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1.  Adalimumab - an effective and promising treatment for patients with fistulizing Crohn's disease: a case series 
Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology which may affect any part of the bowel. Fistulas are a common and often serious complication of Crohn's disease. The treatment for fistulizing Crohn's disease can be medical, surgical or a combination of the two. Recently, adalimumab, a fully human anti-tumor necrosis factor monoclonal antibody, has been suggested as a safe and effective treatment for the induction and maintenance of remission in adult patients with moderate to severe Crohn's disease, who are refractory to conventional therapy or intolerant to infliximab. However, large studies focusing on evaluating the efficacy of adalimumab in fistulizing Crohn's disease have not yet been published.
Case presentation
We report the cases of three patients, of European Caucasian ethnicity and Greek nationality, with active luminal and fistulizing Crohn's disease. All of the cases were treated successfully with adalimumab. Patient 1 (a 44-year-old man) and patient 2 (an 18-year-old woman) developed early post-surgical enterocutaneous fistulas, while patient 3 (a 20-year-old woman) had peri-anal fistulizing Crohn's disease. Adalimumab treatment (160 mg subcutaneously at week zero, 80 mg at week two, and 40 mg every other week) was used for three different indications: (1) after the failure of other conservative medical treatments for Crohn's disease (patient 1); (2) as a monotherapy in treating a naive patient (patient 2); (3) after an intolerance to infliximab (patient 3). A remission of the active luminal and fistulizing disease was achieved soon after the initiation of adalimumab and sustained thereafter with maintenance doses. No further surgical intervention was required and no adverse effects were observed in any of the cases.
Fistulizing Crohn's disease remains a challenge in clinical practice. Adalimumab seems to be an effective, well-tolerated and safe treatment option for the induction and maintenance of remission in patients with moderate to severe peri-anal fistulizing Crohn's disease. Furthermore, adalimumab seems to be a promising treatment option for patients with moderate to severe fistulizing Crohn's disease with enterocutaneous fistulas. However, this clinical observation needs to be investigated in further clinical trials.
PMCID: PMC3071343  PMID: 21418588
2.  Effectiveness of infliximab after adalimumab failure in Crohn's disease 
AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of infliximab as a second-line therapy in Crohn’s disease patients after adalimumab failure.
METHODS: A historical cohort study in a community-based gastroenterology practice evaluated Crohn’s disease patients treated with infliximab (induction plus maintenance) after adalimumab failure. Patients were identified using a large Spanish database (ENEIDA).
RESULTS: We included 15 Crohn’s disease patients who received infliximab after adalimumab failure. Five patients discontinued adalimumab due to loss of response, 3 due to adverse events and 7 due to partial response. After infliximab therapy was started, all patients who had interrupted adalimumab due to loss of efficacy regained response. All patients who discontinued adalimumab due to adverse events responded to infliximab and maintained this response; one of these patients had an uneventful course on infliximab, but 2 developed adverse events. None of the 7 patients who interrupted adalimumab due to partial response reached remission with infliximab.
CONCLUSION: Switching from adalimumab to infliximab may be useful in patients who develop adverse effects or loss of response, however, the benefit of infliximab in primary nonresponders was not established.
PMCID: PMC3468854  PMID: 23066316
Adalimumab; Biologics; Crohn’s disease; Infliximab; Switch
3.  Adalimumab for orbital myositis in a patient with Crohn’s disease who discontinued infliximab: a case report and review of the literature 
BMC Gastroenterology  2013;13:59.
Orbital myositis is a rare extra-intestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease. Seventeen cases of Crohn’s disease associated orbital myositis and 3 cases of ulcerative colitis associated orbital myositis have been reported in the published literature since 1970. We report the use of adalimumab (Abbott, Canada, Inc.) for orbital myositis in a patient with Crohn’s disease who discontinued infliximab (Janssen, Canada, Inc.) and review of the published literature.
Case presentation
A 35 year-old male with a 7-year history of Crohn’s disease was treated with an ileocolonic resection and re-anastomosis followed by infliximab which maintained full endoscopic and clinical remission for four years. After stopping the infliximab for infusion-related reactions he presented with 3-day history of severe right eye pain, pain with ocular movement, proptosis, and conjunctival injection. He had no intestinal symptoms and endoscopic assessment revealed no active luminal disease. CT of the orbit revealed an enlarged right medial rectus muscle with tendonous involvement and a diagnosis of orbital myositis was made. Treatment with 80 mg per day prednisone with tapering dose and adalimumab, induction and maintenance, resulted in rapid resolution of the orbital myositis and ocular symptoms with no recurrences on follow-up at 10 months.
The current case demonstrates a rare extraintestinal manifestation of Crohn’s disease, orbital myositis, and its temporal relationship to the discontinuance of infliximab therapy and its successful treatment, without recurrence with tapering prednisone and adalimumab.
