a significant increase in average Aa velocity, E/Ea ratio and average systolic wave velocity S, in addition to a statistically significant decrease in the average Ea velocity and average Ea/Aa (P<0.01) in Group 1 as compared to Group 2. At the tricuspid annulus, there were significant increases in the average Aa velocity (P<0.01), S velocity (P<0.01) and E/Ea (P<0.05) together with a statistically significant decrease in the average Ea/Aa and average Ea velocity (P<0.01) in Group 1 compared to Group 2.
It is important to evaluate the cardiovascular function in every patient with cirrhosis, especially if the patient is a candidate for any intervention that may affect haemodynamics.
PMCID: PMC4578531  PMID: 26396725
Tissue Doppler Imaging; liver cirrhosis; systolic function; diastolic function
13.  Portable spectral Doppler echocardiographic device: overcoming limitations 
Heart  2003;89(9):1014-1018.
Background: There is evidence that new portable echocardiographic devices are useful in evaluating heart anatomy and function, but a lack of Doppler modes has up to now been an important limitation in obtaining haemodynamic data.
Objectives: To report the Doppler capabilities of a new hand held echocardiographic device.
Design: Blinded comparison of two types of echocardiography machine.
Setting: Tertiary care centre.
Patients: 98 consecutive patients were randomly imaged with the hand held device, with a standard platform as reference.
Outcome measures: Pulsed wave transmitral Doppler inflow tract velocities, deceleration time, and continuous wave Doppler measurements of aortic ejection and tricuspid regurgitation peak velocities were recorded.
Results: There was excellent agreement between the hand held device and standard echocardiography for the evaluation of diastolic E and A waves, E/A ratio, and deceleration time with pulsed wave Doppler (intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.97, 0.93, 0.90, and 0.78, respectively). In addition, good agreement was found between continuous wave Doppler measurements of aortic ejection and tricuspid regurgitation velocities (intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.96 and 0.80). However, there was a significant difference between patients with tricuspid regurgitation measured with the hand held device (25.5%) and by standard echocardiography (65.3%), resulting in misdiagnosis of eight patients with pronounced pulmonary hypertension.
Conclusions: New hand held devices with Doppler capabilities overcome previous limitations in evaluating haemodynamic variables. With colour Doppler they are now suitable for the complete evaluation of valvar disease and diastolic function. However, important limitations remain in the evaluation of pulmonary pressures.
PMCID: PMC1767834  PMID: 12923013
echocardiography; Doppler; point of care system
14.  Echocardiographic evaluation of thalassemia intermedia patients in Duhok, Iraq 
Cardiac complications are among the most serious problems of thalassemia intermedia patients. The current study was initiated to address the latter issue through the study of the echocardiographic findings and correlate it with clinical characteristics of thalassemia intermedia patients in Duhok, Kurdistan region, Iraq.
An echocardiographic assessment of 61beta-thalassemia intermedia cases was performed. It included 30 males and 31 females, with a mean age 19.6 ± 7.5 years. The standard echostudy of two-dimension and M-mode measurements of cardiac chambers were done. The continuous doppler regurgitant jet of tricuspid and pulmonary valves were recorded. Left ventricle diastolic function was assessed by pulsed doppler of mitral valve inflow. To correlate the clinical with echocardiographic findings, patients were divided, according to tricuspid regurgitant velocity, into three groups (<2.5 m/sec, 2.5-2.9 m/sec and ≥3 m/sec).
Tricuspid regurgitant velocity <2.5 m/sec, 2.5-2.9 m/sec and ≥3 m/sec occurred in 42(69%), 11(18%) and 8(13%) respectively. Comparing to other groups patients with tricuspid regurgitant velocity ≥3 m/sec were older and included more males. They had lower hemoglobin levels, but higher ferritin levels. Their age at diagnosis and the age of the initiation of blood transfusion were later. Most of them had significant exertional dyspnea. They also had relatively lower left ventricle ejection fraction values. Right ventricular diameter and right atrial size were larger in the same group. Tricuspid regurgitant velocity as a continuous predictor was associated positively with age, cardiac volumes and pulmonary regurgitation though negatively associated with ejection fraction.
Echo-derived right and left side cardiac complications are not uncommon in thalassemia intermedia patients. Therapeutic trails targeting these complications are indicated, and echocardiographic assessment is necessary to be offered early for thalassemia intermedia.
