PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (761491)

Clipboard (0)
None

Related Articles

1.  Dementia in a patient with Thymoma and hypogammaglobulinaemia (Good's syndrome) 
Cases Journal  2008;1:90.
Good's syndrome is extremely rare and refers to an acquired B and T cell immunodeficiency in thymoma patients. The authors of this article present a case report of a 75-year-old, caucasian male patient previously subjected to examinations for secondary dementia and recurrent infections, which revealed paraneoplastic syndrome arose from thymoma. He underwent thymectomy, while his immunodeficiency syndrome sustained with frequent opportunistic infections, constantly requiring intravenous immunoglobulin treatment.
doi:10.1186/1757-1626-1-90
PMCID: PMC2527547  PMID: 18700970
2.  Histiocytic medullary reticulosis with hypogammaglobulinaemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation. 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  1977;53(615):49-50.
A case of histiocytic medullary reticulosis in a 45-year-old man is described. The presentation with a swinging pyrexia is typical. Associated features were very low levels of all immunoglobulins and proved disseminated intravascular coagulation. Heparin therapy was given and the difficulties of controlling such treatment are demonstrated. It is concluded that an increased awareness of the condition as a cause of pyrexia might lead to an improvement in prognosis.
PMCID: PMC2496545  PMID: 876915
3.  Long-term parenteral exposure to mercury in patients with hypogammaglobulinaemia. 
British Medical Journal  1979;2(6181):12-14.
Patients with hypogammaglobulinaemia commonly receive regular long-term replacement therapy with a concentrate of pooled normal human immunoglobulin G (IgG) containing an organic mercury compound (thiomersal) as a preservative. In 26 such patients the total estimated mercury dosage received ranged from 4 to 734 mg (mean 157 mg) over treatment periods of six months to 17 years (mean 6.5 years). Nineteen patients (73%) had raised urine mercury concentrations, but no correlation was found between urine mercury and the age of the patient, the IgG dose, or the duration of treatment. Urine mercury concentrations are often used to control exposure and evaluate risks in exposed subjects. Hence most patients with hypogammaglobulinaemia are theoretically at risk from mercury exposure, although no clinical evidence of toxicity is yet apparent.
PMCID: PMC1595823  PMID: 466248
4.  Hypogammaglobulinaemia associated with normal or increased IgM (the hyper IgM syndrome): a case series review. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1994;71(2):150-152.
The clinical and immunological aspects of 16 children with the syndrome of hypogammaglobulinaemia associated with normal or increased IgM (the hyper IgM syndrome) and their responses to treatment are reviewed. Increased concentrations of IgM, neutropenia, and recurrent infections could usually be controlled by antimicrobial and intravenous immunoglobulin treatment. Together with the bacterial infections characteristic of hypogammaglobulinaemia, these patients often developed opportunistic infections, including Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, often presenting in the first year of life. The occurrence of sclerosing cholangitis, neurological complications, and neutropenia may be a result of an underlying cell mediated immune deficiency, autoimmunity, or infection. Despite a high incidence of opportunistic infections, immunological investigations did not show any abnormality of T cell function. These findings are discussed in the light of the recent demonstration that the lack of expression of a T lymphocyte activation antigen is the molecular basis of the X linked form of the disorder.
PMCID: PMC1029949  PMID: 7944538
5.  Treatment of hypogammaglobulinaemia with intravenous immunoglobulin, 1973-93. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1996;74(6):527-530.
AIMS: To review the results of long term high dose intravenous immunoglobulin treatment. METHODS: 162 treatment years in 18 patients with hypogammaglobulinaemia who received intravenous immunoglobulin treatment between 1973 and 1993 were reviewed. RESULTS: A mean dose of 0.42 g/kg immunoglobulin resulted in a mean trough IgG concentration on the 23.5th centile for age. The subjects enjoyed a good standard of health. Infection rates were similar to the general paediatric population and a similar pattern of infections occurred. There were only 0.06 episodes of pneumonia and 0.11 hospital admissions per year of treatment. The development of chronic pulmonary disease was significantly related to trough IgG concentrations less than the 10th centile (p < 0.009), however, this developed in only two children after the start of treatment. All children had normal growth parameters. Adverse reactions to immunoglobulin infusions reduced from 9.1% to 0.8% after the introduction of low pH modified intravenous immunoglobulin in 1986. Although minor, transient increases in liver transaminase values were common; none of the 11 patients tested by hepatitis C polymerase chain reaction were positive. CONCLUSION: Children with hypogammaglobulinaemia who are receiving replacement treatment grow normally and have an infection rate similar to that of non-immunodeficient children. No evidence of transmission of hepatitis C virus by the Commonwealth Serum Laboratories immunoglobulin was found.
PMCID: PMC1511572  PMID: 8758130
6.  Pulmonary manifestations of hypogammaglobulinaemia. 
Thorax  1978;33(5):603-607.
Fifty-five patients with late-onset idiopathic immunoglobulin deficiency were studied and upper or lower respiratory tract infections were encountered in about 90%. Cylindrical bronchiectasis was shown in all of the 21 patients in whom bronchograms were done. A thymoma was found in four patients. Three patients had diffuse interstitial pulmonary disease--two with proved and one with presumed lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis. Five patients had no evidence of pulmonary disease, including two patients with long-standing late-onset immunoglobulin deficiency who had essentially no serum immunoglobulins. This small subgroup of patients with immunoglobulin dificiency without severe pulmonary infections cannot be explained in the context of current understanding of immunoglobulin deficiency. Thirty-two patients were followed up for long enough for the response to treatment to be assessed.