PMCID: PMC3621100  PMID: 23556424
Crohn’s disease; Ulcerative colitis; Orbital myositis; Extraintestinal manifestations; Inflammatory bowel disease; Infliximab; Adalimumab
4.  Comparative Effectiveness of Infliximab and Adalimumab for Crohn’s Disease 
Background & Aims
Antibodies against tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF) are widely used in the treatment of Crohn’s disease (CD). This study compared the effectiveness of infliximab and adalimumab, the two most commonly used anti-TNF medications for CD.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study utilizing United States Medicare data (2006–2010). Patients with CD who were new users of infliximab or adalimumab after January 31, 2007 were included. Patients over age 85 and those with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, or ankylosing spondylitis were excluded. The primary outcome measures were persistence on therapy at week 26, surgery (including bowel resection, creation of an ostomy, or surgical treatment of a perforation or abscess), and hospitalization for CD. Propensity score adjusted logistic and Cox regression were used to compute adjusted odds ratios (OR) or hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
The cohort included 1,459 and 871 new users of infliximab and adalimumab, respectively. After 26 weeks, 49% of infliximab-treated patients remained on drug as compared to 47% of those treated with adalimumab (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.81–1.19). Patients treated with infliximab had a numerically lower incidence of surgery than those treated with adalimumab, but this was not statistically significant (5.5 vs. 6.9 surgeries per 100 person-years, HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.60–1.05). Rates of hospitalization did not differ between the drugs (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.72–1.07).
We observed similar effectiveness of infliximab and adalimumab for CD across three clinically important outcome measures.
PMCID: PMC3883891  PMID: 23811254
tumor necrosis factor-alpha; persistence; surgery; hospitalization
5.  Update on the management of inflammatory bowel disease: specific role of adalimumab 
Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) medications are a class of biologics employed in the treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Adalimumab is the first fully human monoclonal immunoglobulin directed against TNF-α, which binds with high affinity and specificity to membrane and soluble TNF. Adalimumab administered subcutaneously has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, and severe chronic psoriasis. Studies have shown that adalimumab is effective for inducing and maintaining remission of moderate-to-severe active Crohn’s disease (CD) patients at an induction dose of 160/80 mg (week 0 and 2) and at a maintenance dose of 40 mg every other week. The efficacy of adalimumab as a second-line therapy has also been documented for patients with loss of response or intolerance to infliximab. Adalimumab is also superior to placebo for inducing and maintaining complete perianal fistula closure. It also seems effective for reducing extraintestinal manifestations. The safety profile is similar to that of other anti-TNF therapy in CD patients, with lower immunogenicity and rate of adverse injection reactions than infliximab. Adalimumab is not approved for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Recently, however, the results of the first randomized, controlled trial on adalimumab for UC showed that adalimumab at 160/80 mg induction dose was safe and effective for inducing remission and clinical response after 8 weeks in patients with moderately-to-severely active UC failing treatment with corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressants. More data are necessary to clarify the therapeutic role of adalimumab in UC. This review of the literature summarizes available data on the efficacy and safety profile adalimumab in patients with IBD.
PMCID: PMC3163921  PMID: 21904462
anti-TNF-α; adalimumab; Crohn’s disease; ulcerative colitis
6.  Utilization Trends of Anti-TNF Agents and Health Outcomes in Adults and Children with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A Single-center Experience 
Inflammatory bowel diseases  2014;20(7):1242-1249.
Utilization trends and health effects of infliximab and adalimumab in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are incompletely understood. We aimed to describe utilization trends of these 2 anti–tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents, determine the correlation between utilization with rates of hospitalization and surgery and describe differences in use between adults and children.
Longitudinal data were analyzed for drug utilization, hospitalization, and abdominal surgery. Descriptive statistics were used to show trends, and utilization quotients were compared for standardization. Multivariate logistic regression analysis assessed the association between drug use and rates of hospitalization and surgery.
Four hundred thirty-eight pediatric and 2514 adult patients with IBD generated a total of 51,882 inpatient and outpatient encounters, representing 1185 Crohn’s disease, 1531 ulcerative colitis, and 236 indeterminate colitis patients. From 2007 through 2012, utilization quotients declined for hospitalization but remained unchanged for surgery; adalimumab saw a 3-fold increase, despite continued dominance of infliximab. Median band and mean fitted plots showed downward hospitalization trends from 2006 to 2012. Utilization of infliximab peaked in 2008, Q4 with gradual decline to 2012, Q2; and adalimumab showed moderate increased utilization since 2007, Q1. Use of infliximab (odds ratio [OR], 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70–0.83) and adalimumab (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.72–0.87) was associated with decreased hospitalization risk but not associated with reduced abdominal surgery risk. Children had increased hospitalization (OR, 2.68; 95% CI, 2.49–2.88) but decreased risk for abdominal surgery (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.46–0.70).
Current infliximab use remains substantially greater than adalimumab use, despite recent increased use of adalimumab. Although trends for hospitalization for IBD are decreasing, it is not reflected in abdominal surgery rates in a tertiary IBD referral center.
PMCID: PMC4227810  PMID: 24846718
biologics; infliximab; adalimumab; Crohn’s disease; ulcerative colitis; inflammatory bowel disease
7.  How do patients with inflammatory bowel disease want their biological therapy administered? 
BMC Gastroenterology  2010;10:1.
Infliximab is usually administered by two monthly intravenous (iv) infusions, therefore requiring visits to hospital. Adalimumab is administered by self subcutaneous (sc) injections every other week. Both of these anti-TNF drugs appear to be equally efficacious in the treatment of Crohn's Disease and therefore the decision regarding which drug to choose will depend to some extent on patient choice, which may be based on the mode of administration.
The aims of this study were to compare preferences in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) patients for two currently available anti-TNF agents and the reasons for their choices.
An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to IBD patients who had attended the Gastroenterology service (Ulster Hospital, Dundonald, Belfast, N. Ireland. UK) between January 2007 and December 2007. The patients were asked in a hypothetical situation if the following administering methods of anti-TNF drugs (intravenous or subcutaneous) were available, which drug route of administration would they choose.