PMCID: PMC4272797  PMID: 25495194
Thalassemia intermedia; Tricuspid velocity jet; Pulmonary hypertension; Iraq
15.  New applications of intracardiac echocardiography: assessment of coronary blood flow by colour and pulsed Doppler imaging in dogs 
Heart  2002;88(3):283-288.
Objective: To explore the application of a new 10 French intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) catheter with phased array and Doppler capable transducer for the assessment of epicardial and intramyocardial coronary blood flow.
Methods: The coronary arteries were detected by cross sectional imaging in seven closed chest dogs, and coronary blood flow visualised by colour Doppler. Blood flow velocities were recorded by pulsed Doppler at baseline for reproducibility of repeated measurements, and during hyperaemia for coronary flow reserve measurements. Comparisons were made with Doppler guide wire data obtained simultaneously. Intramyocardial coronary artery blood flow was assessed by colour flow mapping, and the blood flow velocities recorded using pulsed Doppler at baseline and during hyperaemia.
Results: Seven left main, six left anterior descending, seven left circumflex, and five right coronary arteries were visualised in the seven animals by cross sectional or colour Doppler imaging. Repeated measurements of coronary flow velocity showed a good correlation (mean diastolic velocity, r = 0.93, n = 22, p < 0.0001; peak diastolic velocity, r = 0.96, n = 22, p < 0.0001, respectively). Intraobserver/interobserver variability was satisfactorily low. Coronary flow reserve from ICE correlated highly with the value obtained from the Doppler guide wire (r = 0.90, n = 26, p < 0.0001). Intramyocardial coronary blood flow was identified in all seven dogs, and flow velocities were recorded at baseline and during hyperaemia in four animals.
Conclusions: This new ICE catheter provides high quality diagnostic resolution. It is useful for coronary blood flow assessment.
PMCID: PMC1767320  PMID: 12181224
intracardiac echocardiography; Doppler echocardiography; coronary circulation
16.  A Novel Approach to Standard Techniques in the Assessment and Quantification of the Interventricular Systolic Relationship 
Blood flow between the right and left ventricles is subject to the continuity equation and systolic ventricular interdependence. Quantification of this relationship might aid in understanding inter-ventricular function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and quantify ventricular interdependence by directly comparing right and left ventricular systolic function though echocardiographic surrogates of right and left ventricular systolic function such as MAPSE, TAPSE, RV TVI and LV TVI.
This study prospectively evaluated 51 healthy participants (mean age, 41 ± 17 years) by resting echocardiography. In addition to standard measurements, tricuspid annular plane of systolic excursion, (TAPSE), mitral annular plane of systolic excursion (MAPSE), and the peak annulus systolic velocity of the right ventricular (RVs) and left ventricular (LVs) free walls were measured by M-mode and pulsed wave Doppler tissue echocardiography and further evaluated for variance across age, gender, and body surface area.
TAPSE (22.1 ± 2.9 mm) was over 54.5% greater than MAPSE (14.3 ± 2.6 mm) and RVs was 64.4% greater than LVs. The LV to RV systolic relationship measured by MAPSE/TAPSE and LVs/RVs ratios were 0.66 ± 0.14 and 0.76 ± 0.21 respectively. These values were not significantly affected by age, gender or body surface area (BSA).
MAPSE/TAPSE and LVs/RVs ratios appear stable across age, gender, and BSA potentially making them good surrogates of systolic ventricular relationship and interdependence.
PMCID: PMC3280943  PMID: 22185470
ventricular interdependence; ventricular function; TAPSE; MAPSE; tissue Doppler
17.  Doppler echocardiographic evaluation of the normal human fetal heart. 
British Heart Journal  1987;57(6):528-533.
Pulsed wave Doppler estimates of blood flow velocity were made across the mitral, tricuspid, aortic, and pulmonary valves in a series of 120 normal fetuses (gestational age 16-36 weeks). In 36 of these the data were obtained in all four sites. The maximum and mean velocities were calculated for each valve and these values were plotted against gestational age. There was little change in these values throughout pregnancy. The orifice dimensions of the valves were measured by cross sectional echocardiography. At all ages the tricuspid orifice was larger than the mitral and the pulmonary orifice was larger than the aortic. The blood flow values for each valve were derived from the product of the mean velocity and the valve orifice dimensions. The output of the right ventricle was usually, but not always, greater than that of the left ventricle. Combined ventricular output increased from approximately 50 ml/min at 18 weeks to 1200 ml/min at term. Despite limitations in the accuracy of the technique these results form a useful basis for the analysis of blood flow in the normal fetus and for the interpretation of abnormal Doppler findings in prenatal life.