Images
PMCID: PMC470942  PMID: 725827
7.  Iron status in hypogammaglobulinaemia. 
Iron, transferrin and ferritin were measured in serum samples from 16 patients with primary hypogammaglobulinaemia. Transferrin saturation was low in 12 patients (75%) and serum ferritin was low in 9 patients (56.25%). Both parameters were low, confirming the state of iron deficiency, in 6 patients (37.5%). These figures are highly significant (P less than 0.01) when compared with the prevalence of iron deficiency in the general population. Eight patients were maintained on intravenous immunoglobulin infusions and the rest on intramuscular immunoglobulin injections, their mean serum IgG being 4.4 g/l and 2.6 g/l respectively. There was no difference in the prevalence of iron deficiency between the two groups.
PMCID: PMC1289949  PMID: 4045886
8.  Primary late-onset hypogammaglobulinaemia associated with inflammatory polyarthritis and septic arthritis due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1983;42(1):108-110.
A case is reported of primary late-onset hypogammaglobulinaemia associated with a chronic seronegative, nonerosive arthritis, which was complicated by an episode of septic arthritis due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The patient had subcutaneous nodules which have not been regarded previously as a feature of the chronic arthritis associated with hypogammaglobulinaemia. The diagnosis of septic arthritis was delayed for 2 months until synovial fluid was specifically cultured for mycoplasmas. This delay resulted in considerable joint destruction. The importance of searching for mycoplasmas in similar cases is emphasised.
PMCID: PMC1001071  PMID: 6830319
9.  Primary hypogammaglobulinaemia and arthritis. 
Arthritis may be the first clinical manifestation of primary hypogammaglobulinaemia. In 16 years of 281 patients who had immunodeficiency, 30 had arthritis at presentation. It was more common in Bruton's disease (15 (22%) of 69 patients) than in other forms of immunodeficiency (15 (7%) of 212 patients). Non-septic arthritis was more prevalent than septic arthritis, particularly monoarticular arthritis in Bruton's disease and pauciarticular disease in common variable immunodeficiency. Boys in whom a diagnosis of Bruton's disease was delayed were likely to develop recurrent infections complicated by arthritis. The measurement of serum immunoglobulin concentrations readily differentiates immunodeficiency from conditions such as Still's disease and dictates subsequent management.
PMCID: PMC1247031  PMID: 3115363
10.  Prolonged faecal excretion of poliovirus in a nurse with common variable hypogammaglobulinaemia. 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  1991;67(785):301-303.
A nurse with common variable hypogammaglobulinaemia was found to excrete a non-vaccine strain type II poliovirus for almost a year following a bout of gastroenteritis. Attempts were made to halt intestinal carriage of the virus in view of the possible risk of spread to immunocompromised patients and the risk of paralytic poliomyelitis to the patient himself. Three doses of killed Salk vaccine failed to stimulate salivary anti-polio antibodies. Excretion of the virus ceased spontaneously just before oral immunoglobulin containing high titres of antibodies to polio virus was used to halt virus excretion.
PMCID: PMC2399020  PMID: 1648212
11.  Secondary bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia in a patient with carbamazepine-induced hypogammaglobulinaemia 
BMJ Case Reports  2009;2009:bcr09.2008.0905.
Here we describe a case of a secondary bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP), which was associated with repeated respiratory infections caused by carbamazepine (CBZ)- induced hypogammaglobulinaemia. A 49-year-old woman had been treated with CBZ (400 mg/day). Two and a half years later, she developed of dyspnea with productive cough and high-grade fever. Chest roentgenogram and computed tomography showed bilateral infiltrates in lower lung fields. Her laboratory findings revealed severe hypogammaglobulinaemia, suggesting that an immune system disorder caused pulmonary infection. Histological examination by trans-bronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) demonstrated that many foamed alveolar macrophages were obstructing the alveolar ducts and adjacent alveoli, suggesting BOOP. After cessation of CBZ, the hypogammaglobulinaemia and chest roentgenogram findings markedly improved. The present case suggests that CBZ may have some adverse effects on the immune system and cause frequent airway infections, and that secondary BOOP could be induced by repeated infections caused by CBZ-induced hypogammaglobulinaemia.
doi:10.1136/bcr.09.2008.0905
PMCID: PMC3027474  PMID: 21686568
12.  Hypogammaglobulinaemia associated with long term, low dose steroid therapy. 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  1985;61(716):523-524.
Repeated pneumonia and hypogammaglobulinaemia was associated with long term low dose steroid therapy. Clinical improvement with restoration of antibody levels followed substitution of aerosol for oral therapy.
PMCID: PMC2418426  PMID: 4011540
13.  Pernicious anaemia and hypogammaglobulinaemia in a patient with severe infantile kyphoscoliosis. 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  1980;56(653):209-212.
A 27-year-old man with severe infantile kyphoscoliosis suffered from recurrent respiratory tract infections during childhood and early adult life. He deteriorated and was found to have pernicious anaemia and common variable immunodeficiency with hypogammaglobulinaemia and impairment of cell-mediated immunity. Marked clinical improvement has followed the institution of effective gamma-globulin replacement.
Images
PMCID: PMC2425858  PMID: 7393816
14.  Intravenous gammaglobulin treatment in patients with hypogammaglobulinaemia. 
Intravenous gammaglobulin was compared with the standard British intramuscular preparation in patients with hypogammaglobulinaemia and chronic bronchitis. Five patients were given six months' treatment with the weekly intramuscular preparation and six months' treatment with intravenous gammaglobulin given once every 18 days. During the trial they recorded symptoms of infection, absence from work, and sputum volume; lung function tests were performed during the intravenous treatment. The half life of the intravenous IgG and changes in serum IgG and C1q concentrations were also measured in seven other patients who received intravenous gammaglobulin every two weeks for 12 weeks. IgG concentrations, sputum volume, and infection scores were significantly better during intravenous treatment and there were no adverse effects from the intravenous gammaglobulin. These five patients were significantly more healthy when they received an intravenous gammaglobulin preparation, probably because the intravenous preparation increased serum IgG concentrations. Although longer studies are needed, intravenous gammaglobulin should be considered for patients with severe chest disease and those who cannot tolerate intramuscular injections.