One hundred and twenty-five patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were issued questionnaires, of these 78 questionnaires were returned (62 percent response). The mean age of respondent was 44 years. Of the total number of respondents, 33 patients (42 percent) preferred infliximab and 19 patients (24 percent) preferred adalimumab (p = 0.07). Twenty-six patients (33 percent) did not indicate a preference for either biological therapy and were not included in the final analysis. The commonest reason cited for those who chose infliximab (iv) was: "I do not like the idea of self-injecting," (67 percent). For those patients who preferred adalimumab (sc) the commonest reason cited was: "I prefer the convenience of injecting at home," (79 percent). Of those patients who had previously been treated with an anti-TNF therapy (n = 10, all infliximab) six patients stated that they would prefer infliximab if given the choice in the future (p = 0.75).
There was a trend towards patient preference for infliximab (iv) treatment as opposed to adalimumab (sc) in patients with IBD. This difference may be due to the frequency of administration, mode of administration or differing 'times in the market-place', as infliximab had been approved for a longer period of time in Crohn's disease. Further studies are required in IBD patients to investigate whether patient choice will affect compliance, patient satisfaction and efficacy of treatment with anti-TNF therapies.
PMCID: PMC2817682  PMID: 20064220
8.  Management of Crohn’s disease in poor responders to adalimumab 
Anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy with adalimumab is an effective therapy for the induction and maintenance of remission in moderate to severe Crohn’s disease. Although a large proportion of patients show a favorable clinical response to adalimumab, therapy failure is common. In this review, we provide a practical overview of adalimumab therapy in patients with Crohn’s disease, with a specific focus on the clinical management of adalimumab failure. In the case of inadequate efficacy, a thorough assessment is required to confirm inflammatory disease activity and rule out noninflammatory causes. Evaluation may include biomarkers (fecal calprotectin and serum C-reactive protein), colonoscopy, and/or magnetic resonance enterography/enteroclysis. Furthermore, adalimumab trough levels and antibodies to adalimumab are informational after the confirmation of active inflammation. In the case of low or undetectable adalimumab trough levels, dose escalation to 40 mg weekly is recommended, whereas high antibody titers or adverse events frequently require switching to an alternative anti-TNF agent such as infliximab. Active inflammation despite therapeutic adalimumab trough levels requires alternative strategies such as switching to drugs with a different mode of action or surgical intervention.
PMCID: PMC3990367  PMID: 24748811
anti-TNF; biological; inflammatory bowel disease; loss of response; infliximab
9.  Defective mucosal T cell death is sustainably reverted by infliximab in a caspase dependent pathway in Crohn’s disease 
Gut  2004;53(1):70-77.
Background and aims: To verify whether targeting defective mucosal T cell death underlies the sustained therapeutic benefit of infliximab in Crohn’s disease, we explored its in vivo proapoptotic effect after 10 weeks of treatment, and its in vitro killing activity on lamina propria T cells (LPT) and peripheral blood T cells (PBT), both isolated from Crohn’s disease patients.
Methods: Endoscopic intestinal biopsies were collected from 10 Crohn’s disease patients (six steroid refractory and four fistulising) before and after three consecutive infusions of infliximab, administered at week 0, 2, and 6 in a single intravenous dose (5 mg/kg), and from 10 subjects who proved to have functional diarrhoea. Apoptosis was determined in vivo by TUNEL assay, and in vitro by fluorescein isothiocyanate-annexin V/propidium iodide staining on LPT and PBT from Crohn’s disease patients cultured with infliximab. The effect of the broad caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK and the neutralising anti-Fas antibody ZB4 was tested in vitro on LPT and PBT treated with infliximab. Caspase-3 activity was determined by immunoblotting.
Results: In Crohn’s disease patients, infliximab treatment induced a sustained LPT apoptosis, still evident four weeks after the last infusion. In vitro infliximab induced death of LPT from Crohn’s disease patients occurred via apoptosis rather than necrosis. LPT showed a higher susceptibility to infliximab induced apoptosis than PBT in Crohn’s disease patients. The signalling pathway underlying the restoration of infliximab induced LPT apoptosis occurred via the caspase pathway but not Fas-Fas ligand interaction in Crohn’s disease.
Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that apoptosis is the major mechanism by which infliximab exerts its killing activity on LPT in Crohn’s disease. The sustained LPT proapoptotic action of infliximab, which extends far beyond its circulating half life, may be responsible for the sustained remission induced in Crohn’s disease patients by infliximab retreatment.
PMCID: PMC1773915  PMID: 14684579
apoptosis; Crohn’s disease; infliximab; lamina propria T cells; caspase-3
10.  Low rates of adherence for tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors in Crohn’s disease and rheumatoid arthritis: Results of a systematic review 
AIM: To investigate adherence rates in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-inhibitors in Crohn’s disease (CD) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by systematic review of medical literature.
METHODS: A structured search of PubMed between 2001 and 2011 was conducted to identify publications that assessed treatment with TNF-α inhibitors providing data about adherence in CD and RA. Therapeutic agents of interest where adalimumab, infliximab and etanercept, since these are most commonly used for both diseases. Studies assessing only drug survival or continuation rates were excluded. Data describing adherence with TNF-α inhibitors were extracted for each selected study. Given the large variation between definitions of measurement of adherence, the definitions as used by the authors where used in our calculations. Data were tabulated and also presented descriptively. Sample size-weighted pooled proportions of patients adherent to therapy and their 95%CI were calculated. To compare adherence between infliximab, adalimumab and etanercept, the adherence rates where graphed alongside two axes. Possible determinants of adherence were extracted from the selected studies and tabulated using the presented OR.