PMCID: PMC1277222  PMID: 3620229
18.  Thyroid Function Status and Echocardiographic Abnormalities in Patients with Beta Thalassemia Major in Bahrain 
Thyroid gland dysfunction and echocardiographic cardiac abnormalities are well-documented in patients with transfusion dependent beta-thalassemia major (β-TM).
This cross-sectional analytic study was conducted to investigate left ventricle (LV) diastolic and systolic function using pulsed Doppler (PD) and tissue Doppler (TD) echocardiography and correlate that with serum level thyroid stimulating hormone in patients with β-TM.
The study was conducted on patients with β-TM (n = 110, age 15.9 ± 8.9 years) and compared with a control group (n = 109, age 15.8 ± 8.9 years). In all participants, echocardiographic indices of PD and TD were performed and blood samples were withdrawn for measuring the serum level of TSH, free T4, and ferritin. A linear regression analysis was performed on TSH level as the dependent variable and serum ferritin as independent. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to determine the odds ratio of different biochemical and echo variables on the risk of developing hypothyroidism.
Patients with β-TM compared with controls had thicker LV septal wall index (0.65 ± 0.26 vs. 0.44 ± 0.21 cm/M2, P < 0.001), posterior wall index (0.65 ± 0.23 vs. 0.43 ± 0.21 cm/m2, P < 0.01) and larger LVEDD index (4.35 ± 0.69 vs.3.88 ± 0.153 mm/m2, P < 0.001). In addition, β-TM patients had higher transmitral E wave velocity (E) (70.81 ± 10.13 vs. 57.53 ± 10.13 cm/s, P = 0.02) and E/A ratio (1.54 ± 0.18 vs. 1.23 ± 0.17, P < 0.01) and shorter deceleration time (DT) (170.53 ± 13.3 vs. 210.50 ± 19.20 m sec, P < 0.01). Furthermore, the ratio of transmitral E wave velocity to the tissue Doppler E wave at the basal septal mitral annulus (E/Em) was significantly higher in the β-TM group (19.68 ± 2.81 vs. 13.86 ± 1.41, P < 0.05). The tissue Doppler systolic wave (Sm) velocity and the early diastolic wave (Em) were significantly lower in the β-TM group compared with controls with Sm, 4.82 ± 1.2 vs. 6.22 ± 2.1 mm/sec, P < 0.05 and (Em), 3.51 ± 2.7 vs. 4.12 ± 2.5 mm/sec. P < 0.05, respectively). The tricuspid valve velocity was significantly higher in β-TM patients compared with controls 2.85 ± 0.56 vs. 1.743 ± 0.47 m sec, respectively, P < 0.01). The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in patients with β-TM was 15.4%, with significantly higher mean serum TSH compared with controls (6.78 ± 1.5 vs. 3.10 ± 1.02 μIU/mL, P < 0.01) and positively correlated with the serum ferritin level (r = 0.34, P = 0.014). On multiple regression analysis, the LV mass, LVEF%, and E/A ratio were not positive predictors of hypothyroidism in patients with β-TM.
We conclude that patients with β-TM had a high prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism of 15.4%. Thyroid stimulating hormone was significantly high and positively correlated with the serum ferritin level. Echo cardiographic pulsed Doppler showed a restrictive LV diastolic pattern suggestive of severe diastolic dysfunction with preserved left ventricle systolic function.
PMCID: PMC3563303  PMID: 23400522
thyroid stimulating hormone; beta-thalassemia major; pulsed echo Doppler; tissue Doppler echocardiography; Bahrain
19.  Acute effects of cigarette smoking on the cardiac diastolic functions 
Smoking is an independent risk factor for coronary heart diseases and it increases all causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
Aim of the work
To assess the acute effect of cigarette smoking on ventricular diastolic functions (LV and RV) in healthy, young, and slim smokers.