PMCID: PMC1443305  PMID: 6437475
15.  Mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas in patients with hypogammaglobulinaemia and their role in arthritis: microbiological observations over twenty years. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1994;53(3):183-187.
OBJECTIVES--To study the occurrence of mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas in patients with hypogammaglobulinaemia and the relationship of these micro-organisms to septic arthritis. METHODS--Over a period of about 20 years, 53 men and 38 women with hypogammaglobulinaemia, most of whom were less than 50 years old, were examined clinically and microbiologically. Mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas were sought in the throat, urogenital tract and joints by standard cultural methods, although not consistently in the three sites of all patients. RESULTS--Arginine-hydrolysing mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas occurred with similar frequency in the sputum/throat of the hypogammaglobulinaemic patients, but no more often than might be expected in immunocompetent patients. Ureaplasmas, however, dominated in the urogenital tracts of both men and women, being found in 75% of vaginal specimens. Arginine-hydrolysing mycoplasmas occurred two to six times more frequently and ureaplasmas two to three times more frequently in urine specimens from hypogammaglobulinaemic patients than they did in such specimens from sex- and age-matched non-venereal disease, hospital patients or healthy subjects; these differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Enhanced mucosal colonisation probably increases the chance of spread to distant sites, such as the joints. Of the 91 patients, 21 (23%) had septic arthritis involving one or more joints. Mycoplasmas and/or ureaplasmas, but not bacteria, were isolated from the joints of eight (38%) of these patients. However, dissemination to joints apparently had not occurred in some despite the opportunity by virtue of mycoplasmal or ureaplasmal colonisation at a mucosal site. Sometimes antibiotic therapy failed clinically, and microbiologically and recommendations for management are outlined. CONCLUSIONS--Hypogammaglobulinaemic patients appear to be more susceptible to colonisation of mucous membranes, especially of the urogenital tract, with mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas than are immunocompetent individuals. These micro-organisms are responsible for about two fifths of the septic arthritides occurring in these patients.
PMCID: PMC1005283  PMID: 8154936
16.  Studies on the enteropathy associated with primary hypogammaglobulinaemia. 
Gut  1994;35(9):1244-1249.
Twelve patients with primary hypogammaglobulinaemia with diarrhoea not associated with known microbial pathogens were investigated. Histological evidence of inflammation was common in the stomach and jejunum. Moreover, eight of 10 patients undergoing colonoscopy had low grade 'microscopic colitis' with raised intraepithelial lymphocytes and an intact crypt architecture. Five of 12 patients had small intestinal inflammation on 111indium leucocyte scintigrams and all had increased faecal excretion (normal < 1%) of 111indium (over four days), which varied in intensity from mild (faecal excretion of 111indium = 1-3%) to that comparable with moderately active (7-14.5%) Crohn's disease. Three patients had small intestinal strictures superficially resembling Crohn's disease. Histologically, however, these lacked characteristic diagnostic features of Crohn's disease in two and the third patient had non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced diaphragm like strictures. Six of seven who were most severely symptomatic were successfully treated with an elemental diet with rapid improvement of symptoms. The faecal excretion of 111indium was repeated in five and all improved but histologically the colitis remained unchanged. These studies show that some patients with primary hypogammaglobulinaemia have intestinal inflammation unlike that found in classic inflammatory bowel disease. Elemental diet is a useful temporary measure in the treatment of these patients.
Images
PMCID: PMC1375701  PMID: 7959231
17.  Campylobacter jejuni cellulitis in a patient with pan-hypogammaglobulinaemia 
BMJ Case Reports  2011;2011:bcr0220102741.
The case of a 17-year-old male with recurrent episodes of cellulitis affecting his left shin is presented. The cellulitis had been present on an intermittent basis over an 18-month period despite several courses of both intravenous and oral antibiotics. Each course of antibiotics resulted in a temporary remission, but on four occasions the cellulitis then relapsed. The patient was known to have pan-hypogammaglobulinaemia and was receiving intravenous IgG replacement therapy every 3 weeks. Other than cellulitis, he remained generally well. The organism responsible for the cellulitis was unknown until Campylobacter jejuni was grown in blood cultures during one of the relapse episodes. Based on microbial sensitivity, the patient was treated with ciprofloxacin. This resulted in full resolution of the cellulitis and he remains well. This case illustrates the value of blood cultures in helping microbial identification, particularly in immunocompromised patients with atypical infections.
doi:10.1136/bcr.02.2010.2741
PMCID: PMC3062278  PMID: 22714594
18.  Hypogammaglobulinaemia with Whipple's disease 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  1973;49(571):355-358.
The patient, a 54-year-old housewife, was well until the age of 40 years when she developed repeated infections. During the next 10 years recurrent attacks of diarrhoea also appeared and were associated with weight loss, increased skin pigmentation, and later the occurrence of arthralgia and polyserositis. She was found to have deficiencies of IgG and IgA. A malabsorption syndrome was established and shown to be due to Whipple's disease by jejunal biopsy. She also had hypocalcaemia and osteomalacia. Weekly injections of human gammaglobulin had no effect on either the diarrhoea or the arthralgia, although the severity of respiratory infections was reduced. Intramuscular injections of vitamin D failed to restore the serum calcium to normal. Continuous oral tetracycline was followed by marked symptomatic improvement, disappearance of the diarrhoea and some weight gain. Steatorrhoea however persisted and the jejunal histology showed only slight improvement. The serum calcium returned to normal possibly as a result of correction of a magnesium deficiency. The relevance of the hypogammaglobulinaemia to the Whipple's disease is discussed, and a search of the literature shows six other cases where both disorders were associated.