RESULTS: Three studies on CD and three on RA were identified, involving a total of 8147 patients (953 CD and 7194 RA). We identified considerable variation in the definitions and methodologies of measuring adherence between studies. The calculated overall sample size-weighted pooled proportion for adherence to TNF-α inhibitors in CD was 70% (95%CI: 67%-73%) and 59% in RA (95%CI: 58%-60%). In CD the adherence rate for infliximab (72%) was highercompared to adalimumab (55%), with a relative risk of 1.61 (95%CI: 1.27-2.03), whereas in RA adherence for adalimumab (67%) was higher compared to both infliximab (48%) and etanercept (59%), with a relative risk of 1.41 (95%CI: 1.3-1.52) and 1.13 (95%CI: 1.10-1.18) respectively. In comparative studies in RA adherence to infliximab was better than etanercept and etanercept did better than adalimumab. In three studies, the most consistent factor associated with lower adherence was female gender. Results for age, immunomodulator use and prior TNF-α inhibitors use were conflicting.
CONCLUSION: One-third of both CD and RA patients treated with TNF-α inhibitors are non-adherent. Female gender was consistently identified as a negative determinant of adherence.
PMCID: PMC3718902  PMID: 23885145
Adherence; Tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors; Systematic review; Crohn’s disease; Rheumatoid arthritis
11.  Are we giving biologics too late? The case for early versus late use 
Corticosteroids and immunomodulators have been the mainstay therapies for Crohn’s disease. Corticosteroids are highly effective to control symptoms in the short-term, but they are not effective in maintaining remission, they heal the mucosa in a reduced proportion of cases, and long-time exposure is associated with an increased risk of infections and mortality. Immunomodulators, azathioprine and methotrexate, heal the mucosa in a higher proportion of patients that corticosteroids but their onset of action is slow and they benefit less than half of patients with Crohn’s disease. In the last decade, medical therapy for Crohn’s disease has experienced a remarkable change due to the introduction of biologic therapy, and particularly the use of anti-tumour necrosis factor-alpha agents. Infliximab, adalimumab, and certolizumab pegol have demonstrated efficacy for induction and maintenance of remission in active Crohn’s disease. These agents have raised the bar for what is a suitable symptomatic response in Crohn’s disease and modification of the natural history of the disease has become a major goal in the treatment of Crohn’s disease. There are several data in the literature that suggest that early use of biologic therapy and achievement of mucosal healing contribute to disease course modification. However, many questions on early biological therapy for Crohn’s disease remain still unanswered.
PMCID: PMC2746339  PMID: 18810770
Biologic therapy; Crohn’s disease; Corticosteroids; Immunomodulators
12.  Adherence and resource use among patients treated with biologic drugs: findings from BEETLE study 
Systemic administration of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF alpha) leads to an anti-inflammatory and joint protective effect in pathologies such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn’s disease. The aim of this study was to assess adherence to therapy, persistence in treatment (no switches or interruptions), and consumption of care resources (drugs, outpatient services, hospitalizations).
We conducted an observational retrospective cohort analysis using the administrative databases of five local health units. Patients filling at least one prescription for anti-TNF alpha between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2011 were included and followed up for 1 year. Patients were defined as adherent if >80% of the follow-up period was covered by drugs dispensation.
A total of 1,219 patients were analyzed (mean age 49.6±14.6, male 47%). Among enrolled patients, 36% were affected by rheumatoid arthritis, and 31% and 10% were affected by psoriasis and Crohn’s disease, respectively; other indications remained below these percentages. Thirty-four percent of patients (420) were treated with adalimumab, 51% (615) with etanercept, and 15% (184) with infliximab. Among the 94% of patients who did not switch, those treated with infliximab had a higher rate of adherence across all indications (51% overall) when compared to that observed in patients treated with etanercept (27%) or adalimumab (23%). The mean annual nonpharmacological expenditure for each patient in analysis was €988 for adherent and €1,255 for nonadherent patients. Infliximab was associated with the lowest cost for all indications as determined by the multivariate generalized linear model.
Patients treated with infliximab were associated with higher adherence and persistence in treatment and lower costs, as compared to those treated with adalimumab or etanercept.
PMCID: PMC4171999  PMID: 25258545
anti-TNF alpha; therapy adherence; cost of illness
13.  Adalimumab in prevention of postoperative recurrence of Crohn's disease in high-risk patients 
AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of adalimumab in preventing recurrence after intestinal resection for Crohn’s disease in high-risk patients.
METHODS: A multicenter, prospective, observational study was conducted from June 2009 until June 2010. We consecutively included high-risk Crohn’s disease patients who had undergone an ileal/ileocolonic resection. High-risk patients were defined as two or more criteria: smokers, penetrating pattern, one or more previous surgical resections or prior extensive resection. Subcutaneous adalimumab was administered 2 wk (± 5 d) after surgery at a dose of 40 mg eow, with an initial induction dose of 160/80 mg at weeks 0 and 2. Demographic data, previous and concomitant treatments (antibiotics, 5-aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, immunomodulators or biologic therapies), smoking status at the time of diagnosis and after the index operation and number of previous resections (type and reason for surgery) were all recorded. Biological status was assessed with C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and fecal calprotectin. One year (± 3 mo) after surgery, an ileocolonoscopy and/or magnetic resonance enterography was performed. Endoscopic recurrence was defined as Rutgeerts score ≥ i2. Morphological recurrence was based on magnetic resonance (MR) score ≥ MR1.
RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients (55.2% males, 48.3% smokers at diagnosis and 13.8% after the index operation), mean age 42.3 years and mean duration of the disease 13.8 years were included in the study. A mean of 1.76 (range: 1-4) resections previous to adalimumab administration and in 37.9% was considered extensive resection. 51.7% had previously received infliximab. Immunomodulators were given concomitantly to 17.2% of patients. Four of the 29 (13.7%) developed clinical recurrence, 6/29 (20.7%) endoscopic recurrence and 7/19 (36.8%) morphological recurrence after 1-year. All patients with clinical recurrence showed endoscopic and morphological recurrence. A high degree of concordance was found between clinical-endoscopic recurrence (κ = 0.76, P < 0.001) and clinical-morphological recurrence (κ = 0.63, P = 0.003). Correlation between endoscopic and radiological findings was good (comparing the 5-point Rutgeerts score with the 4-point MR score, a score of i4 was classified as MR3, i3 as MR2, and i2-i1 as MR1) (P < 0.001, rs = 0.825). During follow-up, five (17.2%) patients needed adalimumab dose intensification (40 mg/wk); Mean time to intensification after the introduction of adalimumab treatment was 8 mo (range: 5 to 11 mo). In three cases (10.3%), a biological change was needed due to a worsening of the disease after the dose intensification to 40 mg/wk. One patient suffered an adverse event.
CONCLUSION: Adalimumab seems to be effective and safe in preventing postoperative recurrence in a selected group of patients who had undergone an intestinal resection for their CD.
PMCID: PMC3436056  PMID: 22969204
Crohn’s disease; Postoperative recurrence; Prevention; Tumor necrosis factor alpha agents; Adalimumab
14.  Systemic adalimumab induces peripheral corneal infiltrates: a case report 
BMC Ophthalmology  2015;15:57.
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors are widely used agents in the treatment of immune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite their anti-inflammatory action, paradoxical drug-induced inflammatory events have been occasionally associated with the use of infliximab, etanercept, and in a lesser extent adalimumab. However, eye involvement is uncommon and anterior uveitis is the only reported ocular adverse manifestation. It can be induced by etanercept, but has also been described during adalimumab therapy. We present here the first report of recurrent peripheral corneal infiltrates following subcutaneous injections of adalimumab.
Case presentation
A 34 year-old Caucasian woman with Crohn’s disease presented to the emergency department with bilateral red eyes and discomfort 36 hours after she received her bimonthly dose of subcutaneous adalimumab. Examination revealed bilateral peripheral corneal infiltrates with characteristic features of immune infiltrates. Symptoms and infiltrates regressed after topical corticosteroid therapy, but recurred after each adalimumab injection over the following weeks.
Paradoxical immune reactions associated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors may result either from hypersensitivity mechanisms, or from immune-complex deposition via anti-adalimumab antibodies. Both mechanisms could explain this newly described manifestation. Care should be taken to search for corneal infiltrates in the event of red eye symptoms during adalimumab therapy since they respond to topical corticosteroids and do not necessarily prompt the discontinuation of the immunosuppressive therapy.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12886-015-0047-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4456692  PMID: 26044064
Cornea; Adalimumab; Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor; Adverse effects; Peripheral infiltrate; Crohn's disease
15.  Efficacy and safety of adalimumab in Canadian patients with moderate to severe Crohn’s disease: Results of the Adalimumab in Canadian SubjeCts with ModErate to Severe Crohn’s DiseaSe (ACCESS) trial 
To evaluate open-label adalimumab therapy for clinical effectiveness, fistula healing, patient-reported outcomes and safety in Canadian patients with moderate to severe Crohn’s disease (CD) who were either naive to or previously exposed to antitumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy.
Patients with moderate to severe CD (CD activity index [CDAI] score of greater than 220, or Harvey-Bradshaw index [HBI] of 7 or greater) were eligible. Patients received open-label adalimumab as induction (160 mg and 80 mg subcutaneously [sc]) at weeks 0 and 2, respectively and maintenance (40 mg sc every other week) therapy. At or after eight weeks, patients with flare or nonresponse could have their dosage increased to 40 mg sc weekly. Patients were followed for a minimum of six months or until adalimumab was commercially available in Canada.
Of the 304 patients enrolled, 160 were infliximab experienced, while 144 were anti-TNF naive. HBI remission (HBI score of 4 or lower) at week 24 was achieved by 53% of anti-TNF-naive and 36% of infliximab-experienced patients (P<0.01; P<0.001 for both groups for all visits versus baseline). Fistula healing rates at week 12 were 48% for anti-TNF-naive patients, and 26% for infliximab-experienced patients. At week 24, fistula healing rates were significantly greater for the anti-TNF-naive group (60% versus 28%; P<0.01). Improvements in quality of life and work productivity were sustained from week 4 to week 24 for all patients. Serious infections occurred in 2% of patients.
Adalimumab therapy induced and sustained steroid-free remission in both infliximab-experienced and anti-TNF-naive patients with moderate to severe CD. Clinically meaningful rates of fistula healing were also observed. Improvements in patient-reported outcomes were sustained throughout the 24-week study period.