Thirty volunteers who had recently commenced smoking (less than one year) and who smoked 1–2 cigarettes per day, underwent ECG, 2D and M-mode echocardiography, standard Doppler echocardiography, pulsed TDI (tissue Doppler imaging) on septal and lateral side of mitral annulus and lateral tricuspid annulus. Vp values were measured. The investigator asked them to hold smoking for at least two days after which echocardiographic examination was conducted before smoking one cigarette and the second examination conducted immediately after smoking one cigarette containing at least 0.4 mg of nicotine.
Doppler findings over the mitral valve showed the E wave was significantly reduced from 82.7 ± 10.4 to 74.6 ± 10.4 after smoking; the A wave increased; the E/A ratio was reduced from 1.5 ± 0.3 to 1.2 ± 0.2; the E′ septal significantly decreased (15.3 ± 2.4 vs. 11.2 ± 1.1) after smoking, and the E/E′ ratio increased from 5.5 ± 1.1 to 6.7 ± 1.1. Doppler findings over the tricuspid valve showed the E wave was reduced from 60.6 ± 9.7 to 52.7 ± 9.6; the A wave increased from 42.2 ± 6.5 to 50.1 ± 6.6; and the E/A ratio decreased (1.45 ± 0.25 vs. 1.06 ± 0.19). The E′ significantly decreased from 14.1 ± 1.8 to 10.9 ± 2.4, while the A′ increased (10.2 ± 2.4 vs. 12.7 ± 3.6) after smoking; and the IVRT of the RV was significantly prolonged from 62.9 ± 7.5 to 68.7 ± 7.9 after smoking. The Vp was markedly reduced from 67.8 ± 8 to 55.2 ± 3.5 after smoking. These findings reflected on the LV filling pressure (LVFvp) which increased from 9.8 ± 1.4 to 10.5 ± 1.3 after smoking. All changes were statistically significant at P < 0.001.
Our study reveals that cigarette smoking can result in significant acute alteration in the diastolic functions of both ventricles.
PMCID: PMC3809467  PMID: 24174857
Cigarette; Smoking; RV dysfunction; LV dysfunction; Acute effect
20.  Estimation of maximum intraventricular pressure: a three-dimensional fluid–structure interaction model 
The aim of this study was to propose a method to estimate the maximum pressure in the left ventricle (MPLV) for a healthy subject, based on cardiac outputs measured by echo-Doppler (non-invasive) and catheterization (invasive) techniques at rest and during exercise.
Blood flow through aortic valve was measured by Doppler flow echocardiography. Aortic valve geometry was calculated by echocardiographic imaging. A Fluid–structure Interaction (FSI) simulation was performed, using an Arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian (ALE) mesh. Boundary conditions were defined as pressure loads on ventricular and aortic sides during ejection phase. The FSI simulation was used to determine a numerical relationship between the cardiac output to aortic diastolic and left ventricular pressures. This relationship enabled the prediction of pressure loads from cardiac outputs measured by invasive and non-invasive clinical methods.
Ventricular systolic pressure peak was calculated from cardiac output of Doppler, Fick oximetric and Thermodilution methods leading to a 22%, 18% and 24% increment throughout exercise, respectively. The mean gradients obtained from curves of ventricular systolic pressure based on Doppler, Fick oximetric and Thermodilution methods were 0.48, 0.41 and 0.56 mmHg/heart rate, respectively. Predicted Fick-MPLV differed by 4.7%, Thermodilution-MPLV by 30% and Doppler-MPLV by 12%, when compared to clinical reports.
Preliminary results from one subject show results that are in the range of literature values. The method needs to be validated by further testing, including independent measurements of intraventricular pressure. Since flow depends on the pressure loads, measuring more accurate intraventricular pressures helps to understand the cardiac flow dynamics for better clinical diagnosis. Furthermore, the method is non-invasive, safe, cheap and more practical. As clinical Fick-measured values have been known to be more accurate, our Fick-based prediction could be the most applicable.
PMCID: PMC4222736  PMID: 24267976
21.  Discrepancies in the measurement of isovolumic relaxation time: a study comparing M mode and Doppler echocardiography. 
British Heart Journal  1990;64(3):214-218.