Images
PMCID: PMC2495860  PMID: 4141091
19.  Microcephaly, short stature, and developmental delay associated with a chemotactic defect and transient hypogammaglobulinaemia in two brothers. 
Journal of Medical Genetics  1986;23(4):355-359.
Two brothers presented with unusual facial features, microcephaly, developmental delay, and severe postnatal growth retardation. They both developed eczema in infancy and have had recurrent infections. Additional physical findings in both boys included hypogonadism, flexion contractures, hypoplastic patellae, and scoliosis. Their facial similarity was striking with sloping foreheads, beaked noses, large, protruding ears, and micrognathia. Low levels of serum gammaglobulins and defective chemotaxis were present in both boys in infancy. The hypogammaglobulinaemia was transient and improved, reaching normal levels by 3 1/2 years and 15 months, respectively. Defective chemotaxis and recurrent infections have persisted to the present. Both parents were normal. The mode of inheritance was not clear, as both X linked and autosomal recessive patterns were possible. Although patients with congenital malformations who also had immunodeficiency have previously been reported, immune system abnormalities, especially those of a transient nature, may frequently go unrecognised.
Images
PMCID: PMC1049705  PMID: 3746838
20.  Polyarthritis in adults with hypogammaglobulinaemia and its rapid response to immunoglobulin treatment. 
British Medical Journal  1976;1(6021):1314-1316.
Five patients with primary hypogammaglobulinaemia developed a severe polyarthritis that had some features in common with rheumatoid arthritis. Their joint disease could be distinguished from rheumatoid arthritis, however, by the dramatic improvement after gammaglobulin treatment. The arthritis of hypogammaglobulinaemia can, therefore, be included among the few potentially curable polyarthritides.
PMCID: PMC1640289  PMID: 57818
21.  Home-based subcutaneous immunoglobulin G replacement therapy under real-life conditions in children and adults with antibody deficiency 
Background
Subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) therapy is an alternative to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy.
Methods
We evaluated the efficacy and safety of the SCIG Vivaglobin® (formerly known as Beriglobin® SC) under real-life conditions in a post-marketing observational study in 82 patients with primary or secondary antibody deficiencies. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was evaluated in a subset of 30 patients previously treated with IVIG (including 11 children < 14 years) using the Short Form 36 (SF-36) for patients ≥ 14 years of age (adults) and the Child Health Questionnaire - Parental Form 50 (CHQ-PF50) for children < 14 years of age. Treatment preferences were assessed in adults.
Results
The mean serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) trough level during SCIG treatment (7.5 g/L) was higher than during previous IVIG treatment (6.6 g/L; p < 0.01). The investigators assessed the efficacy of SCIG therapy as "excellent" in 89% of patients. No systemic adverse drug reactions were observed. Improvements by ≥ 5 points were observed in 5 of 8 SF36 subscales and in 6 of 12 CHQ-PF50 subscales. Statistically significant improvements (p ≤ 0.05) were observed for the SF-36 subscales of bodily pain, general health perceptions, and vitality (adults), and for the CHQ-PF50 subscales of general health perceptions, parental impact - time, parental impact - emotional, and family activities (children). Patients preferred SCIG over IVIG therapy (92%) and home therapy over therapy at the clinic/physician (83%).
Conclusion
This study confirms that therapy with Vivaglobin® at home is effective, safe, well tolerated, and improves quality of life in patients with antibody deficiency.
doi:10.1186/2047-783X-15-6-238
PMCID: PMC3351992  PMID: 20696632
antibody deficiency; subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy; quality of life; children; adults
22.  Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII) Pumps for Type 1 and Type 2 Adult Diabetic Populations 
Executive Summary
In June 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began work on the Diabetes Strategy Evidence Project, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding strategies for successful management and treatment of diabetes. This project came about when the Health System Strategy Division at the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care subsequently asked the secretariat to provide an evidentiary platform for the Ministry’s newly released Diabetes Strategy.
After an initial review of the strategy and consultation with experts, the secretariat identified five key areas in which evidence was needed. Evidence-based analyses have been prepared for each of these five areas: insulin pumps, behavioural interventions, bariatric surgery, home telemonitoring, and community based care. For each area, an economic analysis was completed where appropriate and is described in a separate report.
To review these titles within the Diabetes Strategy Evidence series, please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/mas_about.html,
Diabetes Strategy Evidence Platform: Summary of Evidence-Based Analyses
Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Pumps for Type 1 and Type 2 Adult Diabetics: An Evidence-Based Analysis
Behavioural Interventions for Type 2 Diabetes: An Evidence-Based Analysis
Bariatric Surgery for People with Diabetes and Morbid Obesity: An Evidence-Based Summary
Community-Based Care for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes: An Evidence-Based Analysis
Home Telemonitoring for Type 2 Diabetes: An Evidence-Based Analysis
Application of the Ontario Diabetes Economic Model (ODEM) to Determine the Cost-effectiveness and Budget Impact of Selected Type 2 Diabetes Interventions in Ontario
Objective
The objective of this analysis is to review the efficacy of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) pumps as compared to multiple daily injections (MDI) for the type 1 and type 2 adult diabetics.