PMCID: PMC3186726  PMID: 21912766
Adalimumab; Crohn’s disease; Fistula; Quality of life; Steroid-free remission; Work productivity
16.  Stevens-Johnson syndrome complicating adalimumab therapy in Crohn’s disease 
The anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α medications demonstrate efficacy in the induction of remission and its maintenance in numerous chronic inflammatory conditions. With the increasing number of patients receiving anti-TNFα agents, however, less common adverse reactions will occur. Cutaneous eruptions complicating treatment with an anti-TNFα agent are not uncommon, occurring in around 20% of patients. Adalimumab, a fully humanized antibody against TNFα, may be expected to cause minimal immune-mediated skin reactions compared to the chimeric monoclonal antibody, infliximab. We, however, report a case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome that required hospitalization and cessation of adalimumab in a patient with Crohn’s disease (CD). In this case report, a 29-year-old male with colonic and perianal CD with associated erythema nodosum and large joint arthropathy developed severe mucositis, peripheral rash and desquamation, fevers and respiratory symptoms concomitant with a second dose of 40 mg adalimumab after a 2 mo break from adalimumab therapy. Skin biopsies of the abdominal wall confirmed erythema multiforme and the patient was on no other drugs and infective etiologies were excluded. The patient responded rapidly to IV hydrocortisone and was able to be commenced on infliximab without recurrence of the Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Desquamating skin reactions have now been described in three of the TNFα antagonists (infliximab, etanercept and adalimumab). These reactions can be serious and prescribers need to be aware of the potential mucocutaneous side effects of these agents, especially as Stevens-Johnson syndrome is associated with significant morbidity and mortality.
PMCID: PMC2747069  PMID: 19764100
Stevens-Johnson syndrome; Crohn’s disease; Adalimumab; Serious adverse effect
17.  Retrospective cohort study of anti-tumor necrosis factor agent use in a veteran population 
PeerJ  2014;2:e385.
Introduction. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents are effective for several immunologic conditions (rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Crohn’s disease (CD), and psoriasis). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of anti-TNF agents via chart review.
Methods. Single-site, retrospective cohort study that evaluated the efficacy and safety of anti-TNF agents in veterans initiated between 2010 and 2011. Primary aim evaluated response at 12 months post-index date. Secondary aims evaluated initial response prior to 12 months post-index date and infection events.
Results. A majority of patients were prescribed anti-TNF agents for CD (27%) and RA (24%). Patients were initiated on etanercept (41%), adalimumab (40%), and infliximab (18%) between 2010 and 2011. No differences in patient demographics were reported. Response rates were high overall. Sixty-five percent of etanercept patients, 82% of adalimumab patients, and 59% of infliximab patients were either partial or full responders, respectively. Approximately 16%, 11%, and 12% of etanercept, adalimumab, and infliximab were non-responders, respectively. Infections between the groups were non-significant. Etanercept and adalimumab patients had higher but non-significant odds of being a responder relative to infliximab.
Conclusions. Most patients initiated with anti-TNF agent were responders at 12 months follow-up for all indications in a veteran population.
PMCID: PMC4034612  PMID: 24883246
Tumor necrosis factor; Etanercept; Adalimumab; Certolizumab; Formulary management; Cohort study; Rheumatoid arthritis; Crohn’s disease; Infliximab; Veterans
18.  Tumor necrosis factor-α antibodies (infliximab, adalimumab and certolizumab) in Crohn's disease: systematic review and meta-analysis 
This meta-analysis compares the effectiveness and safety of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) antibodies (infliximab, adalimumab and certolizumab) with either a placebo or each of them in the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD).
Material and methods
A systematic review of literature published up to November 2012 was performed and a meta-analysis of identified studies was carried out. We searched the following databases: PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library and others. Only randomized or clinical controlled trials were included.
Nineteen clinical trials fulfilled the established criteria (5 studies for infliximab vs. placebo, 6 for each adalimumab or certolizumab vs. placebo and 2 comparing infliximab with adalimumab). The results of meta-analysis showed that anti-TNF therapy in patients with CD is safe and statistically significantly more effective when compared with the placebo for induction of remission at week 4 (RB = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.55–2.33, p < 0.00001), maintenance of remission at weeks 20–30 (RB = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.61–2.15, p < 0.00001) and at weeks 48–56 (RB = 2.75, 95% CI: 2.13–3.54, p < 0.00001) in patients who responded to the induction therapy and patients randomized before the induction. Anti-TNF agents were also superior to the placebo in fistula healing (during short-term induction, as well as long-term maintenance) and inducing CR-70 but not CR-100 at week 4. Moreover, the anti-TNF therapy had a significant effect on achieving both CR-70 and CR-100 during long-term maintenance.
Infliximab, adalimumab and certolizumab are effective as both induction and maintenance therapy in moderate to severe Crohn's disease in adults, including patients with fistulas. The safety profile was acceptable.
PMCID: PMC3832823  PMID: 24273556
Crohn's disease; tumor necrosis factor-α antibodies; systematic review; meta-analysis
19.  Adalimumab in the therapy of uveitis in childhood 
Chronic anterior uveitis in children often takes a serious course. Despite various immunosuppressive drugs some children do not respond sufficiently and there is a high risk of them becoming seriously disabled. Anti‐TNF alpha therapy has been shown by our group and others to be mostly ineffective (Etanercept) or partly effective (Infliximab) with the risk of anaphylactic reactions. Here we report on 18 young patients treated with Adalimumab (Humira®), a complete humanised anti‐TNF alpha antibody.
We retrospectively analysed 18 patients, who were treated with Adalimumab (20–40 mg, every 2 weeks, when ineffective every week); 17 had juvenile idiopathic arthritis, one was without detectable underlying disease. The age at onset of arthritis varied from 0.5–15 years and for uveitis from 2–19 years. Patients were included when the previous anti‐inflammatory therapy had been ineffective. It consisted of systemic steroids (n = 18), Cyclosporin A (n = 18), Methotrexate (n = 18), Azathioprine (n = 12), Mycophenolate mofetil (n = 4), Cyclophosphamide (n = 2), Leflunomide (n = 3), Etanercept (n = 8) and Infliximab (n = 5). The grading for uveitis was: (a) effective: no relapse or more than two relapses less than before treatment, (b) mild: one relapse less than before treatment, (c) no response: no change in relapse rate and (d) worsening: more relapses under treatment than before. The grading for arthritis (depending on the clinical findings), using three out of six parameters of the ACR PED Criteria, was: effective, mild, no response, worsening.