Mitral valve cusp separation on M mode echogram, the mitral valve opening artefact, and the onset of forward transmitral flow recorded by Doppler echocardiography have all been taken to mark the end of isovolumic relaxation, while its onset has been taken either as the aortic closure sound (A2) recorded phonocardiographically or the aortic closure artefact determined by Doppler technique. Possible differences in the measurement of the isovolumic relaxation time were studied when these landmarks were used in 44 healthy people, 14 patients with mitral stenosis, 21 patients with left ventricular hypertrophy, and 24 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy by recording M mode echograms of the mitral valve, and pulsed and continuous wave Doppler spectra of transmitral flow, with simultaneous electrocardiograms and phonocardiograms. A2 was effectively synchronous with the aortic artefact. However, when the onset of Doppler flow was regarded as the end of isovolumic relaxation, the interval was significantly longer than when mitral cusp separation on M mode echograms was used: by 25 (10) ms in healthy individuals, by 25 (15) ms in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy, and by 50 (35) ms in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. In patients with mitral stenosis the interval was only 5 (5) ms longer. The mitral valve opening artefact consistently followed the onset of flow and corresponded much more closely to the E point on the M mode echogram. This shows that it occurred during the rapid filling period and well beyond isovolumic relaxation by any definition. Thus isovolumic relaxation time measured from A2 to the onset of transmitral flow or the mitral valve opening artefact differs from that derived from A2 to mitral valve cusp separation. These intervals cannot be used interchangeably to measure "isovolumic relaxation time".
PMCID: PMC1024377  PMID: 2144990
22.  Increased periconceptual maternal glycated haemoglobin in diabetic mothers reduces fetal long axis cardiac function 
Heart  2005;92(8):1125-1130.
To compare ventricular long axis function in fetuses of diabetic mothers (FDM) with contemporaneously studied normal controls (N) and to assess the effect of pre‐pregnancy diabetic control on these measurements.
Long axis function was compared in 41 FDM and 159 N fetuses in a cross sectional observational study.
Fetal medicine unit.
Methods and results
Echocardiography confirmed structural normality. Pulsed wave valvar Doppler velocimetry, lengthening and shortening myocardial velocities, and amplitude of ventricular long axis movement were recorded at the base of the left and right ventricular free walls and septum. Periconceptual diabetic control was assessed by haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in early pregnancy. Doppler and myocardial velocities were negatively related and myocardial thickness was positively related with HbA1c. In both cohorts all variables except mitral and tricuspid late filling (A wave) velocities were dependent on gestational age. FDM gestational age related values were higher for most variables and robust analysis of covariance showed significantly different maturation patterns in mitral valve E:A ratio (p  =  0.036) and pulmonary velocity (p  =  0.04), late lengthening myocardial velocities (left p  =  0.016 and right p  =  0.066), left myocardial shortening velocities (p  =  0.008), and left free wall (p  =  0.03) and septal (p  =  0.04) amplitude of motion. FDM septal thickness was significantly increased throughout gestation (p < 0.0001).
Periconceptual diabetic control influences fetal cardiac performance and myocardial hypertrophy but, unlike the pathophysiology of adult ventricular hypertrophy, is accompanied by functional adaptation. It is unlikely to explain the increased rate of late stillbirth observed in diabetic pregnancies.
PMCID: PMC1861086  PMID: 16278273
fetus; maternal diabetes; long axis function; fetal echocardiography; stillbirth
23.  Assessment of pulsed Doppler echocardiography in detection and quantification of aortic and mitral regurgitation. 
British Heart Journal  1980;44(6):612-620.