Clinical Need and Target Population
Insulin therapy is an integral component of the treatment of many individuals with diabetes. Type 1, or juvenile-onset diabetes, is a life-long disorder that commonly manifests in children and adolescents, but onset can occur at any age. It represents about 10% of the total diabetes population and involves immune-mediated destruction of insulin producing cells in the pancreas. The loss of these cells results in a decrease in insulin production, which in turn necessitates exogenous insulin therapy.
Type 2, or ‘maturity-onset’ diabetes represents about 90% of the total diabetes population and is marked by a resistance to insulin or insufficient insulin secretion. The risk of developing type 2 diabetes increases with age, obesity, and lack of physical activity. The condition tends to develop gradually and may remain undiagnosed for many years. Approximately 30% of patients with type 2 diabetes eventually require insulin therapy.
CSII Pumps
In conventional therapy programs for diabetes, insulin is injected once or twice a day in some combination of short- and long-acting insulin preparations. Some patients require intensive therapy regimes known as multiple daily injection (MDI) programs, in which insulin is injected three or more times a day. It’s a time consuming process and usually requires an injection of slow acting basal insulin in the morning or evening and frequent doses of short-acting insulin prior to eating. The most common form of slower acting insulin used is neutral protamine gagedorn (NPH), which reaches peak activity 3 to 5 hours after injection. There are some concerns surrounding the use of NPH at night-time as, if injected immediately before bed, nocturnal hypoglycemia may occur. To combat nocturnal hypoglycemia and other issues related to absorption, alternative insulins have been developed, such as the slow-acting insulin glargine. Glargine has no peak action time and instead acts consistently over a twenty-four hour period, helping reduce the frequency of hypoglycemic episodes.
Alternatively, intensive therapy regimes can be administered by continuous insulin infusion (CSII) pumps. These devices attempt to closely mimic the behaviour of the pancreas, continuously providing a basal level insulin to the body with additional boluses at meal times. Modern CSII pumps are comprised of a small battery-driven pump that is designed to administer insulin subcutaneously through the abdominal wall via butterfly needle. The insulin dose is adjusted in response to measured capillary glucose values in a fashion similar to MDI and is thus often seen as a preferred method to multiple injection therapy. There are, however, still risks associated with the use of CSII pumps. Despite the increased use of CSII pumps, there is uncertainty around their effectiveness as compared to MDI for improving glycemic control.
Part A: Type 1 Diabetic Adults (≥19 years)
An evidence-based analysis on the efficacy of CSII pumps compared to MDI was carried out on both type 1 and type 2 adult diabetic populations.
Research Questions
Are CSII pumps more effective than MDI for improving glycemic control in adults (≥19 years) with type 1 diabetes?
Are CSII pumps more effective than MDI for improving additional outcomes related to diabetes such as quality of life (QoL)?
Literature Search
Inclusion Criteria
Randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, meta-analysis and/or health technology assessments from MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL
Adults (≥ 19 years)
Type 1 diabetes
Study evaluates CSII vs. MDI
Published between January 1, 2002 – March 24, 2009
Patient currently on intensive insulin therapy
Exclusion Criteria
Studies with <20 patients
Studies <5 weeks in duration
CSII applied only at night time and not 24 hours/day
Mixed group of diabetes patients (children, adults, type 1, type 2)
Pregnancy studies
Outcomes of Interest
The primary outcomes of interest were glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, mean daily blood glucose, glucose variability, and frequency of hypoglycaemic events. Other outcomes of interest were insulin requirements, adverse events, and quality of life.
Search Strategy
The literature search strategy employed keywords and subject headings to capture the concepts of:
1) insulin pumps, and
2) type 1 diabetes.
The search was run on July 6, 2008 in the following databases: Ovid MEDLINE (1996 to June Week 4 2008), OVID MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE (1980 to 2008 Week 26), OVID CINAHL (1982 to June Week 4 2008) the Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination/International Agency for Health Technology Assessment. A search update was run on March 24, 2009 and studies published prior to 2002 were also examined for inclusion into the review. Parallel search strategies were developed for the remaining databases. Search results were limited to human and English-language published between January 2002 and March 24, 2009. Abstracts were reviewed, and studies meeting the inclusion criteria outlined above were obtained. Reference lists were also checked for relevant studies.
Summary of Findings
The database search identified 519 relevant citations published between 1996 and March 24, 2009. Of the 519 abstracts reviewed, four RCTs and one abstract met the inclusion criteria outlined above. While efficacy outcomes were reported in each of the trials, a meta-analysis was not possible due to missing data around standard deviations of change values as well as missing data for the first period of the crossover arm of the trial. Meta-analysis was not possible on other outcomes (quality of life, insulin requirements, frequency of hypoglycemia) due to differences in reporting.
HbA1c
In studies where no baseline data was reported, the final values were used. Two studies (Hanaire-Broutin et al. 2000, Hoogma et al. 2005) reported a slight reduction in HbA1c of 0.35% and 0.22% respectively for CSII pumps in comparison to MDI. A slightly larger reduction in HbA1c of 0.84% was reported by DeVries et al.; however, this study was the only study to include patients with poor glycemic control marked by higher baseline HbA1c levels. One study (Bruttomesso et al. 2008) showed no difference between CSII pumps and MDI on Hba1c levels and was the only study using insulin glargine (consistent with results of parallel RCT in abstract by Bolli 2004). While there is statistically significant reduction in HbA1c in three of four trials, there is no evidence to suggest these results are clinically significant.