For arthritis (n = 16) the response to Adalimumab was effective in 10 of 16 patients, mild in three patients, three did not respond. For uveitis (n = 18) Adalimumab was effective in 16, mild in one child, and one patient did not show any effect. After a very good response initially a shorter application time had to be used to maintain the good anti‐inflammatory effect in one child. Additional immunosuppressive treatment was used in seven of the effectively treated children. Due to elevation of liver enzymes in one patient, who also took MTX, Adalimumab had to be discontinued. No anaphylactic reactions or increased frequency of infections since start of Adalimumab treatment was reported.
For our group of children with long lasting disease our results show that Adalimumab was effective or mildly effective against the arthritis in 81%, but in uveitis in 88%. While these results regarding arthritis are comparable with other TNF‐alpha blocking drugs (Etanercept), Adalimumab seems to be much more effective against uveitis than Etanercept. Anaphylactic reactions, found in a previous study from our group after Infliximab treatment, were not seen with Adalimumab. The necessary dosage and the treatment period, which probably have to be defined individually for each patient, remain unclear.
PMCID: PMC1857691  PMID: 17035274
20.  Mucosal Healing in Inflammatory Bowel Disease—A True Paradigm of Success? 
Gastroenterology & Hepatology  2012;8(1):29-38.
Mucosal healing is gaining more acceptance as a measure of disease activity in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, and it is also gaining acceptance as an endpoint in clinical trials. Recent publications have correlated achievement of mucosal healing with good outcomes. Currently, there is no validated definition of what constitutes mucosal healing in inflammatory bowel disease. In clinical trials of ulcerative colitis, mucosal healing has been achieved with 5-aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, azathioprine, and infliximab. For Crohn's disease, mucosal healing has been achieved with corticosteroids, infliximab, and adalimumab, and mucosal healing has been maintained with infliximab. Achievement of long-term mucosal healing has been associated with a decreased risk of colectomy and colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis patients, a decreased need for cortico-steroid treatment in Crohn's disease patients, and a trend toward a decreased need for hospitalization in Crohn's disease patients. Unfortunately, assessment of mucosal healing requires regular use of endoscopy, which is associated with increased costs, patient discomfort, and side effects. Biomarkers such as fecal calprotec-tin, fecal lactoferrin, serum C-reactive protein, and fecal S1 00A1 2 have been shown to correlate with disease activity in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease; in the future, these biomarkers might be used as surrogate markers for mucosal healing. Newer clinical trials are incorporating mucosal healing as an endpoint for evaluation of efficacy. However, before mucosal healing will be sufficient to guide therapy, clinicians need a standard definition of mucosal healing and a consistently used, prospectively validated scale with good interobserver agreement.
PMCID: PMC3277196  PMID: 22347830
Mucosal healing; ulcerative colitis; Crohn's disease; anti—tumor necrosis factor agents; corticosteroids; colonoscopy
21.  Angioedema associated with Crohn's disease: Response to biologics 
A 46-year-old female patient with terminal ileum Crohn’s disease and ankylosing spondylitis presented with recurrent angioedema and urticaria. Investigations ruled out hereditary angioedema, and environmental or food allergen triggers. She was diagnosed with chronic idiopathic urticaria with angioedema, and was treated with a trial of intravenous immunoglobulin immunotherapy, danazol, prednisone and hydroxyzine. Due to ongoing bowel and arthritic complaints, she was started on infliximab infusions and within 2 treatments, she had complete resolution of the angioedema and urticaria, as well as of the bowel and arthritic symptoms. Unfortunately she developed allergic reactions to the infliximab and was switched to another anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α agent, adalimumab. Since then, she has had no further angioedema or urticaria, and her Crohn’s disease has been quiescent. This is the first known case report of chronic idiopathic urticaria with angioedema coexistent with Crohn’s disease that was successfully treated with anti-TNF-α agents.
PMCID: PMC3442219  PMID: 23002350
Angioedema; Anti-tumor necrosis factor-α; Biologics; Crohn’s disease; Cytokines; Inflammatory bowel disease; Infliximab; Urticaria
22.  Serial intralesional injections of infliximab in small bowel Crohn’s strictures are feasible and might lower inflammation 
Crohn’s disease can cause strictures throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Endoscopic balloon dilatation is a well-established treatment, but recurrence is seen in up to three out of four cases. Infliximab is playing an increasingly important role in the modern systemic treatment of severe Crohn’s disease. Combining the anti-inflammatory effects of infliximab with the proven effect of endoscopic balloon dilatation could possibly improve outcome. In small studies, intralesional injections in perianal fistulas have been effective and endoscopic injection therapy in colonic strictures is feasible.
We wanted to assess whether serial intralesional injection of infliximab in small bowel strictures is feasible and reduces local inflammation.
We included six patients with Crohn’s disease and inflammatory small bowel strictures. They were treated with endoscopic serial balloon dilatation. Subsequent to each dilatation, 40 mg infliximab was injected submucosally. A modified simplified endoscopic score for Crohn’s disease was used for the involved area before the initial treatment and at the final follow-up after six months. Complications and development of symptoms were registered.