Pulsed Doppler echocardiography was employed to detect disturbed or turbulent flow diagnostic of aortic or mitral regurgitation. Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, and predictive value were assessed by the independent interpretation and comparison of aortic root angiograms (91 patients) and left ventriculograms (94 patients) to the time interval histogram display of the pulsed Doppler. Sensitivity of Doppler in detecting mitral regurgitation was 94 per cent, with specificity 89 per cent, predictive value 81 per cent, and diagnostic accuracy 90 per cent (32 patients with, 62 without regurgitation). In aortic regurgitation, sensitivity was also 94 per cent, specificity 82 per cent, predictive value 94 per cent, and the diagnostic accuracy was 91 per cent (69 patients with, 22 without aortic regurgitation). Additionally, no Doppler evidence of mitral or aortic regurgitation was present in 20 normal subjects. The aetiology of left-sided valvular regurgitation varied widely, with prosthetic valvular insufficiency being the cause of mitral and aortic regurgitation in seven and 10 patients, respectively. Sixteen of 17 (94%) paraprosthetic leaks were correctly identified by pulsed Doppler. In patients with aortic regurgitation the flow-velocity curve recorded in the ascending aorta frequently showed a negative (or reversed) diastolic component, the magnitude of which (expressed as percentage negative area) correlated significantly with angiographic severity of regurgitation. Thus, pulsed Doppler echocardiography is a highly accurate and objective non-invasive technique for detecting mitral and aortic regurgitation. In aortic regurgitation, estimation of severity is possible from inspection of the Doppler ascending aortic flow velocity curve.
PMCID: PMC482457  PMID: 7459144
24.  Non-invasive detection of left atrial mechanical failure in patients with left ventricular disease. 
British Heart Journal  1995;74(5):536-540.
OBJECTIVE--To define patients with left atrial mechanical failure and identify its echocardiographic, physiological, and clinical associations. DESIGN--Prospective study with cross sectionally guided M mode and Doppler echocardiograms, and with apexcardiograms, electrocardiograms, and phonocardiograms. SETTING--Tertiary cardiac referral centre. PATIENTS--10 patients with left atrial mechanical failure and 20 healthy controls of similar age. RESULTS--10 patients with left atrial mechanical paralysis were identified among 4036 adults over a 1 year interval. Nine were in sinus rhythm and one had a DDD pacemaker. Left atrial mechanical activity was absent on M mode echocardiograms of the left sided atrioventricular ring and the aortic root. A Doppler A wave on transmitral flow and a clearly defined A wave on the left ventricular apexcardiogram were also absent, though evidence of right atrial mechanical movement was present in nine patients. Mean (SD) age was 63 (19) years and six were men. Nine had left ventricular disease and one had undergone extensive resection of the left atrium. Abnormal measurements of left ventricular end diastolic dimension (62 (13) mm), fractional shortening (15 (6)%), isovolumic relaxation time (19 (12) ms), left atrial size (45 (10) mm), and transmitral Doppler E wave deceleration time (110 (35) ms) were recorded. CONCLUSION--Left atrial mechanical failure may be present in patients with left ventricular disease despite normal sinus rhythm. Normal atrial activation on 12 lead electrocardiogram suggests it is primarily mechanical in origin. The possibility of left atrial mechanical failure must be considered when Doppler patterns of transmitral flow are used to assess left ventricular diastolic function.
PMCID: PMC484076  PMID: 8562241
25.  Feasibility and variability of six methods for the echocardiographic and Doppler determination of cardiac output. 
British Heart Journal  1988;59(3):299-303.
The feasibility and the intrinsic variability of six different methods of echocardiographic and Doppler flow determination of cardiac output were analysed in 34 healthy volunteers. Four were excluded because of poor quality echocardiograms. The mean (range) age of the remaining 30 (12 women, 18 men) was 21 years (13-36 years). Cardiac output was calculated by six methods as a product of echocardiographically determined cross sectional area of the aorta (apical and suprasternal views), pulmonary trunk, tricuspid annulus, and mitral annulus (circular and corrected for diastolic variations), and the flow velocity integral measured by Doppler. Cardiac output ranged from 2.79 to 6.56 1/min (4.45 (1.29) 1/min) (mean (SD)). The feasibility of the methods ranged from 87% (26 patients) for the aorta from the suprasternal notch to 100% (30 patients) for the mitral orifice corrected for diastolic variations and for the tricuspid valve. The corresponding results for all 34 individuals were 76% and 88% respectively. Three way analysis of variance was performed in the 23 healthy volunteers in whom all six methods were feasible. Interobserver and intraobserver interpretative variabilities were 6.8% and 5.9% respectively. The intrinsic variability of each single measurement of cardiac output, independently of the observer and the method used, was 25%. Provided the image was suitable for analysis echocardiographic and Doppler flow determination of cardiac output was feasible in most healthy volunteers. But there was significant intrinsic variability for each of different methods. A single value of cardiac output in an individual should be interpreted with caution.
PMCID: PMC1216463  PMID: 3355721

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