Mean Blood Glucose
Three of four studies reported a statistically significant reduction in the mean daily blood glucose for patients using CSII pump, though these results were not clinically significant. One study (DeVries et al. 2002) did not report study data on mean blood glucose but noted that the differences were not statistically significant. There is difficulty with interpreting study findings as blood glucose was measured differently across studies. Three of four studies used a glucose diary, while one study used a memory meter. In addition, frequency of self monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) varied from four to nine times per day. Measurements used to determine differences in mean daily blood glucose between the CSII pump group and MDI group at clinic visits were collected at varying time points. Two studies use measurements from the last day prior to the final visit (Hoogma et al. 2005, DeVries et al. 2002), while one study used measurements taken during the last 30 days and another study used measurements taken during the 14 days prior to the final visit of each treatment period.
Glucose Variability
All four studies showed a statistically significant reduction in glucose variability for patients using CSII pumps compared to those using MDI, though one, Bruttomesso et al. 2008, only showed a significant reduction at the morning time point. Brutomesso et al. also used alternate measures of glucose variability and found that both the Lability index and mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE) were in concordance with the findings using the standard deviation (SD) values of mean blood glucose, but the average daily risk range (ADRR) showed no difference between the CSII pump and MDI groups.
Hypoglycemic Events
There is conflicting evidence concerning the efficacy of CSII pumps in decreasing both mild and severe hypoglycemic events. For mild hypoglycemic events, DeVries et al. observed a higher number of events per patient week in the CSII pump group than the MDI group, while Hoogma et al. observed a higher number of events per patient year in the MDI group. The remaining two studies found no differences between the two groups in the frequency of mild hypoglycemic events. For severe hypoglycemic events, Hoogma et al. found an increase in events per patient year among MDI patients, however, all of the other RCTs showed no difference between the patient groups in this aspect.
Insulin Requirements and Adverse Events
In all four studies, insulin requirements were significantly lower in patients receiving CSII pump treatment in comparison to MDI. This difference was statistically significant in all studies. Adverse events were reported in three studies. Devries et al. found no difference in ketoacidotic episodes between CSII pump and MDI users. Bruttomesso et al. reported no adverse events during the study. Hanaire-Broutin et al. found that 30 patients experienced 58 serious adverse events (SAEs) during MDI and 23 patients had 33 SAEs during treatment out of a total of 256 patients. Most events were related to severe hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis.
Quality of Life and Patient Preference
QoL was measured in three studies and patient preference was measured in one. All three studies found an improvement in QoL for CSII users compared to those using MDI, although various instruments were used among the studies and possible reporting bias was evident as non-positive outcomes were not consistently reported. Moreover, there was also conflicting results in two of the studies using the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ). DeVries et al. reported no difference in treatment satisfaction between CSII pump users and MDI users while Brutomesso et al. reported that treatment satisfaction improved among CSII pump users.
Patient preference for CSII pumps was demonstrated in just one study (Hanaire-Broutin et al. 2000) and there are considerable limitations with interpreting this data as it was gathered through interview and 72% of patients that preferred CSII pumps were previously on CSII pump therapy prior to the study. As all studies were industry sponsored, findings on QoL and patient preference must be interpreted with caution.
Quality of Evidence
Overall, the body of evidence was downgraded from high to low due to study quality and issues with directness as identified using the GRADE quality assessment tool (see Table 1) While blinding of patient to intervention/control was not feasible in these studies, blinding of study personnel during outcome assessment and allocation concealment were generally lacking. Trials reported consistent results for the outcomes HbA1c, mean blood glucose and glucose variability, but the directness or generalizability of studies, particularly with respect to the generalizability of the diabetic population, was questionable as most trials used highly motivated populations with fairly good glycemic control. In addition, the populations in each of the studies varied with respect to prior treatment regimens, which may not be generalizable to the population eligible for pumps in Ontario. For the outcome of hypoglycaemic events the evidence was further downgraded to very low since there was conflicting evidence between studies with respect to the frequency of mild and severe hypoglycaemic events in patients using CSII pumps as compared to CSII (see Table 2). The GRADE quality of evidence for the use of CSII in adults with type 1 diabetes is therefore low to very low and any estimate of effect is, therefore, uncertain.
GRADE Quality Assessment for CSII pumps vs. MDI on HbA1c, Mean Blood Glucose, and Glucose Variability for Adults with Type 1 Diabetes
Inadequate or unknown allocation concealment (3/4 studies); Unblinded assessment (all studies) however lack of blinding due to the nature of the study; No ITT analysis (2/4 studies); possible bias SMBG (all studies)
HbA1c: 3/4 studies show consistency however magnitude of effect varies greatly; Single study uses insulin glargine instead of NPH; Mean Blood Glucose: 3/4 studies show consistency however magnitude of effect varies between studies; Glucose Variability: All studies show consistency but 1 study only showed a significant effect in the morning
Generalizability in question due to varying populations: highly motivated populations, educational component of interventions/ run-in phases, insulin pen use in 2/4 studies and varying levels of baseline glycemic control and experience with intensified insulin therapy, pumps and MDI.
GRADE Quality Assessment for CSII pumps vs. MDI on Frequency of Hypoglycemic
Inadequate or unknown allocation concealment (3/4 studies); Unblinded assessment (all studies) however lack of blinding due to the nature of the study; No ITT analysis (2/4 studies); possible bias SMBG (all studies)
Conflicting evidence with respect to mild and severe hypoglycemic events reported in studies
Generalizability in question due to varying populations: highly motivated populations, educational component of interventions/ run-in phases, insulin pen use in 2/4 studies and varying levels of baseline glycemic control and experience with intensified insulin therapy, pumps and MDI.
Economic Analysis
One article was included in the analysis from the economic literature scan. Four other economic evaluations were identified but did not meet our inclusion criteria. Two of these articles did not compare CSII with MDI and the other two articles used summary estimates from a mixed population with Type 1 and 2 diabetes in their economic microsimulation to estimate costs and effects over time. Included were English articles that conducted comparisons between CSII and MDI with the outcome of Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALY) in an adult population with type 1 diabetes.