Balloon dilatation and serial injection of infliximab were accomplished in five out of six patients. One patient completed the serial balloon dilatations and follow-up but received only one infliximab injection. The modified simplified endoscopic score for Crohn’s disease decreased in all patients. There were no adverse events registered and all patients described themselves as feeling well.
Combining balloon dilatation of strictures with serial intralesional injection of infliximab in Crohn’s disease of the small bowel is feasible and seems successful in reducing inflammation.
PMCID: PMC4212499  PMID: 25360319
Endoscopic balloon dilatation; Crohn’s disease; Double balloon enteroscopy; infliximab
23.  Specialized enteral nutrition therapy in Crohn’s disease patients on maintenance infliximab therapy: a meta-analysis 
Many patients with Crohn’s disease on infliximab maintenance therapy have recurrent symptoms despite an initial clinical response. Therefore, concomitant therapies have been studied. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the effect of specialized enteral nutrition therapy with infliximab versus infliximab monotherapy in patients with Crohn’s disease.
A comprehensive search of multiple databases was performed. All studies of adult patients with Crohn’s disease comparing specialized enteral nutrition therapy (elemental or polymeric diet with low-fat or regular diet) with infliximab versus infliximab monotherapy without dietary restrictions were included. Meta-analysis was performed using the Mantel–Haenszel (fixed effect) model with odds ratio (OR) to assess for clinical remission.
Four studies (n = 342) met inclusion criteria. Specialized enteral nutrition therapy with infliximab resulted in 109 of 157 (69.4%) patients reaching clinical remission compared with 84 of 185 (45.4%) with infliximab monotherapy [OR 2.73; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.73–4.31, p < 0.01]. Similarly, 79 of 106 (74.5%) patients receiving enteral nutrition therapy and infliximab remained in clinical remission after one year compared with 62 of 126 (49.2%) patients receiving infliximab monotherapy (OR 2.93; 95% CI: 1.66–5.17, p < 0.01). No publication bias or heterogeneity was noted for either outcome.
The use of specialized enteral nutrition therapy in combination with infliximab appears to be more effective at inducing and maintaining clinical remission among patients with Crohn’s disease than infliximab monotherapy.
PMCID: PMC4480570  PMID: 26136834
Crohn’s disease; enteral nutrition; infliximab; meta-analysis
24.  The impact of biologics on health-related quality of life in patients with inflammatory bowel disease 
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by a chronic relapsing inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Adult IBD patients suffer from a disabling disease which greatly affects health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A worse HRQoL in these patients may result in a defensive and ineffective use of medical attention and thus higher medical costs. Because of its chronic nature, IBD may also cause psychological problems in many patients which may also influence HRQoL and care-seeking behavior. An important factor reducing HRQoL is disease activity. Induction of remission and long-term remission are important goals for improving HRQoL. Furthermore, remission is associated with a decreased need for hospitalization and surgery and increased employment, which in turn improve HRQoL. Treatment strategies available for many years are corticosteroids, 5-aminosalicylates and immunnosuppressants, but these treatments did not show significant long-term improvement on HRQoL. The biologics, which induce rapid and sustained remission, may improve HRQoL.
To review and evaluate the current literature on the effect of biologics on HRQoL of IBD patients.
We performed a MEDLINE search and reviewed the effect of different biologics on HRQoL. The following subjects and synonyms of these terms were used: inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, quality of life, health-related quality of life, fatigue, different anti-TNF medication, and biologicals/biologics (MESH). Studies included were limited to English-language, adult population, full-text, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled in which HRQoL was measured.
Out of 202 identified articles, 8 randomized controlled trials (RCT) met the inclusion criteria. Two RCTs on infliximab showed significant improvement of HRQoL compared to placebo which was sustained over the long term. One RCT on adalimumab showed a significant and sustained improvement of HRQoL compared to placebo. This study showed also significant decrease of fatigue in the adalimumab-treated patients. Three RCTs on certolizumab showed a significant improvement of HRQoL in the intervention group compared to placebo. Two RCTs of natalizumab treatment were found. One study showed significant and sustained improvement compared to placebo, and also scores of HRQoL comparable to that in the general population, but in the other no significant results were found.
The biologics infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab, and natalizumab demonstrated significant improvement of HRQoL of IBD patients compared with placebo. However, we found differences in improvement of HRQoL between the different biologics.
PMCID: PMC3108643  PMID: 21694833
inflammatory bowel disease; health-related quality of life; health care costs; biologics
25.  Henoch-Schönlein purpura complicating adalimumab therapy for Crohn’s disease 
Anti-tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF) therapy has revolutionised the management of chronic inflammatory conditions. With ever increasing numbers of patients being treated with these agents, uncommon adverse reactions will inevitably occur more frequently. Cutaneous manifestations are associated with many of these chronic conditions and can complicate anti-TNF therapy in about 20% of cases. Vasculitic complications are rarely associated with anti-TNF therapy. Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP), a small vessel vasculitis, has been described following infliximab and etanercept therapy but never with adalimumab, a fully humanized TNF antibody. The risk of such immune-mediated reactions is theoretically less with adalimumab compared to infliximab but can still occur. Here we report the first case in the literature of HSP that can be attributed to the use of adalimumab in a 19-year-old male with recalcitrant Crohn’s disease.
PMCID: PMC3091153  PMID: 21577306
Henoch-Schönlein purpura; Adalimumab; Anti-TNF therapy; Leukocytoclastic vasculitis; Crohn's disease

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