From one study, a subset of the population with type 1 diabetes was identified that may be suitable and benefit from using insulin pumps. There is, however, limited data in the literature addressing the cost-effectiveness of insulin pumps versus MDI in type 1 diabetes. Longer term models are required to estimate the long term costs and effects of pumps compared to MDI in this population.
Conclusions
CSII pumps for the treatment of adults with type 1 diabetes
Based on low-quality evidence, CSII pumps confer a statistically significant but not clinically significant reduction in HbA1c and mean daily blood glucose as compared to MDI in adults with type 1 diabetes (>19 years).
CSII pumps also confer a statistically significant reduction in glucose variability as compared to MDI in adults with type 1 diabetes (>19 years) however the clinical significance is unknown.
There is indirect evidence that the use of newer long-acting insulins (e.g. insulin glargine) in MDI regimens result in less of a difference between MDI and CSII compared to differences between MDI and CSII in which older insulins are used.
There is conflicting evidence regarding both mild and severe hypoglycemic events in this population when using CSII pumps as compared to MDI. These findings are based on very low-quality evidence.
There is an improved quality of life for patients using CSII pumps as compared to MDI however, limitations exist with this evidence.
Significant limitations of the literature exist specifically:
All studies sponsored by insulin pump manufacturers
All studies used crossover design
Prior treatment regimens varied
Types of insulins used in study varied (NPH vs. glargine)
Generalizability of studies in question as populations were highly motivated and half of studies used insulin pens as the mode of delivery for MDI
One short-term study concluded that pumps are cost-effective, although this was based on limited data and longer term models are required to estimate the long-term costs and effects of pumps compared to MDI in adults with type 1 diabetes.
Part B: Type 2 Diabetic Adults
Research Questions
Are CSII pumps more effective than MDI for improving glycemic control in adults (≥19 years) with type 2 diabetes?
Are CSII pumps more effective than MDI for improving other outcomes related to diabetes such as quality of life?
Literature Search
Inclusion Criteria
Randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, meta-analysis and/or health technology assessments from MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL)
Any person with type 2 diabetes requiring insulin treatment intensive
Published between January 1, 2000 – August 2008
Exclusion Criteria
Studies with <10 patients
Studies <5 weeks in duration
CSII applied only at night time and not 24 hours/day
Mixed group of diabetes patients (children, adults, type 1, type 2)
Pregnancy studies
Outcomes of Interest
The primary outcome of interest was a reduction in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Other outcomes of interest were mean blood glucose level, glucose variability, insulin requirements, frequency of hypoglycemic events, adverse events, and quality of life.
Search Strategy
A comprehensive literature search was performed in OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, and the International Agency for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) for studies published between January 1, 2000 and August 15, 2008. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were selected from the search results. Data on the study characteristics, patient characteristics, primary and secondary treatment outcomes, and adverse events were abstracted. Reference lists of selected articles were also checked for relevant studies. The quality of the evidence was assessed as high, moderate, low, or very low according to the GRADE methodology.
Summary of Findings
The database search identified 286 relevant citations published between 1996 and August 2008. Of the 286 abstracts reviewed, four RCTs met the inclusion criteria outlined above. Upon examination, two studies were subsequently excluded from the meta-analysis due to small sample size and missing data (Berthe et al.), as well as outlier status and high drop out rate (Wainstein et al) which is consistent with previously reported meta-analyses on this topic (Jeitler et al 2008, and Fatourechi M et al. 2009).
HbA1c
The primary outcome in this analysis was reduction in HbA1c. Both studies demonstrated that both CSII pumps and MDI reduce HbA1c, but neither treatment modality was found to be superior to the other. The results of a random effects model meta-analysis showed a mean difference in HbA1c of -0.14 (-0.40, 0.13) between the two groups, which was found not to be statistically or clinically significant. There was no statistical heterogeneity observed between the two studies (I2=0%).
Forrest plot of two parallel, RCTs comparing CSII to MDI in type 2 diabetes
Secondary Outcomes
Mean Blood Glucose and Glucose Variability
Mean blood glucose was only used as an efficacy outcome in one study (Raskin et al. 2003). The authors found that the only time point in which there were consistently lower blood glucose values for the CSII group compared to the MDI group was 90 minutes after breakfast. Glucose variability was not examined in either study and the authors reported no difference in weight gain between the CSII pump group and MDI groups at the end of study. Conflicting results were reported regarding injection site reactions between the two studies. Herman et al. reported no difference in the number of subjects experiencing site problems between the two groups, while Raskin et al. reported that there were no injection site reactions in the MDI group but 15 such episodes among 8 participants in the CSII pump group.
Frequency of Hypoglycemic Events and Insulin Requirements
All studies reported that there were no differences in the number of mild hypoglycemic events in patients on CSII pumps versus MDI. Herman et al. also reported no differences in the number of severe hypoglycemic events in patients using CSII pumps compared to those on MDI. Raskin et al. reported that there were no severe hypoglycemic events in either group throughout the study duration. Insulin requirements were only examined in Herman et al., who found that daily insulin requirements were equal between the CSII pump and MDI treatment groups.
Quality of Life
QoL was measured by Herman et al. using the Diabetes Quality of Life Clinical Trial Questionnaire (DQOLCTQ). There were no differences reported between CSII users and MDI users for treatment satisfaction, diabetes impact, and worry-related scores. Patient satisfaction was measured in Raskin et al. using a patient satisfaction questionnaire, whose results indicated that patients in the CSII pump group had significantly greater improvement in overall treatment satisfaction at the end of the study compared to the MDI group. Although patient preference was also reported, it was only examined in the CSII pump group, thus results indicating a greater preference for CSII pumps in this groups (as compared to prior injectable insulin regimens) are biased and must be interpreted with caution.
Quality of Evidence
Overall, the body of evidence was downgraded from high to low according to study quality and issues with directness as identified using the GRADE quality assessment tool (see Table 3). While blinding of patient to intervention/control is not feasible in these studies, blinding of study personnel during outcome assessment and allocation concealment were generally lacking. ITT was not clearly explained in one study and heterogeneity between study populations was evident from participants’ treatment regimens prior to study initiation. Although trials reported consistent results for HbA1c outcomes, the directness or generalizability of studies, particularly with respect to the generalizability of the diabetic population, was questionable as trials required patients to adhere to an intense SMBG regimen. This suggests that patients were highly motivated. In addition, since prior treatment regimens varied between participants (no requirement for patients to be on MDI), study findings may not be generalizable to the population eligible for a pump in Ontario. The GRADE quality of evidence for the use of CSII in adults with type 2 diabetes is, therefore, low and any estimate of effect is uncertain.
GRADE Quality Assessment for CSII pumps vs. MDI on HbA1c Adults with Type 2 Diabetes
Inadequate or unknown allocation concealment (all studies); Unblinded assessment (all studies) however lack of blinding due to the nature of the study; ITT not well explained in 1 of 2 studies
Indirect due to lack of generalizability of findings since participants varied with respect to prior treatment regimens and intensive SMBG suggests highly motivated populations used in trials.
Economic Analysis
An economic analysis of CSII pumps was carried out using the Ontario Diabetes Economic Model (ODEM) and has been previously described in the report entitled “Application of the Ontario Diabetes Economic Model (ODEM) to Determine the Cost-effectiveness and Budget Impact of Selected Type 2 Diabetes Interventions in Ontario”, part of the diabetes strategy evidence series. Based on the analysis, CSII pumps are not cost-effective for adults with type 2 diabetes, either for the age 65+ sub-group or for all patients in general. Details of the analysis can be found in the full report.
Conclusions
CSII pumps for the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes
There is low quality evidence demonstrating that the efficacy of CSII pumps is not superior to MDI for adult type 2 diabetics.
There were no differences in the number of mild and severe hypoglycemic events in patients on CSII pumps versus MDI.
There are conflicting findings with respect to an improved quality of life for patients using CSII pumps as compared to MDI.
Significant limitations of the literature exist specifically:
All studies sponsored by insulin pump manufacturers
Prior treatment regimens varied
Types of insulins used in study varied (NPH vs. glargine)
Generalizability of studies in question as populations may not reflect eligible patient population in Ontario (participants not necessarily on MDI prior to study initiation, pen used in one study and frequency of SMBG required during study was high suggesting highly motivated participants)
Based on ODEM, insulin pumps are not cost-effective for adults with type 2 diabetes either for the age 65+ sub-group or for all patients in general.
PMCID: PMC3377523  PMID: 23074525
23.  Subcutaneous immunoglobulin replacement therapy in the treatment of patients with primary immunodeficiency disease 
Antibody deficiency is the most frequently encountered primary immunodeficiency disease (PIDD) and patients who lack the ability to make functional immunoglobulin require life-long replacement therapy to prevent serious bacterial infections. Human serum immunoglobulin manufactured from pools of donated plasma can be administered intramuscularly, intravenously or subcutaneously. With the advent of well-tolerated preparations of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in the 1980s, the suboptimal painful intramuscular route of administration is no longer used. However, some patients continued to experience unacceptable adverse reactions to the intravenous preparations, and for others, vascular access remained problematic. Subcutaneously administered immunoglobulin (SCIg) provided an alternative delivery method to patients experiencing difficulties with IVIg. By 2006, immunoglobulin preparations designed exclusively for subcutaneous administration became available. They are therapeutically equivalent to intravenous preparations and offer patients the additional flexibility for the self-administration of their product at home. SCIg as replacement therapy for patients with primary antibody deficiencies is a safe and efficacious method to prevent serious bacterial infections, while maximizing patient satisfaction and improving quality of life.
PMCID: PMC2817783  PMID: 20169031
subcutaneous immunoglobulin; primary immunodeficiency disease; antibody deficiency; X-linked agammaglobulinemia; common variable immune deficiency
24.  Failure of intraventricular gammaglobulin and alpha interferon for persistent encephalitis in congenital hypogammaglobulinaemia. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1988;63(8):948-952.
A boy with congenital hypogammaglobulinaemia died at the age of 12 years after a viral meningoencephalitis of two and a half years duration due to an untypable picornavirus. He had received intravenous immunoglobulin every four weeks from the time of the start of immunoglobulin replacement treatment at the age of 3 years. The encephalitis did not respond to high dose intravenous gammaglobulin (2500 g during 22 months). The virus could not be isolated during the administration of intraventricular immunoglobulin (38.15 g) and intraventricular recombinant alpha interferon (121 X 10(6) units), but recurred rapidly each time intraventricular treatment was stopped. Further modes of treatment are still required for prevention and treatment of this disorder.
PMCID: PMC1778993  PMID: 2843137
25.  Successful treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa septicaemia and meningitis with neutropenia--the presenting feature of hypogammaglobulinaemia. 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  1977;53(620):334-337.
A neutropenic child of 20 months suffered generalized infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, involving the bloodstream and the meninges. This was successfully treated with intravenous and intrathecal antibiotics and granulocyte transfusions before granulopoiesis recovered spontaneously. No immunoglobulin replacement was given during the acute episode, as the diagnosis of X-linked hypogammaglobulinaemia was made subsequently.
PMCID: PMC2496662  PMID: 887532

Results 1-25 (761491)